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of the South African Institution of Civil Engineering  Volume 59  Number 4  December 2017

of the South African Institution of Civil Engineering


Volume 59 No 4  December 2017  ISSN 1021-2019

Publisher
South African Institution of Civil Engineering
Block 19, Thornhill Office Park,
Bekker Street, Vorna Valley, Midrand, South Africa
Private Bag X200, Halfway House, 1685, South Africa
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Contents
Editor-in-chief
Prof Gerhard Heymann
University of Pretoria
Tel +27 (0)12 420 3627
gerhard.heymann@up.ac.za
joint Editor-in-chief
Prof Chris Clayton
University of Southampton
2 Review of climatic input data for wind load
c.clayton@soton.ac.uk design in accordance with SANS 10160-3
MANAGING Editor
Verelene de Koker A M Goliger, J V Retief, A C Kruger DOI: 10.17159/2309-8775/2017/v59n4a1
Tel +27 (0)11 805 5947, Cell +27 (0)83 378 3996
verelene@saice.org.za
12 Development of an updated fundamental
journal editorial Panel
Prof G Heymann – University of Pretoria basic wind speed map for SANS 10160-3
Prof CRI Clayton – University of Southampton
Prof Y Ballim – University of the Witwatersrand A C Kruger, J V Retief, A M Goliger DOI: 10.17159/2309-8775/2017/v59n4a2
Prof W Burdzik – University of Pretoria
Dr P Day – Jones & Wagener (Pty) Ltd
Prof J du Plessis – University of Stellenbosch 26 The effect of embedment on a foundation
Prof GC Fanourakis – University of Johannesburg
Prof M Gohnert – University of the Witwatersrand
subjected to vertical vibration – a field study
Prof PJ Gräbe – University of Pretoria
Dr C Herold – Umfula Wempilo Consulting S J Mbawala, G Heymann, C P Roth, P S Heyns DOI: 10.17159/2309-8775/2017/v59n4a3
Prof A Ilemobade – University of the Witwatersrand
Prof SW Jacobsz – University of Pretoria
Prof EP Kearsley – University of Pretoria
34 Traffic characteristics and bridge
Prof C Roth – University of Pretoria loading in South Africa
Prof W Steyn – University of Pretoria
Mr M van Dijk – University of Pretoria R Lenner, D P G de Wet, C Viljoen DOI: 10.17159/2309-8775/2017/v59n4a4
Prof JE van Zyl – University of Cape Town
Prof C Venter – University of Pretoria
Prof A Visser – University of Pretoria 47 An investigation into the evidence of seasonal rainfall
Dr E Vorster – Aurecon South Africa (Pty) Ltd
Prof J Wium – University of Stellenbosch pattern shifts in the Western Cape, South Africa
Prof A Zingoni – University of Cape Town
Prof M Zuidgeest – University of Cape Town J A du Plessis, B Schloms DOI: 10.17159/2309-8775/2017/v59n4a5
Peer reviewing
The Journal of the South African Institution of 56 Application of metaheuristic algorithms
Civil Engineering is a peer-reviewed journal
that is distributed internationally to the improvement of the MyCiTi BRT
Design and reproduction
Marketing Support Services, Ashlea Gardens, Pretoria
network in Cape Town
Printing O A Nnene, M H P Zuidgeest, E A Beukes DOI: 10.17159/2309-8775/2017/v59n4a6
Fishwicks, Pretoria
Papers for consideration should be submitted 64 An empirical preliminary prediction of heave
online at: http://journal.saice.org.za
G A Jones DOI: 10.17159/2309-8775/2017/v59n4a7
The South African Institution of Civil Engineering accepts no
responsibility for any statement made or opinion expressed
in this publication. Consequently, nobody connected with
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the publisher and the editors, will be liable for any loss or
damage sustained by any reader as a result of his or her action
upon any statement or opinion published in this journal.
© South African Institution of Civil Engineering

Journal of the South African Institution of Civil Engineering  •  Volume 59  Number 4  December 2017 1
TECHNICAL PAPER Review of climatic input
Journal of the South African
Institution of Civil Engineering data for wind load design in
ISSN 1021-2019
Vol 59 No 4, December 2017, Pages 2–11, Paper 1724 accordance with SANS 10160-3
DR ADAM GOLIGER obtained his MSc degree A M Goliger, J V Retief, A C Kruger
from the Warsaw Technical University, and his
PhD and DEng degrees from Stellenbosch
University, all in Structural Engineering. Until 2016
(for more than 30 years) he was involved in With the publication of Part 3 Wind Actions of the South African Loading Code SANS 10160:2010,
research and consulting work at the CSIR (Council several issues concerning adjustments from the reference standard Eurocode EN 1991-1-4:2004
for Scientific and Industrial Research). This could not be resolved due to lack of sufficient updated background information on South
included wind-tunnel simulation and modelling
African conditions. The need for updating the map for the free field wind speed is related also
techniques, wind damage and environmental studies around buildings. For
several years he served as the South African representative on the International to the improved representation of the mixed and complex strong wind climate of the country.
Association for Wind Engineering (IAWE), and participated in various local and Furthermore, strong wind probability models are used for the reliability assessment and
international committees and research panels. He is the author or co-author of calibration of wind design procedures. Updating of the reliability provisions for the revised wind
more than 100 scientific publications and numerous technical reports. loading process was a further need identified at the time.
Contact details: This paper provides a review of the historical development of the representation of the
Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) free field wind, used as input to design wind loading procedures for South Africa. The review
T: +27 83 660 8205 considers: (i) the historical representations of the geographic distribution of free field wind,
E: adam.goliger@gmail.com
(ii) the climatic influences considered, and (iii) the probabilistic bases for the stipulated wind
speed for the reliability provisions for design wind loads. On this basis, the background and
PROF JOHAN RETIEF, who is a Fellow of the
motivation are provided for updating SANS 10160-3:2010.
South African Institution of Civil Engineering, is
Emeritus Professor in Civil Engineering at
Stellenbosch University. His field of interest is
the development of risk and reliability as the INTRODUCTION nominally adjusted from SABS 0160:1989.
basis of design for structures, with specific
Wind loading plays a key role in the design This was mainly due to the lack of resources
applications to wind loading, structural concrete
and geotechnical practice, amongst related
of all structures, even more so as the leading to resolve the differences in strong wind
topics. He is a member of SABS TC98 Structural and geotechnical design environmental load under the relatively mild climate implemented in Eurocode provisions
standards, and is the national representative to ISO TC98 Bases of design and South African climate conditions, since snow, and South African conditions. In addition
actions on structures, and a member of various Working Groups of these TCs thermal and seismic loading are generally not there was a clear need to update the informa-
(technical committees). He holds degrees from Pretoria University, Imperial
decisive in the design of the built environment. tion on which the strong wind climate was
College, Stanford University and Stellenbosch University.
As a result, upgrading of design provisions for characterised.
Contact details: wind loading was an important consideration The nominal treatment of the wind map
Department of Civil Engineering
for the revision of the previous South African of characteristic free field wind speed (vb,0)
Stellenbosch University
Private Bag X1, Matieland, Stellenbosch 7602, South Africa Loading Code (SA-LC) SABS 0160:1989 The and apparent insufficient provision for the
T: +27 21 808 4442 general procedures and loading to be adopted reliability performance of wind loading, that
E: jvr@sun.ac.za in the design of buildings (Goliger et al 1998, may result from the anomalously low wind
2001; Goliger 1999, 2007, 2016). The outcome load partial factor (γ Q,W), was justified on the
DR ANDRIES KRUGER obtained his MSc degree was a complete revision of SANS 10160:2010 basis that the Eurocode procedures result in
from the University of Cape Town in the Basis of structural design and actions for a significant increase in design wind load in
Geographical and Environmental Sciences, and
buildings and industrial structures Part 3 comparison to previous stipulations provided
his PhD from the University of Stellenbosch in
Civil Engineering, with the research topic Wind Wind actions. (SANS 10160 was reissued in by SABS 0160:1989 (Goliger et al 2009a).
Climatology and Statistics of South Africa relevant to 2011 as Edition 1.1 to include errata, but will Furthermore, no substantial information was
the Design of the Built Environment. Since 1985 he be referred to here as dated by Edition 1). available to justify an increase of the partial
has been involved in the observation, analysis The general suitability of Eurocode EN factor (Retief & Dunaiski 2009).
and research of historical climate at the South African Weather Service. This has
1991-1-4 General actions – Wind actions, as Extensive investigations were therefore
included climate change and variability research, the authoring of general
climate publications, and other climatological studies through consultation. He reference for the new South African stan- launched to update the knowledge base on
is the author or co-author of a substantial number of scientific publications. dard on wind loading (Goliger et al 2009a), the South African strong wind climate, and
formed an important component of the deci- the statistical models used for reliability
Contact details:
Chief Scientist Department of Geography sion to base SANS 10160:2010 on appropriate assessment and calibration of design para­
Climate Data Analysis & Research Geoinformatics and Meteorology Eurocode standards and parts thereof (Retief meters. The outcomes of the investigations
Department: Climate Service University of Pretoria et al 2009). The main considerations and jus- are directed towards the determination of
South African Weather Service Pretoria 0002 tifications for the adaptation of EN 1991-1-4 the geographic representation of charac-
Private Bag X097, Pretoria 0001 South Africa
to the South African wind load standard are teristic values for the free field wind speed
South Africa
T: +27 12 367 6074 presented by Goliger et al (2009b). across the country, as well as re-evaluation
E: andries.kruger@weathersa.co.za Even with the major revision of the and determination of an appropriate partial
standardised procedures for wind loading load factor for wind loading. These two
incorporated in SANS 10160-3:2010, signifi- sets of information constitute the basic
Keywords: wind loading, wind map, South Africa, probabilistic models cant components of the standard were only design parameters influencing the reliability

2
Goliger AM, Retief JV, Kruger AC. Review of climatic input data for wind load design in accordance with SANS 10160-3.
J. S. Afr. Inst. Civ. Eng. 2017:59(4), Art. #1724, 10 pages. http://dx.doi.org/10.17159/2309-8775/2017/v59n4a1
performance of structures designed in accor- 60
dance with SANS 10160-3.
In addition to the need for updating the
representation of the South African strong
wind climate, there is also the requirement
40
of accounting for the differences between
the European and South African climates.
Eurocode procedures are broadly based on
synoptic type wind storms, whilst meso-scale
convective thunderstorms and regions of 20
mixed climate, where both synoptic and

Effect of the error (%)


convective wind storms occur, are widespread
across South Africa (Kruger 2011; Kruger et
al 2010, 2012, 2013a). Such differences have 0
a bearing on the representation of gust wind
loads on structures.
In the reliability assessment of SANS
10160:2010, the probability models used for
–20
SABS 0160:1989 were maintained (Retief &
Dunaiski 2009). However, the probability
models for wind loading deviated substan-
tially from generic models accepted interna-
tionally, including differences for modelling –40
time-invariant wind engineering aspects of
wind loading. Lack of background informa-
tion and resources prevented the resolution
of anomalies in the wind load probability –60
models for SANS 10160-3:2010. –40 –20 0 20 40
This review paper provides the general Error in estimation (%)
framework for background investigations to Loading Wind speed
standardised wind loading design for South
Africa. It includes a review of critical wind Figure 1: Effect of errors in estimation of wind speed and loading parameters
engineering concepts and issues that have a
bearing on the design process. The history of p = 0.5 ∙ ρ ∙ v 2(1) Wind loads, pressures and speed
the development of mapping the characteristic As mentioned above, wind loading of struc-
free field wind speed for South Africa is where ρ is the density of the flow medium tures and their elements results from inte-
assessed, which leads up to the latest, exten- (i.e. air). grated effects of resultant pressures (pr) pro-
sively updated, maps for the characteristic gust duced by a combined effect of internal (pi)
and hourly mean wind speed. Consequently, This underlines the overriding importance of and external (pe) pressures pr = ∑(pr + pe)
the need to convert the gust wind map into a reliable estimation of the magnitude of wind acting over all surfaces. These pressures are
a suitable format that can be used in the speed applicable to the specific design situa- generated by the movement of air over and
operational design is justified. An outline is tion, which in turn is primarily determined across the structures, as affected by their
also provided of the interrelationship between by the basic regional wind speed, relevant to geometrical shape (including bulk and aspect
the fundamental strong wind climate investiga- the geographical area of concern. It has been ratio), presence of dominant openings, and
tions, characteristic wind speed, reliability widely accepted that the prediction of regional the overall aerodynamic solidity (i.e. amount
models for the wind speed and reliability-based wind speed forms the single greatest source of of porosities).
design measures. This provides the basis for error in the design process, and therefore the
reassessment of the reliability provisions for use of the most appropriate and statistically Estimation errors
SANS 10160-3 based on probability models for sound wind statistics is of utmost importance Equation 1 is, in principle, applicable to the
strong winds provided by Kruger et al (2013a), to the design (Holmes 2001). laminar flow only (under an assumption of
as proposed by Retief et al (2013). All national wind loading standards across no vorticity and acceleration) and strictly
the world contain information on the respec- speaking is rarely appropriate to built envi-
tive basic design wind speed. These reflect the ronment conditions. Nevertheless, it indi-
BASIC CONCEPTS macro-scale climate, exposure and topographi- cates the quadratic relationship between the
cal variability between regions, and are usually wind speed and pressure and, therefore, the
Regional wind speed based on statistical analyses of the wind data critical importance of a reliable estimation
Wind loading of structures and their elements captured by the respective national weather of the magnitude of wind speed applicable to
are generated by a combined effect of the service authorities. Often differences between the specific design situation.
internal and external pressures. However, con- neighbouring regions or countries can be This principle is demonstrated sche-
sidered most critically, in terms of Bernoulli’s observed – an issue that became evident during matically in Figure 1, which depicts the
equation (see Equation 1), the magnitude of the process of integrating the national maps of implications of errors introduced by
pressure ( p) on the structure is proportional the European Union (EU) member countries under- and overestimation of loading para­
to the square of the wind speed (v). into a unified EU wind map (Hansen 2013). meters vs errors in wind speed magnitude.

Journal of the South African Institution of Civil Engineering  •  Volume 59  Number 4  December 2017 3
Zero percent reflects the actual, i.e. most Table 1: Wind velocities to be used in design (SABS 024:1952)
appropriate, values. It can be seen that an
Region Terrain type miles/hour km/hour m/s
overestimation of 30% in the magnitude of
loading parameters implies a similar increase Coastal
open country 80 129 36
in the loading effect. However, such an (10 miles inland)
built-up 70 113 31
erroneous increase in wind speed magnitude
implies about 70% increase in the loading open country 70 113 31
Inland
effect! Unfortunately, differences and incon-
built-up 60 97 27
sistencies in the order of 20% to 30% are not
uncommon in measurements and estima-
tions of the free field wind speed in full-scale
conditions (mainly due to an insufficient Highest mean hourly wind speed at 10 metres likely to be exceeded once in 50 years
geographical coverage of full-scale observa-
tion recorders and the lack of representivity 19∙4
of their measurements of the prevailing wind
Johannesburg
climate due to improper siting).

Peak gust and hourly mean Kimberley


wind speeds 22∙7
19.7 24∙7
In the design process, as reflected in all Bloemfontein
international loading manuals and standards, Durban
the magnitude of wind speed affecting a
specific structure or design situation is
determined by several factors, including 23∙8
e.g. topography, terrain roughness and
20∙1 21∙5 East London
elevation above the ground level, as well as
the surrounding environment. However, Cape Town Port Elizabeth
the primary influence relates to the general
wind climate characteristics of the geo- Wind speed in metres/second
graphical area of concern, which is typically
represented by the maps of the basic design Figure 2: E xtrapolated 50-year return period mean hourly wind speeds at 10 m elevation
wind speed. (May 1972)
Historically, most of the wind loading
design procedures followed the static load
application approach, with wind maps
Windhoek
defined in terms of the 3-sec, 50-year return
period gust, derived on the basis of extreme
35 Pietersburg
value analyses of the recorded wind data. Tsane
The SABS 0160:1989 version of the wind Mariental
Nelspruit
loading standard also included a map of Pretoria
Marques
hourly mean wind speeds for the application Mafeking
Keetmanshoop Jan Smuts
in dynamic design procedures.
Lüderitz 40 Piet Retief

Reliability-based limit states design Kuruman Kroonstad 35


The use of the partial factor limit states 45
Alexander Bay Upington Kimberley
design approach, as a reliability-based
Bloemfontein Estcourt
semi-probabilistic design approach in SABS
Okiep Prieska Durban
0160:1989 (Kemp et al 1987), was transferred
to SANS 10160:2010 (Retief & Dunaiski Kokstad
40 45 50 55 45
2009). Accordingly, the design wind load (Qd)
is expressed in terms of the partial factor for Calvinia Middelburg
Queenstown
wind loads (γ Q) and the characteristic wind Beaufort West
load (Qk) calculated from the characteristic East London
wind speed (vk), as given by Equation 2: Cape Town Bien Donne George
D F Malan Port Elizabeth
Mossel Bay
Qd = γQ Qk(2)
Figure 3: Isophlets of estimated 50-year return period gusts in m/s
Probability models for annual maximum (Louw & Katsiambirtas, year unknown)
wind speed are needed for the two design
parameters used in Equation 2. The charac- γ Q is calibrated to obtain a design wind the cumulative normal distribution func-
teristic wind speed (vk) to be implemented load at a target exceedance probability, tion. Appropriate extreme value probability
in Equation 1 is typically specified as the conventionally expressed in terms of the models are used to represent the annual
2% fractile (1:50 year return period), and target reliability βT = Φ–1(PF), where Φ is maximum wind speed.

4 Journal of the South African Institution of Civil Engineering  •  Volume 59  Number 4  December 2017
Although the probability modelling of
wind load is dominated by the inherent vari-
ability of the annual maximum wind speed, it
is imperative to also consider the uncertain-
ties of the wind engineering procedures for
converting the free field wind speed to loading
of the structure. The probability model for
wind load therefore consists of a combination
of the time-variant extreme value model for
the basic wind speed and time-invariant mod-
els for the wind speed profile at the site, wind
directionality, pressure and force coefficients,
as stipulated in some of the basic wind engi-
neering procedures.

