This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
Your Guide to Latin America and Hispanic America
How do we DEFINE Latin America?
Latin America: (América Latina or Latinoamérica) is a region of the Americas where Romance languages (languages that come from Latin) – particularly Spanish, Portuguese, and sometimes French – are primarily spoken. Hispanic America: (Hispanoamérica) is the region comprising the American countries inhabited ONLY by Spanish-speaking populations. These countries have a lot in common with each other and with Spain. In all of them, Spanish is the main language, sometimes sharing official status with one or more indigenous languages. Roman Catholicism is the predominant religion, as well. In this class, we will mostly be learning about Hispanic America, but sometimes we will touch on the culture of Latin America as a whole.
La vida es un reto – ¡desafíate!
Brasilia Chile .Basseterre St.Georgetown Paraguay .Georgetown Cuba – La Habana Dominica .Asuncion Peru . Vincent and the Grenadines .Caracas North America La vida es un reto – ¡desafíate! .Quito French Guiana – La Cayenne Guyana .Santiago Colombia .Belmopan Costa Rica – San Jose El Salvador – San Salvador Guatemala – Guatemala City Honduras .Lima Suriname .Castries St.Tegulcigalpa Nicaragua .Gustavia St.Paramaribo Uruguay . Johns Bahamas .Kingstown Trinidad & Tobago – Port of Spain Turks & Caicos Islands – Cockburn Town Virgin Islands – Road Town Central America • • • • • • • Belize .Managua Panama – Panama City South America • • • • • • • • • • • • • Argentina – Buenos Aires Bolivia – La Paz y Sucre Brazil .Bogota Ecuador .Kingston Martinique – Fort-au-France Puerto Rico – San Juan Saint Barthélemy .Montevideo Venezuela . Lucia .Spanish Ab Initio Profesora Beato What COUNTRIES make up Latin America? Caribbean • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Antigua & Barbuda – St. Georges Guadeloupe – Basse-Terre Haiti – Port-au-Prince Jamaica . Kitts & Nevis .Roseau Dominican Republic – Santo Domingo Grenada – St.Nassau Barbados .Bridgetown Cayman Islands .
Latin Americans of mixed Black and White ancestry. the Amerindians (native Americans). are far more numerous than Blacks. Spanish is the official language of most of the rest of the countries on the Latin American mainland. Zambos: Intermixing between Africans and Amerindians was especially prevalent in Colombia. Asians. creole languages are spoken. it is also spoken by some Panamanians of Afro-Antillean descent. and Saint Pierre and Miquelon. also. The aboriginal population of Latin America. especially in the Caribbean region. Chile. Quechua is an official language. which includes the largest ethnic Japanese community outside of Japan itself. French is spoken in Haiti and in the French overseas departments Guadeloupe. Dominican Republic. Venezuela. Intermixing between Europeans and Amerindians began early in the colonial period and was extensive. make up the majority of the population in half of the countries of Latin America. Martinique. ethnic groups. Millions of African slaves were brought to Latin America from the sixteenth century onward. They now compose a majority only in Bolivia and Guatemala. Mulattoes. Cuba and the Dominican Republic. and races. Significant populations are also found in Cuba. Among the Hispanic nations and Brazil. Costa Rica. the predominant language of Haiti. Mulattoes form a majority of population in the Dominican Republic and Cuba. In Peru. Whites. along with Spanish. an official language of Paraguay. Nahuatl is one of the 62 native languages spoken by indigenous people in Mexico. The majority of Asian Latin Americans are of Japanese or Chinese ancestry and reside mainly in Brazil and Peru. • • • • • • What are the LANGUAGES spoken in Latin America? Spanish and Portuguese are the predominant languages of Latin America. Puerto Rico leads this category in relative numbers. Additionally. Dutch is the official language in Suriname. Mulattoes are people of mixed European and African ancestry. as a result of Spain's trade involving Asia and the Americas. Aymara. • Amerindians. the Catholic faith. Iberians brought the Spanish and Portuguese languages. In many countries. Aruba. The first Asians to settle in the region were Filipino. and Brazil. and many Iberian traditions. Puerto Rico. The resulting people. the biggest and most populous country in the region. often due to slaves's running away and being taken in by Amerindian villagers. and at least a plurality in Peru. Peru. Panama. Panama. Mestizos compose large minorities in nearly all the other mainland countries. known as Mestizos. large numbers of Iberian colonists settled in what became Latin America (Portuguese in Brazil and Spaniards elsewhere in the region). these territories are not necessarily considered part of Latin America. and Uruguay. during the colonial period. Argentina. Today. Colombia. called Mulattoes. people identified as "Black" are most numerous in Brazil (more than 10 million) and in Haiti (more than 7 million). which are officially recognized by the government as "national languages" along with Spanish. and Mexico contain the largest numbers of whites in Latin America.) In several nations. Beginning in the late fifteenth century. and are also numerous in Venezuela. La vida es un reto – ¡desafíate! . Mestizos.Spanish Ab Initio Profesora Beato • Mexico – Mexico City What are the ETHNIC GROUPS in Latin America? The population of Latin America comprises a variety of ancestries. Guarani is. there is also a growing Chinese minority in Panama. (As Dutch is a Germanic language. Brazil is home to perhaps two million people of Asian descent. alongside Spanish and any other indigenous language in the areas where they predominate. Amerindians are a large minority that comprises two-fifths of the population. Portuguese is spoken only in Brazil. The specific composition varies from country to country. in Cuba. mostly descended from Spanish or Portuguese settlers on one side and African slaves on the other. Blacks. and is spoken by a majority of the population. and depending on source. arrived thousands of years ago. People of Asian descent number several million in Latin America. French Guiana. and at present most white Latin Americans are of Spanish or Portuguese origin. Brazil. and Venezuela. making the region one of the most diverse in the world. as well as in Puerto Rico (where it is co-official with English). Quechua and Guaraní hold official status alongside Spanish. and the Netherlands Antilles. Brazil. the majority of whom were sent to the Caribbean region and Brazil. In Bolivia. people of mixed Amerindian and European ancestry make up the majority of the population. Ecuador. The most widely spoken creole language in the Caribbean and Latin America in general is Haitian Creole. Smaller populations of mulattoes are found in other Latin American countries. Colombia. In Ecuador. and Ecuador. with a 15% ratio. Whites make up the majorities of Argentina. Puerto Rico. Brazil is home to Latin America's largest mulatto population.
