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8604 Assignment Autumn 2017

Q No.1 what are sources of knowledge? Define scientific method and describe its different steps.

Human beings are always inquisitive to understand causes and consequences of happening or not
happening of something or event or phenomenon and to predict their occurrence and extent in failure.
The answer to interrogative queries like what, when, how, who, whom, and how much are some of the
understanding that generated knowledge among human beings. Some of the understanding comes in a
natural way while other comes through the complex procedure of investigation. There are four methods
of knowing or understandings.
1. Tenacity
2. Authority
3. Scientific method.
4. Institution, Prior method/ Rational Approach.

1. Tenacity
In this method, people know something to be true simply because a lot of people believe it to be true.
The more it is so, the more valid the truth becomes.
2. Authority
In this method, if a well-respected person or an authoritative source says that something is so, then it
must be so.
3. Institution, Prior method/ Rational Approach.
This method is based on the notion that people will reach the truth because their nature inclination will
be to do so. It is based on the notion that intuitive proposition should agree with reason and not
necessarily with experiences. It might thus be termed as Rational Approach.
Believing a fact in the background of socio-economical and cultural aspect is the main
4. Scientific method.
This is the most important and latest method understanding or knowing. In this method, truths are not
ascertained by beliefs but by something upon which thinking have no effects. The method deals with
real things whose characterized are entirely independently of our opinions about them. The ultimate
conclusion of every man shall be same.
This is the most important and latest method understanding or knowing. In this method, truths are not
ascertained by beliefs but by something upon which thinking have no effects. The method deals with
real things whose characterized are entirely independently of our opinions about them. The ultimate
conclusion of every man shall be same. Self-correction and objectivity are two main characteristics of
this method that distinguished it from other methods. Personal beliefs, perceptions, biases, values,
attitudes, and emotional have no place in this methods.

Main characteristics of the Scientific method.

1. Verifiability.
2. Generality:
3. Predictability.
4. Objectivity.
5. System.

1. Verifiability.
The conclusion drawn through a scientific method is subjected to verification at any time. The
proposition is that the phenomenon under investigation must be capable of being observed and
measured. For instance, a man’s order of preference of various jobs although incapable of being
observed can still be verified by means of an interview.

8604 Assignment Autumn 2017

2. Generality:
Laws derived through scientific method are universal in their application. They are not limited to
individual objects or individual groups of objects. The relationship discovered through these individual
groups should be applicable to the whole group called a universe. But, because of heterogeneous nature
of the social phenomenon, complete, universality is rarely achieved in social sciences and the fact
observed or laws formulated in social sciences are valid only under given a condition.
The results through scientific method can be predicted with sufficient accuracy. For example, one can
say with certainty that if water is heated to 100oC, it will vaporize and if it is cooled to 0oC, it will turn to
ice. Predictability is fixed on two factors fixing of relationships between the causes and the effect and
the stability of causative factors.
Predictability depends on one hand upon the nature of the phenomenon and the other hand upon the
knowledge of various causative factors. However, people do not acknowledge productivity in the social
phenomenon as a part of scientific method.

3. Objectivity.
The results obtained through a scientific method should be free from investigator’s own views. The main
criterion of objectivity is that all people should arrive at the same conclusion about something of the
phenomenon. For example, When we say that coal is black, it is the objective statement because coal
will appear black to all people but when we say coal is useful mineral, the statement may not be
objective for everyone may not agree with the statement.
Objectivity is essential for verification. It permits repetition of observations under practically identical
observation by many observers.
The expected answer to research series are the objectives of the study.If the problem has been stated in
negative sentences, then their counter statements I,e positive sentences are the objectives of the study.
For example, if the problem is stated as: is A deteriorating? Then the research objectivity may be stated
as Whether A will be improved.

The convergent point of the objective statement is the goal of the study. In scientific studies, the
objectivity is stated as-
1. Broad objective.
2. Specific objective

1. Broad objective.
The broad objective is the broad perspective of the study.

2. Specific objective
Specific objectives are stated to specific the specific observation to be made in the study. They are
stated in number preferably in sequential order.

4: System
In every scientific study, there is an accepted mode of investigation. The results arrived by means of a
haphazard method, even true, cannot be called scientific because it accuracy is purely accidental.

Scientific studies.
Scientific studies have passed the different stage of evolution and the methods of scientific analysis have
been made more and more refined with the growth of scientific studies.

