7 visualizações

Enviado por Gabriel Gonzalez

Paper

- Paper8
- Shear_and_Moment_in_Beams
- Shear Stress in Beams Notes
- Chap7 MOM Corrected Pages
- Two Way Slab Handouts
- Example8 (1)
- MCESE 203 Theory of Plates and Shells -Set1
- PRACTICE PROBLEMS IN TIMBER DESIGN
- CHAPTER 7
- DST BK - PENNY & DIANA ppt.pptx
- Plate Circular Central
- Numerical Methods in Engineering With MATLAB_2_ed
- Untitled
- Ch 4 Bending Stressesnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnn
- Structural Deformation
- 9.pdf
- Shear Stresses in Beams in Bending
- Beam Stress in materilas
- Obj.Docx
- Interface Title

Você está na página 1de 10

SUBJECTED TO BENDING

Downloaded from ascelibrary.org by UFRJ - Universidade Federal Do Rio De Janeiro on 11/11/15. Copyright ASCE. For personal use only; all rights reserved.

Allan N . Greenwood, 3 and Russell Eaton 4

wrapped helically around an elastic cylinder which is then subjected to pure

bending. Applications to problems which occur during the manufacture and

subsequent service life of insulating tapes for buried high-voltage transmission

systems are also discussed.

INTRODUCTION

(TMB) that occurs in some buried high-voltage power transmission sys-

tems (1). The systems in question consist typically of three 4 in. diameter

power cables in a 10 in. conduit which is filled with dielectric oil. The

power cables themselves are manufactured by wrapping a twisted wire

conductor with a hundred or so layers of paper tape (or plastic coated

paper tape). As the load cycles daily in these transmission lines so does

the temperature. In order to accommodate the associated thermal length

change, the cables "snake" within their conduit producing a flexural fa-

tigue-type effect. Under certain conditions TMB is known to cause elec-

trical failure.

On the whole, very little is known about the phenomenon of TMB. It

is known, however, that the cables must be designed so that the tapes

can "slip" relative to each other when the cables are taken on and off

of their reel. But given this fact, there is no agreement concerning op-

timal taping angles and tensions or even whether a "soft" cable is better

than a "hard" one.

This paper discusses an elementary model of a portion of the TMB

phenomenon. To get to this model it is first of all necessary to argue

that because the power cables under discussion are axially stiff com-

pared to their flexural stiffness bending dominates. This then raises the

question of how a beam which is constructed by wrapping layer upon

layer of tape behaves in flexure. On the most simple level this finally

reduces to the case of a single tape on the surface of an elastic cylinder

(either the first tape applied to the conductor or a single layer on the

"cylinder" of tape below it).

If it is assumed that the elastic cylinder dominates the mechanical re-

sponse of this system, the theory of elasticity can be used to predict the

'Prof, of Civ. Engrg., Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, N.Y. 12181.

Consultant,

3

Millwood, N.Y.

Director, Center for Electric Power Engrg., Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute,

Troy,

4

N.Y. 12181.

Dept. of Energy, Washington, D.C.

Note.—Discussion open until January 1, 1984. To extend the closing date one

month, a written request must be filed with the ASCE Manager of Technical and

Professional Publications. The manuscript for this paper was submitted for re-

view and possible publication on April 23, 1982. This paper is part of the Journal

of Engineering Mechanics, Vol. 109, No. 4, August, 1983. ©ASCE, ISSN 0733-

9399/83/0004-1124/$01.00. Paper No. 18160.

1124

strains along the surface to which the tape is attached. If there is no

slip, then these strains produce both an extension of the tape and a

curvature which will be computed below. From these mechanical re-

Downloaded from ascelibrary.org by UFRJ - Universidade Federal Do Rio De Janeiro on 11/11/15. Copyright ASCE. For personal use only; all rights reserved.

of the tape and the conditions associated with incipient slip of the tape

with respect to the cylinder. Both of these events are basic to the TMB

phenomenon.

Finally, it will be noted that within this model of a tape on an elastic

cylinder, it is implied that the centerline (Technically, the centroidal dis-

placements of a space beam do not completely define its response. Fol-

lowing Reissner, it will be also assumed below that the surface of the

cylinder and the tape centroidal axis undergo the same rotation.) of the

tape is fixed with respect to the point below it on the surface of the

cylinder. This in turn implies that the edges of adjacent tapes move with

respect to each other providing the required mechanism of tape slip

mentioned above. Such a model can be motivated by the work of Durelli

and Buitrago (2) which indicates that when a tape is wrapped around a

cylinder the contact pressure is largest at the centerline of the tape. Thus,

there is an argument for the centerline to be fixed while the other areas

of the tape slip with respect to the cylinder.

