Spanish Ab Initio

Profesora Beato

Your Guide to Latin America and Hispanic America
How do we DEFINE Latin America?
Latin America: (América Latina or Latinoamérica) is a region of the Americas where Romance languages (languages that come from Latin) – particularly Spanish, Portuguese, and sometimes French – are primarily spoken. Hispanic America: (Hispanoamérica) is the region comprising the American countries inhabited ONLY by Spanish-speaking populations. These countries have a lot in common with each other and with Spain. In all of them, Spanish is the main language, sometimes sharing official status with one or more indigenous languages. Roman Catholicism is the predominant religion, as well. In this class, we will mostly be learning about Hispanic America, but sometimes we will touch on the culture of Latin America as a whole.

La vida es un reto – ¡desafíate!

Caracas North America La vida es un reto – ¡desafíate! .Tegulcigalpa Nicaragua .Basseterre St.Brasilia Chile .Belmopan Costa Rica – San Jose El Salvador – San Salvador Guatemala – Guatemala City Honduras .Georgetown Paraguay .Montevideo Venezuela .Gustavia St.Kingstown Trinidad & Tobago – Port of Spain Turks & Caicos Islands – Cockburn Town Virgin Islands – Road Town Central America • • • • • • • Belize .Asuncion Peru .Castries St.Spanish Ab Initio Profesora Beato What COUNTRIES make up Latin America? Caribbean • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Antigua & Barbuda – St.Bogota Ecuador .Bridgetown Cayman Islands . Lucia .Kingston Martinique – Fort-au-France Puerto Rico – San Juan Saint Barthélemy .Georgetown Cuba – La Habana Dominica .Quito French Guiana – La Cayenne Guyana .Paramaribo Uruguay .Roseau Dominican Republic – Santo Domingo Grenada – St. Kitts & Nevis .Lima Suriname .Nassau Barbados . Vincent and the Grenadines .Santiago Colombia . Georges Guadeloupe – Basse-Terre Haiti – Port-au-Prince Jamaica .Managua Panama – Panama City South America • • • • • • • • • • • • • Argentina – Buenos Aires Bolivia – La Paz y Sucre Brazil . Johns Bahamas .

The first Asians to settle in the region were Filipino.) In several nations. Quechua and Guaraní hold official status alongside Spanish. In many countries. Intermixing between Europeans and Amerindians began early in the colonial period and was extensive. Beginning in the late fifteenth century. and is spoken by a majority of the population. and many Iberian traditions. and Brazil. The resulting people. Panama. Spanish is the official language of most of the rest of the countries on the Latin American mainland. during the colonial period. Brazil. Whites make up the majorities of Argentina. The most widely spoken creole language in the Caribbean and Latin America in general is Haitian Creole.[1] Whites. The aboriginal population of Latin America. called Mulattoes. They now compose a majority only in Bolivia and Guatemala. and races. Portuguese is spoken only in Brazil. Significant populations are also found in Cuba. French Guiana. Costa Rica. Ecuador. Smaller populations of mulattoes are found in other Latin American countries. Chile. Dutch is the official language in Suriname. Brazil is home to Latin America's largest mulatto population. alongside Spanish and any other indigenous language in the areas where they predominate. Zambos: Intermixing between Africans and Amerindians was especially prevalent in Colombia. • Amerindians. and at present most white Latin Americans are of Spanish or Portuguese origin. Colombia. Blacks. and at least a plurality in Peru. The specific composition varies from country to country. people identified as "Black" are most numerous in Brazil (more than 10 million) and in Haiti (more than 7 million). it is also spoken by some Panamanians of Afro-Antillean descent. also. Puerto Rico. Panama. Puerto Rico leads this category in relative numbers. Today. making the region one of the most diverse in the world. these territories are not necessarily considered part of Latin America. which are officially recognized by the government as "national languages" along with Spanish. Mulattoes are people of mixed European and African ancestry. and Uruguay. and Mexico contain the largest numbers of whites in Latin America. creole languages are spoken. Venezuela. and depending on source. Aruba. especially in the Caribbean region. and are also numerous in Venezuela. the majority of whom were sent to the Caribbean region and Brazil. Colombia. often due to slaves's running away and being taken in by Amerindian villagers. Martinique. Quechua is an official language. Mestizos. arrived thousands of years ago. Brazil is home to perhaps two million people of Asian descent. and Venezuela. and Saint Pierre and Miquelon. People of Asian descent number several million in Latin America. the Amerindians (native Americans). ethnic groups. • • • • • • What are the LANGUAGES spoken in Latin America? Spanish and Portuguese are the predominant languages of Latin America. the Catholic faith. Peru. La vida es un reto – ¡desafíate! . Amerindians are a large minority that comprises two-fifths of the population. large numbers of Iberian colonists settled in what became Latin America (Portuguese in Brazil and Spaniards elsewhere in the region). Additionally. Latin Americans of mixed Black and White ancestry. an official language of Paraguay. mostly descended from Spanish or Portuguese settlers on one side and African slaves on the other. Mulattoes. make up the majority of the population in half of the countries of Latin America. with a 15% ratio. Puerto Rico. are far more numerous than Blacks. the biggest and most populous country in the region. Nahuatl is one of the 62 native languages spoken by indigenous people in Mexico. Cuba and the Dominican Republic. Aymara. In Ecuador. known as Mestizos. Brazil. The majority of Asian Latin Americans are of Japanese or Chinese ancestry and reside mainly in Brazil and Peru. along with Spanish. Argentina. as a result of Spain's trade involving Asia and the Americas. Asians. Millions of African slaves were brought to Latin America from the sixteenth century onward. as well as in Puerto Rico (where it is co-official with English). in Cuba. Guarani is. Mestizos compose large minorities in nearly all the other mainland countries. people of mixed Amerindian and European ancestry make up the majority of the population. Dominican Republic. Among the Hispanic nations and Brazil. which includes the largest ethnic Japanese community outside of Japan itself. In Peru.Spanish Ab Initio Profesora Beato • Mexico – Mexico City What are the ETHNIC GROUPS in Latin America? The population of Latin America comprises a variety of ancestries. and Ecuador. In Bolivia. Iberians brought the Spanish and Portuguese languages. and the Netherlands Antilles. (As Dutch is a Germanic language. French is spoken in Haiti and in the French overseas departments Guadeloupe. the predominant language of Haiti. there is also a growing Chinese minority in Panama. Mulattoes form a majority of population in the Dominican Republic and Cuba.

