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A HELICAL TAPE ON CYLINDER

SUBJECTED TO BENDING
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By William R. Spillers, 1 M. ASCE, Edward D . E i c h /


Allan N . Greenwood, 3 and Russell Eaton 4

ABSTRACT: This paper discusses the deformation imposed on an elastic tape


wrapped helically around an elastic cylinder which is then subjected to pure
bending. Applications to problems which occur during the manufacture and
subsequent service life of insulating tapes for buried high-voltage transmission
systems are also discussed.

INTRODUCTION

This paper is motivated by the problem of thermo-mechanical bending


(TMB) that occurs in some buried high-voltage power transmission sys-
tems (1). The systems in question consist typically of three 4 in. diameter
power cables in a 10 in. conduit which is filled with dielectric oil. The
power cables themselves are manufactured by wrapping a twisted wire
conductor with a hundred or so layers of paper tape (or plastic coated
paper tape). As the load cycles daily in these transmission lines so does
the temperature. In order to accommodate the associated thermal length
change, the cables "snake" within their conduit producing a flexural fa-
tigue-type effect. Under certain conditions TMB is known to cause elec-
trical failure.
On the whole, very little is known about the phenomenon of TMB. It
is known, however, that the cables must be designed so that the tapes
can "slip" relative to each other when the cables are taken on and off
of their reel. But given this fact, there is no agreement concerning op-
timal taping angles and tensions or even whether a "soft" cable is better
than a "hard" one.
This paper discusses an elementary model of a portion of the TMB
phenomenon. To get to this model it is first of all necessary to argue
that because the power cables under discussion are axially stiff com-
pared to their flexural stiffness bending dominates. This then raises the
question of how a beam which is constructed by wrapping layer upon
layer of tape behaves in flexure. On the most simple level this finally
reduces to the case of a single tape on the surface of an elastic cylinder
(either the first tape applied to the conductor or a single layer on the
"cylinder" of tape below it).
If it is assumed that the elastic cylinder dominates the mechanical re-
sponse of this system, the theory of elasticity can be used to predict the
'Prof, of Civ. Engrg., Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, N.Y. 12181.
Consultant,
3
Millwood, N.Y.
Director, Center for Electric Power Engrg., Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute,
Troy,
4
N.Y. 12181.
Dept. of Energy, Washington, D.C.
Note.—Discussion open until January 1, 1984. To extend the closing date one
month, a written request must be filed with the ASCE Manager of Technical and
Professional Publications. The manuscript for this paper was submitted for re-
view and possible publication on April 23, 1982. This paper is part of the Journal
of Engineering Mechanics, Vol. 109, No. 4, August, 1983. ©ASCE, ISSN 0733-
9399/83/0004-1124/$01.00. Paper No. 18160.
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strains along the surface to which the tape is attached. If there is no
slip, then these strains produce both an extension of the tape and a
curvature which will be computed below. From these mechanical re-
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sponses, it is possible to predict both strains which will produce tearing


of the tape and the conditions associated with incipient slip of the tape
with respect to the cylinder. Both of these events are basic to the TMB
phenomenon.
Finally, it will be noted that within this model of a tape on an elastic
cylinder, it is implied that the centerline (Technically, the centroidal dis-
placements of a space beam do not completely define its response. Fol-
lowing Reissner, it will be also assumed below that the surface of the
cylinder and the tape centroidal axis undergo the same rotation.) of the
tape is fixed with respect to the point below it on the surface of the
cylinder. This in turn implies that the edges of adjacent tapes move with
respect to each other providing the required mechanism of tape slip
mentioned above. Such a model can be motivated by the work of Durelli
and Buitrago (2) which indicates that when a tape is wrapped around a
cylinder the contact pressure is largest at the centerline of the tape. Thus,
there is an argument for the centerline to be fixed while the other areas
of the tape slip with respect to the cylinder.
The sections below first of all review the equations of a helical beam;
then the equations of elasticity are used to compute the deformation of
a tape on the surface of a cylinder; finally applications to mechanical
problems of power cable design are discussed.