WIND CLIMATIC DATA –


HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE
This section highlights the background
of wind climate input data, and relevant
statistical analyses, which were reflected
in the previous versions of South African
loading standards.
Figure 4(a): Regional basic design wind speed, based on 50-year return period (SABS 10160:1980)
Early stipulations – SABS 024:1952
The development of the first South African
uniform wind loading design stipulations was
initiated by the South African Branch of the
British Institution of Structural Engineers,
and included in the Comprehensive Model
Building Regulations, Chapter 3, Loads
(SABS 024:1952). This document was devel-
oped with the assistance of and published by
the British Ministry of Works, and coincided
with the publication of the first version of
CP3: Chapter V: Part 2 in the UK (BSI 1952).
(Of interest to mention here – the very first
version of the Wind Loading Code of Practice
in the UK was published in 1944 as CP4.) At
that time (i.e. after World War II) only a few
countries across the world (e.g. Switzerland)
introduced uniform wind loading manuals.
and therefore the determination of the wind
characteristic values were largely left to the
ingenuity and expertise of the engineers who
undertook specific designs.
The design wind velocities, which
appeared in SABS 024:1952, were stipulated
in miles per hour for coastal belt vs inland Figure 4(b): M
 aximum hourly mean wind speed for 50-year return period and Terrain Category 2
and furthermore open country vs built-up (SABS 10160:1980 – Annex D)
areas, as reproduced in Table 1. The values
are referred as the “highest average velocity this situation could, however, be considered two-dimensional design calculation paradigm
for a single hour which includes allowance as broadly acceptable, keeping in mind based on hand calculations was hugely con-
for wind gusts”, which were extracted from the character of developments, design and servative, as it ignored the three-dimensional
a publication of the then South African construction practices which prevailed at the transfer of loads considered in all modern
Weather Bureau (SAWB 1949). time. For example, building structures were structural engineering software.
It is interesting to note that the magnitude typically of lower height (e.g. with fewer floor
of wind speeds included in Table 1 is evidently levels), with minor dynamic sensitivity. Usage Initial statistical analyses
lower than that stipulated in the subsequent of light-weight construction materials and The first statistical analysis of the wind cli-
versions of the Standard. For example, glazing was limited, and no concealed sheet- matic data, which was identified in the process
the wind speed applicable to the design of ing systems existed. Only positively fixed roof of developing the current paper, was done by
buildings in Cape Town was 31 m/s only. sheeting with a minimum gauge of more than May (1972). It included a map of predicted
From a structural reliability point of view, a millimetre was in use. Furthermore, the 50-year return period mean hourly wind speed

Journal of the South African Institution of Civil Engineering  •  Volume 59  Number 4  December 2017 5
at specific geographic locations, reproduced
here in Figure 2. The map was derived from an Windhoek
extreme value analysis of the data captured by
seven wind speed recorders located at major Tsane Pietersburg
population centres. The length of the records
Mariental Nelspruit
varied between 14 and 20 years. A comment Pretoria
6 Maputo
was made in the paper that the previous
Mafeking
design values used by engineers at that time Keetmanshoop Jan Smuts
lacked any statistical background and typically Lüderitz Piet Retief
referred to the highest value of wind speed 20
Kuruman Kroonstad
recorded by the closest anemometer. Upington 25
Values of between 20 m/s and 25 m/s were Alexander Bay 25 Kimberley
predicted for the 1:50 year hourly mean wind Bloemfontein Estcourt
speed. Obvious anomalies to more recent Okiep Prieska
Durban
estimations are that the highest value of 30 25
Kokstad
24.7 m/s was estimated for Durban, 22.7 m/s for 20
Middelburg
Bloemfontein and only 20.1 m/s for Cape Town. Calvinia
In the late 1970s a subsequent statistical Beaufort West Queenstown
20
analysis of South African wind data was
East London
undertaken by Louw and Katsiambirtas (year 25
Cape Town 25 George
unknown). For this analysis, data from 16 Bien Donne Port Elizabeth
D F Malan 25
weather stations, with recording periods of Mossel Bay
between 15 and 20 years, was utilised. The
resultant isophlets of estimated 50-year Figure 5: I sophlets of estimated mean hourly wind speed in m/s in open country terrain and
return period gusts are presented in Figure 3. 100‑year return period (TMH7 1981)
It can be seen that for most of the country
wind speed greater than 45 m/s was esti-
Zimbabwe
mated, and for the area stretching between
Prieska and Beaufort-West the estimation
was as much as 55 m/s. The magnitude of Botswana
Northern Province Mozambique

wind speeds is considerably higher than pro- Pietersburg

vided by previous and subsequent maps. The 40


GP Mpumalanga
map nevertheless provides a clear geographic Namibia
Pretoria
North West Province
pattern of wind speed varying between Johannesburg Swazi-
land
35 m/s and 55 m/s.
40
Free State KZN
SABS 0160:1980 Upington Kimberley
Alexander Bay
Between the 1950s and early 1970s the Bloemfontein
Lesotho
British loading code CP3: Chapter V, Part 2: Northern Cape Durban

Wind loads underwent several revisions, but


45
largely retained its content and structure. Eastern Cape
This standard formed the basis for the GP = Gauteng Province 50
Beaufort West
m/s
KZN = KwaZulu-Natal East London
development of the SABS 0160:1980 version, 40
40
which included a map of the basic design Western Cape George
45
Cape Town Port Elizabeth
50
wind speed in terms of maximum gust
speeds (in m/s), as presented in Figure 4(a).
This map was developed on the basis of Figure 6(a): Regional basic wind speed in m/s, isophlets of 3-sec gust, estimated to be exceeded
the statistical analysis of SAWB data. The on average once in 50 years (SABS 0160:1989)
shape of the isopleths resembles that shown
in Figure 3, but with different values. It TMH7 – 1981 the 1980 version of SABS 0160. A 1989 ver-
can be seen that for most of the country a In 1981 the TMH7 Code of practice for the sion was developed, which included maps of:
wind speed of 40 m/s was stipulated, and design of highway bridges and culverts in ■■ isophlets of the Regional Basic 3 s gust
between 45 and 50 m/s for the regions South Africa was developed by the Council wind speed (at 10 m elevation, terrain
extending between Upington – Bloemfontein for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) category 2, to be exceeded once in 50
– Beaufort-West. The coastal areas are not at the request of the Committee for State years), and
clearly indicated, but it can be assumed that Road Authorities. This code incorporated ■■ the maximum hourly wind speed in m/s
a wind speed of 40 m/s is applicable. a map of isophlets of estimated 1:100 year for a 50-year return period.
The code also included a map of the max- hourly wind speed, as presented in Figure 5 These maps, presented in Figures 6(a) and
imum hourly wind speed for a 50-year return (the source of this map is unknown). 6(b) respectively, were developed on the basis
period, as presented in Figure 4(b). For most of an extensive statistical analysis carried out
of the country a wind speed of 22 m/s is SABS 0160:1989 by Milford (1986a, 1986b, 1987), based on
stipulated, and 24 m/s for the entire coastal In the mid-1980s a South African Loading the data of 15 South African Weather Bureau
region (up to about 80–100 km inland). Code Committee was established to update (SAWB) weather stations, with observation

6 Journal of the South African Institution of Civil Engineering  •  Volume 59  Number 4  December 2017
Zimbabwe
length varying between about 15 and 40
years. These maps provide a marked simplifi-
cation of the basic wind speed, retaining only
Botswana
Northern Province Mozambique the prominent high wind speed region in the
Pietersburg central Karoo. No differentiation between
20
coastal to inland, winter to summer rainfall,
Namibia GP Mpumalanga or subtropical to semi-arid conditions are
North West Province Pretoria
Swazi-
reflected within what can be regarded as an
Johannesburg
land
envelope wind speed of 40 m/s.
20
Upington Kimberley
Free State KZN
25 Spatial coverage
Alexander Bay Of particular concern is that all wind design
Bloemfontein
Northern Cape
Lesotho
Durban maps presented in Figures 2 to 6 were based
on statistical analyses of data captured by a
20 very limited number (less than 20) of SAWB
Eastern Cape
anemometers. By comparison, similar maps
GP = Gauteng Province 30Beaufort West m/s
were developed for the Netherlands and
KZN = KwaZulu-Natal East London 20
25 25
the UK using the data from more than 50
Western Cape George
Cape Town Port Elizabeth recording stations (Wieringa & Rijkoort
30
1983; BRE 1989). A graphic comparison of
the areas of three countries and the number
Figure 6(b): Maximum hourly mean wind speeds for 50-year return period and Terrain Category 2 of recording stations are given in Figures 7(a)
(SABS 0160:1989 – Annex D) and 7(b). Integration of both distributions
indicates a significant disparity between the
spatial coverage of these countries.
1 500
This issue becomes even more relevant
when one considers the climatic diversity
of South Africa compared to the above
countries. The climates of the UK and
Netherlands are fairly uniform, and the
1 000
Area (× 1 000 km 2)

strong wind events are generated almost


exclusively by synoptic-scale frontal sys-
tems. The climate in South Africa is much
more complex and ranges from subtropical
500 (Kwazulu-Natal) and mediterranean (south-
western Cape) zones, to desert (Kalahari
in the Northern Cape). The distribution of
the diverse climatic zones in South Africa is
presented in Figure 8 (Kruger 2004).
0
The Netherlands United Kingdom South Africa SANS 10160-3:2010
(a) Country Considerations for using Eurocode EN 1991-
1-4:2005 as reference for SANS 10160-3:2010
60 are reviewed by Goliger et al (2009a; 2009b).
The Eurocode developers were facing a dif-
ficult task to provide a common framework
Number of wind recording stations

for integrating a variety of national design


standards of member countries, which
40 included a large diversity of stipulations.
It became a challenge to strike a balance
between uniformity and consistency of
the Eurocode and, on the other hand, to
accommodate national specifics, expertise
20
and engineering tradition. In order to cope
with this situation, some of the principal
stipulations were allocated the status of
being non-negotiable, while nationally deter-
0
mined parameters were left to be decided at
The Netherlands United Kingdom South Africa a national level by member countries, and
(b) Country incorporated into the respective national
amendments or annexes.
Figure 7: A
 comparison of: (a) areas and (b) number of recording stations between The Netherlands, The stipulation regarding the fundamen-
United Kingdom and South Africa tal value of the basic wind speed, in terms of

Journal of the South African Institution of Civil Engineering  •  Volume 59  Number 4  December 2017 7
10-min mean (measured at 10 metres eleva-
Musina
tion in open country terrain) was assigned a
1
status of a non-negotiable clause. The selec-
tion of the averaging period was for the sake Tzaneen
Pietersburg
of compatibility with the design procedures
2 3
that account for dynamic structural response Skukuza

in the Eurocode. This approach appears to be Pretoria 5


Belfast
a reasonable compromise for the temperate
European climate with synoptic wind storms
8 14
caused by prevailing westerly wind systems, Kuruman 11
within which each country could provide for 9 10
Bethlehem
7
21 Upington 6
specific conditions. Vioolsdrif Kimberley Ladysmith
Bloemfontein 15
The South African code committee Port Nolloth Springbok Mokhotlong
Durban
decided to adopt the 10-min mean principle 16 12
19
for alignment purposes, although the pro- 17
Carnarvon
Umtata
posed SANS 10160-3 did not include any Middelburg
20
dynamic procedures. An adherence to this 13
Queenstown
stipulation created a substantial challenge East London
Oudtshoorn
in view of the diversity of the South African Cape Town
22 18 23
Riversdal
wind climate. A reanalysis of the full-scale George
24
data was not a feasible option, due to the
inherent difficulty of adequate representa- (1) Northern Arid Bushveld (9) Kalahari Hardveld Bushveld (16) Great and Upper Karoo
tion of wind speeds generated by localised (2) Central Bushveld (10) Dry Highveld Grassland (17) Eastern Karoo
(3) Lowveld Bushveld (11) Moist Highveld Grassland (18) Little Karoo
short-duration thunderstorms. The revised (4) South-Eastern Thornveld (12) Eastern Grassland (19) Western Karoo
map of the fundamental value of the basic (5) Lowveld Mountain Bushveld (13) South-Eastern Coast (20) West Coast
(6) Eastern Coastal Bushveld Grassland (21) North-Western Desert
wind speed expressed as the 10-min mean is (7) KwaZulu-Natal Central (14) Eastern Mountain (22) Southern Cape Forest
presented in Figure 9. Bushveld Grassland (23) South-Western Cape
This map was developed on the basis of (8) Kalahari Bushveld (15) Alpine Heathland (24) Southern Cape

the map included in the SABS 0160:1989


version of the code, and intuitively modi- Figure 8: Climatic regions of South Africa (Kruger 2004)
fied in consultation with the South African
Weather Service (SAWS), by taking into
account the topographical characteristics
of the southern and southwestern Karoo,
the directional prevalence of winter storms
and the distribution of the climatic regions
in South Africa (Kruger 2004). The South
African climate (i.e. also the wind climate)
is complex, in particular with regard to the
dominance of frontal winds in coastal areas
and intense thunderstorms in the interior.
These two types of strong wind events can-
not be fairly represented by a single value
of mean wind speed in terms of 10-min
averaging time. In order to overcome this
problem an actual magnitude of wind speed
of 28 m/s was obtained for coastal areas,
based on a conversion factor between hourly
and 10-min mean wind speeds (Goliger et al
2009b). Such a conversion is not applicable to
inland regions of the country dominated by
convective activities and, therefore, an effec-
tive speed of 28 m/s was adopted. A conver-
sion factor of 1.4 was then introduced in the
design procedure to bring the magnitude of
the wind gust speed close to 40 m/s.

Updated map based on strong


wind climate Figure 9: Map of fundamental value of the basic wind speed, vb,0 (SANS 10160-3:2010)
With the introduction of automatic weather
station technology to the SAWS observa- stations increased dramatically. As an climatological analyses, it became impera-
tion network in the 1990s, the number of appreciable number of the resultant data tive that updated design wind statistics be
continuously recording wind measurement sets became sufficiently long for meaningful developed. The development process (which

8 Journal of the South African Institution of Civil Engineering  •  Volume 59  Number 4  December 2017
The direct expression of vb,0 as gust wind
speed fully accounts for the mixed South
African strong wind climate consisting of
both synoptic and convective wind storms.
The adjusted Eurocode procedure based on
a 10-min mean wind speed and a gust factor
can then be replaced by the direct calcula-
tion using the mapped gust wind speed. This
procedure will be consistent with the scope
of static equivalent wind loading provided for
in SANS 10160-3.
For various reasons the map of vb,0
shown in Figure 10 is not appropriate to be
implemented directly in the design proce-
dures – as the map incorporates a degree
of interpretation and smoothing of the
underlying information on which it is based,
it should be considered to be indicative at
best. Furthermore, the geographical repre-
sentation of vb,0 should be presented in an
unambiguous format for operational design.
The conversion of the information provided
by Figure 10 into standardised values of vb,0
Figure 10: 1:50 year gust speed developed from measured data (Kruger et al 2013b) is provided by Kruger et al (2017).

included updated data analysis methods, 1:50 year or characteristic values; and the
the consideration of the mixed strong wind reliability-based partial wind load factor. The RELIABILITY BASIS FOR WIND LOAD
climate of South Africa, and attention to main advances represented by the procedures The representation of characteristic wind
the measurement environments), as well and maps reviewed above are as follows: as speed as the fundamental value of the basic
as its results, are discussed by Kruger et al early as 1952 wind load design provided for wind speed vb,0 for structural design should
(2013a & b). wind speed based on observation of hourly be seen in the context of the reliability basis
Figure 10 presents the 1:50 year gust mean wind, converted to gust speed; differen- for wind load, as derived from the prob-
map which resulted from this process. The tiating furthermore between inland regions ability model for the annual maximum wind
number of weather stations which could be and a 16 km wide coastal strip. speed (V). The characteristic wind speed (vk)
analysed increased about five-fold, reflected The statistical analysis employed by provides the input to determine the charac-
by the increased complexity of the map May (1972) to derive 1:50 year for the major teristic wind load QW,k.
compared to earlier versions of gust maps centres of the country was followed by an The selection of appropriate extreme
presented in Figures 2, 3, 4(a) and 6(a). elaboration of the geographic distribution of value probability functions for V is exten-
Whereas previously the major part of the wind speed by Louw and Katsiambirtas (year sively discussed by Kruger et al (2013a).
country was assigned a single design gust unknown). A similar but simplified map However, the Gumbel distribution provides
speed of 40 m/s, Figure 10 indicates that the was used for the 1980 design standard, with a convenient approximation to represent the
design speed varies in a spatially complex a separate map for the hourly mean wind annual maximum wind speed V, as given by
manner from about 25 m/s to above 45 m/s. speed. Extensive wind speed probability Equation 3 in terms of y = (v – βV)/αV where
Prominent features of this map range from modelling was used by Milford (1987) for the αV is the dispersion parameter and βV the
the complex nature of the pattern around the dual assessment of the regional basic wind mode of the distribution (Holický 2009):
southwestern extreme, two regions for wind speed and wind load partial factor (Kemp et
y
speed above 40 m/s extending along a south- al 1987). Refined mapping of the 1:50 year F(y) = e–e (3)
west to northeast axis in both cases, and gust wind speed and associated probability
relatively lower wind speeds for the northern models for wind speed across the country Furthermore, the distribution parameters
parts of the country. was reported by Kruger et al (2013a & b). can be obtained from the mean (µV) and
Separate mapping of the 1:50 year hourly standard deviation (σV) of V as α = 0.78 σV
Trends in mapping the strong mean wind speed was maintained since its and βV = µV – 0.577 α. The inverse expres-
wind climate inclusion in SABS 0160:1980. sion gives the wind speed V PE as a function
From the early stages of the development of of the exceedance probability PE as:
wind speed maps for wind load design, the Assessment of design implications
main attributes to be accounted for were The implementation of the latest results in V PE = µV – σV (0.45 + 0.78 ln(–ln(1–PE)))(4)
identified as: the use of observations to characteristic gust wind speed as basic free
obtain annual extreme values; the statistical field wind speed map (vb,0), and the associ- Characteristic wind speed
analysis of the data to derive 1:50 year values; ated extreme value probability models used The characteristic wind speed (vk) is stipu-
geographic differentiation; design procedures for the mapping, need to be assessed against lated as the 2% fractile (or 1:50 year value),
based on gust wind speed, whilst a­ ccounting the context of referencing SANS 10160-3 which can be interpreted as the expected
for typically hourly mean wind speed; wind to Eurocode EN 1991-1-4 (Goliger et al maximum (mean) wind speed over a 50-year
speed statistics accounting for both the 2009a & b; Retief & Dunaiski 2009). reference period, where the reference period

Journal of the South African Institution of Civil Engineering  •  Volume 59  Number 4  December 2017 9
may be related to the design service life for Table 2: Example implementation of wind load reliability modelling
‘normal’ structures. Accordingly, the char-
Parameter Cape Town Durban Johannesburg
acteristic wind speed can be derived from
Equation 4 as: µV (m/s) 27.70 26.10 24.40