The sections below first of all review the equations of a helical beam;

then the equations of elasticity are used to compute the deformation of

a tape on the surface of a cylinder; finally applications to mechanical

problems of power cable design are discussed.

dimensional curved beam whose centerline is a helix and whose cross-

section is circular (and thus has no preferred moment of inertia). These

equations are available in Love (4) and have been used recently by Cos-

tello and Phillips (5) in their work on wire cables.

It is convenient to begin with the vector equilibrium equations of

Reissner (6) in a fixed (global) coordinate system which follow directly

from considerations of a arbitrary beam segment (Fig. 1).

Force Equilibrium P' + p = 0 (1)

Moment Equilibrium M' + m + t x P = 0 (2)

In Eqs. 1-2, P = internal force stress resultant vector; M = internal mo-

ment stress resultant vector; p = applied distributed force vector; m =

M(s + ds)

P(s + ds)

global

coord

-M(s) system

-*P(s) y

1125

applied distributed moment vector; t = unit vector tangent to the beam

centerline; and the prime is used to denote differentiation with respect

to the arc length s. In Eq. 2 use is made of the fact that

Downloaded from ascelibrary.org by UFRJ - Universidade Federal Do Rio De Janeiro on 11/11/15. Copyright ASCE. For personal use only; all rights reserved.

(3)

R ' - X - ' •

as

when R is the position vector.

In order to obtain the component form of Eqs. 1-2 it is simply nec-

essary to first of all write the stress resultant vectors in their component

form and then differentiate both the components and the unit vectors.

Let

P = P,t + P„n + Phb ., (4)

M = M t t + M„n + Mfcb (5)

(Expressions for p and m can be written in a similar manner.)

In Eqs. 4-5 the subscripts t, n, and b refer to the usual tangent, nor-

mal, and binormal directions and t, n, and b the associated unit vectors.

The derivatives of the unit vectors are given by the Serret-Frenet for-

mulas (7).

t' = KII n' = -Kt + -rb b ' = —rn (6)

in which K and T are the curvature and torsion respectively. Equations

1-2 then reduce to

Pi + Vt - KP„ = 0; p ; + p, + K P , - T P t = 0;

Pi, + Pi + T P „ = 0 (7)

M't + mt- K M „ = 0; M,', + m„ + KM, - TM( - Pb = 0;

Mi, + mb + T M „ + P„ = 0 (8)

In Eq. 8 use has been made of the identity

t x p = - P „ n + P„b (9)

Note (7) that for a helix with radius r and helix angle a

,a a

K = cos2 - T = sin a • cos -— (10)

r r

DEFORMATIONS OF THE TAPE

wrapped helically around an elastic cylinder which is subsequently sub-

jected to pure bending. The geometry of this situation is indicated in

Fig. 2. Note that the helix can be described parametrically using the an-

gle 6 as

x = r • cos 9 y = r • sin 6 z = r • 6 • tan a (11)

and that the arc length s is of course proportional to this angle 0

s = r • 0 • sec a (12)

The cylinder is to be bent about the x axis.

1126

Downloaded from ascelibrary.org by UFRJ - Universidade Federal Do Rio De Janeiro on 11/11/15. Copyright ASCE. For personal use only; all rights reserved.

tape 4_

bending is readily available (3) and quite simple. Of interest here are the

surface strains to which the tape is subjected. In general there is the

"bending" strain in the z direction which is proportional to the bending

curvature c of the cylinder and the distance from the neutral axis

e = C

bending 'V (13)

and the strain normal to it in the surface of the cylinder

^normal ^ ' ^bending • W^)

The shearing strain on the surface is zero, (v is Poisson's ratio for the

material of the cylinder.) Since the cylinder, for purposes here, is the

stranded conductor, v will be set to zero leaving a single strain com-

ponent on the surface. It follows directly using the method of Mohr's

circle that the strain e along the tape centerline is

= c r sin 0 sin (15)

