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Your Guide to Latin America and Hispanic America
How do we DEFINE Latin America?
Latin America: (América Latina or Latinoamérica) is a region of the Americas where Romance languages (languages that come from Latin) – particularly Spanish, Portuguese, and sometimes French – are primarily spoken. Hispanic America: (Hispanoamérica) is the region comprising the American countries inhabited ONLY by Spanish-speaking populations. These countries have a lot in common with each other and with Spain. In all of them, Spanish is the main language, sometimes sharing official status with one or more indigenous languages. Roman Catholicism is the predominant religion, as well. In this class, we will mostly be learning about Hispanic America, but sometimes we will touch on the culture of Latin America as a whole.
La vida es un reto – ¡desafíate!
Quito French Guiana – La Cayenne Guyana .Santiago Colombia .Nassau Barbados .Bogota Ecuador .Bridgetown Cayman Islands .Basseterre St.Lima Suriname .Belmopan Costa Rica – San Jose El Salvador – San Salvador Guatemala – Guatemala City Honduras .Kingston Martinique – Fort-au-France Puerto Rico – San Juan Saint Barthélemy .Tegulcigalpa Nicaragua .Castries St.Caracas North America La vida es un reto – ¡desafíate! .Brasilia Chile .Kingstown Trinidad & Tobago – Port of Spain Turks & Caicos Islands – Cockburn Town Virgin Islands – Road Town Central America • • • • • • • Belize .Georgetown Paraguay . Georges Guadeloupe – Basse-Terre Haiti – Port-au-Prince Jamaica .Asuncion Peru . Vincent and the Grenadines .Spanish Ab Initio Profesora Beato What COUNTRIES make up Latin America? Caribbean • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Antigua & Barbuda – St.Montevideo Venezuela .Gustavia St.Paramaribo Uruguay .Georgetown Cuba – La Habana Dominica . Johns Bahamas .Managua Panama – Panama City South America • • • • • • • • • • • • • Argentina – Buenos Aires Bolivia – La Paz y Sucre Brazil . Lucia .Roseau Dominican Republic – Santo Domingo Grenada – St. Kitts & Nevis .
Aruba. Martinique. Ecuador. Mestizos. Spanish is the official language of most of the rest of the countries on the Latin American mainland. often due to slaves's running away and being taken in by Amerindian villagers. the majority of whom were sent to the Caribbean region and Brazil. the Amerindians (native Americans). Puerto Rico. called Mulattoes. Mulattoes. also. Zambos: Intermixing between Africans and Amerindians was especially prevalent in Colombia. people of mixed Amerindian and European ancestry make up the majority of the population. Venezuela. Brazil is home to perhaps two million people of Asian descent. Guarani is.Spanish Ab Initio Profesora Beato • Mexico – Mexico City What are the ETHNIC GROUPS in Latin America? The population of Latin America comprises a variety of ancestries. Aymara. and Ecuador. Asians. these territories are not necessarily considered part of Latin America. and Saint Pierre and Miquelon. an official language of Paraguay. • • • • • • What are the LANGUAGES spoken in Latin America? Spanish and Portuguese are the predominant languages of Latin America. (As Dutch is a Germanic language. Mulattoes are people of mixed European and African ancestry. make up the majority of the population in half of the countries of Latin America. French Guiana. Additionally. In Ecuador. Latin Americans of mixed Black and White ancestry. Nahuatl is one of the 62 native languages spoken by indigenous people in Mexico. The resulting people. and Uruguay. • Amerindians. and at least a plurality in Peru. people identified as "Black" are most numerous in Brazil (more than 10 million) and in Haiti (more than 7 million). Portuguese is spoken only in Brazil. as a result of Spain's trade involving Asia and the Americas. French is spoken in Haiti and in the French overseas departments Guadeloupe.) In several nations. alongside Spanish and any other indigenous language in the areas where they predominate. there is also a growing Chinese minority in Panama. along with Spanish. They now compose a majority only in Bolivia and Guatemala. and the Netherlands Antilles. and races. The first Asians to settle in the region were Filipino. Puerto Rico leads this category in relative numbers. The majority of Asian Latin Americans are of Japanese or Chinese ancestry and reside mainly in Brazil and Peru. Significant populations are also found in Cuba. Argentina. Blacks. which are officially recognized by the government as "national languages" along with Spanish. are far more numerous than Blacks. Dutch is the official language in Suriname. The specific composition varies from country to country. Brazil. and depending on source. ethnic groups. and Venezuela. Peru. creole languages are spoken. Mulattoes form a majority of population in the Dominican Republic and Cuba. especially in the Caribbean region. Among the Hispanic nations and Brazil. Quechua is an official language. known as Mestizos. Smaller populations of mulattoes are found in other Latin American countries. Iberians brought the Spanish and Portuguese languages. Costa Rica. Intermixing between Europeans and Amerindians began early in the colonial period and was extensive. with a 15% ratio. which includes the largest ethnic Japanese community outside of Japan itself. Whites. Whites make up the majorities of Argentina. Panama. arrived thousands of years ago. In many countries. the predominant language of Haiti. during the colonial period. and at present most white Latin Americans are of Spanish or Portuguese origin. Panama. People of Asian descent number several million in Latin America. mostly descended from Spanish or Portuguese settlers on one side and African slaves on the other. in Cuba. Today. In Bolivia. La vida es un reto – ¡desafíate! . Beginning in the late fifteenth century. large numbers of Iberian colonists settled in what became Latin America (Portuguese in Brazil and Spaniards elsewhere in the region). Amerindians are a large minority that comprises two-fifths of the population. Cuba and the Dominican Republic. the Catholic faith. The most widely spoken creole language in the Caribbean and Latin America in general is Haitian Creole. and Mexico contain the largest numbers of whites in Latin America. and many Iberian traditions. Brazil is home to Latin America's largest mulatto population. Quechua and Guaraní hold official status alongside Spanish. Chile. Dominican Republic. as well as in Puerto Rico (where it is co-official with English). Millions of African slaves were brought to Latin America from the sixteenth century onward. and are also numerous in Venezuela. Colombia. making the region one of the most diverse in the world. The aboriginal population of Latin America. it is also spoken by some Panamanians of Afro-Antillean descent. Colombia. and Brazil. In Peru. Puerto Rico. the biggest and most populous country in the region. Brazil. Mestizos compose large minorities in nearly all the other mainland countries. and is spoken by a majority of the population.