σV (m/s) 4.08 2.76 3.94


vk = µV + 2.59 σV(5)
CoV V 0.15 0.11 0.16
The characteristic wind speed is therefore
significantly higher than the mean annual vk (m/s) 38.30 33.20 34.60
extreme wind and quite sensitive to the
γ Q,W 1.39 1.30 1.42
standard deviation, as determined from
extreme wind statistics.
The wind load QW can be expressed as three major metropolitan centres of the sound basis for updating the provisions for
the product of v 2 and the conversion factor country, based on data obtained from the geographic distribution of the basic free
QWE that provides for the wind engineering Kruger et al (2013a). The example demon- field wind speed. Recent information on reli-
procedures, such as the wind speed profile strates how the two reliability-based design ability modelling of wind loading, based on
and pressure coefficients. The characteristic parameters {vk ; γ Q,W } are related to the the updated probability models for extreme
wind load is then given by Equation 4, where probability model for the annual extreme wind and the design procedures used by
CoV is the coefficient of variation (σV/µV): wind speed (V). SANS 10160-3:2010, provides an opportunity
The reliability modelling does not include to reassess the design provisions (Botha
QW,k = QWE (µV + 2.59 σV)2 the uncertainties of the time-invariant wind 2016). The concurrent implementation of
= QWE µVk 2(1+ 2.59 CoV V)2(6) engineering modelling regarding the conver- a revised map of vb,0 and partial wind load
sion of the free field wind pressure and the factor γ Q,W in SANS 10160-3 is presently
Design wind load load, as distributed across the structure. in progress.
The design wind load can be obtained by Both the uncertainties and the bias of the
determining the wind speed according to design procedures have a significant influ-
Equation 4 for an exceedance probability (PF) ence on the calibration of γQ,W (Retief & REFERENCES
that corresponds with the appropriate target Dunaiski 2009). Recent investigations include Botha, J, Retief, J V, Holický, M & Barnardo-Viljoen,
reliability (βT), with the equivalence given by the reliability assessment of extreme value C 2014. Development of probabilistic wind load
the relationship PF = Φ(–β), where Φ is the models for V and determining uncertainties model for South Africa. Proceedings, Conference
cumulative normal distribution function. The of time in variant wind engineering models of the Italian Association for Wind Engineering
target reliability for a 50-year reference period for converting the free field wind into loads, IN-VENTO 2014 XIII, 22–25 June, Genoa, Italy.
is selected as βT = 3.0 for SANS 10160 (Retief integral reliability modelling and assessment Botha, J, Retief, J V & Viljoen, C 2015.Variability of time
& Dunaiski 2009). Since the probability model of wind loading (Botha et al 2014, 2015, 2016; independent wind load components. Proceedings,
for wind speed is given by Equation 3 for an Botha 2016). 12th International Conference on Applications
annual reference period, either the wind load of Statistics and Probability in Civil Engineering,
model should be adjusted to a 50-year refer- ICASP12, Vancouver, Canada, July 2015.
ence period, or the target reliability should be CONCLUSIONS Botha, J, Retief, J V & Viljoen, C 2016. Application
adjusted to an annual reference period. The Steady progress in accounting for the strong of the Monte Carlo method for the reliability
former process was followed by Retief et al wind climate, based on observations and treatment of wind load variables using Bayesian
(2013) to obtain suitable wind load models. probability modelling to derive pre-specified hierarchical models. Proceedings, 6th International
Based on the relationship between annual characteristic wind speed values as input Conference on Structural Engineering, Mechanics
and 50-year exceedance probabilities, it can to wind load design procedures, is recorded and Computation, SEMC 2016, 5–7 September,
be shown that βT.1 = 4.0 for a one-year refer- in this review. With the introduction of Cape Town.
ence period is equivalent to βT.50 = 3.0 for reliability-based design for SABS 0160:1989, Botha, J 2016. Probabilistic models of design wind loads
50 years. Furthermore, using the sensitivity probability models for wind speed are in South Africa. PhD Thesis. Stellenbosch University.
factor αE = 0.7 to obtain the target reliability also incorporated in the calibration of the BSI (British Standards Institution) 1952. CP3: Chapter
for actions as βT.1.E = 0. × 4.0 = 2.8, the partial wind load factor (Kemp et al 1987; V, Part 2: Code of Basic Data for the Design of
exceedance probability for the design wind Milford 1987). Buildings. London: BSI.
load can be obtained as 2.4 × 10 –3. The Insufficient updated information on prob- BRE (Building Research Establishment) 1989. The
expression for the design wind load is then ability models for wind speed was, however, assessment of wind loads. Part 3: Wind climate in the
given by Equation 7. From Equations 6 and 7, available for incorporation into the latest stan- United Kingdom. BRE Digest 346, London: BRE.
Equation 8 provides an expression for partial dard for wind loading SANS 10160-3:2010. EN (European Standard) 1991. 1991-1-4:2005. Eurocode
wind load factor (γ Q,W) simply as the ratio Whilst the new standard introduced an 1: Actions on Structures. Part 1-4: General Actions
QW,d/QW,k (see Equation 2). extensive advancement of wind loading design – Wind Actions. Brussels: European Committee for
procedures, only nominal adjustment of the Standardization (CEN).
QW,d = QWE µV 2(1 + 4.27 CoV V)2(7) basic wind speed and reliability provisions Goliger, A M 1999. Wind loading specifications in the
limited the degree to which provision could SA loading code. Civil Engineering, 7(4): 19–21.
(1 + 4.27 CoV V)2 be made to South African conditions (Goliger Goliger, A M 2007. South African wind loading
γ Q,W = (8)
(1 + 2.59 2
V) et al 2009a & b; Retief & Dunaiski 2009). specifications: The Euro-way? Journal of Wind
Subsequent investigations of the South Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, 95: 9–11.
An example of the implementation of African strong wind climate, as represented Goliger, A M 2016. Wind engineering science and its
Equation 8 is provided in Table 2 for the by Figure 10 (Kruger et al 2013b), provide a role in optimizing the design of the built environment.

10 Journal of the South African Institution of Civil Engineering  •  Volume 59  Number 4  December 2017
DEng Thesis. Stellenbosch University. Available at: Kruger, A C, Goliger, A M, Retief, J V & Sekele, S 2010. Retief, J V & Dunaiski, P E 2009. The limit states basis
http://www.scholar.sun.ac.za/handle/10019.1/98799. Strong wind climatic zones in South Africa. Wind of structural design for SANS 10160-1. Chapter 1-2
Goliger, A M, Milford, R V & Mahachi, J 2001. Proposed and Structures, 13(1): 37–55. in Retief, J V & Dunaiski, P E (Eds.). Background to
wind loading specifications of the SABS 0160. Kruger, A C, Goliger, A M, Retief, J V & Sekele, SS 2012. SANS 10160. Stellenbosch: SUN MeDIA.
Proceedings, International Conference on Structural Clustering of extreme winds in the mixed climate of Retief, J V, Barnardo-Viljoen, C & Holický, M 2013.
Engineering, Mechanics and Computation, Cape South Africa. Wind & Structures, 15(2): 87–109. Probabilistic models for the design of structures
Town, 2–4 April, Vol. 2, 1305–1312. Kruger, A C, Retief J V & Goliger A M 2013a. Strong against wind loads, Proceedings, 5th International
Goliger, A M, Niemann, H-J & Milford, R V 1998. winds in South Africa: Part I: Application of Conference on Structural Engineering, Mechanics
Assessment of wind-load specifications of the SABS estimation methods. Journal of the South African and Computation, SEMC 2013, 2–4 September 2013,
0160:1989. Proceedings, SAICE Loading Conference, Institution of Civil Engineering, 55(2): 29–45. Cape Town.
9–10 September, Johannesburg. Kruger, A C, Retief, J V & Goliger, A M 2013b. Strong Retief, J V, Dunaiski, P E & Day, P W 2009. An overview
Goliger, A M, Retief, J V & Dunaiski, P E 2009a. Review winds in South Africa. Part II: Mapping of updated of the revision of the South African Loading Code
of codification of wind-loading for structural design. statistics. Journal of the South African Institution of SANS 10160. In Retief, J V & Dunaiski, P E (Eds.).
Chapter 3-1 in Retief J V & Dunaiski P E (Eds.) 2009. Civil Engineering, 55(2): 46–58. Background to SANS 10160. Stellenbosch: SUN
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Goliger, A M, Retief, J V Dunaiski, P E & Kruger, A C wind speed map for SANS 10160-3. Journal of Regulations. Chapter 3: Loads. A Guide to Building
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(Eds.). Background to SANS 10160. Stellenbosch: Louw, W J & Kastiambirtas, E No date. The estimation SABS 0160:1980. The General Procedures and Loadings
SUN MeDIA. of extreme wind gusts from inadequate data. to be Adopted for the Design of Buildings. Pretoria:
Hansen, S O 2013. Wind loading design codes. Obtained from the Meteorology Institute of South African Bureau of Standards.
Proceedings, 6th European–African Conference on München University (UDC 551.553.6(68)). SABS 0160:1989. The General Procedures and Loadings
Wind Engineering, Cambridge, UK, 7–11 July 2013. May, H I 1972. Some wind speed data for estimating to be Adopted in the Design of Buildings. Pretoria:
Holický, M 2009. Reliability Analysis for Structural loads on structures in South Africa. The Civil South African Bureau of Standards.
Design. Stellenbosch: SUN MeDIA. Engineer in South Africa, 14(5): 175–180. SANS (South African National Standard) 2010. SANS
Holmes, J D 2001. Wind Loading of Structures. London: Milford, R V 1986a. Extreme-value analysis of South 10160-3:2010. Basis of Structural Design and Actions
Spon Press. African mean hourly wind speed data. Unpublished for Buildings and Industrial Structures. Part 3: Wind
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for a comprehensive limit states formulation for Engineering Division, National Building Research SAWB (South African Weather Bureau) 1949.
South African structural codes. The Civil Engineer in Institute, CSIR, Pretoria. Oppervlakwinde in Suid-Afrika. Surface winds of
South Africa, 29 (9): 351–360. Milford, R V 1986b. Extreme value analysis of South South Africa. Report WB8. Pretoria: South African
Kruger, A C 2004. Climate of South Africa. Climate African gust speed data. Unpublished Internal Weather Bureau.
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Journal of the South African Institution of Civil Engineering  •  Volume 59  Number 4  December 2017 11
TECHNICAL PAPER Development of an updated
Journal of the South African
Institution of Civil Engineering fundamental basic wind
ISSN 1021-2019
Vol 59 No 4, December 2017, Pages 12–25, Paper 1739 speed map for SANS 10160-3
DR ANDRIES KRUGER obtained his MSc degree A C Kruger, J V Retief, A M Goliger
from the University of Cape Town in the
Geographical and Environmental Sciences, and
his PhD from the University of Stellenbosch in
Civil Engineering, with the research topic Wind This paper evaluates the need for updating the strong wind climate stipulations of South Africa
Climatology and Statistics of South Africa relevant to for the design of structures in accordance with SANS 10160-3:2010, as based on the latest
the Design of the Built Environment. Since 1985 he
information presented by Kruger et al (2013a; 2013b). The primary objective is to provide the
has been involved in the observation, analysis
and research of historical climate at the South African Weather Service. This has geographic distribution of the characteristic gust wind speed by means of the fundamental
included climate change and variability research, the authoring of general value of the basic wind speed, stipulated as vb,0 in SANS 10160-3. A reassessment of previously
climate publications, and other climatological studies through consultation. He published information is made to incorporate additional wind speed modelling results and to
is the author or co-author of a substantial number of scientific publications. investigate identified anomalies. The format of presentation, based on local municipal districts,
Contact details: is subsequently motivated, assessed and implemented. In order to provide for situations
Chief Scientist Department of Geography requiring the consideration of the dynamic effects of wind loading, similar information on
Climate Data Analysis & Research Geoinformatics and Meteorology
characteristic hourly mean wind speed is provided. It is concluded that the presentation of wind
Department: Climate Service University of Pretoria
South African Weather Service Pretoria 0002 speed on a district basis provides an effective balance between the spatial resolution of the
Private Bag X097, Pretoria 0001 South Africa available information and its use in operational standardised design.
South Africa
T: +27 12 367 6074
E: andries.kruger@weathersa.co.za
INTRODUCTION The updated maps and statistics not only
Stipulation of the geographical distribution take into account the historical increase in
PROF JOHAN RETIEF, who is a Fellow of the South
African Institution of Civil Engineering, is Emeritus
of the free field wind speed across South the availability of extreme wind data in South
Professor in Civil Engineering at Stellenbosch Africa provides a direct link to the strong Africa (presently at least seven-fold), but also
University. His field of interest is the development wind climate of the country and the design considers a range of the most widely applied
of risk and reliability as the basis of design for wind loads on structures. The nominal treat- statistical procedures utilised internationally
structures, with specific applications to wind
loading, structural concrete and geotechnical
ment of the map of the fundamental value in the estimation of extreme wind statistics.
practice, amongst related topics. He is a member of the basic wind speed vb,0 was identified The choice of appropriate statistical methods
of SABS TC98 Structural and geotechnical design standards, and is the national as one of the major deficiencies of the South depends largely on the length and quality
representative to ISO TC98 Bases of design and actions on structures, and a African National Standard SANS 10160:2010 of data records, the exposures of associated
member of various Working Groups of these TCs (technical committees). He
Basis of structural design and actions for measuring instruments, the mixed strong
holds degrees from Pretoria University, Imperial College, Stanford University
and Stellenbosch University. buildings and industrial structures Part wind climate of South Africa, as well as the
3 Wind Actions (Goliger et al 2009). The averaging time scales. For example, there are
Contact details:
Department of Civil Engineering publication of SANS 10160-3:2010 (reissued fundamental differences between the methods
Stellenbosch University in 2011 with corrections) was therefore suitable for the estimation of extreme hourly
Private Bag X1, Matieland, Stellenbosch 7602, South Africa followed up with extensive investigations average wind speeds, which have high volumes
T: +27 21 808 4442 into the strong wind climate of South Africa of temporally interdependent strong wind
E: jvr@sun.ac.za
and the statistical treatment of strong wind values in their associated data sets, and gust
observations to derive extreme value prob- speeds, which have lower interdependence.
DR ADAM GOLIGER obtained his MSc degree
from the Warsaw Technical University, and his
ability models, and the compilation of repre- This paper presents the background
PhD and DEng degrees from Stellenbosch sentative free field wind speed maps (Kruger to the reassessment and application of the
University, all in Structural Engineering. Until 2016 2011; Kruger et al 2013a; 2013b). strong wind information in a format that is
(for more than 30 years) he was involved in Prior to the latest revisions of extreme suitable for implementation in standardised
research and consulting work at the CSIR (Council
wind statistics, a comprehensive strong structural design and thereby for incorpora-
for Scientific and Industrial Research). This
included wind-tunnel simulation and modelling wind analysis for the purpose of the South tion into an update of SANS 10160-3. The
techniques, wind damage and environmental studies around buildings. For African loading standard was conducted in stipulation of the basic wind speed provides
several years he served as the South African representative on the International 1985 (Milford 1985a; 1985b). Considering the starting point for the process. The
Association for Wind Engineering (IAWE), and participated in various local and
that wind loading represents the dominant representation of vb,0 as the gust wind speed
international committees and research panels. He is the author or co-author of
more than 100 scientific publications and numerous technical reports. environmental action in South Africa to be constitutes the only rational way to resolve
considered in the design of structures, an the differences between synoptic, convective
Contact details:
Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR)
accurate estimation of strong winds is of car- thunderstorm and mixed climate strong
T: +27 83 660 8205 dinal importance to the built environment, wind. This implies that the introduction of
E: adam.goliger@gmail.com and should be updated as new information vb,0 as the 10-minute mean wind speed, in
becomes available. A review of the historical order to be consistent with the reference
development of climatic data for wind load Eurocode standard EN 1991-1-4:2005, ought
Keywords: basic wind speed, wind loading code, mapping, strong wind climate, design in South Africa is provided by Goliger to be reversed to the practice followed in
South Africa, extreme wind statistics et al (2017). SABS 0160:1989. The stipulation of vb,0 as

12
Kruger AC, Retief JV, Goliger AM. Development of an updated fundamental basic wind speed map for SANS 10160-3.
J. S. Afr. Inst. Civ. Eng. 2017:59(4), Art. #1739, 14 pages. http://dx.doi.org/10.17159/2309-8775/2017/v59n4a2
the 1:50 year or 0.02 fractile of the annual
extreme gust wind speed forms part of the
reliability representation of strong wind
occurrences. Although structural dynamic
effects are beyond the scope of SANS 10160-
3, mapping of the hourly mean characteristic
wind speed is readily available from the
background research, and is therefore
included here as additional information on
the South African strong wind climate.
An initial update of vb,0 is presented by
Kruger et al (2013b). The resultant map of
vk, the 1:50 year gust wind speed derived
from automatic weather station data of the
South African Weather Service (SAWS), is
considered here as the basis of the update of
statistics for vb,0. However, reassessment is
needed to review some anomalies that can be
identified from the published maps in terms
of apparent outliers. Additional metadata on
the influence of terrain conditions on strong
wind measurements are taken into account.
Complementary information on strong wind
occurrences, based on reanalysis of synoptic Figure 1: Map for 1:50 year gust speed (vk) developed from measured data (Kruger et al 2013b)
information during wind storms, provides
extensions of the probability models based The main features of the resulting map The main feature of this map, compared
on annual extreme value observations. are summarised in conclusion, considering to the current map of the basic wind speed
Reanalyses of the results are particularly the advancement achieved compared to (vb,0) given in SANS 10160-3:2010, is its
useful for spatial interpolation of values and the present map. The potential for future increased complexity due to the improved
consideration of complex topography. updating is assessed, as based on extension resolution resulting from a spatially denser
For implementation as a design wind map, of the dataset for both the present automatic network of observations and consideration
a suitable format is needed to fully exploit weather station (AWS) records to improve of the mixed strong wind climate. Values of
the geographic resolution of strong wind the time variant probability models, and the vk range from 45–50 m/s in the southwest
information, whilst the stipulated wind speed inclusion of additional AWS data to extend extreme to 25–30 m/s in the northeastern
is presented in an unambiguous normative the spatial resolution. regions; on a localised scale a range of
manner for use in operational design. The 30–50 m/s is obtained within the Cape Town
selection of the areas corresponding to local metropolitan district. Significant spatial fea-
municipal districts, as the units for the geo- REASSESSMENT OF UPDATED tures can be observed at intermediate scales,
graphical description of vb,0, is motivated and STRONG WIND STATISTICS particularly for wind speeds above 40 m/s.
assessed. Alternative schemes are considered A critical assessment of Figure 1 in
for selecting wind speed intervals to represent Main features of revised maps comparison to the underlying wind speed
the continuum of values. Various constraints for characteristic wind speed data indicates the smoothing effect of the
affecting the resolution of the format for the The primary output of the updated statistical interpolation needed to represent vk as wind
stipulation of vb,0 are taken into account. analysis and mapping of the South African speed intervals, which may omit significant
The main steps in compiling the map of strong wind climate is a map of the charac- sub-regional trends. In addition to finding a
the fundamental values of the basic wind teristic gust wind speed (vk) shown in Figure 1 suitable format for presenting vk as the basic
speed can be summarised as: (Kruger et al 2013a; 2013b). Quality control wind speed vb,0, a reassessment and updating
i. the optimal selection of wind speed measures and extreme value analysis to derive with new information is needed.
intervals, input values for this map are discussed in A direct comparison between the wind
ii. deriving optimal values to local munici- these references. As vk is derived from the speed given by Figure 1 for vk and for vb,0 in
palities with measurements, and instantaneous wind speed measured from SANS 10160-3:2010 is reported by Kruger et
iii. assigning values to the remaining munici- automatic weather stations (equipped with an al (2013b), indicating a noticeable reduction
palities through interpolation. RM Young propeller sensor), the time-resolu- over large regions of the country, particularly
Subsequently, the consistency of values is tion of the wind speed value obtained is 1 s, towards the north, including the metropoli-
checked between contiguous areas, spe- instead of the 2–3 s which is the conventional tan regions of Gauteng.
cifically the metropolitan regions, but also gust standard. Shorter duration gusts than the
for smaller areas where high values were standard 3 s are more appropriate for struc- Moderation of updated
obtained. From the above it follows that tural design (Holmes & Ginger 2012; Holmes gust statistics
an iterative process is necessary, with due et al 2014). Differences in the response of the The estimations of the design values develo­
consideration of the original measurements, AWS and the structure are not accounted for ped in Kruger et al (2013a; 2013b) took into
to converge to a map that is consistent with in the map for vb,0 on the assumption that it is consideration:
the overall resolution of information and included in the uncertainties provided for by i. The selection of appropriate statistical
operational requirements. the procedures for determining the wind load. methodologies

