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Your Guide to Latin America and Hispanic America
How do we DEFINE Latin America?
Latin America: (América Latina or Latinoamérica) is a region of the Americas where Romance languages (languages that come from Latin) – particularly Spanish, Portuguese, and sometimes French – are primarily spoken. Hispanic America: (Hispanoamérica) is the region comprising the American countries inhabited ONLY by Spanish-speaking populations. These countries have a lot in common with each other and with Spain. In all of them, Spanish is the main language, sometimes sharing official status with one or more indigenous languages. Roman Catholicism is the predominant religion, as well. In this class, we will mostly be learning about Hispanic America, but sometimes we will touch on the culture of Latin America as a whole.
La vida es un reto – ¡desafíate!
Gustavia St.Lima Suriname .Brasilia Chile .Tegulcigalpa Nicaragua .Spanish Ab Initio Profesora Beato What COUNTRIES make up Latin America? Caribbean • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Antigua & Barbuda – St. Georges Guadeloupe – Basse-Terre Haiti – Port-au-Prince Jamaica .Bogota Ecuador .Santiago Colombia .Caracas North America La vida es un reto – ¡desafíate! . Vincent and the Grenadines .Kingstown Trinidad & Tobago – Port of Spain Turks & Caicos Islands – Cockburn Town Virgin Islands – Road Town Central America • • • • • • • Belize .Bridgetown Cayman Islands .Roseau Dominican Republic – Santo Domingo Grenada – St.Nassau Barbados .Asuncion Peru .Quito French Guiana – La Cayenne Guyana .Georgetown Cuba – La Habana Dominica .Castries St. Lucia .Managua Panama – Panama City South America • • • • • • • • • • • • • Argentina – Buenos Aires Bolivia – La Paz y Sucre Brazil .Montevideo Venezuela .Georgetown Paraguay . Johns Bahamas .Kingston Martinique – Fort-au-France Puerto Rico – San Juan Saint Barthélemy . Kitts & Nevis .Basseterre St.Belmopan Costa Rica – San Jose El Salvador – San Salvador Guatemala – Guatemala City Honduras .Paramaribo Uruguay .
and depending on source. during the colonial period. In Peru. called Mulattoes. especially in the Caribbean region. Aruba.) In several nations. the predominant language of Haiti. Mestizos. Ecuador. and at least a plurality in Peru. Dominican Republic. Mulattoes form a majority of population in the Dominican Republic and Cuba. these territories are not necessarily considered part of Latin America. Among the Hispanic nations and Brazil. Guarani is. known as Mestizos. Mulattoes are people of mixed European and African ancestry. mostly descended from Spanish or Portuguese settlers on one side and African slaves on the other. In Bolivia. Brazil is home to perhaps two million people of Asian descent. and Venezuela. Quechua and Guaraní hold official status alongside Spanish. Puerto Rico. Martinique. Panama. as well as in Puerto Rico (where it is co-official with English). Significant populations are also found in Cuba. The specific composition varies from country to country. Intermixing between Europeans and Amerindians began early in the colonial period and was extensive. Today. Brazil. Zambos: Intermixing between Africans and Amerindians was especially prevalent in Colombia. • Amerindians. the Amerindians (native Americans). • • • • • • What are the LANGUAGES spoken in Latin America? Spanish and Portuguese are the predominant languages of Latin America. and many Iberian traditions. Beginning in the late fifteenth century. and races. Argentina. (As Dutch is a Germanic language. People of Asian descent number several million in Latin America. Peru. Smaller populations of mulattoes are found in other Latin American countries. as a result of Spain's trade involving Asia and the Americas. arrived thousands of years ago. Whites. Dutch is the official language in Suriname. French Guiana. which are officially recognized by the government as "national languages" along with Spanish. They now compose a majority only in Bolivia and Guatemala. and Uruguay. The resulting people. and the Netherlands Antilles. In Ecuador. In many countries. Whites make up the majorities of Argentina. Mestizos compose large minorities in nearly all the other mainland countries. Costa Rica. alongside Spanish and any other indigenous language in the areas where they predominate. Chile. Amerindians are a large minority that comprises two-fifths of the population. Venezuela. in Cuba. often due to slaves's running away and being taken in by Amerindian villagers. Blacks. and at present most white Latin Americans are of Spanish or Portuguese origin. Brazil. La vida es un reto – ¡desafíate! . Panama. the majority of whom were sent to the Caribbean region and Brazil. and is spoken by a majority of the population. creole languages are spoken. Aymara. Cuba and the Dominican Republic. The most widely spoken creole language in the Caribbean and Latin America in general is Haitian Creole. ethnic groups. Colombia. and Mexico contain the largest numbers of whites in Latin America. it is also spoken by some Panamanians of Afro-Antillean descent. Additionally. The majority of Asian Latin Americans are of Japanese or Chinese ancestry and reside mainly in Brazil and Peru. people identified as "Black" are most numerous in Brazil (more than 10 million) and in Haiti (more than 7 million). Portuguese is spoken only in Brazil.Spanish Ab Initio Profesora Beato • Mexico – Mexico City What are the ETHNIC GROUPS in Latin America? The population of Latin America comprises a variety of ancestries. Spanish is the official language of most of the rest of the countries on the Latin American mainland. the biggest and most populous country in the region. and Saint Pierre and Miquelon. Quechua is an official language. and Brazil. which includes the largest ethnic Japanese community outside of Japan itself. people of mixed Amerindian and European ancestry make up the majority of the population. and Ecuador. Millions of African slaves were brought to Latin America from the sixteenth century onward. with a 15% ratio. there is also a growing Chinese minority in Panama. also. Colombia. Latin Americans of mixed Black and White ancestry. are far more numerous than Blacks. Puerto Rico. large numbers of Iberian colonists settled in what became Latin America (Portuguese in Brazil and Spaniards elsewhere in the region). The aboriginal population of Latin America. an official language of Paraguay. Asians. Brazil is home to Latin America's largest mulatto population. Mulattoes. French is spoken in Haiti and in the French overseas departments Guadeloupe. the Catholic faith. make up the majority of the population in half of the countries of Latin America. making the region one of the most diverse in the world. and are also numerous in Venezuela. The first Asians to settle in the region were Filipino. Nahuatl is one of the 62 native languages spoken by indigenous people in Mexico. Iberians brought the Spanish and Portuguese languages. Puerto Rico leads this category in relative numbers. along with Spanish.
