This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
Your Guide to Latin America and Hispanic America
How do we DEFINE Latin America?
Latin America: (América Latina or Latinoamérica) is a region of the Americas where Romance languages (languages that come from Latin) – particularly Spanish, Portuguese, and sometimes French – are primarily spoken. Hispanic America: (Hispanoamérica) is the region comprising the American countries inhabited ONLY by Spanish-speaking populations. These countries have a lot in common with each other and with Spain. In all of them, Spanish is the main language, sometimes sharing official status with one or more indigenous languages. Roman Catholicism is the predominant religion, as well. In this class, we will mostly be learning about Hispanic America, but sometimes we will touch on the culture of Latin America as a whole.
La vida es un reto – ¡desafíate!
Nassau Barbados .Montevideo Venezuela .Santiago Colombia .Tegulcigalpa Nicaragua .Bridgetown Cayman Islands .Quito French Guiana – La Cayenne Guyana .Managua Panama – Panama City South America • • • • • • • • • • • • • Argentina – Buenos Aires Bolivia – La Paz y Sucre Brazil .Lima Suriname .Gustavia St.Kingstown Trinidad & Tobago – Port of Spain Turks & Caicos Islands – Cockburn Town Virgin Islands – Road Town Central America • • • • • • • Belize .Georgetown Cuba – La Habana Dominica . Kitts & Nevis . Georges Guadeloupe – Basse-Terre Haiti – Port-au-Prince Jamaica .Kingston Martinique – Fort-au-France Puerto Rico – San Juan Saint Barthélemy .Castries St. Vincent and the Grenadines .Roseau Dominican Republic – Santo Domingo Grenada – St.Spanish Ab Initio Profesora Beato What COUNTRIES make up Latin America? Caribbean • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Antigua & Barbuda – St.Georgetown Paraguay .Belmopan Costa Rica – San Jose El Salvador – San Salvador Guatemala – Guatemala City Honduras . Johns Bahamas .Caracas North America La vida es un reto – ¡desafíate! . Lucia .Paramaribo Uruguay .Bogota Ecuador .Asuncion Peru .Brasilia Chile .Basseterre St.
Smaller populations of mulattoes are found in other Latin American countries. Millions of African slaves were brought to Latin America from the sixteenth century onward. In Ecuador. it is also spoken by some Panamanians of Afro-Antillean descent. Peru. these territories are not necessarily considered part of Latin America. the Catholic faith. making the region one of the most diverse in the world. Puerto Rico. Asians. during the colonial period. and the Netherlands Antilles. Brazil. Puerto Rico. People of Asian descent number several million in Latin America. Brazil is home to Latin America's largest mulatto population. They now compose a majority only in Bolivia and Guatemala. there is also a growing Chinese minority in Panama. with a 15% ratio. and are also numerous in Venezuela. as a result of Spain's trade involving Asia and the Americas. and depending on source. an official language of Paraguay. Puerto Rico leads this category in relative numbers. alongside Spanish and any other indigenous language in the areas where they predominate. Whites. Brazil. Nahuatl is one of the 62 native languages spoken by indigenous people in Mexico. and Brazil. Panama. In Peru. and Ecuador. Today. people identified as "Black" are most numerous in Brazil (more than 10 million) and in Haiti (more than 7 million). Dutch is the official language in Suriname. known as Mestizos. Mulattoes. Among the Hispanic nations and Brazil. people of mixed Amerindian and European ancestry make up the majority of the population. mostly descended from Spanish or Portuguese settlers on one side and African slaves on the other. which are officially recognized by the government as "national languages" along with Spanish. which includes the largest ethnic Japanese community outside of Japan itself. ethnic groups. and races. The majority of Asian Latin Americans are of Japanese or Chinese ancestry and reside mainly in Brazil and Peru. and Mexico contain the largest numbers of whites in Latin America. La vida es un reto – ¡desafíate! . Costa Rica. In many countries. Amerindians are a large minority that comprises two-fifths of the population. The aboriginal population of Latin America. Cuba and the Dominican Republic. in Cuba. Mulattoes form a majority of population in the Dominican Republic and Cuba. Blacks. Dominican Republic. Additionally. as well as in Puerto Rico (where it is co-official with English). often due to slaves's running away and being taken in by Amerindian villagers. Zambos: Intermixing between Africans and Amerindians was especially prevalent in Colombia. The most widely spoken creole language in the Caribbean and Latin America in general is Haitian Creole. The specific composition varies from country to country. Quechua and Guaraní hold official status alongside Spanish. the Amerindians (native Americans). Chile. French Guiana. Intermixing between Europeans and Amerindians began early in the colonial period and was extensive. are far more numerous than Blacks. The resulting people. and Venezuela. make up the majority of the population in half of the countries of Latin America. Mestizos. called Mulattoes.) In several nations. Ecuador.Spanish Ab Initio Profesora Beato • Mexico – Mexico City What are the ETHNIC GROUPS in Latin America? The population of Latin America comprises a variety of ancestries. the biggest and most populous country in the region. Panama. arrived thousands of years ago. Martinique. and Saint Pierre and Miquelon. Aymara. large numbers of Iberian colonists settled in what became Latin America (Portuguese in Brazil and Spaniards elsewhere in the region). In Bolivia. Brazil is home to perhaps two million people of Asian descent. Portuguese is spoken only in Brazil. Iberians brought the Spanish and Portuguese languages. Significant populations are also found in Cuba. (As Dutch is a Germanic language. Latin Americans of mixed Black and White ancestry. French is spoken in Haiti and in the French overseas departments Guadeloupe. the predominant language of Haiti. Spanish is the official language of most of the rest of the countries on the Latin American mainland. especially in the Caribbean region. and is spoken by a majority of the population. creole languages are spoken. and Uruguay. also. Argentina. Whites make up the majorities of Argentina. Mulattoes are people of mixed European and African ancestry. the majority of whom were sent to the Caribbean region and Brazil. • Amerindians. Beginning in the late fifteenth century. Quechua is an official language. along with Spanish. Mestizos compose large minorities in nearly all the other mainland countries. Venezuela. • • • • • • What are the LANGUAGES spoken in Latin America? Spanish and Portuguese are the predominant languages of Latin America. The first Asians to settle in the region were Filipino. Guarani is. Aruba. and at present most white Latin Americans are of Spanish or Portuguese origin. Colombia. and at least a plurality in Peru. and many Iberian traditions. Colombia.