The bending of the cylinder produces a curvature in the initially straight

tape which is somewhat more difficult to compute. Reissner (5) again

offers a formal procedure for dealing with the kinematics of selecting

appropriate strain-type variables to be associated with the stress result-

ants which were introduced in the section entitled "Equilibrium of a He-

lical Beam." This procedure is sketched in Appendix I. For reasons of

simplicity only two of those results will be used here. First, it can be

noted that Reissner's strain term associated with the thrust checks the

strain term indicated in Eq. 15 which was computed directly using the

method of Mohr's circle. The other strain term of interest is curvature

which is associated with the normal bending moment M„. That term,

which will be called v" here, is shown in Appendix I to be

• cos 9 (16)

It is now possible to return to Eqs. 7-8 and compute the applied dis-

tributed loads required to maintain equilibrium under the imposed strain

and curvature computed above. It is first of all convenient to assume

that the tape is thin and cannot transmit any moment about the binor-

mal axis or that M 6 = 0 = > P „ = 0. It will also be similarly assumed that

the twisting moment Mt = 0. It follows that from Eq. 7 that

1127

Pt=-Pli Pn = -KPt + jPb; pt=-P» (17)

Setting m„ = 0 (on physical grounds again), the second of Eq. 8 can be

Downloaded from ascelibrary.org by UFRJ - Universidade Federal Do Rio De Janeiro on 11/11/15. Copyright ASCE. For personal use only; all rights reserved.

used to obtain

Pt = M'„ (18)

If M„ is now written in terms of the tape properties E and I as

M„ = EI v" (19)

it follows that

C 0 S tt

n ^ -n » ^

Pi, = — E I v = — E I(-c sin a • cos 6) = EI c sin a • sin 6

ds As r

c

= EI- cos a • sin a • sin 0 (20)

r

d c ,

and that P'b = — Pb = EI—2 cos a • sin a • cos 0 = -pb (21)

ds r

If S is the initial tape tension, after straining the tape tension is

_ d cos a ,

Then P,' = — Pt= AE cr cos 0 • sin 2 a

ds r

= AEc cos a • sin2 a • cos 0 = -pt (23)

Finally p„ = - K P ( + rPb = - K ( S + AE cr sin 0 sin 2 a)

Many types of distress ranging from tape tearing (usually due to high

taping tensions) to local tape buckling to tape migration can occur in

power cable designs. Until recently, efforts were concentrated on effects

such as tape buckling which could be dealt with using two-dimensional

theory (3). The material of this paper applies to two facets of tape dis-

tress: tape tearing and conditions for incipient slip which are related to

tape migration.

Tape tearing is the more simple of these to deal with. Given the initial

taping strain, the tape centerline strain (Eq. 15), the curvature (Eq. 16),

and the tape width (as related in the following paragraph), it is a rela-

tively simple matter to compute the maximum of the strain in the tape

edges. This is shown in Fig. 3 which indicates a critical helix angle of

about 10° for the example shown using a failure strain of 0.003.

A word about tape width is in order. If tapes are wound with a fixed

butt space fraction B, then there is a relationship between the helix angle

a and the tape width w

1128

IT

Downloaded from ascelibrary.org by UFRJ - Universidade Federal Do Rio De Janeiro on 11/11/15. Copyright ASCE. For personal use only; all rights reserved.

?l 1 1 1 1 p 1 1 1

-180.M -135.00 -90.00 -45.00 0.00 45.00 90.00 135.00 180.00

ANGLE

a

w = 2ITT • sin — y (25)

(1 + B) '

Equation 24 can be obtained simply by equating the tape pitch, 2-rrr tan

a, to the "effective" width, (1 + B) w sec a.

For the example shown in Figs. 3-5, r = 2 in. (5.08 cm) (cylinder ra-

dius); c = 0.025 in. - 1 (0.0098 cm"1) (cylinder curvature); t = 0.02 in. (0.051

cm) (Tape thickness); E = 1.6 X 106 psi (11.02 x 106 kPa) (Young's Mod-

f^ 1 1 1 1 • 1 1 < 1

-180.00 -135.00 -90.00 -45.00 0.00 45.00 90.00 135.00 180.00

ANGLE

1129

Downloaded from ascelibrary.org by UFRJ - Universidade Federal Do Rio De Janeiro on 11/11/15. Copyright ASCE. For personal use only; all rights reserved.

(butt space fraction).