8604 Assignment Autumn 2017

Aspects of the Scientific method.

Every Scientific method of investigation is composed of two aspects.
1. Technical Aspects.
2. Logical Aspects.

1. Technical Aspects.
This aspect deals with the collection of information (data and manipulates of a phenomenon to allow an
objectivity observation.

2. Logical aspects.
This method comes at the time of generalization of drawing of inference on the basis of collection
Technical methods are different in different sciences and there are hardly a few persons who have
mastered the technical methods of more than one science or a group or connected science.
In general, a method of investigation applied to a particular branch of knowledge consists of following
two basic aspects.
The general part or the basis rules of investigation which is common to all types of scientific
The applied to part or technical part that permits to the particular science alone.
In the second part of the investigation, that needed specialized knowledge. The accepted mode of
investigation is called system or formally and rigorous of the investigation.

Q No.2 Discuss the concept of educational research. Also examine the need and importance of
research in education.


1. Education today is child centered. All round development of the personality of the child is one of the
important goals of education. Educational research is needed to solve various problems related to
measurement, evaluation and development of personality of the child.
2. The meaning we give to education today is more vast and complex. It is a cluster of difficult trades, an
aggregate of processes based on specific techniques and action with individuals and groups, that is
organized, planned, controlled and evaluated. In order to solve the complexity of relationships and
processes a considerable research in education is needed.
3. Education is both science and art. As science it is based on theories, laws and principles and as art it is
an activity and an application which requires skills and training. In order to make an effective application
of the laws and principles and to provide training in skills and techniques educational research is
needed. Educational research is of much significance to improve the art of teaching to make the
students learn effectively.
4. The advancement that the material world has made has given rise to problems of terrorism, threats
and clashes to the modern world. Education is a process of socialization which can meet the challenge of
increasing contradiction and belligerency. A continuous research is needed to solve this complex social
7. Educational research affects personality of the researcher. It teaches him ‘how to solve problems to
realize truth.’ he is not liable to accept the findings of others unless he tests them.
8. It is needed to make education administration efficient and effective. It helps in decision making.
9. Educational research is needed for a teacher to improve his teaching, his methodology, his skills, his
planning and to make him up to date in information and knowledge.

8604 Assignment Autumn 2017

Importance of research in education.

As earlier said, research is important in all fields, in the similar manner, the importance of research in
education is very vital. This is because of various reasons like:

1. It is a systematic analysis:
In education, research is essential as it gives the systematic analysis of the topic. Also the objectives are
clearly defined through the research process. One needs to study in a systematic and controlled manner,
and this is exactly what the research work provides an individual.

2. Leads to great observations:

In the field of education, the research helps in coming to one conclusion. That conclusion can be
achieved by observing the facts and figures in depth. So, such in depth knowledge is provided by
following various research methods only. So, this way, research also assists in leading to greater

3. Results in predications, theories and many principles:

The researchers come up with the valid predictions, theories and great results through the observations,
hypothesis and the research queries. So, this way also it helps researchers to come up with the great

4. Improving practices:
The educational research is important for the students to improve practices and at the same time, it
helps in improving those individuals who really wish to bring improvement in those practices. So, this
way educational research helps in overall improvement of the individual. Be it a student or any teacher
who is researching on some topic, it is of great help to them. It acts as a lighthouse and empowers the

5. Develops new understanding related to the learning, teaching etc:

The educators are benefited through various research as it helps them in having a better understanding
of the subject. Along with this, it develops greater understanding related to the teaching, learning and
other educational administration. The new knowledge further helps in improving educational practices
of the teachers and the professors.

6. Helps in initiating the action:

The research you do should result in performing some action or practice. So, the research should aim to
produce the highest result which complements the study. Also, you should make sure your study
ensures the applicable findings so as to match the result. Research helps in performing well and also
sheds away all the problems. This way, you are able to understand the role of research which further
helps in decision making process.

7. Helps in decision making:

The good research requires proper time and effort. It prepares the person in taking essential decisions
which further necessitates the same from all the participants involved in the process. For better results,
it is important for the participants to consider the required consequences and all the risks involved in
the whole process.