The European powers of Spain and Portugal colonized the region.Spanish Ab Initio What was PRE-COLOMBIAN HISTORY in Latin America? Profesora Beato The Americas were thought to have been first inhabited by people crossing the Bering strait. Tupi. and Portugal all areas to the east (the Portuguese lands in South America subsequently becoming Brazil). Some groups formed permanent settlements such as the Chibchas of Colombia and the Tairona groups of the Carribean. and Inca. Intermixing between the indigenous peoples and the European colonists was very common. South America’s vast rainforests. from northeast Asia into Alaska well over 10. José de San Martin of Argentina. such as the Incas and Aztecs.000 years ago. The golden age of the Maya (who lived in what now is known as Mexico and Belize) began about 250. La vida es un reto – ¡desafíate! . ultimately extending from Alaska to the southern tips of the Patagonia. as well as the dominance of native Spaniards in the major social and political institutions within the colonies. by the end of the colonial period. with epidemics of diseases reducing them sharply from their prior populations. Maya. Toltecs. except for Puerto Rico and Cuba. plains and coasts were the home of tens of millions of people. or an unincorporated territory of the United States. Bolivia. these early movements were crushed by the royalist troops. eventually becoming the only official religion of the Americas during this period. At first. Central and South America. By the first millennium AD. wiped out a large portion of the indigenous population. Napoleon's invasion of Spain in 1808 marked a turning point. was identified at Monte Verde in Southern Chile. until its downfall caused by the Spanish invasion. Under the leadership of a new generation of leaders. The Chibchas of Colombia. and. the Quechuas and Aymaras of Bolivia and Perú were the three Indian groups that settled most permanently. What was the EUROPEAN COLONIZATION in Latin America? With the arrival of the Europeans following Christopher Columbus's voyages. all Spanish America. lost power to the heavy European invasion. Diseases brought by the Europeans. compelling Criollo elites (the rich descendents of Spaniards) to form juntas (political committees) that advocated independence. Latin America was home to many indigenous peoples and advanced civilizations. Caribs. Fighting soon broke out between the Latin-Americans and the Spanish colonial authorities. in 1917. including France. including the Aztecs. The Aztec empire was ultimately the most powerful civilization known throughout the Americas. In Latin America resentment grew among the majority of the population over the restrictions imposed by the Spanish government. with the last two great civilizations. the indigenous elites. European culture. Ecuador and the upper part of Chile). customs and government were introduced. however. people spread to all parts of the continents. which gave Spain all areas to the west. Haitian independence helped inspire independence movements in Spanish America. such as smallpox and measles. had gained independence from Spain. in occupying large areas of North. people of mixed ancestry (mestizos) formed majorities in several colonies. Over the course of millennia. mountains. such as Simón Bolívar of Venezuela. and other Libertadores in South America. The earliest known settlement. the independence movement regained strength. The victors abolished slavery. How did the countries in Latin America become independent? Haiti was the first to gain independence in 1804. Spanish and Portuguese power was weak and Britain and France grew stronger in the colonies. and by 1825. Puerto Rico became a commonwealth. with the Roman Catholic Church becoming the major economic and political power to overrule the traditional ways of the region. the Aztecs (who also lived in Mexico) and Incas (who lived in Peru. By the end of the eighteenth century. which along with the rest of the non-colonized world was divided into areas of Spanish and Portuguese control by the line of demarcation in 1493. This followed from a violent slave revolt led by Toussaint L'Ouverture. By the end of the sixteenth century Spain and Portugal had been joined by others. Cuba gained independence from Spain after the Cuban Revolution in 1902.
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue listening from where you left off, or restart the preview.