Journal of the South African Institution of Civil Engineering  •  Volume 59  Number 4  December 2017 13
ii. The provision for uncertainty in the NORTH East
results due to the use of short wind time
series
iii. The spatial extents of relevant strong
wind mechanisms (Kruger et al 2010;
2011a–b; 2013a)
iv. Adjustment of wind speed measurements
to account for non-standard terrain rough-
ness surrounding the AWSs (Kruger 2011).
The adjustment for terrain roughness was
identified to be the most subjective, partly
due to the limited metadata information on
the roughness conditions surrounding each
AWS. Assessment was limited to Google
Earth aerial imaging, where roughness clas-
sification could not be based on inspection
records or photographs for the surrounding
environments for an AWS (Kruger 2011;
Kruger et al 2013c). These roughness
adjustments had a significant influence
on the estimation of the extreme wind South West
statistics, as reported by Kruger et al (2013a
& b). The measurements at the Strand,
Elliot and Umtata stations where vk values
exceed 45 m/s, were identified as requiring
further scrutiny.
Recently SAWS has embarked on a
comprehensive programme of updating all
metadata in its AWS network. This involves
documenting the environment around the
AWS, including estimated distances to
significant obstacles, tabulated assessments
of surface roughness, nearby topography, and
photographs of the AWS taken from each of
the four main wind directions. This updated
information made the objective reassess-
ment of wind speed values possible, where
adjustment of measured wind speed to an
equivalent value for Terrain Category 2 ter-
rain roughness made previously, could have
been too conservative. Figure 2: Photographs of the Strand weather station from the main wind directions as indicated
For the Strand, updated assessment based
on photographic documentation (Figure 2), The main aim of the project is to identify the modelling part of the project required
indicates standard roughness towards the regions of high wind energy potential in the the development of new methodologies, to
northern sectors. Where wind speed was ini- country. The project partnership includes take into account the complex strong wind
tially adjusted by as much as a factor of 1.67, SANEDI, the University of Cape Town climate of South Africa (Kruger et al 2014;
a significant fraction of the measurements (UCT), the Danish Technical University Larsén & Kruger 2014; Larsén et al 2013a
was used subsequently without adjustment. (DTU), the Council for Scientific and and b; Larsén et al 2015). The verification
Consequently vk could be reduced from Industrial Research (CSIR) and SAWS. of the modelled results comprised thorough
46.7 m/s to 41.0 m/s for this location. The WASA project included a work pack- comparisons with the results derived from
The station at the Umtata Airport, which age managed by SAWS and DTU, aimed at measurements, i.e. those in Kruger et al
is well exposed, remained at 45 m/s. The the development of information on extreme (2013b). Where discrepancies occurred,
value at Elliot could be re-estimated from wind speeds. The class of wind turbine at particularly where the modelled results were
46.0 m/s to 44.7 m/s by extending the time a specific location is hence based on the significantly lower than those from the mea-
series, effectively diluting the influence of extreme wind speed to be expected over a surements, upward adjustments were made
a small number of relatively high annual 50-year period. The atlas provides high-res- to the model­led data. In addition, all values
maximum values. olution maps for the project domain at two were adjusted upwards to the closest 5 m/s
time scales, i.e. gust (2–3 s) and a 10-minute interval above the specific values, accounting
Input from the Wind Atlas project averaging period. An important component for the inherent uncertainty in extreme wind
The Wind Atlas for South Africa (WASA of the project relates to the integration of estimations, and also for simplification pur-
2015) project is coordinated and run under the extreme wind statistics derived from poses, to produce the final statistics for the
the auspices of the South African National model and measured data, from which the 1:50 year gust map at a resolution of about
Energy Development Institute (SANEDI). final maps could be developed. Particularly 4 km. These verified high-resolution outputs

14 Journal of the South African Institution of Civil Engineering  •  Volume 59  Number 4  December 2017
geographical distribution of local author-
30 ity districts may appear to be unrelated
35 to the strong wind climate of the country,
40
similarities in the scale are nevertheless
apparent when it is noted that there are 52
45
metropolitan areas and district municipali-
50
ties, with a total of 240 local municipality
districts. Additional commonalities can also
be identified, such as the placement of AWSs,
concentration of structures, regulatory func-
tions of district centres, and even the influ-
ence of topographical features, e.g. mountain
ranges and valleys, often forming natural
district boundaries.
The use of a combination of metropolitan
Figure 3: 1:50 year wind gust values developed in WASA Phase 1 (m/s) and district municipality areas will result
in a close match between map zones and
proved to be invaluable for the assignment presented in Figure 3 nevertheless provides vk,AWS values. However, such coarse zoning
of return values, especially within sparsely useful background information for any would lead to an underutilisation of the
populated and topographically complex designs within that region, particularly for available information. Furthermore, such
regions, where results from measured data mountainous localities. zoning results in zero to five vk,AWS values
were scarce or non-existent. per zone, with multiple values obtained for
Figure 3 presents the 1:50 year wind gust both large districts, such as the Northern
map for the spatial domain of WASA Phase BASIC WIND SPEED FORMAT Cape Province, and smaller districts,
1, concluded in March 2014. Apparent from The objective of formatting the data on the resulting from the nature of geography or
the map is that most values in the south- basic wind speed is to present the updated settlement. This format was therefore not
western Cape and eastwards are 40–45 m/s, information on the characteristic wind speed investigated further.
while to the north of the southwestern vk as the fundamental value of the basic wind Local municipal districts, together with
Cape it is lower at 30–35 m/s. This pattern speed vb,0 unambiguously geographically metropolitan areas, were therefore selected
broadly confirms the results produced from across the country in terms of a stipulated as basis for zones to represent uniform val-
measurements (Kruger et al 2013b), but also wind speed interval. Whilst the map of vk ues of vb,0 per zone, as derived from vk,AWS
emphasises the role of local topography as a and the WASA reanalysis are taken as indica- values obtained for the districts where the
significant factor in the potential of strong tive of regional trends, the updated set of AWSs are situated. The average ratio of
wind gusts to develop. Examples of these vk,AWS wind speed values are considered as about three local municipalities to an AWS
are especially visible in the northeast and the basis for stipulating vb,0. This provides a data point implies a mild degree of interpola-
east of the domain, e.g. the isolated values of limit to the spatial resolution of the format, tion to estimate vb,0 values for all zones
50 m/s in the Nuweveld Mountains north of determined by the 74 AWS dataset used by across the country. The mapping process is
Beaufort-West and the Sneeuberg mountain Kruger et al (2013a and b). The resolution of thereby discretised into 240 zones across the
range to the north and northeast of Graaff- the wind speed range of 29–45 m/s is limited country to use as footprint for each of the
Reinet. In contrast, lower values are shown by the record period of 10–18 years. Some 74 AWS data points (vk,AWS), with discrete
in areas with relatively lower elevation than enhancement is achieved through advanced interpolation for the remaining zones.
the surrounding areas, e.g. between the extreme value probability modelling, includ-
Swartberg and Nuweveld mountain ranges to ing the peak-over-threshold method for the Wind speed resolution
the south of Beaufort-West, and to the east of short time series, as well as the statistical Wind speed is presented in discrete format
the Sneeuberg mountain range. assessment of the mixed strong wind climate. as vb,0 values to represent selected intervals
Considering the spatial variability of Constraints on the resolution are eventu- of vk,AWS values. The value of vb,0 is selected
strong winds due to local topographical ally mitigated by the reliability modelling at mid-range of the interval in order not to
features, it is important to note that the that accounts for all residual uncertainties, introduce a conservative bias into the format.
design wind statistics to be implemented in in addition to the time-variant nature The limit of 5 m/s applied to the vk map
the loading standard should provide a con- of windstorms. (Figure 1) was relaxed to consider intervals
servative estimation of 1:50 year gust values of 4 m/s and 3 m/s. Such refinement was
over flat terrain, which conforms to Terrain Basis for spatial resolution – deemed to be justified by the simplification
Category 2. Special provision, as stipulated in local municipal districts of the spatial zoning. Fragmentation of the
the code, has to be made for those cases that Presentation of the basic wind speed vb,0 on discrete mapping of vb,0 was used as basis
do not conform to the above criteria. The a scale similar to that implied by the point for setting a lower limit of 3 m/s, to the wind
WASA gust map shown in Figure 3 provides values derived from the network of 74 AWS speed intervals.
realistic data on strong wind climatology records, vk,AWS should ensure the optimal
over the project domain, and it reflects the use of the underlying information. This is Assessment of discrete format
topographical detail which is expected to be in contrast to the approach taken for the While there was a significant improvement
resolved separately in the loading standard. compilation of the latest map of vk, where an in the availability of data for the develop-
The WASA map is therefore used mainly extensive set of isophlets is derived through ment of the maps in Kruger et al (2013a
for interpolation purposes, while drafting a process of interpolation, including a degree & b) compared to when the previous map
the map for SANS 10160-3. The information of subjectivity (see Figure 1). Although the was developed by Milford (1985a & b), the

Journal of the South African Institution of Civil Engineering  •  Volume 59  Number 4  December 2017 15
eventual spatial resolution can still be con-
sidered as inadequate over many regions of
the country, especially those with significant
topographical variation. The use of only in-
situ measurements, which is the case for the
greatest part of South Africa, will, at best, be
able to provide a general impression of the
strong wind climate only.
However, it should be considered that the
vast majority of weather stations are located
close to main built-up centres, particularly
towns. In many cases these stations are situ-
ated at the local airports, which are in open
terrain but still relatively close to built-up
centres. Therefore it can be argued that the
measurements from weather stations can be
considered to be biased towards the areas of
densest population or of strategic/develop-
mental importance. This justifies an assump-
tion that the strong wind statistics from the
weather stations are largely representative of
the built-up areas of the local municipalities
in which they are located. The development
of new infrastructure is most often also Figure 4: Topography of South Africa, with local municipal borders superimposed
biased towards these areas.
Referring to municipal borders, these
follow, where possible, the local topography
Characteristic values
and other natural features. Figure 4 presents
27–30
a map of the topography of South Africa,
30–33
with the local municipal borders super- 33–36
imposed. It is apparent that some borders 36–39
between provinces, e.g. between the Free 39–42
State and KwaZulu-Natal, and the Western 42–45
and Northern Cape provinces are defined by
the topography, particularly the escarpment,
which in turn dictates the municipal bor-
ders in the relevant areas. Especially in the
Limpopo, Mpumalanga, Eastern Cape and
Western Cape provinces many local munici-
pal borders follow the regional topography.
A third important consideration, which is
relevant to the practicality and user-friend-
liness of the final basic wind speed map, is
that it would be convenient to unambiguous-
ly identify the appropriate basic wind speed
value by only having to reference the value
assigned to the local municipality where the
structure is planned. This provides a direct
link between the design process and the
regulatory function of local authorities. Figure 5: Basic map of vk,AWS values as assigned to zones within which AWSs are located

Adjacent regions of high IMPLEMENTATION Basic map of vk,AWS values


economic activity The main steps for implementing the The geographic input information of vk,AWS
It is preferable that in contiguous regions representation of vb,0 according to the values that serve as the basic map for the
of high economic activity the development discrete spatial and wind speed format are implementation of the zone-based mapping
should be subject to design criteria that are as follows: of vk,AWS is shown in Figure 5, as arranged in
consistent across common municipal borders. i. Set up a basic map of vk,AWS values for the 3 m/s intervals starting from the maximum
It was therefore deemed sensible to assign sin- zones representing the AWS positions. value of vk = 45 m/s (white areas reflect
gle design values to those district municipali- ii. Derive the vb,0 values from an appropriate municipal regions in which no relevant/
ties or larger regions where economic activity set of wind speed intervals. adequate wind speed records are available).
is relatively high and integrated. These large iii. Extend the basic map to all zones, consid- The basic map provides information on the
metropolitan regions include Gauteng, south- ering related information, including some features of local districts, serving as discrete
western Cape, Port Elizabeth and Durban. degree of simplification. zones, sampling of vk,AWS values and the

16 Journal of the South African Institution of Civil Engineering  •  Volume 59  Number 4  December 2017
extension needed to stipulate vb,0, the distri- 12 6
bution of vk,AWS wind speed values.
Striking features of the district-based zones
are the irregular shapes and size, ranging 10 5
from dense networks to large zones, generally
from east to west. A surprisingly large number 8 4
of unpopulated zones, shown in blank, are

Frequency
adjacent to at least one AWS zone. The excep-

PDF
tion is a substantial region of KwaZulu-Natal 6 3
and the Eastern Cape where the AWS network
does not provide any measured data.
4 2
On a countrywide scale there is a clear
trend of decreasing wind speed from south
to north, with low to high values occurring 2 1
in the southern third of the country, medium
to low values for the central third, and gener-
0 0
ally low values for the northern third. The 0.80 0.84 0.88 0.92 0.96 1.00 1.04 1.08 1.12 1.16 1.20
complexity of the southwestern part of the (a) 5 m/s interval
country is illustrated by the full range of six vb,0 {45; 40; 35; 30} m/s
µr = 0.99; σ r = 0.072
intervals of vk,AWS values over a small cluster
of adjacent zones. A mild degree of fragmen-
tation can also be observed over the central 10 6
parts of the country, mostly in the Free State
and Northern Cape provinces.
5
8
Set of stipulated vb,0 values
The intervals of the isophlets on a map 4
can be considered to be a compromise 6
Frequency

between the required detail and sufficient

PDF
3
spatial information. For the map of design
wind gust values, additional factors were 4
considered, mainly: 2
i. The reassessed values in the Eastern and
Western Cape 2
ii. The assignment of unique values at local 1

municipal level
iii. The objective to assign the same values 0 0
to larger regions with relatively high and 0.80 0.84 0.88 0.92 0.96 1.00 1.04 1.08 1.12 1.16 1.20
integrated economic activity. (b) 4 m/s interval
vb,0 {43; 39; 35; 31} m/s
For the hourly map, to be provided as addi- µr = 1.00; σ r = 0.070
tional information in the revised code, reas-
sessment of the characteristic hourly wind
18 10
speed is not deemed to be necessary, so that
only factors (ii) and (iii) are applicable. 16

8
Selection of characteristic values 14
The scale of values for vb,0 selected to represent
12
the range of vk,AWS values from 28.7 m/s to
45 m/s can be determined algorithmically by 6
Frequency

10
selecting the starting point, the interval and
PDF

the assigned value within the interval. To be 8


consistent with the reliability-based approach, 4
vb,0 is selected as the mid-value of the interval. 6
As motivated above, the interval of 5 m/s used
4
for the isopleth map could be reduced due to 2
the area zoning used for vb,0. Three intervals 2
of 5 m/s, 4 m/s and 3 m/s were considered.
Without rounding off, four vb,0 values are 0 0
0.80 0.84 0.88 0.92 0.96 1.00 1.04 1.08 1.12 1.16 1.20
needed to scale the range for 5 m/s and 4 m/s
(c) 3 m/s interval
intervals and six values for 3 m/s interval. vb,0 {45; 42; 39; 36; 33; 30} m/s
The statistics of the ratio of r = vb,0 / vk,AWS µr = 1.00; σ r = 0.046
per zone was used as a diagnostic tool to
assess the consistency of the match between Figure 6: Match of vb,0 to vk,AWS values for alternative wind speed intervals

Journal of the South African Institution of Civil Engineering  •  Volume 59  Number 4  December 2017 17
the resulting vb,0,zone and input vk,AWS values.
(a) 55m/s
m/s interval
interval
The mean of r (µr) is an indication of any
30 30
bias, which is intended to be close to 1.0. The
35 35
standard deviation (σr) indicates dispersion,
40 40
aimed to be as small as possible. A uniform 45
45
set of r values indicates an even spread across
the interval. Indicative results are displayed in
Figure 6.
The above results indicate no effective
bias, comparable dispersion for 5 m/s and
4 m/s intervals, and a noticeable reduction in
dispersion for the 3 m/s case. The 4 m/s case
provides the closest approximation of a uni-
form distribution. The dispersion and uni-
formity of r values are relatively sensitive to
the selected values of vb,0, which are mostly
influenced by small numbers of observations
at the low and high extremes. For further
analysis the set of values for a 4 m/s interval
was adjusted to {44; 40; 36; 32} m/s rounded
values, introducing bias from a longer lower
(b) 44 m/s
m/s interval
interval
tail, with µr = 0.98; σ r = 0.075.
32 32
36 36
Spatial interpolation
40 40
The selection of the range of vb,0 can be 44
44
assessed quantitatively and rationally for the
set of zones with AWSs, with uncertainties
fully accounted for in the reliability assess-
ment. Assignment of values to unpopulated
zones is more difficult, requiring a strong
element of judgement based on interrelated
but indirect information. This process is
complicated by the fragmented nature of the
basic map of vk,AWS shown in Figure 5.
The first step of the process is to apply the
vb,0 values corresponding to 5, 4 and 3 m/s
intervals to the AWS zones (see Figure 7).
Close inspection shows virtually no difference
for the two upper vb,0 values for the 5 m/s
and 4 m/s cases, relevant to the central and
southern third regions of the country. The
(c) 33m/s
m/s interval
interval
most significant changes are from the second
33 33
lowest to the lowest interval for three zones
36 36
in the far south and for six zones across the
39 39
northern and northeastern regions. In spite of 42
44
the difficulties of comparing four vb,0 catego- 45
45
ries for the 4 m/s case, with the six categories
for the 3 m/s interval, a similar pattern can
be observed, with an increase in the number
of zones in the lowest category corresponding
to 3 m/s; in this case a few similar isolated
changes occur for the midrange categories.
The basic vb,0 map shown in Figure 7 was
used to derive alternative trial maps for the
three interval cases as shown in Figure 8. As
a simplification of the 3 m/s map, the lowest
two intervals (33 m/s and 36 m/s) were com-
bined to result in the use of 5 intervals, with
the lower limit for vb,0 set at 33 m/s. This led
to diagnostic statistics close to those of the
4 m/s format.
Since the reliability performance of the Figure 7: B
 asic map of vb,0 values as assigned to AWS zones as a function of alternative cases of
interpolation stage of the mapping process wind speed interval