8. Brings consistency in the work:

8604 Assignment Autumn 2017

When the work is done with full in depth analysis, it tends to be right and accurate. The process of
research help brings consistency in the work, which lessens the flaws and mistakes in the final outcome
of the process. The consistency is needed in all sorts of work or you might have to end up getting wrong
and inaccurate result. The research takes lots of time and effort, so it is the duty of the researcher to be
specific and sure with the facts so that the end result is clean and without any silly mistakes.
9. Motivates others:
The educational research builds patience because it is a lengthy process. In order to get fruitful results,
you need to build patience and only then you will be able to motivate others. Also, if your research is full
of right facts and figures, it will ultimately motivate others. Not just this, an accurate research assists in
enhancing the reader’s knowledge which might not be possible for any other person.
So, above are some of the benefits which research provides in the field of education. Every kind of
research, every kind of method has been always useful and gives a positive result. In case, you find
something fishy during the research work, it is advisable to consult someone superior to you, or some
expert. Research is useful in all the fields and is used by all the departments, whether public or private.
The research work is done by all age groups, whether the students or the teachers and even the
humankind in order to understand the society, its rules and other policies.

Q No.3 Explain different types of researches on the basis of method and explain them with suitable

Research can be divided on the basis of different approaches & Methods. On the basis of method
research has the following types.

Historical Research
Historical research is that type in which the facts are collected from past events. In this type of
research historical approaches are used for preparing data in order to solve a problematic situation.

Descriptive Research
In descriptive research a researcher observe a problem and write an article about its causes and effects.
It is the personal ideas of a researcher. He writes a story which gives knowledge about the root causes of
problems. It’s also show causal and effect relationship.

Ex-post-Facto Research
In this type of research a researcher study the varying influence of two identical factors. It studies the
influence of cause-effect & effect-cause upon each other. Two variables are used in this research. One is
called independent while other is called dependent variable. If we want to see the impact of Arabic &
English education in the future, a careful study of past events is required because it depends on past
knowledge. In simple words in this research the investigator bring over the past study, identifies the
present and make planning for future.

Experimental Research
Experimental research is based on experiments. It this type of research the two variables, i.e.
independent & dependent are taken and their critical examination is carried out. These are observed,
tested and verified in case of validity. Experimental research may be conduct in laboratory or field.

8604 Assignment Autumn 2017

Field Study
Field study is the practical work in a given area. A research gees to the field and observes the
problematic situation and then makes a design of its collected data. This type of data would be more
accurate due to the self-observation of the researcher and its participation in community.
Pure research
a. Also called as the fundamental or the theoretical research.
b. Is basic and original.
c. Can lead to the discovery of a new theory.
d. Can result in the development or refinement of a theory that already exists.
e. Helps in getting knowledge without thinking formally of implementing it in practice based on the
honesty, love and integrity of the researcher for discovering the truth.

Applied research
a. Based on the concept of the pure research.
b. Is problem oriented.
c. Helps in finding results or solutions for real life problems.
d. Provides evidence of usefulness to society.
e. Helps in testing empirical content of a theory.
f. Utilizes and helps in developing the techniques that can be used for basic research.
g. Helps in testing the validity of a theory but under some conditions.
h. Provides data that can lead to the acceleration of the process of generalization.

Exploratory research
a. Involves exploring a general aspect.
b. Includes studying of a problem, about which nothing or a very little is known.
c. Follows a very formal approach of research.
d. Helps in exploring new ideas.
e. Helps in gathering information to study a specific problem very minutely.
f. Helps in knowing the feasibility in attempting a study.

Descriptive research
a. simplest form of research.
b. More specific in nature and working than exploratory research.
c. It involves a mutual effort.
d. Helps in identifying various features of a problem.
e. Restricted to the problems that are describable and not arguable and the problems in which valid
standards can be developed for standards.
f. Existing theories can be easily put under test by empirical observations.
g. Underlines factors that may lead to experimental research.
h. It consumes a lot of time.
i. It is not directed by hypothesis.

Diagnostic study
a. Quite similar to the descriptive research.
b. Identifies the causes of the problems and then solutions for these problems.

8604 Assignment Autumn 2017

c. Related to causal relations.

d. It is directed by hypothesis.
e. Can be done only where knowledge is advanced.

Evaluation study
a. Form of applied research.
b. Studies the development project.
c. Gives access to social or economical programmes.
d. Studies the quality and also the quantity of an activity.

Action research
a. Type of evaluation study.
b. Is a concurrent evaluation study.

Q No. 4 Define historical research. Elaborate concept of criticism with examples.