in 1917. By the end of the eighteenth century. Over the course of millennia. José de San Martin of Argentina. with the last two great civilizations. The golden age of the Maya (who lived in what now is known as Mexico and Belize) began about 250. or an unincorporated territory of the United States.000 years ago. The Chibchas of Colombia. and Portugal all areas to the east (the Portuguese lands in South America subsequently becoming Brazil). Cuba gained independence from Spain after the Cuban Revolution in 1902. The Aztec empire was ultimately the most powerful civilization known throughout the Americas. Caribs. such as the Incas and Aztecs. Fighting soon broke out between the Latin-Americans and the Spanish colonial authorities. from northeast Asia into Alaska well over 10. European culture. Tupi. Under the leadership of a new generation of leaders. in occupying large areas of North. with the Roman Catholic Church becoming the major economic and political power to overrule the traditional ways of the region. The victors abolished slavery. ultimately extending from Alaska to the southern tips of the Patagonia. had gained independence from Spain. the Quechuas and Aymaras of Bolivia and Perú were the three Indian groups that settled most permanently. By the end of the sixteenth century Spain and Portugal had been joined by others. eventually becoming the only official religion of the Americas during this period. and. including France. The earliest known settlement. La vida es un reto – ¡desafíate! . mountains. such as Simón Bolívar of Venezuela. the Aztecs (who also lived in Mexico) and Incas (who lived in Peru. Ecuador and the upper part of Chile). plains and coasts were the home of tens of millions of people. wiped out a large portion of the indigenous population. Central and South America. and other Libertadores in South America. Maya. Bolivia. Puerto Rico became a commonwealth. except for Puerto Rico and Cuba. How did the countries in Latin America become independent? Haiti was the first to gain independence in 1804. At first. Haitian independence helped inspire independence movements in Spanish America. however. such as smallpox and measles. people spread to all parts of the continents. Diseases brought by the Europeans. which along with the rest of the non-colonized world was divided into areas of Spanish and Portuguese control by the line of demarcation in 1493. In Latin America resentment grew among the majority of the population over the restrictions imposed by the Spanish government. By the first millennium AD. lost power to the heavy European invasion. which gave Spain all areas to the west. and Inca. compelling Criollo elites (the rich descendents of Spaniards) to form juntas (political committees) that advocated independence. all Spanish America. customs and government were introduced. with epidemics of diseases reducing them sharply from their prior populations. the independence movement regained strength. This followed from a violent slave revolt led by Toussaint L'Ouverture. until its downfall caused by the Spanish invasion. the indigenous elites. and by 1825. as well as the dominance of native Spaniards in the major social and political institutions within the colonies. people of mixed ancestry (mestizos) formed majorities in several colonies.Spanish Ab Initio What was PRE-COLOMBIAN HISTORY in Latin America? Profesora Beato The Americas were thought to have been first inhabited by people crossing the Bering strait. Napoleon's invasion of Spain in 1808 marked a turning point. Some groups formed permanent settlements such as the Chibchas of Colombia and the Tairona groups of the Carribean. these early movements were crushed by the royalist troops. including the Aztecs. Intermixing between the indigenous peoples and the European colonists was very common. What was the EUROPEAN COLONIZATION in Latin America? With the arrival of the Europeans following Christopher Columbus's voyages. Toltecs. by the end of the colonial period. South America’s vast rainforests. Latin America was home to many indigenous peoples and advanced civilizations. Spanish and Portuguese power was weak and Britain and France grew stronger in the colonies. The European powers of Spain and Portugal colonized the region. was identified at Monte Verde in Southern Chile.
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.