Introduction
d lnA(L)
d•  A(L)
I dA(L) da (3)
dL  a•L•.
Experimental measurementsof attenuation of ultra
sonic waves in various rocks have been carried out since
From publishedresultsspecifyingthe attenuation co
the 1940s using different techniquesover a wide fre efficient[GordonandDavis, 1968;Brennanand Stacey,
quencyrange [e.g., Born, 1941; Nur and Simmons, 1977; Toksoz et al., 1979; Winklet et al., 1979; John
1969; $petzler and Anderson, 1968; Johnston et al., ston et al., 1980; Jackson,1993],it can be concluded
1978; Toksozet al., 1979; Winklet and Nut, 1982; Mur that da/dL 0. Then (3) can be written as
phy, 1984]. Typical methodsemployedincludethe
ultrasonicresonantbar [Johnstonand Toksoz,1980],
the risetime of ultrasonicpulses[Gladwinand Stacey, dlnA(L)
1974],the pulseecho technique[Papadakis et al., 1973] •   dL ' (4)
and an improvedpulseechotechnique[Winklet and Two methods can be used to evaluate crack density
Plona, 1982]. The commonlyusedparametersfor de in rocks,one is suggestedby O'Connell and Budiansky
scribing attenuation are the attenuation coefficient a [1974,1977]who haveestablished the relationbetween
and the quality factor Q. These quantities are related the crack density and stress wave velocity; the other
by usedby Gradyand Kipp [1987]and Rubin and Ahrens
I aC
[1991]is the damageparameterdefinedas
• •f, (1)
C •
where C is wave velocity and f is frequency.
For a plane wave propagating in a medium, the am D 1 (•00)
, (5)
plitude of stressis given by where C is the wavevelocityof the rock with cracksand
Co is the intrinsic wave velocity of the rock. Because
A(L,t)  Aoe
•L ei(•L•t), (2) (C/Co)• is theratioof elastic
moduliof rocksbefore
whereL is propagationdistance,cvis angularfrequency, and after the damage,D describesthe relative modulus
k iswavenumber,andt istime. Heretheei(kL•t) term changeof rocks.
Because stress wave attenuation results from the oc
representsa propagating wave and the attenuation is
determined
bytheAoe• term.Let A(L) beAoe•, currence of cracks, the relationship between attenua
then a can be calculated from tion coefficientand damageparameter has an important
role in understandingthe propagation of stresswavesin
damagedrocks. The presentstudy presentsthe first ex
Copyright 1997 by the American GeophysicalUnion.
perimental data describingstresswave attenuation in
Paper number 96JB03891. damagedrocks. Attenuation coefficientsand damage
01480227/97/ 96JB03891$09.00 parameters(and crackdensities)in a seriesof damaged
5243
5244 LIU AND AHRENS: ATTENUATION IN SHOCKED ROCK
San Marcos gabbro sampleswere obtained by usingthe The ultrasonic experimental apparatus used in this
ultrasonicpulseechomethod developedby Winklet and work is similar to that developedby Winklet and Plona
Plona[1982]. [1982]for attenuationcoefficient
measurements
(Figure
1). A positioningscrewis used to hold and tighten
Experimental Technique the whole assemblyto insure good contact between the
coupling surfaces. The transducer is located along the
The rock used in this work was San Marcos gab center line of the assembly.
bro (SMG). Shockwave propertiesand shockeffects The thicknessof the coupling lucite buffer hx is cho
in SMG havebeenstudiedpreviously[McQueenet al., sensuchthat the reflectingsignalsfrom surfacesA and
1967; Lange et al., 1984; Polanskey and Ahrens, 1990; B can be unambiguouslyidentified. The thicknessof the
Rubin and Ahrens, 1991; Ahrens and Rubin, 1993; He sampleis h2. AlsoCpxand Cp are P wavevelocitiesfor
andAhrens,1994]. The densityof SMG is 2.87x10s the lucite and sample, respectively. The characteristic
kg/ms, the intrinsicP wavevelocityis assumed
to be times (Figure 1) for the systemare
7.12 km/s (under 0.4 GPa confiningpressure)[Birch,
1960],and shearvelocityis 3.7 km/s (under 0.4 GPa 2hx
confiningpressure)[Simmons,1964].Fromthe two ve = (s)
locities, the intrinsic shear, bulk and ¾oung'smoduli
of SMG are 39, 93, and 103 GPa, respectively. The 2h• 2h:•
intrinsic Poisson's ratio of SMG is 0.31.  c,,' (9)
Initially, a SMG target with dimensions200 x 200 x tpa= 2tpl. (10)
150 mm was impacted by a lead projectile at a velocity
of 1.2 km/s. The projectilehada diameterof 7 mm and Typical thicknessesand velocities of the buffer and
mass of 3 g. The crater shape and fracture details in samplesare hi = I cm, h2 = I cm, Cpl = 2.69 km/s,
the target weredescribed by Ahrensand Rubin[1993]. and Cp = 6.5 km/s. From (8)  (10) we havetel = 7.4
The recoveredtarget was cut into I cm cubes,suchthat pS, tp2  10.5 ps, and tp3  14.8 ps. From the simple
calculation above we conclude that the wave reflected
two surfacesof the sampleswere paralleled to the im
pact surface of the target. These cubeswere polished from surface B arrives at the transducer just after the
until the variation of thicknessfor each sample was less signalfrom surfaceA. This ensuresthat the signalsare
than 0.03 mm. Because water was used when the sam clearly distinguished.