EQUILIBRIUM OF A HELICAL BEAM

This section will be used to review the equilibrium equations of a three-


dimensional curved beam whose centerline is a helix and whose cross-
section is circular (and thus has no preferred moment of inertia). These
equations are available in Love (4) and have been used recently by Cos-
tello and Phillips (5) in their work on wire cables.
It is convenient to begin with the vector equilibrium equations of
Reissner (6) in a fixed (global) coordinate system which follow directly
from considerations of a arbitrary beam segment (Fig. 1).
Force Equilibrium P' + p = 0 (1)
Moment Equilibrium M' + m + t x P = 0 (2)
In Eqs. 1-2, P = internal force stress resultant vector; M = internal mo-
ment stress resultant vector; p = applied distributed force vector; m =

M(s + ds)
P(s + ds)
global
coord
-M(s) system
-*P(s) y

FIG. 1.—A Beam Element

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applied distributed moment vector; t = unit vector tangent to the beam
centerline; and the prime is used to denote differentiation with respect
to the arc length s. In Eq. 2 use is made of the fact that
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(3)
R ' - X - ' •
as
when R is the position vector.
In order to obtain the component form of Eqs. 1-2 it is simply nec-
essary to first of all write the stress resultant vectors in their component
form and then differentiate both the components and the unit vectors.
Let
P = P,t + P„n + Phb ., (4)
M = M t t + M„n + Mfcb (5)
(Expressions for p and m can be written in a similar manner.)
In Eqs. 4-5 the subscripts t, n, and b refer to the usual tangent, nor-
mal, and binormal directions and t, n, and b the associated unit vectors.
The derivatives of the unit vectors are given by the Serret-Frenet for-
mulas (7).
t' = KII n' = -Kt + -rb b ' = —rn (6)
in which K and T are the curvature and torsion respectively. Equations
1-2 then reduce to
Pi + Vt - KP„ = 0; p ; + p, + K P , - T P t = 0;
Pi, + Pi + T P „ = 0 (7)
M't + mt- K M „ = 0; M,', + m„ + KM, - TM( - Pb = 0;
Mi, + mb + T M „ + P„ = 0 (8)
In Eq. 8 use has been made of the identity
t x p = - P „ n + P„b (9)
Note (7) that for a helix with radius r and helix angle a
,a a
K = cos2 - T = sin a • cos -— (10)
r r
DEFORMATIONS OF THE TAPE

This section is concerned with the deformations undergone by a tape


wrapped helically around an elastic cylinder which is subsequently sub-
jected to pure bending. The geometry of this situation is indicated in
Fig. 2. Note that the helix can be described parametrically using the an-
gle 6 as
x = r • cos 9 y = r • sin 6 z = r • 6 • tan a (11)
and that the arc length s is of course proportional to this angle 0
s = r • 0 • sec a (12)
The cylinder is to be bent about the x axis.
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tape 4_

FIG. 2.—Centerline of Helical Tape on Surface of a Cylinder

The solution of the problem of an elastic cylinder subjected to pure


bending is readily available (3) and quite simple. Of interest here are the
surface strains to which the tape is subjected. In general there is the
"bending" strain in the z direction which is proportional to the bending
curvature c of the cylinder and the distance from the neutral axis
e = C
bending 'V (13)
and the strain normal to it in the surface of the cylinder
^normal ^ ' ^bending • W^)

The shearing strain on the surface is zero, (v is Poisson's ratio for the
material of the cylinder.) Since the cylinder, for purposes here, is the
stranded conductor, v will be set to zero leaving a single strain com-
ponent on the surface. It follows directly using the method of Mohr's
circle that the strain e along the tape centerline is
= c r sin 0 sin (15)
The bending of the cylinder produces a curvature in the initially straight
tape which is somewhat more difficult to compute. Reissner (5) again
offers a formal procedure for dealing with the kinematics of selecting
appropriate strain-type variables to be associated with the stress result-
ants which were introduced in the section entitled "Equilibrium of a He-
lical Beam." This procedure is sketched in Appendix I. For reasons of
simplicity only two of those results will be used here. First, it can be
noted that Reissner's strain term associated with the thrust checks the
strain term indicated in Eq. 15 which was computed directly using the
method of Mohr's circle. The other strain term of interest is curvature
which is associated with the normal bending moment M„. That term,
which will be called v" here, is shown in Appendix I to be
• cos 9 (16)
It is now possible to return to Eqs. 7-8 and compute the applied dis-
tributed loads required to maintain equilibrium under the imposed strain
and curvature computed above. It is first of all convenient to assume
that the tape is thin and cannot transmit any moment about the binor-
mal axis or that M 6 = 0 = > P „ = 0. It will also be similarly assumed that
the twisting moment Mt = 0. It follows that from Eq. 7 that
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Pt=-Pli Pn = -KPt + jPb; pt=-P» (17)
Setting m„ = 0 (on physical grounds again), the second of Eq. 8 can be
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used to obtain
Pt = M'„ (18)
If M„ is now written in terms of the tape properties E and I as
M„ = EI v" (19)
it follows that
C 0 S tt
n ^ -n » ^
Pi, = — E I v = — E I(-c sin a • cos 6) = EI c sin a • sin 6
ds As r
c
= EI- cos a • sin a • sin 0 (20)
r
d c ,
and that P'b = — Pb = EI—2 cos a • sin a • cos 0 = -pb (21)
ds r
If S is the initial tape tension, after straining the tape tension is