Historical research
Research is the formal, systematic application of scientific method to the study of problems’ (Gay, Mills
& Airasian; 2009).

Types of research
1. Historical research
2. Qualitative research
3. Descriptive research
4. Co-relational research
5. Causal-comparative research
6. Experimental research

Historical Research
Wiersma(1986) defines historical research in this way, it is a process of critical inquiry into past events,
in order to produce an accurate description and interpretation of those events.

The Steps of historical research

1. Identification of the research problem(including formulation of hypothesis/questions
2. Systematic collection & evaluation of data
3. Synthesis of information(including confirmation/disconfirmation of hypothesis)
4. Interpreting and drawing conclusions

Definition of a problem
Historical research problems are identified in the same way as problems of other types of research. It is
much better to study in-depth a well-defined problem with one or more specific well stated questions or
hypotheses, then to investigate either too broadly stated problems or a problem for which insufficient
data are available(Gay,1997).

Systematic collection & evaluation of data

The sources of historical information are commonly classified as primary or secondary. ‘Primary sources
are firsthand access of the events or experience under study; secondary sources are accounts at least
one level removed from the event or experience’(Wiersma, 1996).

8604 Assignment Autumn 2017

Collection and evaluation of source material

According to Wiersma(1986) a basic rule of historical research is to use primary sources whenever it is
possible to locate them. Historical evidence is derived from historical data by the process of criticism,
which is of two types; external and internal.

External Criticism
External Criticism in historical research evaluates the validity of the document-this is, where, when and
by whom it was produced’ (Wiersma, 1986, p.223).

Internal criticism
Internal Criticism evaluates the meaning, accuracy and trustworthiness of the content of the document’
(Wiersoma, 1886, p.224).

Synthesis of information
Wiersma (1986), states that central ideas or concepts must be pulled together and continuity between
them is developed. As substantial period of time-say, several years-is covered by the research study, the
ideas can often be organized chronologically.

Interpretation and formulating conclusions

The final step of historical research methodology is characterized by decision making about the
research problem. At the final step conclusions are formulated, and any hypothesis introduced earlier is
either supported or rejected.

Advantages of Historical research:

1. Many current educational practices, theories and issues can be better understood in the light of
past experiences.
2. Researchers can apply scientific objectivity in attempting to determine exactly what did happen
in the past.
3. If well-done, this research involves systematic, objective data collection and analysis.

Disadvantages of Historical research:

1. In conducting historical research, the researcher canneither manipulate nor control any of the
2. There is no way, historical researcher can affect events of the past.
3. Historical research can’t collect data by administering instruments.
4. Historical research is limited to whatever data are available.
5. Historical research excessively relies on secondary source of data.

Some examples of problems in historical research

 Essays written by elementary school children during the Civil War
 Attendee record from two different school districts over a 40-years period
 High school graduation diplomas from the 1920s

1. Historical research is necessary to define the situations of the past and its meaning in the light of
the present problem.
2. It can provide a perspective for decision making about educational problems, and it assists in
understanding why things are as they are.

8604 Assignment Autumn 2017

3. Educational reform and even social reform are functions often served by historical research.
4. Issues are often better understood and probably better dealt with-if the historical perspective is

Q. No.5 Define descriptive research, what are its major forms? Strengthen your answer with the
example of survey studies, and interrelationship studies.

What is Descriptive Research?

Descriptive research is conclusive in nature, as opposed to exploratory. This means that descriptive
research gathers quantifiable information that can be used for statistical inference on your target
audience through data analysis. As a consequence this type of research takes the form of closed-ended
questions, which limits its ability to provide unique insights. However, used properly it can help an
organization better define and measure the significance of something about a group of respondents and
the population they represent.
When it comes to online surveying, descriptive is by far the most commonly used form of research. Most
often, organizations will use it as a method to reveal and measure the strength of a target group’s
opinion, attitude, or behavior with regards to a given subject. But another common use of descriptive
research would be the surveying of demographical traits in a certain group (age, income, marital status,
gender, etc.). This information could then be studied at face value, measuring trends over time, or for
more advanced data analysis like drawing correlations, segmentation, benchmarking and other
statistical techniques.

There are three main types of descriptive methods:

Observational methods, case-study methods and survey methods. This article will briefly describe each
of these methods, their advantages, and their drawbacks. This may help you better understand research
findings, whether reported in the mainstream media, or when reading a research study on your own.