ples were polished, the sampleswere placed in an oven
under normal pressureat 100øC for 24 hours before the
Positional screw
measurements. This procedure is similar to that used
by Polanskeyand Ahrens[1990].
The pressureof the shock wave induced by the im Transducer
holder
Transducer
pacting in the target can be estimated using the power / (Panametrics,
Model1102)
decay relation a Cable hole
(a)
/ Lucite buffer
")
P Po(ro ,' >
 ,'o, (6)
/ Sample
where r and ro are the radial distance and the equiva / Lucite sample
lent radius of the projectile, respectively. This expres • Alignment cylinder
sion is mainly based on experimental data. Po is the
shock wave pressure on the impact surface, and • is • Support
strain measurementsystemis shownin Figure 2. The Supposethat L/2 is samplethicknessand A(f) and
semiconductorstrain gaugeis bondedto the surfaceof B(f) are the frequencydependentamplitudesof the
thegabbrosamples TAC 10•'M), pulse reflected from surfaces A and B of the sample,
usingepoxy(Devcon,
which solidifies in 24 hours under normal conditions. respectively. The attenuation coefficientobtained from
The signalfrom the strain gaugeis amplifiedand then thesetwo ultrasonicsignalsis expressed
as [ Winklet and
recordedusing the Gould oscilloscope. Plona, 1982]
Data Reduction
a(f) •8.686
ln[B(f)
A(f)(1 R2)], (11)
P wave velocity and damage parameters . P
wave velocity is measuredby using two transducers. wherethe unit of a(f) is decibelsper centimeterwhen
One is an ultrasonicwave generatorand the other the the unit of L is centimeters. The constant results from
receiver.We first measurethe time durationfor a pulse the changein the attenuationunit (1.0 dB/cm  8.686
to be generatedand receivedwithout an interposing Np/cm). Here R is the reflectioncoefficientfor the in
sample between the two transducers. The time dura terface between the coupling buffer and sample and is
tion with the sampleis then measured.The propagation given by
n  Cpp
+Cpcp½ (12)
time of ultrasonicP wavesin each sampleis obtained
upon subtraction of the two time durations. Further
detailsare described
by RubinandAhrens[1991].The where Cp and p are the P wave velocityand the den
damageparameter is obtained using the definition of sity of gabbrosamples,respectively.Cpcand pc are the
GradyandKipp [1987](equation(5)). P wavevelocityand densityof the couplingbuffer (lu
Attenuation coefficient. The method used in cite), respectively.
Fromultrasonicmeasurements, Cpc
this work is similar to that givenby Winklet and Plona is 2.68 km/s and Pc is 1.19x10s kg/ms. Thesedata
[1982]. This methodis basedon the two stresswaves are similar to the results of Hartmann and Jarzynski
reflected from surfacesA and B of the sample, as shown [1972]( Cpc= 2.69km/s andPc= 1.19x10a kg/ma ).
in Figure 1. The stresswavesreflectedfrom surfaceA In the calculation of attenuation coefficients,a possible
do not propagate through the sample; the waves re correctionof attenuationdue to wavespreadingwasnot
Wheatstone bridge
i
i
....... •
Pulser
receiver
• Trigger
Power
amplifier
I
Oscilloscope
I
Figure 2. Sketchof the strain measurementarrangement.