18 Journal of the South African Institution of Civil Engineering  •  Volume 59  Number 4  December 2017
cannot be quantified, the tendency was
29
adopted to adjudicate on the conservative
(a) 5
 m/s
{45; 40; 35; 30} m/s 31 38 side whenever the decision-making was
36
34 not clear cut. Examples of a conservative
34 approach are smoothing of the upper limit
34
31
33 of the complex array of regions for the
34 35 35
southwestern region, a safe value assigned to
34 36 33
37 large uncharted regions of KwaZulu-Natal,
38 32 and somewhat conservative treatment of the
34 39 39
34
41 38 34 central regions of the country. A degree of
40 39 30
33 36 smoothing out of the high value obtained for
39 37
35 35 40 the AWS at De Aar is an example of some
33 moderation that was applied.
29 37 35
44 38
39 39 37
34 45
45 34 Assessment
29 45 The following advantages and disadvantages
34
40
41 of the interval selection were considered:
36 45
30 35 37 37 i. 3 m/s: The map has the largest number of
29 33 43 35 43
41 39 34 33 29 41 wind speed categories (five) and therefore
40 44 31 36
it could better reflect the values at station
44
level. However, a large fraction of the
assigned values could not be backed up by
(b) 4 m/s 29
the low spatial resolution of the values at
{44; 40; 36; 32} m/s 31 38
36 station level; this increased the subjectivity
34
in the development process of the map.
34
34
33
ii. 4 m/s: The 4 m/s interval was just as effec-
31
34 35 35 tive to create adjacent regions with similar
34 36 33 values as at the 3 m/s level. While the map
37
32 has a smaller number of categories as with
34 38 39 39 3 m/s, it was deemed to be as effective to
41 38
40 34 34
39 30 capture the design values at station level.
33 36
39 37 Of the three options, the 4 m/s interval
35 35 40
33 seemed to provide the optimal compro-
29 35
37
44 38 mise between the number of categories,
39 39
45 37 spatial amalgamation of same values, and
34 45 34
29 45 representivity of the values at station level.
34
40 iii. 5 m/s: With the 5 m/s it became more
41
36 45 difficult to assign values that gave an
30 35 37 37
29 33 43 35 43 acceptable reflection of the values at sta-
41 39 34 33 29 41
40 44 31 36 tion level, also limiting the possibilities
44 to justify large adjoining regions with the
same values.
(c) 3
 m/s 29
{45; 42; 39; 36; 33} m/s 31 38
36 Proposed map of basic wind speed
34 The map based on 4 m/s intervals stipulated
34 at the values for vb,0 at {44; 40; 36; 32} m/s,
34
33
34 35
31 35
as shown in Figure 9, is proposed to present
34 36 33 the best balance between the underlying
37 information and operational use in design.
38 32
34 39 39 The information can effectively be tabulated
41 38
40 34
39
34 per province as shown in Appendix A, and
30
33 36 referenced back to the geographical distribu-
39 37
35 35 40 tion in Figure 9. The geographic map and
33
29 37 35 the tabulated list are related by assigning a
44 38
39 39 37
common code to each district.
34 45 34
45 There are two regions where the design
29 45
34 gust values assigned are higher than in the
40
41 map included in the 1989 version of the
36 45
30 35 37 37
33 43 35 43 standard, i.e. in the Breede Valley municipal-
29 34 33 29
41 39 41 ity (Worcester), and an extensive region
40 44 31 36
44 in the eastern interior of the Eastern Cape
Province. In the case of the former, a 1 in
Figure 8: Trial maps of vb,0 for South Africa 50 year gust value obtained from statistical

Journal of the South African Institution of Civil Engineering  •  Volume 59  Number 4  December 2017 19
Kruger et al (2013a & b) serves as input for
Wind speed
the compilation of an operational map on the
32 m/s basis of local district zoning, similar to that
36 m/s
LIM
for gust wind. A wind speed interval of 4 m/s
40 m/s
provides a balance between the underlying
44 m/s
information on the spatial and temporal
behaviour of vk,H, as well as the operational
GT MP use of the map. Figure 10 provides a map for
NW
the basic hourly wind speed (vb,H), covering
the range of wind speed from 10 to 27 m/s
by the set of four values {24; 20; 16; 12} m/s.
FS This map shows a substantial improve-
KZN
NC ment in resolution, compared to the map
appended in SABS 0160:1989 and the simpli-
fication of the updated map given by Kruger
et al (2013b). A comparison between the
ratios of values allocated for gust and hourly
values shows that, in the context of the
EC
South African mixed strong wind climate,
WC it is impossible to apply a simple derivation
from one time resolution to another. This
“disconnect” between different time resolu-
tions, where the ratios between the 1:50 year
Figure 9: P
 roposed map of fundamental value of basic wind speed vb,0 as the characteristic gust gust and 1:50 year wind speeds at longer
wind speed time scales vary spatially, is indicative of the
different causes of strong winds at different
time scales. In the interior, where thunder-
Wind speed storms are prevalent, the ratio between the
10 m/s 15 gust and hourly wind speed is much larger
15 m/s 10 11 than along the coast (also see Kruger 2011).
18
20 m/s 17
25 m/s 20
13
CONCLUSIONS
17 16 14
20 16 21 The main features of the updated and
17 20 19
revised map stipulating the basic wind speed
19
13 vb,0 shown in Figure 9, as derived from the
14 13 15 19 1:50 year or characteristic gust wind speed vk
22 18
18 20 19
17 14 shown in Figure 1, are as follows:
23 21
18 15 ■■ The extensive increase in the number of
18 16 annual extreme wind events across the
14
17 17 20 country substantially increases the infor-
18 21
20 17 16 mation in the form of probability models
18 19 25 21 for the wind speed V, both spatially and
17 19
27 16 temporally, including the resolution of the
19 complex strong wind climate.
22 20
17 18 18 20 ■■ The observation of a 2 to 3 s gust wind
15 20 22 16 23
25 19 22 17 15 26 speed makes it possible to express vb,0
24 26 17 24
directly as the gust wind, compared
26
to the ‘synthetic’ map expressed as an
effective 10 minute mean value used in
Figure 10: Map of basic hourly wind speed vb,H with intervals of 4 m/s SANS 10160-3:2010. Additional uncer-
tainties resulting from the indirect model
analysis vk was 43 m/s, which can be con- of South Africa (WASA) project will include for a gust factor is thereby avoided.
sidered to be accurate, bearing in mind the the northern part of the Eastern Cape, and ■■ The spatial representation of vb,0 on the
adequacy of the climate station from which will hopefully provide improved insight into basis of 240 local municipal districts
the measurements were made, which is at the prevailing strong wind climate to the provides a convenient grid of zones that is
the airport on the outskirts of the town. For south and southeast of the escarpment. sufficiently compatible with the 74 vk,AWS
the Eastern Cape several stations showed 1 datasets to cover the country, with lim-
in 50 year values of about 45 m/s, including Hourly wind speed map ited interpolation needed to establish vb,0
Umtata. However, the true extent of the The advanced extreme value assessment values for the balance of zones. Mapping
area to be assigned needs to be reconsidered of the hourly average annual maximum could conveniently be separated into
when additional or updated information wind speed and mapping of the 1:50 year determining appropriate vk,AWS intervals
becomes available. Phase 2 of the Wind Atlas characteristic wind speed (vk,H) reported by for individual AWS positions and the

20 Journal of the South African Institution of Civil Engineering  •  Volume 59  Number 4  December 2017
interpolation to obtain the countrywide ■■ The probability models on which the estimation methods. Journal of the South African
basic wind speed vb,0 map. map for vb,0 is based, serve as input to Institution of Civil Engineering, 55(2): 29–45.
■■ The relatively even distribution of the the reliability assessment of wind loading Kruger, A C, Retief, J V& Goliger, A M 2013b. Strong
AWS districts results not only in a reason- procedures, as expressed by the partial winds in South Africa: Part II – Mapping of updated
able spatial sampling of vk,AWS, but also load factor for wind (γ Q,W). statistics. Journal of the South African Institution of
results in most of the municipal regions The spatial and wind speed discretisation of Civil Engineering, 55(2): 46–58.
with no AWS installations to be adjacent the basic map for the characteristic wind speed Kruger, A C, Goliger, A M & Retief J V 2013c.
to at least one AWS zone (see Figure 5). should facilitate the future updating based on: Representivity of wind measurements for design
Notable exceptions are the sparse dis- i. additional information that will arise wind speed estimations. Proceedings, 6th European–
tribution of AWS zones in the inland from the extension of the recording African Conference on Wind Engineering,
regions of KwaZulu-Natal and the Eastern period of the AWS network, Cambridge, UK, 7–11 July 2013.
Cape provinces, and the dense distribu- ii. extension of the network by additional Kruger, A C, Goliger, A M, Larsén, X G & Retief, J V
tion across the complex topography of stations accumulating sufficient data for 2014. Optimal application of climate data to the
the southwestern parts of the Western extreme value analysis, and development of design wind speeds. Proceedings,
Cape Province. Limited sampling of the iii. the extension of the WASA project regions. 26th Conference on Climate Variability and Change
large area across the central regions of (Annual Meeting of the American Meteorological
the country, from the southern parts Society), Atlanta, GA, February 2014.
of the Northern Cape Province to the REFERENCES Larsén, X G & Kruger, A C 2014. Application of the
Free State Province, makes interpolation Goliger, A M, Retief, J V Dunaiski, P E & Kruger, A C spectral correction method to reanalysis data in
somewhat tentative. 2009. Revised wind-loading design procedures for South Africa. Journal of Wind Engineering and
■■ The haphazard shape of individual districts SANS 10160. Chapter 3-2 in Retief, J V, Dunaiski, P Industrial Aerodynamics, 133: 110–122.
is smoothed out on a countrywide scale. E (Eds.). Background to SANS 10160. Stellenbosch: Larsén, X G, Kruger A C, Badger, J & Jørgensen, H E
This results in coherent regions for the low- SUN MeDIA. 2013a. Extreme wind atlases of South Africa from
est three vb,0 values, with a limited number Goliger, A M, Retief, J V & Kruger, A C 2017. Review global reanalysis data. Proceedings, 6th European–
of small island regions for the 44 m/s zone. of climatic input data for wind load design in African Conference on Wind Engineering,
In addition to the reasonable shape of the accordance with SANS 10160-3. Journal of the South Cambridge, UK, July 2013.
zones, the administrative convenience of African Institution of Civil Engineering, 59(4): 2–11. Larsén, X G, Kruger, A C, Badger, J & Jørgensen, H E
stipulating vb,0 values adds to the utility of Holický, M 2009. Reliability analysis for structural 2013b. Dynamical and statistical downscaling
the map format. This is further substanti- design. Stellenbosch: SUN MeDIA. approaches for extreme wind atlas of South Africa.
ated by the possibility of providing the Holmes, J D & Ginger, J D 2012. The gust wind speed Proceedings, European Meteorological Society
information in a tabular format. duration in AS/NZS 1170.2. Australian Journal of Conference, Reading, UK, September 2013.
■■ The significant reduction in vb,0, implied Structural Engineering (IEAust), 13: 207–217. Larsén, X G, Mann J, Rathmann, O & Jørgensen, H E
by the updated information (Kruger et al Holmes, J D, Allsop, A C & Ginger, J D 2014. Gust 2015. Uncertainties of the 50-year wind from
2013b), is confirmed for the northern part durations, gust factors and gust response factors in short time series using generalized extreme value
of the country by Figure 9. However, for wind codes and standards. Wind and Structures, distribution and generalized Pareto distribution.
the central parts of the country there is 19: 339–352. Wind Energy, 18(1): 59–74.
no effective reduction in the value. This Kruger, A C 2011. Wind climatology of South Africa Milford, R V 1985a. Extreme-value analysis of South
outcome results partly from the lower relevant to the design of the built environment. PhD African mean hourly wind speed data. Unpublished
spatial resolution used for Figure 9, com- thesis, Stellenbosch University. Available at: http:// Internal Report 85/1, Structural and Geotechnical
pared to Figure 1. To some extent this is www.hdl.handle.net/10019.1/6847. Engineering Division, National Building Research
due to the arguably somewhat conserva- Kruger, A C, Goliger, A M, Retief, J V & Sekele, S 2010. Institute, CSIR, Pretoria.
tive bias of interpolation for the sparse Strong wind climatic zones in South Africa. Wind & Milford, R V 1985b. Extreme value analysis of South
distribution of vk,AWS for this region. Structures, 13(1): 37–55. African gust speed data. Unpublished Internal
■■ A superficial comparison between the Kruger, A C, Goliger, A M & Retief, J V 2011a. Report 85/4, Structural and Geotechnical
map for vb,0, based on the gust wind Integration and implications of strong wind- Engineering Division, National Building Research
speed shown in Figure 9 and the vb,H producing mechanisms in South Africa. Proceedings, Institute, CSIR, Pretoria
hourly mean wind speed shown in 13th International Conference on Wind Engineering, SABS 0160:1989. The General Procedures and Loadings
Figure 10, indicates significant differences 9–11 July 2011, Amsterdam. to be Adopted in the Design of Buildings. Pretoria:
in the geographic distribution of wind Kruger, A C, Goliger, A M & Retief, J V 2011b. An South African Bureau of Standards.
speed intervals. This results from differ- updated description of the strong-wind climate SANS (South African National Standard) 2010.
ences in the strong wind climate, ranging of South Africa. Proceedings, 13th International SANS 10160-3:2010. Basis of Structural Design and
geographically to be described as synop- Conference on Wind Engineering, 9–11 July 2011, Actions for Buildings and Industrial Structures.
tic, convective or mixed. The implied dif- Amsterdam. Part 3: Wind Actions. Pretoria: SABS Standards
ferences in the ratio of 3 s gust to hourly Kruger, A C, Goliger, A M, Retief, J V & Sekele, S 2012. Division.
mean wind speeds across the country Clustering of extreme winds in the mixed climate of WASA Phase 1 2015. Wind Atlas for South Africa.
indicate that the Eurocode practice of South Africa. Wind & Structures, 15(2): 87–109. South African National Energy Development
applying a uniform procedure for a gust Kruger, A C, Retief, J V & Goliger, A M 2013a. Strong Institute. Available at: http://www.wasaproject.info/
factor is not suitable for South Africa. winds in South Africa: Part I – Application of docs/WASABooklet.pdf

Journal of the South African Institution of Civil Engineering  •  Volume 59  Number 4  December 2017 21
APPENDIX A
Gust design values assigned per local municipality, according to province and alphabetically arranged. District boundaries and the names of local
municipalities are based on the demarcation information as at: http://www.demarcation.org.za/index.php/downloads/boundary-data (on 2016 11 01).

Wind speed NORTHERN CAPE Code /


32 m/s Municipality vb,0
Ref
36 m/s
NC1 !Kheis 40
40 m/s
44 m/s NC2 //Khara Hais 40
NC16
NC3 Dikgatlong 40
NC8
NC4 Emthanjeni 40

NC5 NC6 NC18 NC5 Gamagara 36


NC2
NC6 Ga-Segonyana 36
NC25 NC13 NC3 NC15
NC7 Hantam 36
NC20 NC23
NC9 NC21 NC8 Joe Morolong 36
NC1
NC17 NC14 NC9 Kai !Garib 40
NC22 NC24
NC10 Kamiesberg 32

NC10 NC19 NC11 Kareeberg 40


NC11
NC4
NC27 NC12 Karoo Hoogland 40
NC7
NC26 NC13 Kgatelopele 36
NC12
NC14 Khâi-Ma 36

NC15 Magareng 40

NC16 Mier 36

NC17 Nama Khoi 32

NC18 Phokwane 40

WESTERN CAPE Wind speed NC19 Renosterberg 40


32 m/s
NC20 Richtersveld 32
36 m/s
40 m/s NC21 Siyancuma 40
WC15
44 m/s
NC22 Siyathemba 40

NC23 Sol Plaatjie 40

WC6 NC24 Thembelihle 40


WC1
NC25 Tsantsabane 36
WC2
NC26 Ubuntu 40
WC20 WC25
WC19
WC13 NC27 Umsobomvu 40
WC22

WC8 WC11 WC17 WC9


WC7 WC4 WC14
WC21 WC12 WC3
WC23 WC10 WC16
WC24 Code /
Municipality vb,0
Ref
WC18 WC5
WC16 Mossel Bay 36
Code /
Municipality vb,0 WC17 Oudtshoorn 36
Ref
Code /
Municipality vb,0 WC18 Overstrand 44
Ref WC8 Drakenstein 40

WC1 Beaufort West 40 WC9 George 36 WC19 Prince Albert 40

WC2 Bergrivier 40 WC10 Hessequa 36 WC20 Saldanha Bay 40

WC3 Bitou 36 WC11 Kannaland 36 WC21 Stellenbosch 40

WC4 Breede Valley 44 WC12 Knysna 36 WC22 Swartland 40

WC5 Cape Agulhas 44 WC13 Laingsburg 40 WC23 Swellendam 40

WC6 Cederberg 36 WC14 Langeberg 40 WC24 Theewaterskloof 40

WC7 City of Cape Town 40 WC15 Matzikama 32 WC25 Witzenberg 40

22 Journal of the South African Institution of Civil Engineering  •  Volume 59  Number 4  December 2017
Wind speed Wind speed
32 m/s EC21 32 m/s
36 m/s 36 m/s
EC39
40 m/s EC36 EC6 EC31 EC23 40 m/s
EC9 EC20
44 m/s EC24 44 m/s
EC29 GT2
EC12 EC35
EC33 EC34
EC7 EC8
EC15 GT8
EC38 EC13
EC14
EC18 GT9 GT1 GT3
EC22
EC5 EC25 GT10
EC32 EC1 GT6 GT5
EC3 EC10
EC30 GT4
EC11 EC4 GT7
EC28
EC2
EC19 GAUTENG
EC37 EC26

EC17 EC16 EC27 EASTERN CAPE Code /


Municipality vb,0
Ref
Code / GT1 City of Johannesburg 36
Municipality vb,0
Ref
Code /
Municipality vb,0 GT2 City of Tshwane 36
Ref EC20 Maletswai 40

EC1 Amahlathi 40 EC21 Matatiele 40 GT3 Ekurhuleni 36

EC2 Baviaans 36 EC22 Mbhashe 40 GT4 Emfuleni 36

EC3 Blue Crane Route 36 EC23 Mbizana 40 GT5 Lesedi 36

EC4 Buffalo City 40 EC24 Mhlontlo 44 GT6 Merafong City 36

EC5 Camdeboo 36 EC25 Mnquma 40 GT7 Midvaal 36

EC6 Elundini 44 EC26 Ndlambe 40 GT8 Mogale City 36


EC7 Emalahleni 44 EC27 Nelson Mandela Bay 40 GT9 Randfontein 36
EC8 Engcobo 44 EC28 Ngqushwa 40 GT10 Westonaria 36
EC9 Gariep 40 EC29 Ngquza Hill 40