P, = S + AEe = S + AE cr sin 0 • sin 2 a (22)


_ d cos a ,
Then P,' = — Pt= AE cr cos 0 • sin 2 a
ds r
= AEc cos a • sin2 a • cos 0 = -pt (23)
Finally p„ = - K P ( + rPb = - K ( S + AE cr sin 0 sin 2 a)

+ T( EI - cos a • sin a • sin 0 ] (24)

APPLICATIONS TO POWER CABLE DESIGN

Many types of distress ranging from tape tearing (usually due to high
taping tensions) to local tape buckling to tape migration can occur in
power cable designs. Until recently, efforts were concentrated on effects
such as tape buckling which could be dealt with using two-dimensional
theory (3). The material of this paper applies to two facets of tape dis-
tress: tape tearing and conditions for incipient slip which are related to
tape migration.
Tape tearing is the more simple of these to deal with. Given the initial
taping strain, the tape centerline strain (Eq. 15), the curvature (Eq. 16),
and the tape width (as related in the following paragraph), it is a rela-
tively simple matter to compute the maximum of the strain in the tape
edges. This is shown in Fig. 3 which indicates a critical helix angle of
about 10° for the example shown using a failure strain of 0.003.
A word about tape width is in order. If tapes are wound with a fixed
butt space fraction B, then there is a relationship between the helix angle
a and the tape width w
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IT
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?l 1 1 1 1 p 1 1 1
-180.M -135.00 -90.00 -45.00 0.00 45.00 90.00 135.00 180.00
ANGLE

FIG. 3.—Maximum Tape Strain versus Location along the Helix

a
w = 2ITT • sin — y (25)
(1 + B) '
Equation 24 can be obtained simply by equating the tape pitch, 2-rrr tan
a, to the "effective" width, (1 + B) w sec a.
For the example shown in Figs. 3-5, r = 2 in. (5.08 cm) (cylinder ra-
dius); c = 0.025 in. - 1 (0.0098 cm"1) (cylinder curvature); t = 0.02 in. (0.051
cm) (Tape thickness); E = 1.6 X 106 psi (11.02 x 106 kPa) (Young's Mod-

f^ 1 1 1 1 • 1 1 < 1
-180.00 -135.00 -90.00 -45.00 0.00 45.00 90.00 135.00 180.00
ANGLE

FIG. 4.—Normal Force p„ versus Location along the Helix


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FIG. 5.—Ratio f/p„ versus Location along the Helix

ulus for paper); S = 10 lb (44.5 N) (initial tape tension); and B = 0.05


(butt space fraction).
In order to establish conditions for incipient slip, the applied normal
force pn (Eq. 24) is first investigated in Fig. 4. It can be seen there that
for a critical helix angle of about 6° this contact pressure first goes to
zero. Figure 5 finally investigates the ratio of the resultant inplane force
component
/ = ( P ? + pi) 1/2 (26)
to the normal force component -pn . As indicated there, slip begins (i.e.,
the force ratio approaches 0.3) at about a helix angle of 4°. At this point
the slip is largely tangential.
Some final comments upon the example of Figs. 3-5 are appropriate.
This example is intended to be a practical if somewhat stringent case
using the outside tapes of a 4 in. (10.16 cm) cable bent to a radius of
1/0.025 = 40 in. (10.16 cm). In view of the simple approach used the
results are heartening. For this type of application, there is known to
be a small window of acceptable taping angles ranging from say a =
5°-9°. The calculations bracket this nicely with slip at 4°, zero surface
pressure at 6°, and tearing at about 10°. In order to increase the angle
at which slip occurs, it would be natural to increase the tape tension
which would in turn lower the angle at which tearing occurs. (Perhaps
it would be useful to select the tape tension so that tearing and slip occur
simultaneously.) Of course, other types of calculations would have to
be made.

EXPERIMENTAL VERIFICATION

This section reports briefly on an experimental attempt to verify the


results presented earlier in this paper. As it turns out the experimental
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results are somewhat equivocal due to the fact that it has not yet been
possible to find a suitable cylinder which could undergo the curvatures
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which occur with TMB.


To date, two types of cylinders have been used in these experiments.
The first attempt used 4 in. (10.16 cm) plastic waste pipe which turned
out to be two stiff to tolerate curvatures in the TMB range. The second
attempt used a 3 in. (7.62 cm) rubber hose which was not stiff enough
to dominate the tapes in bending. Additional attempts will be made to
find a more suitable cylinder.