In order to establish conditions for incipient slip, the applied normal

force pn (Eq. 24) is first investigated in Fig. 4. It can be seen there that

for a critical helix angle of about 6° this contact pressure first goes to

zero. Figure 5 finally investigates the ratio of the resultant inplane force

component

/ = ( P ? + pi) 1/2 (26)

to the normal force component -pn . As indicated there, slip begins (i.e.,

the force ratio approaches 0.3) at about a helix angle of 4°. At this point

the slip is largely tangential.

Some final comments upon the example of Figs. 3-5 are appropriate.

This example is intended to be a practical if somewhat stringent case

using the outside tapes of a 4 in. (10.16 cm) cable bent to a radius of

1/0.025 = 40 in. (10.16 cm). In view of the simple approach used the

results are heartening. For this type of application, there is known to

be a small window of acceptable taping angles ranging from say a =

5°-9°. The calculations bracket this nicely with slip at 4°, zero surface

pressure at 6°, and tearing at about 10°. In order to increase the angle

at which slip occurs, it would be natural to increase the tape tension

which would in turn lower the angle at which tearing occurs. (Perhaps

it would be useful to select the tape tension so that tearing and slip occur

simultaneously.) Of course, other types of calculations would have to

be made.

EXPERIMENTAL VERIFICATION

results presented earlier in this paper. As it turns out the experimental

1130

results are somewhat equivocal due to the fact that it has not yet been

possible to find a suitable cylinder which could undergo the curvatures

Downloaded from ascelibrary.org by UFRJ - Universidade Federal Do Rio De Janeiro on 11/11/15. Copyright ASCE. For personal use only; all rights reserved.

To date, two types of cylinders have been used in these experiments.

The first attempt used 4 in. (10.16 cm) plastic waste pipe which turned

out to be two stiff to tolerate curvatures in the TMB range. The second

attempt used a 3 in. (7.62 cm) rubber hose which was not stiff enough

to dominate the tapes in bending. Additional attempts will be made to

find a more suitable cylinder.

CONCLUDING REMARKS

In spite of the simple nature of the model used in this paper, it ap-

parently relates quite well to manufacturing experience with taping ca-

bles. Still left open, however, are questions of exactly how tapes migrate

to form what are known as "soft spots." We would only point out here

that tape motion is a relatively complex phenomenon, well beyond the

methods of this paper, and probably properly relegated to a numerical

simulation. We hope to do that in the near future.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

This work has been supported by the U.S. Department of Energy un-

der contract EC-78-S-02-4610 with Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. The

experimental work has been directed by Mr. Robert Levy, a graduate

student at RPI.

The authors also wish to thank Professor Z. M. Elias who pointed out

an error in the original version of the manuscript.

strain-type variables. This appendix will be used to paraphrase his results.

In addition to the variables analyzed previously, it is first of all nec-

essary to associate with each point on the beam centerline a displace-

ment vector 8 and a rotation vector w. The virtual work of the applied

loads in terms of the displacements and rotations is

I=

P (p • 8 + m • ta)ds (27)

parts, it follows that

The coefficients of P and M in the right hand side of Eq. 28 then serve

to define the appropriate strain-type variables.

Following the procedure described, using again the Serret-Frenet for-

mulas, the strain variables associated with the member force/moment

terms can be derived. These are indicated in Table 1.

1131

TABLE 1 .—Force/moment Terms and Associated Strain/curvature Terms

Force/moment term Strain/curvature term

Downloaded from ascelibrary.org by UFRJ - Universidade Federal Do Rio De Janeiro on 11/11/15. Copyright ASCE. For personal use only; all rights reserved.

(1) (2)

Pt 8, — 8 „ K

Pn b'„ + 8,K — 8 6 T - cot

P> 8J + 8„T + co„

M, CO,' — CO„ K

M„ COj + CO„T

particular interest:

Axial Strain Term

8,' - 8„ K = c r sin 2 a • sin 6 (29)

Normal Curvature Term

co^ + co(K - (0(,T = - c sin a • cos 6 (30)

Equations 29-30 have been evaluated for the helix w h e n the global (x, y,

z) displacement a n d rotation vector components are Sx = 0; w* = c z;

8y = - c z 2 / 2 ; 0^ = 0; 8Z = c z y; a n d co2 = 0.

APPENDIX II.—REFERENCES

duced Bending on 550 kv Pipe-Type Cable," Paper #F79 618-0, IEEE Summer

Power Meeting, Vancouver, July, 1979.