EC10 Great Kei 40 EC30 Nkonkobe 40

EC11 Ikwezi 36 EC31 Ntabankulu 40


Code /
EC12 Inkwanca 40 EC32 Nxuba 40 Municipality vb,0
Ref
EC13 Intsika Yethu 44 EC33 Nyandeni 44 NW1 City of Matlosana 36
EC14 Inxuba Yethemba 40 EC34 Port St Johns 40
NW2 Ditsobotla 36
EC15 King Sabata Dalindyebo 44 EC35 Sakhisizwe 44
NW3 Greater Taung 40
EC16 Kouga 40 EC36 Senqu 40
NW4 Kagisano/Molopo 36
EC17 Kou-Kamma 36 EC37 Sundays River Valley 40
NW5 Kgetlengrivier 36
EC18 Lukanji 44 EC38 Tsolwana 40
NW6 Lekwa-Teemane 40
EC19 Makana 40 EC39 Umzimvubu 40
Local Municipality
NW7 36
of Madibeng

NW8 Mafikeng 36
Wind speed NW9 Mamusa 40
32 m/s
NW10 Maquassi Hills 40
36 m/s NW12 NW11
NW14
40 m/s NW7 NW11 Moretele 36
44 m/s NW16
NW5 NW12 Moses Kotane 36
NW8
NW13 Naledi 40
NW15 NW2
NW4
NW19 NW14 Ramotshere Moiloa 36
NW18 NW15 Ratlou 36
NW17
NW1
NW13 NW16 Rustenburg 36
NW9 NW10 NW17 Tlokwe City Council 36
NW3 NW6 NW18 Tswaing 36

NW19 Ventersdorp 36
NORTH WEST

Journal of the South African Institution of Civil Engineering  •  Volume 59  Number 4  December 2017 23
Wind speed
Code /
32 m/s Municipality vb,0
Ref
36 m/s K40
K22 Mkhambathini 40
40 m/s
44 m/s K23 Mpofana 40
K3 K50
K4 K16 K24 Msinga 40
K28 K25 Mthonjaneni 36
K1
K30 K35
K2 K26 Mtubatuba 32
K6 K11 K27 Ndwedwe 36
K38
K31 K26
K5 K28 Newcastle 40
K14 K32 K21
K24 K25 K29 Nkandla 40
K29
K33 K41 K30 Nongoma 36
K45 K42
K31 Nqutu 40
K47
K12 K20 K19
K23 K32 Ntambanana 36

K44 K18 K33 Okhahlamba 40


K43 K27
K13
K34 Richmond 40
K36
K17 K7 KWAZULU-NATAL K35 The Big 5 False Bay 32
K15 K34 K22
K36 The Msunduzi 40

K37 K51 K37 Ubuhlebezwe 40


K9 Code /
K48 Municipality vb,0
K39 Ref K38 Ulundi 36
K49
K9 Greater Kokstad 40 K39 Umdoni 36
K46
K8 K10 Hibiscus Coast 36 K40 Umhlabuyalingana 32
K10
K11 Hlabisa 36 K41 uMhlathuze 36

K12 Imbabazane 40 K42 uMlalazi 36


Code /
Municipality vb,0
Ref K13 Impendle 40 K43 uMngeni 40

K1 Abaqulusi 36 K14 Indaka 40 K44 uMshwathi 40

K2 Dannhauser 40 K15 Ingwe 40 K45 Umtshezi 40

K3 eDumbe 36 K16 Jozini 32 K46 uMuziwabantu 40

K4 Emadlangeni 40 K17 Kwa Sani 40 K47 Umvoti 40

K5 Emnambithi/Ladysmith 40 K18 KwaDukuza 36 K48 Umzimkhulu 40

K6 Endumeni 40 K19 Mandeni 36 K49 Umzumbe 36

K7 eThekwini 36 K20 Maphumulo 40 K50 uPhongolo 32

K8 Ezingoleni 36 K21 Mfolozi 36 K51 Vulamehlo 36

MPUMALANGA

MP2 Code / Code /


Municipality vb,0 Municipality vb,0
Ref Ref
MP4 MP15 MP1 Albert Luthuli 36 MP10 Mkhondo 36
MP9
MP16 MP2 Bushbuckridge 32 MP11 Msukaligwa 36
MP12
MP5 MP3 Dipaleseng 36 MP12 Nkomazi 32
MP17
MP14
MP6 MP4 Dr JS Moroka 36 MP13 Pixley Ka Seme 36
MP1
MP18
Wind speed MP5 Emakhazeni 36 MP14 Steve Tshwete 36
MP7 MP11 32 m/s
MP6 Emalahleni 36 MP15 Thaba Chweu 36
36 m/s
MP3 40 m/s MP7 Govan Mbeki 36 MP16 Thembisile 36
MP8
MP10 44 m/s
MP13 MP8 Lekwa 36 MP17 Umjindi 36

MP9 Mbombela 32 MP18 Victor Khanye 36

24 Journal of the South African Institution of Civil Engineering  •  Volume 59  Number 4  December 2017
Wind speed
32 m/s
LIM21
36 m/s
LIM22
40 m/s
44 m/s

LIM4 LIM25
LIM14

LIM8
LIM19 LIM9
LIM13 LIM1
LIM18 LIM2
LIM11
LIM23

LIM16
LIM12
LIM7
LIM17
LIM24
LIM20 LIM10 LIMPOPO
LIM15
LIM6 Code /
LIM3 Municipality vb,0
Ref

LIM5 LIM15 Makhuduthamaga 36


LIM16 Maruleng 36
LIM17 Modimolle 36
Code / Code /
Municipality vb,0 Municipality vb,0
Ref Ref LIM18 Mogalakwena 36
LIM1 Aganang 36 LIM8 Greater Giyani 32 LIM19 Molemole 36
LIM2 Ba-Phalaborwa 32 LIM9 Greater Letaba 32 LIM20 Mookgopong 36
LIM3 Bela-Bela 36 LIM10 Greater Tubatse 36 LIM21 Musina 32
LIM4 Blouberg 32 LIM11 Greater Tzaneen 36 LIM22 Mutale 32
LIM5 Elias Motsoaledi 36 LIM12 Lepele-Nkumpi 36 LIM23 Polokwane 36
LIM6 Ephraim Mogale 36 LIM13 Lephalale 32 LIM24 Thabazimbi 36
LIM7 Fetakgomo 36 LIM14 Makhado 32 LIM25 Thulamela 32

Wind speed
Code /
32 m/s FS10 Municipality vb,0
Ref
36 m/s
FS15 FS4 FS5 Maluti a Phofung 40
40 m/s
44 m/s FS6 Mangaung 40
FS13 FS12 FS17
FS16 FS7 Mantsopa 40
FS20 FS9
FS8 Masilonyana 40
FS1 FS5
FS19 FS9 Matjhabeng 40
FS8 FS18
FS10 Metsimaholo 40

FS7 FS11 Mohokare 40


FS6
FS3
FS12 Moqhaka 40
FS14
FS13 Nala 40

FS2 FS14 Naledi 40


FS11
FS15 Ngwathe 40

FREE STATE FS16 Nketoana 40

FS17 Phumelela 40
Code / Code /
Municipality vb,0 Municipality vb,0 FS18 Setsoto 40
Ref Ref

FS1 Dihlabeng 40 FS3 Letsemeng 40 FS19 Tokologo 40

FS2 Kopanong 40 FS4 Mafube 40 FS20 Tswelopele 40

Journal of the South African Institution of Civil Engineering  •  Volume 59  Number 4  December 2017 25
TECHNICAL PAPER The effect of embedment on
Journal of the South African
Institution of Civil Engineering
a foundation subjected to
ISSN 1021-2019
Vol 59 No 4, December 2017, Pages 26–33, Paper 1377 vertical vibration –
DR SILIPIUS MBAWALA is a lecturer in the
a field study
Department of Civil Engineering at the Dar es
Salaam Institute of Technology (DIT), working in
the discipline of Geotechnical Engineering. He S J Mbawala, G Heymann, C P Roth, P S Heyns
holds an Advance Diploma in Civil Engineering
from Dar es Salaam Technical College (DTC), and
BSc (Hons), MSc and PhD degrees from the
University of Pretoria. His field of interest includes
Design of machine foundations requires the prediction of the dynamic response of the
geotechnical site characterisation and analytical and numerical modelling of foundation system at the frequencies of interest. The response is typically quantified in terms
machine foundations. of a number of parameters that include the displacement, the dynamic stiffness, the resonant
Contact details: frequency, the amplitude at the resonant frequency and the natural frequency. The objective
Department of Civil Engineering, Dar es Salaam Institute of Technology of this study was to investigate the vertical dynamic response of an embedded foundation
PO Box 2958, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania experimentally. It was found that embedment increases the stiffness, damping and natural
T: +255 754 446 537, E: mbawallla@yahoo.com
frequency of a foundation system, reduces the displacement and resonant amplitude, but that
PROF GERHARD HEYMANN (Pr Eng, MSAICE) is
embedment has very little effect on the resonant frequency.
Professor in the Department of Civil Engineering
at the University of Pretoria. He holds BEng, BEng
(Hons) and MEng degrees from the University of
INTRODUCTION particularly at the resonant frequency, the
Pretoria, and a PhD from the University of Surrey.
He has been involved with teaching and research Although most machine foundations are dynamic stiffness and the natural frequency.
in geotechnical engineering for many years. His partially or fully embedded, there exists little This field study aims at investigating the
field of interest includes the characterisation of information about the effect of embedment effects of embedment on these parameters.
soil behaviour and its application in geotechnical engineering.
on foundation responses. Nevertheless, it
Contact details: is known that embedment increases the
Department of Civil Engineering, University of Pretoria
stiffness of a foundation system and reduces EMBEDDED FOUNDATIONS
Pretoria 0002, South Africa
T: +27 12 420 3627, E: gerhard.heymann@up.ac.za the displacement amplitude at resonance. The effects of embedment on the dynamic
However, the question still remains whether responses of foundations have been studied
PROF CHRIS ROTH (Pr Eng, FSAICE) is Associate there are additional benefits in fully embed- by various researchers. These studies have
Professor in Civil Engineering at the University of ding foundations. suggested that embedment increases the
Pretoria, working in the discipline of structural
engineering. He started his career in consulting
Some researchers report that embedment stiffness of the foundation system and
engineering before joining the University of increases resonant frequency (Novak & reduces the displacement amplitude at reso-
Pretoria, and is the current chairman of SANS Beredugo 1972; Gupta 1972; Novak 1974), nance (Lysmer & Kuhlemeyer 1969; Novak
Technical Committee 98/Subcommittee 1 on
while others believe that embedment causes 1970; Chae 1971; Novak & Beredugo 1972;
Basis of Design and Actions (including
Earthquake Design). He obtained a BEng degree in civil engineering at the an insignificant change in the resonant Gupta 1972; Novak 1974; Novak et al 1978;
University of Stellenbosch, and an MS and PhD at Cornell University. His frequency of the foundation system (Chae Gazetas 1983; Lin & Jennings 1984; Gazetas
interests are in structural reliability and structural analysis. 1971; Lin & Jennings 1984; Inukai & Imazawa & Stokoe 1991; Inukai & Imazawa 1992). The
Contact details: 1992). Furthermore, researchers sometimes resonant amplitude is the peak amplitude in
Department of Civil Engineering, University of Pretoria use resonant frequency and natural frequency the frequency response function. It has been
Pretoria 0002, South Africa
interchangeably. The resonant frequency is suggested by some researchers that embed-
T: +27 12 420 2185, E: chris.roth@up.ac.za
defined as the forcing frequency at which the ment increases the resonant frequency of the
PROF STEPHAN HEYNS is Professor and Director peak amplitude occurs. This depends on the foundation (Novak & Beredugo 1972; Gupta
of the Centre for Asset Integrity Management propagated waves radiating from the footing, 1972). In contrast, other researchers have
(C-AIM) at the University of Pretoria. C-AIM focuses driving forces and boundaries of the system. reported that embedment causes little or no
on asset structural integrity and covers aspects of
the asset life cycle – from structural analysis and
A resonant frequency exists only if the damp- increase of resonant frequency (Chae 1971;
structural testing, through data acquisitioning, ing ratio is less than 0.707 (Chopra 2007; Inukai & Imazawa 1992). Chae (1971) argued
condition monitoring, diagnostics, prognostics Doebelin 1998). The natural frequency is the that embedment will not cause the resonant
and maintenance management decision-making. frequency at which the system will oscillate frequency to change, because the system
His research focuses on machine and structural health monitoring using
vibration-based condition monitoring, new vibration measurement techniques without being altered by outside forces, and mass increases as a result of the surcharge
including optical measurement techniques, as well as various aspects of the is therefore a property of the system only. and this will balance the increase in stiffness
broader physical asset integrity management problem. Very little work has been done to investigate due to the embedment. Novak (1970) noted
Contact details: the effect of embedment on the natural that the response of an embedded foundation
Department of Mechanical and Aeronautical Engineering frequency of a foundation system. In addition, could be substantially affected by the nature
University of Pretoria contradictory conclusions have been made of the contact between the footing and the
Pretoria 0002, South Africa
T: +27 12 420 2432, E: stephan.heyns@up.ac.za among researchers with regard to the effect surrounding soil.
of embedment on the resonant frequency. These seemingly contradictory conclu-
Keywords: embedment, machine foundations, vertical vibration, The design of machine foundations requires sions with regard to the effect of embedment
resonant frequency, vertical dynamic response the proper prediction of displacement, on resonant frequency may be due to how

26
Mbawala SJ, Heymann G, Roth CP, Heyns PS. The effect of embedment on a foundation subjected to vertical vibration – a field study.
J. S. Afr. Inst. Civ. Eng. 2017:59(4), Art. #1377, 8 pages. http://dx.doi.org/10.17159/2309-8775/2017/v59n4a3
the interface between the footing and the
D
adjacent soil is treated. Clearly there is little
consensus regarding the effect of embed- P(t)
ment on the resonant frequency, and in
addition little work has been done to study U(t)
the effect of embedment on the natural fre- GS GS ρs
ρs
quency. Therefore, in this study, experiments
were conducted to determine the effect of
Nv(t) Nv(t)
embedment on the behaviour of a footing
subjected to vertical vibration. Df
There are several methods that can
be used to describe the effect of founda- H
tion embedment. Chae (1971) introduced
a dimensionless quantity known as the
amplitude reduction coefficient to express U(t)
the response of an embedded footing under
dynamic loading, while Novak and Beredugo h ro
(1972) used the resonant amplitude ratio. Rv(t)
The resonant amplitude ratio, or amplitude Half-space G ρ
reduction coefficient, is the ratio of the peak
amplitude for an embedded footing to the
peak amplitude for zero embedment, as Figure 1: Mathematical model for embedded footing
shown in Equation 1.
fD
Nf =
Umax fDo (4)
Ra = (1)
U0 max
where fD is the natural frequency of the
where Umax is the maximum displacement foundation system with embedment, and fDo
amplitude for a given embedment, and U0 max is the natural frequency of the foundation
is the maximum displacement amplitude for system with zero embedment.
zero embedment. The geometry of an embed-
ded footing is described by the embedment
factor (Chae 1971), while Novak and Beredugo EXPERIMENTAL WORK
(1972) describe the same quantity as the Measurements were made to characterise
embedment ratio (δ) given by Equation 2: the behaviour of an embedded footing at Figure 2(a): F ooting (1 200 mm × 1 200 mm ×
the experimental farm of the University of 1 240 mm)
Df Pretoria. Full details of the experimental
δ= (2)
ro work are given in Mbawala (2015). The
underlying material was residual andesite,
where Df is the embedment depth (as shown and the general soil profile may be described
in Figure 1) and ro is the radius or equivalent as silty clay mixed with gravels. The small
radius of the footing. For a square footing, strain shear stiffness of the soil (G) was
ro is half the width of the footing, while for measured using the continuous surface wave
a circular footing, ro is the radius of the test (Heymann 2007) and on average was
footing. The effect of embedment on the found to be 100 MPa to a depth of 8 m.
resonant frequency is expressed in terms of A concrete footing with plan dimensions
the resonant frequency ratio as: 1 200 mm × 1 200 mm and 1 240 mm depth
was cast in place as shown in Figure 2(a). The
fd excavation was backfilled and compacted
Rf = (3) Figure 2(b): Full embedment (1 240 mm)
fo in layers of approximately 150 mm. The
fully embedded foundation was left for 12
where fo is the resonant frequency of the months to ensure good contact between the
foundation system with zero embedment and surface of the footing and the soil, as shown
fd is the resonant frequency of the foundation in Figure 2(b). After 12 months a series of
system with an embedment Df . vibration tests were conducted at different
In the same manner, a new dimensionless levels of embedment. At each excavation
quantity known as the natural frequency stage, the mass density of the layers was
ratio Nf is introduced to express the effect measured using the nuclear density method.
of embedment on the natural frequency of Foundation embedment depths of 930 mm,
foundation systems. The natural frequency 620 mm, 310 mm and 0 mm are shown in
ratio Nf is the ratio of the natural frequency Figures 2(c), 2(d), 2(e) and 2(f) respectively.
for an embedded footing to the natural fre- A servo-hydraulic shaker was used to
quency for zero embedment (Equation 4): excite the footing by applying a harmonic Figure 2(c): 930 mm embedment

Journal of the South African Institution of Civil Engineering  •  Volume 59  Number 4  December 2017 27
Figure 2(d): 620 mm embedment Figure 2(e): 310 mm embedment Figure 2(f): 0 mm embedment

vertical force at frequencies ranging from that has a spring, mass and damper. Because supporting soil which attributes only to the
10 Hz to 100 Hz. The foundation system the vertical excitation of the foundation influence that the frequency exerts on inertia
was excited for a few seconds at each for­ system is harmonic, the vertical dynamic because the soil is frequency-independent.
cing frequency to ensure that steady state displacement response is also harmonic.
conditions were reached before recording Therefore, the displacement amplitudes may P(t)
Kv(ω) = (6)
the output. The vertical dynamic response be calculated from the acceleration data U(t)
of the foundation system was measured as follows:
with two 1 g accelerometers placed on top
of the footing, 200 mm from the edge of
U=
Ü
(5)
RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS
the shaker, as shown in Figure 2(c). The –ω2 The parameters that are important when
force applied by the shaker at each forcing designing a machine foundation are the
frequency was measured using a load cell where Ü is the acceleration amplitude and ω displacement amplitude, stiffness, resonant fre-
mounted inside the shaker, as shown in is the angular velocity. quency and natural frequency of the machine
Figure 3. The force amplitude was constant The vertical impedance functions of the foundation system. In this section, the results
at each frequency but, as shown in Figure 3, foundation system for different embedment obtained from the field measurements are pre-
it varied at different frequencies. This was depths were obtained by calculating the fast sented. The dimensionless values of the reso-
due to limitations in the behaviour of the Fourier transform (FFT) for the input and nant amplitude ratio, resonant frequency ratio
servo‑hydraulic system. output data. For each excitation frequency, the and natural frequency ratio are also presented.
The evaluation of impedance func- dynamic impedance functions were calculated
tions assumes that the footing is rigid and using Equation 6, which is the ratio of the Displacement amplitude
remains in contact with the soil at all times. applied vertical complex harmonic forces P(t) Figure 4 shows the measured vertical ampli-
Therefore, the displacement of the footing is to the resulting steady state complex displace- tude response for the different embedment
assumed to be equal to the displacement of ment response U(t). Kv is the dynamic stiffness depths. The vertical displacement amplitudes
the soil surface beneath the footing. Under of the soil and foundation system, which is decrease as the embedment increases. The
this condition, the footing may be simplified frequency-dependent. The frequency depen- experimental results show two peaks – the
as a system with a single degree of freedom dence is due to the stiffness and inertia of the first peak is at about 38 Hz and a second