5246 LIU AND AHRENS' ATTENUATION IN SHOCKEDROCK
/ 
0.5
calculation. From these results, we can seethat the at
Reflected from Surface B
tenuation coefficientsincreasewith both frequency and I
I I • I
I
I I • I
damage parameter. I
0
Figure6 showsthe attenuationcoefficient
dependence
•/ t t t
on the damageparameterfor the frequencyof 2 MHz \/ '
i
,
i
m
i
(the peak energy of the ultrasonicP wave is at • 2 0.5
,.•..t
i
•..• ..... l•J 
I I I
12
From Surface A _ 4
Eq.(15) /•
10 Present
data • • ,, __
,• 8
2 a,
• 6
1
0 0
0.1 0.2 0.3 0
0 2 4 6 8
Frequency (MHz) Dp
Figure 6. Relation betweendamagedeficit and at
Figure 4. Typical spectral amplitude of signals. tenuation coefficient.
are mainly interested in the relation between atten locities,Cp (damagedsamples)and CpO(intrinsicve
uation coefficientsand damage parameters. In gen locity), and crackdensityas
eral, the damage in samplesinduced by shockwavesis
anisotropic. This will of courseresult in anisotropy in
the attenuation of shockdamagedsamples. In order to
Cp)2_
(•pO (1 .)(1+o)K
 (1+,)(1 (18)
investigate attenuation anisotropy,additional measure
ments are required. This may be a direction of future
research.
K =1 16(1
Ko
•)e
9(1 2,) '
(19)
Figure 10 demonstratesthat the largest strain in the . 16e
SMG samples induced by ultrasonic waves is about = I (20)
"o 9 '
2 x 107 (Thesample
usedin thismeasurement
wasun
damagedSMG.). We note that the shapeof the strain where, and o are the effective and the intrinsic Pois
gaugesignal is dissimilarto that recordedby the piezo son'sratio, respectively,and K and Ko are the effective
electrictransducerin Figure 3. The main reasonfor this and the intrinsic bulk moduli, respectively. The crack
is that the time resolution of the semiconductor strain density is defined as
gaugeis poorerthan that of the piezoelectrictransducer
becauseof the strain gauge's large dimensions. How
eN<a s >, (21)
ever, the strain amplitude can be used to approximately where N is the number of cracks per unit volume and
evaluate the strain induced in the samples. a is the halflength of cracks.
For dry circular cracks, O'Connell and Budiansky O'Connell and Budiansky's relations are derived for
[1974]haveestablished the relationbetweenP waveve pennyshaped,circularcracks. Although cracksin shock
damagedrocksare not circular in detail, we adopt their
I I I
12
D =0.319 I I I
Dp=,0.285 P• • 50
10
•3o
_ D =0.220 P Eq. (16)
20
.......... D =0.108
p
i i i
10
5 2 2.5 3 3
i i i
Frequency (MHz) 0.1 0.2 0.3 0
...............
•.........
Crater Strain peak
ß•:•z% .• • •:•
15 15
I I I I
10
A
Present data
10
Present
•
aata
• Fitted
'curve

I•]D
•E]
•'• _ (Eq.
(25))Walsh's
theory
Eq. (17)
I I I I I I
6 8 10 12 0.1 0.2 0.3
r(cm)
Figure 9. The relation between attenuation coeffi Figure 11. The relationbetweenattenuationcoeffi
cient and radial distance. cient and crack density.
LIU AND AHRENS: ATTENUATION IN SHOCKED ROCK 5249
1.2
For simplicity we assumethat F(p,.) is approxi I I
K(1
 2•0)'
Q• reK0(1 y) (27)
andfrom(19), (20),and(27), Q• (e) canbecalculated
provided the parameter F is determined. 0.6
7. Using semiconductorstrain gauges,the strain in Kreuzer, M., Linearity and sensitivity error in the use of sin
duced in the sample by the ultrasonic stresswave was gle strain gaugewith voltagefedand currentfedcircuits,
measured to be about 2 x 107. Strain Gauge Transducer Tech., 1, 1015, 1988.
Lange, M. A., T. J. Ahrens, and M. B. Boslough,Impact
cratering and spall fracture of gabbro, Icarus, 58, 383
Acknowledgments. We thank T. Duffy, T. Mukerji, 395, 1984.
and D. R. Schmitt for numeroussuggestionsthat improved McQueen, R. J., S. P. Marsh, and J. N. Fritz, Hugoniot
the manuscript, and we thank G. Ravichandran for the use equation of state of twelve rocks, J. Geophys.Res., 72,
of the ultrasonic apparatus. This researchwas supportedby 49995036, 1967.
NASA under NAGW1941 and Air ForceTechnicalApplica Murphy, W. F., Acoustic measuresof partial gas saturation
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stitute of Technology. Nur, A., and G. Simmons, The effect of viscosityof a fluid
phaseon velocity in low porosityrocks,Earth Planet. Sci.
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