2. Durelli, A. J., and Buitrago, J., "State of Stress and Strain in a Rectangular

Belt Pulled Over a Cylindrical Pulley," Strain, July, 1973, pp. 1-9.

3. Gazzana-Priaroggia, P., Occhini, E., and Palmieri, N., "A Brief Review of the

Theory of Paper Lapping of a Single-Core High-Voltage Cable," IEE Mono-

graph 390S, July, 1960.

4. Love, A. E. H., A Treatise on the Mathematical Theory of Elasticity, Dover Pub-

lications, Inc., N.Y., 1944.

5. Phillips, James W., and Costello, George A., "Contact Stresses in Twisted

Wire Cables," Journal of the Engineering Mechanics Division, ASCE, Vol. 99, No.

EM2, Apr., 1973, pp. 331-341.

6. Reissner, Eric, "Variational Considerations for Elastic Beams and Shells," Jour-

nal of the Engineering Mechanics Division, ASCE, Vol. 88, No. EMI, Feb., 1962,

pp. 23-57.

7. Struik, Dirk J., Differential Geometry, Addison-Wesley, Inc., Reading, Mass.,

1961.

8. Timoshenko, S., and Goodier, J. M., Theory of Elasticity, McGraw-Hill, Inc.,

N.Y., 1951.

APPENDIX III.—NOTATION

c = radius of the helix;

E = Young's m o d u l u s of the tape;

1132

m = applied distributed moment vector;

M = internal moment stress resultant vector;

Downloaded from ascelibrary.org by UFRJ - Universidade Federal Do Rio De Janeiro on 11/11/15. Copyright ASCE. For personal use only; all rights reserved.

P = applied distributed force vector;

P = internal force stress resultant vector;

R = position vector;

S = initial tape tension;

t= unit tangent vector to the beam centerline;

t= tape thickness;

w = tape width;

a = helix angle;

K = curvature;

T = torsion; and

9 = angular position along the helix.

1133

- Paper8Enviado porChristopher Mendoza
- Shear_and_Moment_in_BeamsEnviado por062688
- Shear Stress in Beams NotesEnviado porKrm Chari
- Chap7 MOM Corrected PagesEnviado poreuglena6
- Two Way Slab HandoutsEnviado porKing Rick
- Example8 (1)Enviado porprakash
- MCESE 203 Theory of Plates and Shells -Set1Enviado porsimon maaakla
- PRACTICE PROBLEMS IN TIMBER DESIGNEnviado porJejo Duqz
- CHAPTER 7Enviado poryassir dafalla
- DST BK - PENNY & DIANA ppt.pptxEnviado porpennydwiadhiputri
- Plate Circular CentralEnviado porabooosy
- Numerical Methods in Engineering With MATLAB_2_edEnviado porFasika Tegegn
- UntitledEnviado porapi-254876696
- Ch 4 Bending StressesnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnEnviado pordudescape
- Structural DeformationEnviado porAyodele Oluwaseyi Dina
- 9.pdfEnviado porSanjiv Kumar paswan
- Shear Stresses in Beams in BendingEnviado porThulasirajan Krishnan
- Beam Stress in materilasEnviado porHsds Odssk
- Obj.DocxEnviado porसोनिक प्रधान
- Interface TitleEnviado por郑 凯伦 Tey Kai Loon
- Composite Beam Bimetallic StripEnviado porBunkun15
- Bending of R.C BeamsEnviado porHarold Jackson Mtyana
- Minggu 7-2Enviado porRicha Syahwalia
- Obj.DocxEnviado porसोनिक प्रधान
- ObjEnviado porसोनिक प्रधान
- Eng Mech A 2006 Jun LEnviado porTourlêy Munro
- Worked Examples CompositebeamEnviado porthongchai_007
- 0635 EurotrussAlu Checker V1.0Enviado porPercy Arana Puma
- 2013 Assignment 3Enviado porSergey Shkapov
- Mechanical Engineering Objective Questions Part 3Enviado porKrishna Pramod

