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Rivets Bolts

Steel shapes can be joined into a Bolts used in steel frame construction
building frame with any of three fastening may be either high-strength bolts
techniquesÑrivets, bolts, or (ASTM A325 and A490), which are
weldsÑand by combinations of these. heat treated during manufacturing
A rivet is a steel fastener consisting to develop their greater strength, or
of a cylindrical body and a formed lower-strength carbon steel bolts (ASTM
head. It is brought to a white heat A307). In contemporary steel frame
in a forge, inserted through holes in construction, bolted structural connections
the members to be joined, and hotworked rely almost exclusively on
with a pneumatic hammer to high-strength bolts. Carbon steel
produce a second head opposite the bolts (also called ÒunÞ nishedÓ or
Þ rst (Figure 11.15). As the rivet cools, ÒcommonÓ bolts) Þ nd only limited
it shrinks, clamping the joined pieces use, such as in the fastening of minor
together and forming a tight joint. framing elements or temporary connections.
Riveting was for many decades the predominant fastening
technique The manner in which a bolted
used in steel frame buildings, but it structural steel connection derives its
has been completely replaced in contemporary strength depends on how the bolts
construction by the less are installed. In a bearing-type connection,
labor-intensive techniques of bolting bolts need only be installed to
and welding. a snug-tight condition. In this case,
movement between the joined members
is resisted by the bolts themselves
as the sides of the bolt holes in the
How riveted connections are made. (a) A connected members bear against the
hot steel rivet is inserted through holes
bodies of the bolts. In a slip-critical
in the two members to be joined. (b, c)
(or friction type) connection, bolts are
Its head is placed in the cup-shaped depression
of a heavy, hand-held hammer. preloaded (tightened during installation)
A pneumatic hammer drives a rivet set to such an extent that friction
repeatedly against the body of the rivet between the adjoining faces of the
to form the second head. (d) The rivet steel members (the faying surfaces)
shrinks as it cools, drawing the members resists movement between the members.
tightly together. Under normal load conditions,
bolts in bearing-type connections
are stressed primarily in shear, while
those in slip-critical connections are
stressed in tension.