Observational Method
With the observational method (sometimes referred to as field observation) animal and human behavior
is closely observed. There are two main categories of the observational method — naturalistic
observation and laboratory observation.
The biggest advantage of the naturalistic method of research is that researchers view participants in
their natural environments. This leads to greater ecological validity than laboratory observation,
proponents say.
Ecological validity refers to the extent to which research can be used in real-life situations.
Proponents of laboratory observation often suggest that due to more control in the laboratory, the
results found when using laboratory observation are more meaningful than those obtained with
naturalistic observation.
Laboratory observations are usually less time-consuming and cheaper than naturalistic observations. Of
course, both naturalistic and laboratory observation are important in regard to the advancement of
scientific knowledge.

Case Study Method

Case study research involves an in-depth study of an individual or group of individuals. Case studies
often lead to testable hypotheses and allow us to study rare phenomena. Case studies should not be
used to determine cause and effect, and they have limited use for making accurate predictions.
There are two serious problems with case studies — expectancy effects and atypical individuals.
Expectancy effects include the experimenter’s underlying biases that might affect the actions taken

8604 Assignment Autumn 2017

while conducting research. These biases can lead to misrepresenting participants’

descriptions. Describing atypical individuals may lead to poor generalizations and detract from external

Survey Method
In survey method research, participants answer questions administered through interviews or
questionnaires. After participants answer the questions, researchers describe the responses given. In
order for the survey to be both reliable and valid it is important that the questions are constructed
properly. Questions should be written so they are clear and easy to comprehend.
Another consideration when designing questions is whether to include open-ended, closed-ended,
partially open-ended, or rating-scale questions (for a detailed discussion refers to Jackson,
2009). Advantages and disadvantages can be found with each type:
Open-ended questions allow for a greater variety of responses from participants but are difficult to
analyze statistically because the data must be coded or reduced in some manner. Closed-ended
questions are easy to analyze statistically, but they seriously limit the responses that participants can
give. Many researchers prefer to use a Likert-type scale because it’s very easy to analyze statistically.
(Jackson, 2009, p. 89)
In addition to the methods listed above some individuals also include qualitative (as a distinct
method) and archival methods when discussing descriptive research methods.
It is important to emphasize that descriptive research methods can only describe a set of observations or
the data collected. It cannot draw conclusions from that data about which way the relationship goes —
Does A cause B, or does B cause A?
Unfortunately, in many studies published today, researchers forget this fundamental limitation of their
research and suggest their data can actually demonstrate or “suggest” causal relationships. Nothing
could be further from the truth.

Survey research
Survey research is sometimes regarded as an easy research approach. However, as with any other
research approach and method, it is easy to conduct a survey of poor quality rather than one of high
quality and real value. This paper provides a checklist of good practice in the conduct and reporting of
survey research. Its purpose is to assist the novice researcher to produce survey work to a high
standard, meaning a standard at which the results will be regarded as credible. The paper first provides
an overview of the approach and then guides the reader step-by-step through the processes of data
collection, data analysis, and reporting. It is not intended to provide a manual of how to conduct a
survey, but rather to identify common pitfalls and oversights to be avoided by researchers if their work
is to be valid and credible.

What is survey research?

Survey research is common in studies of health and health services, although its roots lie in the social
surveys conducted in Victorian Britain by social reformers to collect information on poverty and working
class life (e.g. Charles Booth and Joseph Rowntree ), and indeed survey research remains most used in
applied social research. The term ‘survey’ is used in a variety of ways, but generally refers to the
selection of a relatively large sample of people from a pre-determined population (the ‘population of
interest’; this is the wider group of people in whom the researcher is interested in a particular study),
followed by the collection of a relatively small amount of data from those individuals. The researcher
therefore uses information from a sample of individuals to make some inference about the wider

8604 Assignment Autumn 2017

Data are collected in a standardized form. This is usually, but not necessarily, done by means of a
questionnaire or interview. Surveys are designed to provide a ‘snapshot of how things are at a specific
time. There is no attempt to control conditions or manipulate variables; surveys do not allocate
participants into groups or vary the treatment they receive. Surveys are well suited to descriptive
studies, but can also be used to explore aspects of a situation, or to seek explanation and provide data
for testing hypotheses. It is important to recognize that ‘the survey approach is a research strategy, not
a research method. As with any research approach, a choice of methods is available and the one most
appropriate to the individual project should be used. This paper will discuss the most popular methods
employed in survey research, with an emphasis upon difficulties commonly encountered when using
these methods.