14 000 0.025

12 000
0.020
Displacement amplitude (mm)

10 000

0.015
8 000
Force (N)

6 000
0.010

4 000

0.005
2 000

0 0
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
Frequency (Hz) Frequency (Hz)
0 mm embedment 930 mm embedment 0 mm embedment 930 mm embedment
310 mm embedment 1 240 mm embedment 310 mm embedment 1 240 mm embedment
620 mm embedment 620 mm embedment

Figure 3: Force measured by the shaker Figure 4: Measured displacement

28 Journal of the South African Institution of Civil Engineering  •  Volume 59  Number 4  December 2017
0.024 7.00E-06

6.00E-06

0.020
Displacement amplitude (mm)

5.00E-06

Amplitude (mm/N)
4.00E-06
0.016

3.00E-06

0.012 2.00E-06

1.00E-06

0.008
0.00E+00
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
Frequency (Hz)
0 mm embedment 930 mm embedment
0.004
0 200 400 600 800 1 000 1 200 1 400 310 mm embedment 1 240 mm embedment
Embedment depth (mm) 620 mm embedment

Figure 5: Displacement at peak Figure 6: Frequency response function

peak at about 60 Hz. The first peak is more frequency response function (FRF) as shown Figure 7 shows the peak normalised ampli-
pronounced at smaller embedment depths in Figure 6. The normalised vertical ampli- tude for different embedment depths.
compared with greater embedment depths. tudes decrease as the embedment increases. The resonant amplitude ratio obtained
At low frequencies of about 10 Hz and at The resonant frequency may be observed experimentally is shown in Figure 8. From
a frequency of approximately 80 Hz, the at about 38 Hz, the frequency at which the the figure it is clear that the resonant ampli-
observed displacement amplitudes show little peak-normalised amplitude occurred. The tude ratio decreases as embedment increas-
dependence on embedment depth. Figure 5 experimental data results show a second es. It also shows that the rate of reduction
shows the plot of displacement at the peak minor peak at about 60 Hz, which is more of the resonant amplitude ratio is high at
versus embedment depth. It clearly shows pronounced at smaller embedment depths low values of the embedment ratio. This
that, as embedment increases, the displace- than at greater embedment depths. This suggests that even small levels of embed-
ment at the peak amplitude decreases. coincides with the frequency where the ment can significantly reduce the maximum
applied harmonic force is a maximum vibration amplitude. For instance, in the
Resonant amplitude (Figure 3). At frequencies above approxi- footing investigated, an embedment of
The measured displacement was normal- mately 80 Hz, the observed amplitudes show one quarter of the total depth reduced
ised by the applied force to obtain the little dependence on embedment depth. the displacement amplitude by more than

7.00E-06 1.2

6.00E-06 1.0
Resonant amplitude ratio (Ra)
Resonant amplitude (mm/N)

5.00E-06 0.8

4.00E-06 0.6

3.00E-06 0.4

2.00E-06 0.2

1.00E-06 0
0 200 400 600 800 1 000 1 200 1 400 0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5
Embedment depth (mm) Embedment ratio

Figure 7: Resonant amplitude Figure 8: Resonant amplitude ratio

Journal of the South African Institution of Civil Engineering  •  Volume 59  Number 4  December 2017 29
3.00E+06 8.00E+05

6.00E+05
2.50E+06
4.00E+05
Complex dynamicstiffness (N/mm)

Real part – stiffness (N/mm)


2.00E+05
2.00E+06
0.00E+00

1.50E+06 –2.00E+05

–4.00E+05
1.00E+06
–6.00E+05

–8.00E+05
5.00E+05
–1.00E+06

0.00E+00 –1.20E+06
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
Frequency (Hz) Frequency (Hz)
0 mm embedment 930 mm embedment 0 mm embedment 930 mm embedment
310 mm embedment 1 240 mm embedment 310 mm embedment 1 240 mm embedment
620 mm embedment 620 mm embedment

Figure 9: Complex dynamic stiffness Figure 10: Real part of complex dynamic stiffness

40%. The results also indicate that the rate of embedment it reaches a minimum at may be seen from Figure 10 that the natural
of reduction becomes smaller at greater approximately 38 Hz and increases at frequency of the foundation system increased
embedment depths. At full embedment, frequencies above 38 Hz. The resonant as the embedment increased.
the measured reduction in amplitude was frequency may be estimated from the plot of The imaginary part of the complex
approximately 78%. complex dynamic stiffness as the frequency dynamic stiffness indicates the level of
where the complex dynamic stiffness is damping of the foundation system. For
Complex dynamic stiffness a minimum. foundation systems where the magnitude of
The complex dynamic stiffness obtained Figure 10 shows a plot of the real part of the vibration amplitude is low, damping is
from the experimental data, for different the complex dynamic stiffness versus forcing mainly as a result of radiation damping. The
levels of embedment, is shown in Figure 9. frequency. The results show that the real plot of the imaginary part of the complex
The complex dynamic stiffness increases part of complex dynamic stiffness increases dynamic stiffness is shown in Figure 11. The
as the embedment increases, but the effect as the embedment increases. The natural results show that the imaginary part of the
of embedment is small at low frequencies. frequency of the foundation system occurs complex dynamic stiffness increases as the
The complex dynamic stiffness is nearly at the frequency where the real part of the embedment increases, showing that embed-
constant up to about 20 Hz. For low levels complex dynamic stiffness crosses zero. It ment increases damping.

2.75E+06 39.5

2.25E+06 39.0
Imaginary part – stiffness (N/mm)

38.5
1.75E+06
Resonant frequency (Hz)

38.0
1.25E+06

37.5
7.50E+05

37.0
2.50E+05
36.5

–2.50E+05
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 36.0
Frequency (Hz)
0 mm embedment 930 mm embedment
35.5
310 mm embedment 1 240 mm embedment 0 310 620 930 1 240 1 550
620 mm embedment Embedment depth (mm)

Figure 11: Imaginary part of complex dynamic stiffness Figure 12: Resonant frequency

30 Journal of the South African Institution of Civil Engineering  •  Volume 59  Number 4  December 2017
1.04 160
150
140
1.02 130
120
110

Phase angle (degree)


Resonant frequency ratio (R f )

100
1.00
90
80
70
0.98
60
50
40
0.96 30 fn
20
10
0.94 0
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
Frequency (Hz)
0 mm embedment 930 mm embedment
0.92
0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 310 mm embedment 1 240 mm embedment
Embedment ratio 620 mm embedment

Figure 13: Resonant frequency ratio Figure 14: Natural frequency – phase angle

Resonant frequency be quantified using the dimensionless para­ difference between the force vector and the
For undamped systems, the resonant fre- meter resonant frequency ratio (Equation 3). displacement vector. The natural frequency
quency is equal to the natural frequency of A plot of the resonant frequency ratio versus is obtained by finding the frequency at which
the foundation systems, but for a damped the embedment ratio obtained from the field the displacement response of the foundation
system, the resonant frequency is less than measurements is shown in Figure 13. The changes from being in phase to becoming
the natural frequency. The field-measured results showed that the resonant frequency out of phase with the forcing function.
resonant frequency showed very slight ratio was within 6% of the resonant frequency For an undamped system this is an abrupt
change as the embedment increased. ratio at zero embedment, regardless of the occurrence, as the forcing frequency passes
Figure 12 shows the plot of the resonant level of embedment. through the natural frequency. For damped
frequencies against embedment depth. The systems, such as machine foundations, this
resonant frequency measured in the experi- Natural frequency is a more gradual process, and the natural
ment varied by about 3 Hz, regardless of the The natural frequency of a machine founda- frequency is taken to be the frequency at
embedment depth. tion system can be obtained from the plot which the phase difference between the
The effect of embedment on the resonant of phase angle versus forcing frequency. force and amplitude vectors is 90 degrees.
frequency of the foundation system can also The phase angle is defined as the phase The experimental data shown in Figure 14

150 56
140
130 54
120
K I(ω)/K R(ω) – (Absolute value)

110
52
100
Natural frequency (Hz)

90
80 50
70
60 48
50
40
46
30
20
44
10
0
–10 42
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
Frequency (Hz)
40
0 mm embedment 930 mm embedment 0 310 620 930 1 240 1 550
310 mm embedment 1 240 mm embedment Embedment depth (mm)
620 mm embedment
Figure 16: T he effect of embedment on the natural frequency of the
Figure 15: Natural frequency foundation system

Journal of the South African Institution of Civil Engineering  •  Volume 59  Number 4  December 2017 31
1.4 0.55

0.50
1.3

0.45
Natural frequency ratio (Nf )

Damping ratio (D)


1.2
0.40

0.35
1.1

0.30

1.0
0.25

0.9 0.20
0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 0 310 620 930 1 240 1 550
Embedment ratio Embedment depth (mm)

Figure 17: Natural frequency ratio for different levels of embedment Figure 18: Damping ratio

shows that, in general, the natural frequency Damping ratio non-dimensional parameters of resonant
of the foundation system increases as the The damping ratio of the foundation system amplitude ratio, resonant frequency ratio,
embedment increases. The natural frequency may be determined from the resonant frequen- natural frequency ratio and damping ratio
increased from 41 Hz at zero embedment to cy and natural frequency using Equation 8: were also determined. From this field study,
55 Hz at full embedment. the following was concluded:
The natural frequency of the foundation ωr = ωo√1 – 2D 2(8) ■■ The resonant amplitude decreases as
system can also be obtained from a plot embedment increases. The rate of reduc-
of loss angle versus frequency of excita- Where ωr is the resonant frequency, ωo is the tion of the resonant amplitude was high
tion (Tileylioglu 2008). The loss angle is undamped natural frequency of the founda- at low values of the embedment ratio.
determined from the ratio of the imaginary tion system, and D is the damping ratio of This suggests that even small levels of
part to the real part of the complex dynamic the system. embedment can significantly reduce
stiffness, and the natural frequency occurs at The measured damping ratios for the maximum vibration amplitude.
the peak loss angle. The peak occurs because foundation systems with different levels of The results also indicate that the bene­
the denominator (real part) is close to zero embedment are shown in Figure 18. It shows fit of embedment diminishes at high
near the natural frequency, as shown in that, as the embedment increases, there is ­embedment depths.
Equation 7. a significant increase in damping ratio. The ■■ The complex dynamic stiffness, includ-
rate of increase of damping ratio is more ing both the real and imaginary parts,
Ko – Mω2 = 0 (7) pronounced at low values of embedment increases as the embedment increases.
ratio, becoming less pronounced near full ■■ The resonant frequency changes only
where ω is the angular velocity of the embedment. Nonetheless, Figure 18 shows slightly as the embedment increases, with
excitation, Ko is equivalent to static stiff- that there is a significant advantage to embed the resonant frequency ranging within 6%
ness (Ko = Kstatic) and M is the mass of the machine foundations, as higher levels of at all levels of embedment.
vibrating mechanism. The loss angles versus damping produce lower vibration amplitudes. ■■ The natural frequency increases as
forcing frequency for the experimental data the embedment increases. The natural
are shown in Figure 15 on page 31. The frequency at full embedment was 35%
plot again shows that the natural frequency CONCLUSIONS higher than at zero embedment.
increases as the embedment increases. During this study, the effect of embedment ■■ The damping ratio increases as the
Figure 16 on page 31 shows the natural on the dynamic response of a foundation embedment increases. It was shown that
frequency of the foundation system versus subjected to vertical vibration loading was the rate of increases of damping ratio is
embedment depth. The figure shows that, investigated. A 1 200 mm × 1 200 mm more pronounced at low levels of embed-
in general, there is a trend of increasing the square concrete footing with a depth of ment, again confirming that even small
natural frequency of the foundation system 1 240 mm was cast in the field, and the levels of embedment can significantly
as the embedment increases. The same dynamic responses were measured when the improve the performance of a machine
result is shown in non-dimensional form footing was embedded at 0 mm, 310 mm, foundation system.
in Figure 17 as natural frequency ratio and 620 mm, 930 mm and 1 240 mm.
embedment ratio. The figure shows that the Different response parameters of the
natural frequency of the foundation at full foundation were observed. These included ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
embedment was 35% higher than the natural the resonant and natural frequency, and the The authors wish to acknowledge the finan-
frequency at zero embedment. amplitude at the resonant frequency. The cial contribution made towards this project

32 Journal of the South African Institution of Civil Engineering  •  Volume 59  Number 4  December 2017
by Anglo Technical Division, a division experiment. Journal of Geotechnical Engineering, Mbawala, S J 2015. Behaviour of machine foundations
of Anglo American plc, as well as THRIP 117(9): 1382–1401. subjected to vertical dynamic loading. PhD Thesis.
(Grant number 71875). Gupta, B N 1972. Effect of foundation embedment University of Pretoria.
on the dynamic behaviour of the foundation-soil Novak, M 1970. Prediction of footing vibrations.
system. Geotechnique, 22(1). 129–137. Journal of the Soil Mechanics and Foundation
REFERENCES Heymann, G 2007. Ground stiffness measurement Division, ASCE, 96(3): 837–861.
Chae, Y S 1971. Dynamic behaviour of embedded by the continuous surface wave test. Journal of Novak, M 1974. The effect of embedment on vibration
foundation-soil systems. Highway Research Record, the South African Institution of Civil Engineering, of footings and structures. Proceedings, 5th World
No. 323: 49–59. 49(1): 25–31. Conference on Earthquake Engineering, 25–29 June
Chopra, A K 2007. Dynamics of Structures: Theory Inukai, T & Imazawa, T 1992. Dynamic behaviour of 1973, Rome. Milan: Editrice Libraria, Vol. 1,
and Application to Earthquake Engineering, 3rd ed. embedded structure on hard rock site. Proceedings, 2658–2661.
Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall. 10th World Conference on Earthquake Engineering, Novak, M & Beredugo, Y O 1972. Vertical vibration of
Doebelin, E O 1998. System Dynamics: Modelling, 19–24 July, Madrid, Spain. Rotterdam: AA Balkema, embedded footing. Journal of the Soil Mechanics and
Analysis, Simulation, Design. New York: Marcel 1695–1700. Foundation Division, ASCE, 98(12): 1291–1310.
Dekker. Lin, A N & Jennings, P C 1984. Effect of embedment on Novak, M, Nogami, T & Aboul-Ella, F 1978. Dynamic
Gazetas, G 1983. Analysis of machine foundation foundation-soil impedances. Journal of Engineering soil reactions for plane strain case. Journal of the
vibrations: State of the art. Soil Dynamics and Mechanics, 110(7): 1060–1075. Engineering Mechanics Division, ASCE, 104: 953–959.
Earthquake Engineering, 2(1): 1–42. Lysmer, J & Kuhlemeyer, R L 1969. Finite dynamic Tileylioglu, S 2008. Evaluation of soil-structure
Gazetas, G M & Stokoe, H K 1991. Free vibration model for infinite media. Journal of the Engineering interaction effect from field performance. PhD
of embedded foundations: Theory versus Mechanics Division, ASCE, 95(4): 859–877. Thesis. Los Angeles, CA: University of California.

Journal of the South African Institution of Civil Engineering  •  Volume 59  Number 4  December 2017 33
TECHNICAL PAPER Traffic characteristics
Journal of the South African
Institution of Civil Engineering and bridge loading
ISSN 1021-2019
Vol 59 No 4, December 2017, Pages 34–46, Paper 1513 in South Africa
DR ROMAN LENNER (PE) is a senior lecturer at R Lenner, D P G de Wet, C Viljoen
Stellenbosch University in the Department of
Civil Engineering. His main research interests
include structural reliability, bridge loading,
target reliability and assessment of The loading model of the Technical Manual for Highways (TMH-7) published for bridge design
existing structures. He holds a Dr.-Ing from in South Africa is in need of revision and simplification. The frequency of heavy vehicle loads
the University of German Armed Forces has increased and the current application of the loading model is unnecessarily cumbersome.
in Munich.
This paper aims to compare the heavy vehicle traffic loading of South Africa and Europe. A
Contact details: comparison of global internal bridge forces under the NA loading of TMH-7 and LM1 loading
Department of Civil Engineering of Eurocode provides an indication of how current South African provision relates to the ones
Private Bag X1
adopted in Europe. Above all, the traffic characteristics in South Africa are investigated in
Matieland 7602
South Africa comparison to data used in development of LM1.
T: +27 21 808 9572 LM1 loading generally results in higher internal forces when compared to TMH-7 loading.
E: rlenner@sun.ac.za A direct adoption would thus imply more expensive bridges across South Africa without
substantiation, considering the satisfactory past performance of existing structures. More
GERHARD DE WET (Pr Eng) founded Static importantly, the gross vehicle weights observed in South Africa are higher than those used for
Motion (Pty) Ltd in 2016 after having worked for the development of LM1, indicating that the current TMH-7 distributed loading may be too low.
AECOM SA (known as BKS until 2012) for 16
Axle loads and their variability in South Africa are somewhat less than in Europe, so local design
years. His special fields of interest are
overloading management, weigh-in-motion effects are less of a concern. It is apparent that further urgent work is required to establish a
(WIM), electronic traffic monitoring and data load model that reflects the current heavy vehicle traffic and predicts appropriate characteristic
quality management. He has been working on vertical loads.
the overloading management projects of the
four toll concessions surrounding Gauteng (N1 North, Bakwena, TRAC and
N3TC) for most of his career. He completed his Master’s Degree on
Post-calibration and Quality Management of WIM data in 2010. Introduction resort in the complicated concept of aggregate
As some of the structural standards in lane length, variable loading intensity, partial
Contact details:
South Africa are becoming outdated, or in loading of influence surfaces and the concept
Static Motion (Pty) Ltd
PO Box 40167 some cases are entirely missing, it becomes of variable lane width (CSRA 1991). The
Faerie Glen necessary to either develop new codes or currently prescribed model leads to an overly
Pretoria 0043 adapt foreign ones. This has been extensively complicated application, and thus brings an
T: +27 82 853 4674
discussed by the engineering community, unnecessary burden to the practising engi-
E: gerharddw@staticmotion.co.za
including authorities, practising profession- neer. The complexity of analysis also leads
als and academics. As a result, portions of in many cases to errors in estimation of the
DR CELESTE VILJOEN (Pr Eng, MSAICE) is a
researcher on structural risk and reliability at
Eurocodes (EN) have been implemented in resulting design forces.
Stellenbosch University. She is a member of South Africa. This is illustrated by means of The aim of this paper is to critically
SABS TC98/02, the convenor of the working the revised South African National Standard compare actual traffic in South Africa to
group developing SANS 10100-3, a member of (SANS) 10160: Basis of structural design the traffic data used to develop the loading
the working group for the revision of ISO 13824
and actions for buildings and industrial model of EN 1991-2: Actions on structures,
and a member of the international Joint
Committee on Structural Safety.
­structures (SANS 2011). Traffic loads on bridges (EN 2010), in order
The code for bridge design in South Africa to provide some guidance for possible reme-
Contact details:
is the Technical Manual for Highways 7 dial actions regarding the current TMH-7
Department of Civil Engineering
Private Bag X1 (TMH-7) (CSRA 1981) which was essentially load model (CSRA 1981) and to comment
Matieland 7602 developed in the 1970s. It has been perform- on the possibility of adopting (or adapting) a
T: +27 21 808 4947 ing well, but there are some concerns regard- simpler loading model, such as the one given
E: cbarnardo@sun.ac.za ing its present status since it is partially based in EN 1991-2.
on an outdated British standard. A suitable
course of action is still wide open for debate.
It has been recognised that the current ver- COMPARISON
sion of the bridge code needs to be revised; As a start, a brief comparison of the expect-
however, there is no consensus about which ed internal forces as a result of codified load-
actions should take place. The most urgent ing models needs to be provided to establish
aspect is regarded as the revision of the traffic a benchmark for further discussion.
loading, as discussed at the South African Investigations of design effects corre-
Institution of Civil Engineering (SAICE) sponding to the currently used NA and NB
Eurocode Summit (SAICE 2008). The main load models in TMH-7 in both serviceability
Keywords: traffic load model, TMH-7, bridge loading, South Africa problems with the current load formulation and ultimate limit states are necessary. This