By the end of the eighteenth century. Spanish and Portuguese power was weak and Britain and France grew stronger in the colonies. mountains. such as smallpox and measles. the Aztecs (who also lived in Mexico) and Incas (who lived in Peru. The golden age of the Maya (who lived in what now is known as Mexico and Belize) began about 250. in occupying large areas of North. until its downfall caused by the Spanish invasion. and. people of mixed ancestry (mestizos) formed majorities in several colonies. Haitian independence helped inspire independence movements in Spanish America. which along with the rest of the non-colonized world was divided into areas of Spanish and Portuguese control by the line of demarcation in 1493. Ecuador and the upper part of Chile). Puerto Rico became a commonwealth. or an unincorporated territory of the United States. as well as the dominance of native Spaniards in the major social and political institutions within the colonies. La vida es un reto – ¡desafíate! . and other Libertadores in South America. Maya. José de San Martin of Argentina. and Inca. which gave Spain all areas to the west. customs and government were introduced. had gained independence from Spain. The victors abolished slavery. such as Simón Bolívar of Venezuela. lost power to the heavy European invasion. Under the leadership of a new generation of leaders. in 1917. was identified at Monte Verde in Southern Chile. Toltecs. The European powers of Spain and Portugal colonized the region. Fighting soon broke out between the Latin-Americans and the Spanish colonial authorities. and Portugal all areas to the east (the Portuguese lands in South America subsequently becoming Brazil). Intermixing between the indigenous peoples and the European colonists was very common. wiped out a large portion of the indigenous population. Some groups formed permanent settlements such as the Chibchas of Colombia and the Tairona groups of the Carribean. The Aztec empire was ultimately the most powerful civilization known throughout the Americas. with epidemics of diseases reducing them sharply from their prior populations. What was the EUROPEAN COLONIZATION in Latin America? With the arrival of the Europeans following Christopher Columbus's voyages. the indigenous elites. Over the course of millennia. except for Puerto Rico and Cuba. European culture. with the Roman Catholic Church becoming the major economic and political power to overrule the traditional ways of the region. such as the Incas and Aztecs. Tupi. ultimately extending from Alaska to the southern tips of the Patagonia. Central and South America. including France. At first. however. from northeast Asia into Alaska well over 10. The earliest known settlement. by the end of the colonial period. including the Aztecs. Napoleon's invasion of Spain in 1808 marked a turning point.Spanish Ab Initio What was PRE-COLOMBIAN HISTORY in Latin America? Profesora Beato The Americas were thought to have been first inhabited by people crossing the Bering strait. the Quechuas and Aymaras of Bolivia and Perú were the three Indian groups that settled most permanently. and by 1825. Diseases brought by the Europeans. This followed from a violent slave revolt led by Toussaint L'Ouverture. with the last two great civilizations. Caribs.000 years ago. In Latin America resentment grew among the majority of the population over the restrictions imposed by the Spanish government. How did the countries in Latin America become independent? Haiti was the first to gain independence in 1804. Cuba gained independence from Spain after the Cuban Revolution in 1902. Latin America was home to many indigenous peoples and advanced civilizations. South America’s vast rainforests. the independence movement regained strength. Bolivia. eventually becoming the only official religion of the Americas during this period. plains and coasts were the home of tens of millions of people. these early movements were crushed by the royalist troops. By the first millennium AD. all Spanish America. people spread to all parts of the continents. The Chibchas of Colombia. compelling Criollo elites (the rich descendents of Spaniards) to form juntas (political committees) that advocated independence. By the end of the sixteenth century Spain and Portugal had been joined by others.

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