Descriptive research
Descriptive research is a most basic type of enquiry that aims to observe (gather information on) certain
phenomena, typically at a single point in time: the ‘cross-sectional’ survey. The aim is to examine a
situation by describing important factors associated with that situation, such as demographic, socio-
economic, and health characteristics, events, behaviors, attitudes, experiences, and knowledge.
Descriptive studies are used to estimate specific parameters in a population (e.g. the prevalence of
infant breast feeding) and to describe associations (e.g. the association between infant breast feeding
and maternal age).

Analytical studies
Analytical studies go beyond simple description; their intention is to illuminate a specific problem
through focused data analysis, typically by looking at the effect of one set of variables upon another set.
These are longitudinal studies, in which data are collected at more than one point in time with the aim
of illuminating the direction of observed associations. Data may be collected from the same sample on
each occasion (cohort or panel studies) or from a different sample at each point in time (trend studies).

Evaluation research
This form of research collects data to ascertain the effects of a planned change.
Advantages and disadvantages of survey research
1. The research produces data based on real-world observations (empirical data).
2. The breadth of coverage of many people or events means that it is more likely than some other
approaches to obtain data based on a representative sample, and can therefore be
generalizablel to a population.
3. Surveys can produce a large amount of data in a short time for a fairly low cost. Researchers can
therefore set a finite time-span for a project, which can assist in planning and delivering end
1. The significance of the data can become neglected if the researcher focuses too much on the
range of coverage to the exclusion of an adequate account of the implications of those data for
relevant issues, problems, or theories.
2. The data that are produced are likely to lack details or depth on the topic being investigated.
3. Securing a high response rate to a survey can be hard to control, particularly when it is carried
out by post, but is also difficult when the survey is carried out face-to-face or over the

8604 Assignment Autumn 2017

Essential steps in survey research

Research question
Good research has the characteristic that its purpose is to address a single clear and explicit research
question; conversely, the end product of a study that aims to answer a number of diverse questions is
often weak. Weakest of all, however, are those studies that have no research question at all and whose
design simply is to collect a wide range of data and then to ‘trawl’ the data looking for ‘interesting’ or
‘significant’ associations. This is a trap novice researchers in particular fall into. Therefore, in developing
a research question, the following aspects should be considered:
1. Be knowledgeable about the area you wish to research.
2. Widen the base of your experience, explore related areas, and talk to other researchers and
practitioners in the field you are surveying.
3. Consider using techniques for enhancing creativity, for example brainstorming ideas.
4. Avoid the pitfalls of: allowing a decision regarding methods to decide the questions to be asked;
posing research questions that cannot be answered; asking questions that have already been
answered satisfactorily.

Research methods
The survey approach can employ a range of methods to answer the research question. Common survey
methods include postal questionnaires, face-to-face interviews, and telephone interviews.
Postal questionnaires
This method involves sending questionnaires to a large sample of people covering a wide geographical
area. Postal questionnaires are usually received ‘cold’, without any previous contact between researcher
and respondent. The response rate for this type of method is usually low, ∼20%, depending on the
content and length of the questionnaire. As response rates are low, a large sample is required when
using postal questionnaires, for two main reasons: first, to ensure that the demographic profile of
survey respondents reflects that of the survey population; and secondly, to provide a sufficiently large
data set for analysis.
Face-to-face interviews
Face-to-face interviews involve the researcher approaching respondents personally, either in the street
or by calling at people’s homes. The researcher then asks the respondent a series of questions and notes
their responses. The response rate is often higher than that of postal questionnaires as the researcher
has the opportunity to sell the research to a potential respondent. Face-to-face interviewing is a more
costly and time-consuming method than the postal survey, however the researcher can select the
sample of respondents in order to balance the demographic profile of the sample.
Telephone interviews
Telephone surveys, like face-to-face interviews, allow a two-way interaction between researcher and
respondent. Telephone surveys are quicker and cheaper than face-to-face interviewing. Whilst resulting
in a higher response rate than postal surveys, telephone surveys often attract a higher level of refusals
than face-to-face interviews as people feel less inhibited about refusing to take part when approached
over the telephone.