CONCLUDING REMARKS

In spite of the simple nature of the model used in this paper, it ap-
parently relates quite well to manufacturing experience with taping ca-
bles. Still left open, however, are questions of exactly how tapes migrate
to form what are known as "soft spots." We would only point out here
that tape motion is a relatively complex phenomenon, well beyond the
methods of this paper, and probably properly relegated to a numerical
simulation. We hope to do that in the near future.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

This work has been supported by the U.S. Department of Energy un-
der contract EC-78-S-02-4610 with Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. The
experimental work has been directed by Mr. Robert Levy, a graduate
student at RPI.
The authors also wish to thank Professor Z. M. Elias who pointed out
an error in the original version of the manuscript.

APPENDIX I.—KINEMATICS OF A HELICAL BEAM

Reissner (6) uses the method of virtual work to identify appropriate


strain-type variables. This appendix will be used to paraphrase his results.
In addition to the variables analyzed previously, it is first of all nec-
essary to associate with each point on the beam centerline a displace-
ment vector 8 and a rotation vector w. The virtual work of the applied
loads in terms of the displacements and rotations is

I=
P (p • 8 + m • ta)ds (27)

Now using the equations of equilibrium (Eqs. 1-2) and intergrating by


parts, it follows that

1= - ( p - 8 + m-o>)|£ + [P-(8' -tax t) + M-m']ds (28)

The coefficients of P and M in the right hand side of Eq. 28 then serve
to define the appropriate strain-type variables.
Following the procedure described, using again the Serret-Frenet for-
mulas, the strain variables associated with the member force/moment
terms can be derived. These are indicated in Table 1.
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TABLE 1 .—Force/moment Terms and Associated Strain/curvature Terms
Force/moment term Strain/curvature term
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(1) (2)

Pt 8, — 8 „ K
Pn b'„ + 8,K — 8 6 T - cot
P> 8J + 8„T + co„
M, CO,' — CO„ K

M„ (i>'„ + CO, K — CO(,T

M„ COj + CO„T

In the main b o d y of this paper, t w o of the terms from Table 1 are of


particular interest:
Axial Strain Term
8,' - 8„ K = c r sin 2 a • sin 6 (29)
Normal Curvature Term
co^ + co(K - (0(,T = - c sin a • cos 6 (30)
Equations 29-30 have been evaluated for the helix w h e n the global (x, y,
z) displacement a n d rotation vector components are Sx = 0; w* = c z;
8y = - c z 2 / 2 ; 0^ = 0; 8Z = c z y; a n d co2 = 0.

APPENDIX II.—REFERENCES

1. Bankoske, J. W., and Mathews, H. G., "Mechanical Effects of Thermally In-


duced Bending on 550 kv Pipe-Type Cable," Paper #F79 618-0, IEEE Summer
Power Meeting, Vancouver, July, 1979.
2. Durelli, A. J., and Buitrago, J., "State of Stress and Strain in a Rectangular
Belt Pulled Over a Cylindrical Pulley," Strain, July, 1973, pp. 1-9.
3. Gazzana-Priaroggia, P., Occhini, E., and Palmieri, N., "A Brief Review of the
Theory of Paper Lapping of a Single-Core High-Voltage Cable," IEE Mono-
graph 390S, July, 1960.
4. Love, A. E. H., A Treatise on the Mathematical Theory of Elasticity, Dover Pub-
lications, Inc., N.Y., 1944.
5. Phillips, James W., and Costello, George A., "Contact Stresses in Twisted
Wire Cables," Journal of the Engineering Mechanics Division, ASCE, Vol. 99, No.
EM2, Apr., 1973, pp. 331-341.
6. Reissner, Eric, "Variational Considerations for Elastic Beams and Shells," Jour-
nal of the Engineering Mechanics Division, ASCE, Vol. 88, No. EMI, Feb., 1962,
pp. 23-57.
7. Struik, Dirk J., Differential Geometry, Addison-Wesley, Inc., Reading, Mass.,
1961.
8. Timoshenko, S., and Goodier, J. M., Theory of Elasticity, McGraw-Hill, Inc.,
N.Y., 1951.

APPENDIX III.—NOTATION

The following symbols are used in this paper:

b = unit binormal vector;


c = radius of the helix;
E = Young's m o d u l u s of the tape;
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m = applied distributed moment vector;
M = internal moment stress resultant vector;
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n = unit normal vector;


P = applied distributed force vector;
P = internal force stress resultant vector;
R = position vector;
S = initial tape tension;
t= unit tangent vector to the beam centerline;
t= tape thickness;
w = tape width;
a = helix angle;
K = curvature;
T = torsion; and
9 = angular position along the helix.

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