The golden age of the Maya (who lived in what now is known as Mexico and Belize) began about 250. with epidemics of diseases reducing them sharply from their prior populations. Cuba gained independence from Spain after the Cuban Revolution in 1902. the indigenous elites. customs and government were introduced. however. Latin America was home to many indigenous peoples and advanced civilizations. and. mountains. Haitian independence helped inspire independence movements in Spanish America. with the Roman Catholic Church becoming the major economic and political power to overrule the traditional ways of the region. The Chibchas of Colombia. the Aztecs (who also lived in Mexico) and Incas (who lived in Peru. By the first millennium AD. and other Libertadores in South America. Maya. The victors abolished slavery. What was the EUROPEAN COLONIZATION in Latin America? With the arrival of the Europeans following Christopher Columbus's voyages. By the end of the sixteenth century Spain and Portugal had been joined by others. Central and South America. In Latin America resentment grew among the majority of the population over the restrictions imposed by the Spanish government. from northeast Asia into Alaska well over 10. By the end of the eighteenth century. which along with the rest of the non-colonized world was divided into areas of Spanish and Portuguese control by the line of demarcation in 1493. as well as the dominance of native Spaniards in the major social and political institutions within the colonies. or an unincorporated territory of the United States. including the Aztecs. the independence movement regained strength. How did the countries in Latin America become independent? Haiti was the first to gain independence in 1804. Intermixing between the indigenous peoples and the European colonists was very common. in occupying large areas of North. in 1917. European culture. wiped out a large portion of the indigenous population. Over the course of millennia. plains and coasts were the home of tens of millions of people. including France. Some groups formed permanent settlements such as the Chibchas of Colombia and the Tairona groups of the Carribean. eventually becoming the only official religion of the Americas during this period. by the end of the colonial period. had gained independence from Spain. these early movements were crushed by the royalist troops. Caribs. which gave Spain all areas to the west. and Portugal all areas to the east (the Portuguese lands in South America subsequently becoming Brazil). lost power to the heavy European invasion. At first. The Aztec empire was ultimately the most powerful civilization known throughout the Americas. with the last two great civilizations. people spread to all parts of the continents. until its downfall caused by the Spanish invasion. The earliest known settlement. compelling Criollo elites (the rich descendents of Spaniards) to form juntas (political committees) that advocated independence. Toltecs. people of mixed ancestry (mestizos) formed majorities in several colonies. Diseases brought by the Europeans. Puerto Rico became a commonwealth. all Spanish America. such as the Incas and Aztecs. such as smallpox and measles. such as Simón Bolívar of Venezuela. Bolivia. Ecuador and the upper part of Chile). ultimately extending from Alaska to the southern tips of the Patagonia. Spanish and Portuguese power was weak and Britain and France grew stronger in the colonies. This followed from a violent slave revolt led by Toussaint L'Ouverture. and Inca. La vida es un reto – ¡desafíate! . except for Puerto Rico and Cuba. Napoleon's invasion of Spain in 1808 marked a turning point. was identified at Monte Verde in Southern Chile. and by 1825. the Quechuas and Aymaras of Bolivia and Perú were the three Indian groups that settled most permanently. Under the leadership of a new generation of leaders.000 years ago. Fighting soon broke out between the Latin-Americans and the Spanish colonial authorities. José de San Martin of Argentina. The European powers of Spain and Portugal colonized the region. South America’s vast rainforests.Spanish Ab Initio What was PRE-COLOMBIAN HISTORY in Latin America? Profesora Beato The Americas were thought to have been first inhabited by people crossing the Bering strait. Tupi.