and Inca. The European powers of Spain and Portugal colonized the region. had gained independence from Spain. Cuba gained independence from Spain after the Cuban Revolution in 1902. What was the EUROPEAN COLONIZATION in Latin America? With the arrival of the Europeans following Christopher Columbus's voyages. mountains. Some groups formed permanent settlements such as the Chibchas of Colombia and the Tairona groups of the Carribean.000 years ago. How did the countries in Latin America become independent? Haiti was the first to gain independence in 1804. plains and coasts were the home of tens of millions of people. until its downfall caused by the Spanish invasion. By the end of the sixteenth century Spain and Portugal had been joined by others. Intermixing between the indigenous peoples and the European colonists was very common. South America’s vast rainforests. the Aztecs (who also lived in Mexico) and Incas (who lived in Peru. Bolivia. The Aztec empire was ultimately the most powerful civilization known throughout the Americas. Ecuador and the upper part of Chile). except for Puerto Rico and Cuba. Napoleon's invasion of Spain in 1808 marked a turning point. The Chibchas of Colombia. Fighting soon broke out between the Latin-Americans and the Spanish colonial authorities. Latin America was home to many indigenous peoples and advanced civilizations. including France. all Spanish America. with the last two great civilizations. and other Libertadores in South America. from northeast Asia into Alaska well over 10. the indigenous elites. At first. Maya. or an unincorporated territory of the United States. ultimately extending from Alaska to the southern tips of the Patagonia.Spanish Ab Initio What was PRE-COLOMBIAN HISTORY in Latin America? Profesora Beato The Americas were thought to have been first inhabited by people crossing the Bering strait. these early movements were crushed by the royalist troops. which gave Spain all areas to the west. with epidemics of diseases reducing them sharply from their prior populations. including the Aztecs. by the end of the colonial period. such as the Incas and Aztecs. in occupying large areas of North. wiped out a large portion of the indigenous population. the independence movement regained strength. Puerto Rico became a commonwealth. customs and government were introduced. By the end of the eighteenth century. Under the leadership of a new generation of leaders. In Latin America resentment grew among the majority of the population over the restrictions imposed by the Spanish government. Central and South America. Spanish and Portuguese power was weak and Britain and France grew stronger in the colonies. The golden age of the Maya (who lived in what now is known as Mexico and Belize) began about 250. in 1917. This followed from a violent slave revolt led by Toussaint L'Ouverture. which along with the rest of the non-colonized world was divided into areas of Spanish and Portuguese control by the line of demarcation in 1493. was identified at Monte Verde in Southern Chile. La vida es un reto – ¡desafíate! . the Quechuas and Aymaras of Bolivia and Perú were the three Indian groups that settled most permanently. as well as the dominance of native Spaniards in the major social and political institutions within the colonies. and Portugal all areas to the east (the Portuguese lands in South America subsequently becoming Brazil). Diseases brought by the Europeans. Over the course of millennia. however. with the Roman Catholic Church becoming the major economic and political power to overrule the traditional ways of the region. José de San Martin of Argentina. Caribs. By the first millennium AD. European culture. eventually becoming the only official religion of the Americas during this period. The victors abolished slavery. lost power to the heavy European invasion. Toltecs. The earliest known settlement. Tupi. such as smallpox and measles. and by 1825. Haitian independence helped inspire independence movements in Spanish America. people spread to all parts of the continents. compelling Criollo elites (the rich descendents of Spaniards) to form juntas (political committees) that advocated independence. such as Simón Bolívar of Venezuela. and. people of mixed ancestry (mestizos) formed majorities in several colonies.
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