- APOSTILA_FADIGAEnviado porANDRECESARIO
- Sensibilidad de Estados Críticos en InestabilidadEnviado porGabriel Gonzalez
- DESENHO_TÉCNICO_BÁSICOEnviado porOtávio Henrique
- The Non Linear Field TheoryEnviado porGabriel Gonzalez
- A Finite Element Under CompressionEnviado porGabriel Gonzalez
- Quijano - Colonialidade do PoderEnviado porJoyce Souza Lopes
- MATH459 Project1 SolutionEnviado porGabriel Gonzalez
- gilberto freireEnviado porBimbo Dim
- Apostila de Matemática BásicaEnviado porGabriel Gonzalez
- Gabriel Mattos Gonzalez (Tese - Versao Final)Enviado porGabriel Gonzalez
- Apostila Autocad 2d 2011 CursosEnviado porLuiz Henrique Abreu
- Desobediência Epistêmica - Walter MignoloEnviado porDheneffer Nascimento
- TEXTO 2.pdfEnviado porGabriel Gonzalez
- o Mito Do Desen. EconomicoEnviado porjoabe_si
- Velut Luna 2EdEnviado porGabriel Gonzalez
- Trabalho - GabrielEnviado porGabriel Gonzalez
- Gabriel Mattos Gonzalez - Teoria Do Conhecimento Científico II - FinalEnviado porGabriel Gonzalez
- 2010_MEC_Coleção Educadores_Anísio TeixeiraEnviado pormrocha_253543
- Solucionario de Dinamica Estructural-mario PazEnviado porMpolo Escobar
- Technology Global WorldEnviado porGabriel Gonzalez
- TranZ11-MagnoPoderVersãoFinalEnviado porGabriel Gonzalez
- Østergaard (2012)Enviado porGabriel Gonzalez
- AProveitamento HidreletricoEnviado porGabriel Gonzalez
- 1 - FOUCAULT, Michel. Em defesa da sociedade curso no collège de France(2)Enviado porFernnanda Ávila
- FOUCAULT, Michel. O Governo de Si e Dos OutrosEnviado porDaniele Cruz
- Dissertação Lívia FulchignoniEnviado porGabriel Gonzalez
- KANT, I., Principles of PoliticsEnviado porGabriel Gonzalez
- Koiter, W.J. - On the Stability of Elastic EquilibriumEnviado porGabriel Gonzalez
- Pdf - Dinâmica - Final.pdfEnviado porGabriel Gonzalez

- crmEnviado portami
- How to strip for your husbandEnviado porBadshah Khan
- SW-01Enviado porengnajeeb75
- API Therapy Bee PolenEnviado porMadiniM
- Case study of Babia Gora National Park/ Biosphere reserve PolandEnviado porSoparlaVerde
- Metallurgy for Heat TreatmentEnviado porthaamelody
- National Consultation on Childhood ARI Case Management -Translating Research to Policy and Program- 541Enviado porNational Child Health Resource Centre (NCHRC)
- Secrets of Successful Dent 1Enviado porAnonymous k8rDEsJsU1
- Questions and Interpretations for Survey EnglishEnviado porJohn Michael Parco
- Media CritiqueEnviado porJaime Ulises Verastegui
- Misuse of ITEnviado porrajeev29
- ShafferEnviado porfcfc0210
- IMO Resolution 1050- Entry into Enclosed Spaces.pdfEnviado porpgupta71
- main drain calculationEnviado porJennifer Pearson
- Installation Instruction EnEnviado pormtlpcguys
- The Kids Are All Right by Diana Welch and Liz Welch with Amanda Welch and Dan Welch - ExcerptEnviado porCrown Publishing Group
- Moon DissertationEnviado porRicardo G. Bañuelos
- SCM @ nicolus piramalEnviado porchandanshakti
- Corporate GovernanceEnviado porJamaica Rose Salazar
- Iran For DummiesEnviado porA.J. MacDonald, Jr.
- 1.0-PM-(IPte)-Innova-Price-List (2).pdfEnviado porPittoqeu TToqeu
- Crayon ShinchanEnviado porOlil Rosady
- Changing trends in Cesarean deliveryEnviado porEditor_IAIM
- Mee 437 Operations Research_2Enviado porSourav Suman
- mapro sip project.docxEnviado porNaresh khandelwal
- Chromite beneficationEnviado porKhalid Ikhsanuddin
- SB5 Writing ModelsEnviado porRegina Chapaprieta Chavarri
- 169~v~Installation_and_Operation_ManualEnviado porbranik
- Risk Management - Aesthetic DentistryEnviado pormohsinosmaan
- AP3101 Application Note V1.3 080107Enviado porCarlos Marinho Silva