34
Lenner R, De Wet DPG, Viljoen C. Traffic characteristics and bridge loading in South Africa.
J. S. Afr. Inst. Civ. Eng. 2017:59(4), Art. #1513, 13 pages. http://dx.doi.org/10.17159/2309-8775/2017/v59n4a4
includes global internal forces – shear and
αQi Qik αQi Qik αqi qik
moments (bending and torsion). The results
may be largely influenced by the number
of notional lanes as dictated by the deck
width. It is therefore necessary to consider 0.50*
a variable bridge width when calculating
global internal forces due to traffic. A special
2.00 1 Q1k = 300 kN; q1k = 9 kN/m 2
consideration must be further devoted to
culverts and retaining walls, which is outside
the scope of this paper. 0.50*
In this contribution, as an example, a 2 Q 2k = 200 kN; q 2k = 2.5 kN/m 2
single-span beam bridge with variable deck
width and span length was utilised and
loaded with characteristic loads. Two load 3 Q 3k = 100 kN; q 3k = 2.5 kN/m 2
models were considered – LM1 (EN 1991-2),
as shown in Figure 1, and NA loading (TMH-
qrk = 2.5 kN/m 2
7), respectively. The EN 1991-2 was chosen
simply due to the predominant alignment of
newly developed/adapted SANS codes with Figure 1: LM1 Model in EN1991-2 [5]
the Eurocodes.

40
EN 1991-2
The bridge loading within the Eurocode suite
of standards is governed by the EN 1991-2:
Average uniform load qa (kN/m)

36
Actions on structures, Traffic loads on
bridges (EN 2010). This standard covers the 180
qa = +6
loading by both road and rail; however, with √L
32
the emphasis on road bridges. The vertical
load model for road bridges was essentially
developed in the 1990s by evaluating traf- 28
fic records, specifically 1986 Auxerre data
(Sedlacek et al 2008), running simulations
24
and extrapolating calculated load effects for
different scenarios to include most design
situations. As a result, EN 1991-2 presents 20
four loading models in its Section 4.3: LM1 0 20 40 60 80 100
for general and local verifications, LM2 for Effective loaded length L (m)
short members, LM3 for special heavy vehi-
cles and LM4 for crowd loading in transient Figure 2: A
 verage uniform distributed load intensity according to TMH-7
design situations. The main model, LM1, is
used for comparison in this contribution. utilises a floating lane notional lane width. NA loading was factored with k = 1.1
The model utilises a fixed 3 m notional lane The deck width is divided by an integer to compensate for a partial loading of
width with defined concentrated loads in the depending on the overall curb-to-curb dis- influence lines for the static system, as
form of a tandem axle (αQi) and a uniform tance (consult Table 2.6 in THM-7 Part 2). prescribed by TMH7-Part 2. The limits for
loading (αqi) for each lane (see Figure 1), The specific issue with the NA loading deck width and span length are arbitrarily
where the α is an adjustment factor defined is the variable intensity of the uniformly chosen in this exercise to illustrate the
in the National Annex, typically taken as distributed load qa according to the total resulting difference between the codes;
unity. For the design, deck width is therefore aggregate loaded length applied on the note that LM1 is calibrated for up to 200 m
divided into respective notional lanes and whole or parts of any notional lane contrib- span lengths (EN 2010). No partial factors
loaded accordingly to the lane number in uting to the most adverse effect (refer to are applied, indicating a comparison of
order to produce the most adverse effect. Figure 2). In addition, a knife-edge load of service loads.
144/√n kN is applied at each lane, where n is The difference in the resulting internal
TMH-7 the lane number. action is calculated according to:
Vertical traffic loading is governed by
Section 2.6 in Part 2 of TMH-7 (CSRA XNA
∆ = –1 + (1)
1981). The live loading due to traffic is Internal forces XLM1
essentially divided into Normal Loading A simple Euler beam model was used for
(NA), Abnormal Loading (NB) and Super the analysis, and therefore only global lon- where Δ corresponds to the difference frac-
Loading (NC), whereas NC may be omitted gitudinal internal forces were obtained by tion (negative means internal forces due to
on certain roads. The standard traffic load- means of hand calculations. The LM1 model LM1 are higher compared to NA), XNA is
ing consists of NA loading and 36 units of was taken with α = 1.0, which implies the the load effect due to THM-7 NA loading,
NB load. This paper mainly concentrates on standard loading. A standard lane notational and XLM1 is the load effect due to EN 1991-2
the comparison of the NA loading, which lane width is 3 m. LM1 loading. Figures 3(a)–(c) show the

Journal of the South African Institution of Civil Engineering  •  Volume 59  Number 4  December 2017 35
results with the difference factor plotted on
(a)
the vertical axis. 0.1612
It is clear that the variation of the global
0.2 0.01835
internal forces is considerable and largely
depends on the span length and the deck
width. The deck width is important due –0.1245
0
to the nature of notional lane definition.
–0.2673
NA loading has a floating width to fit the

Difference (-)
deck, while EN1991-2 requires a 3 m lane. –0.2
–0.4102
This results in abrupt changes of the total
internal forces with increasing deck width.
–0.4 –0.553
The load effect due to NA tends to be
more severe in some regions as additional
notational lanes are added. With increas- 85
–0.6
ing span lengths the difference fractions 65
clearly reduce. However, the overall trend Span (m)
45
is for LM1 to deliver higher internal forces. –0.8
18 25
Thus, a direct adoption of EN 1991-2 would 15 12 9 6
imply an increase in safety, but a reduc- 3 5
Deck width (m)
tion in economy for South African bridges
without any substantiation. It is therefore
necessary to investigate the traffic loading (b)
0.154
and intensity on South African roads, and
compare the results to the traffic used in 0.2 0.001805
the development of EN 1991-2.
–0.1504
0
Traffic measurement and data –0.3026

Weigh-in-Motion (WIM) systems are widely


Difference (-)

–0.2 –0.4548
used in South Africa to measure dynamic
axle loads at free-flow speeds. The axle load- –0.6071
ing data is most commonly used in pavement –0.4
management systems for planning purposes
and for timeous scheduling of pavement
maintenance actions. They are also used as –0.6 85

screeners in conjunction with load control 65


Span (m)
centres for preselection of potentially over- 45
–0.8
loaded vehicles for accurate weighing, and 18 15
25
12 9
prosecution if necessary. Lastly, they are 6 3 5
Deck width (m)
used for intensive monitoring of overload-
ing on toll concessions, since concession
contracts mostly allow for the cost of over- (c) 0.1454
loading to be claimed back from the South
African National Roads Agency (SANRAL). 0.20
0.005386
Some of the best WIM data in the coun-
try has been collected on toll roads over the 0.04 –0.1347
past 15 years owing to the strong emphasis 0
on data quality for these applications and
Difference (-)

–0.2747
additional routine scrutiny of data quality. –0.12
The most commonly used WIM technol- –0.4148
ogy on these routes is bending plates that
–0.28
are embedded in the road surface, mostly –0.5548
in the left wheel path only to save cost.
Data calibration and quality management –0.44
procedures on toll concessions use locally
developed methods (De Wet 2010) that are –0.60 5
endorsed by SANRAL (De Wet 2008). The 3.5 25
6.4
calibration method and key elements of the 9.3 45
quality assessment procedures were incor- 12.2 65
15.1
porated into the new Technical Methods for Deck width (m) 18 85 Span (m)
Highways document that details traffic and
axle load monitoring procedures in South Figure 3: Difference fractions of the internal forces caused by TMH-7 loading vs EN 1991-2 loading
Africa, TMH-8 (COTO 2014). for (a) bending moment, (b) shear and (c) torsion

36 Journal of the South African Institution of Civil Engineering  •  Volume 59  Number 4  December 2017
The latest proposed WIM accuracy ■■ Frequency distribution of the axle loads of different locations throughout Europe, but
requirement in the TMH-3 specification for ■■ Frequency distribution of the distances the 1986 Auxerre data record proved to have
traffic and WIM monitoring services (COTO between axles the highest rate of heavy vehicles and axle
2016) is that typical data collection WIMs ■■ Frequency distribution of different types loads (Hanswille & Sedlacek 2007). Figure 4
in South Africa should measure the Gross of vehicles shows accumulated distributions of gross
Vehicle Mass of 95% of vehicles accurately to ■■ Frequency distribution of distances vehicle weight (GVW) and axle loads (P). In
within 10%. This requirement is still being between vehicles. this figure n30 is a number of vehicles with
debated, as an extensive history of WIM With such data it would be possible to either GVW above 30 kN and n10 represents a
performance on the N1 North, N3, N4 East develop or calibrate a bridge loading model number of axle loads above 10 kN. The rate
and Bakwena toll routes indicates that good that is truly based on actual traffic intensity. of heavy vehicles and axles is an important
single-sensor WIM stations (measuring in There is inherent variability in the traffic characteristic when developing a loading
the left wheel path only) typically achieve load in terms of geographical position, model. The data used for the evaluation was
between 10% and 15% accuracy on Gross traffic conditions (road slope, intersections, recorded over an extended period of time,
Vehicle Mass. Screening WIMs with left number of lanes, etc) and time. It is therefore ranging up to 800 hours. More information
and right wheel path sensors are generally usually necessary to examine numerous on the different measuring stations and vehi-
accurate to within 10%. The above accuracies WIM stations and obtain patterns that are cle distribution is provided in (Hanswille &
are aligned with the accuracy requirements representative for the whole region where the Sedlacek 2007), again highlighting the large
for data collection WIMs (Class C15) and code should apply. percentage of heavy vehicles present at the
screening WIMs (Class B10) depicted in the In this paper WIM data from Auxerre Auxerre measuring site. Auxerre traffic data
European COST 323 WIM Standard (COST located in France is compared with from 1986 was not available in its raw form,
2002). Most South African WIMs therefore Roosboom, located on a typical heavy-freight therefore only processed results were utilised
produce data of internationally acceptable route in South Africa, in order to get an idea in this paper.
quality, and valuable inference may be made of the traffic characteristics on the roads
from axle load distributions despite the mea- and to guide future intervention steps for the Roosboom, South Africa
surement scatter caused by vehicle dynamics. revision of TMH-7. A recorded sample from the Roosboom
In addition to axle loads, WIM traffic WIM station on the N3 toll route between
data collection systems also enable calcula- Auxerre, France Durban and Johannesburg will serve as a
tion of headways between vehicles, and The background document to EN1991-2: preliminary data set for the comparison
produce axle spacing data that allows for Traffic Loads on Road Bridges (Sedlacek et between the traffic in Auxerre and South
detailed classification of vehicles. at 2008) and DIN-Report 101 (Hanswille & Africa. Roosboom was chosen, because
New bridge loading models are usually Sedlacek 2007) present the basis of develop- the N3 is the primary road freight cor-
based on measured traffic data, simulations ment for the bridge load model in the current ridor between Durban and Gauteng, and
and extrapolation of results for various Eurocode. More importantly, both docu- is therefore relevant to this study owing to
scenarios in order to produce reliable and ments show the characteristics of original high volumes of heavily loaded trucks. The
conservative loading patterns. In order to traffic records that were used in the predic- Roosboom site is installed in a good-quality
produce a suitable pattern for the traffic tion of the loading effects. This essentially concrete pavement. The N3 has four lanes,
load model, detailed information from the comprises a traffic data sample measured two in each direction, but only the slow lanes
measured WIM must be obtained to include in 1986 in Auxerre, France (Sedlacek et al are instrumented with WIM technology and
(Sedlacek et al 2008): 2008). WIM data was gathered at a number are used for the evaluation.

Total weight of heavy vehicles Axle loads

750 200

600 Auxerre Auxerre


Périphérique 150 Brohltal

Brohltal Forth
450
PA (kN)
G (kN)

Forth Doxey
Doxey 100

300

50
150

0 0
10 –4 10 –3 10 –2 10 –1 1 10 –4 10 –3 10 –2 10 –1 1
n/n30 n/n10

Figure 4: Gross vehicle and axle weight distribution of recorded traffic data from England, France and Germany (Hanswille & Sedlacek 2007)

Journal of the South African Institution of Civil Engineering  •  Volume 59  Number 4  December 2017 37
The Roosboom site has been operational 2 500
for about 14 years, and an extensive database
of axle loading readings is therefore available.
The chosen data sample for this evaluation 2 000
was from August 2015, providing informa-
tion about more than 74 000 and 69 000
vehicles in the northbound and southbound 1 500

Frequency
lanes respectively for a period of one month.
The site uses bending plate sensors com-
bined with electromagnetic inductive loops 1 000
to collect traffic and axle loading data.
The site shows an Average Daily
Truck Traffic (ADTT) of approximately 500
5 100 veh/‌day. The rigorous data quality
checks that are performed on a routine basis
using the Truck Tractor Method (De Wet & 0
Slavik 2013) confirmed that the site was 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70
well calibrated and that data quality was Gross vehicle weight (t)
acceptable. Direct comparison of data quality All 2-axle 3-axle 4-axle
to that from Auxerre is not possible. South 5-axle 6-axle 7-axle 8+ axles
African data quality assessment methods
are, however, well aligned with international Figure 5: G
 VW distribution per vehicle type for the Roosboom data sample
practice in leading countries such as the USA
(Papagiannakis et al 2008; De Wet 2012) and, Notwithstanding these efforts, loading Table 1 shows that a major change
considering the improvement in WIM equip- distributions from WIM data will always be was made to South African overloading
ment and quality assurance over the past 30 more dispersed than the true static distribu- legislation in 1996, and overloading limits in
years, it is argued that the Roosboom data tions, owing to dynamic effects. Europe also changed over the past 30 years.
is at least as good, but likely better, than the The composition of heavy vehicle traffic In most European countries, the current
sample from Auxerre. depends on overloading legislation and the maximum permissible GVW is generally
The data is represented in the RSA-2 for- freight route character of a road. The N3 Toll restricted to only 40 tons, with legal limits
mat, a national standard (Schildhauer 2006). Road has a strong freight character since it on axle units similar to South Africa, but
The RSA data format provides traffic count connects Gauteng to Durban, and its port heavier unit loads are allowed on steering
data for all vehicles, typically summarised in in particular. The majority of heavy vehicles and driving axles with road-friendly
15-minute recording intervals to reduce the travel the full length of the route, and 6- and suspensions. The result is a significant
file size, and for WIM stations it also con- 7-axle trucks made up 73% of the trucks in difference in heavy-vehicle composition
tains individual heavy vehicle records show- the Roosboom WIM sample, because of their between these countries. Whilst 6- and
ing, among other things, the axle loads and superior efficiency for long-distance freight. 7-axle vehicles dominate on South African
spacing. A new version of the data format, These vehicles are often loaded over the legal freight routes, they are rarely found in
TMH-14, that will include individual vehicle limit, but still within the grace that is allowed Europe. The typical long-distance freight
records for all (light and heavy) vehicles has before they can be prosecuted. The South vehicle in Europe is a 5-axle articulated
since been developed (COTO 2013) and will African Road Traffic Act, 1996 (Act No 93 of truck (2-axle tractor with a tridem axle
be rolled out to stations like Roosboom in 1996), and the Road Traffic Regulations allow semitrailer) (ACEA 2015).
due course. 2% grace before prosecution on exceedance The bridge loads in South Africa are
It is important to note that, while WIM of maximum permissible gross combination therefore different from those in Europe.
technology is used to estimate static loads, mass and bridge formula transgressions. The This is a clear contradiction to the observed
the WIM-measured data contains a dynamic bridge formula relates the permissible mass to results from Figure 2, where the LM1 results
component. The estimation of static weight the distance L in metres from the first axle of in significantly higher internal forces. It is
is optimised by using good-quality WIM any axle unit to the last axle of any consecu- therefore necessary to look at the traffic
technology installed in pavements with tive axle unit. A 5% grace before prosecution composition and parameters, like gross
suitable stiffness and riding quality, and is allowed on other overloading criteria. The vehicle weight or axle loads, in detail.
utmost care is taken to install bending plates most important overloading limits in South The GVW distribution of the Roosboom
as flush with the road surface as possible. Africa are summarised in Table 1. samples seemingly follows a bi-modal
normal distribution (see Figure 5), which is
Table 1: Maximum permissible mass (kg) for heavy vehicles in South Africa mainly due to the presence of various vehicle
types (both loaded and unloaded). The mean
Description Before 1 March 1996 After March 1996
value of the second peak is at approximately
Single axle with 4 wheels 8 200 9 000 53 tons. SANRAL uses a vehicle classifica-
Tandem axle unit (4 wheels/axle) 16 400 18 000 tion system (Smith & Visser 2008), and the
SANRAL Class 16 vehicles, consisting of
Tridem axle unit (2 or 4 wheels/axle) 21 000 24 000
7-axle multi-trailer vehicles, represent the
Maximum combination mass None 56 000 predominant loading at this site. The fol-
lowing sections provide more detail on the
Bridge formula 2 100 (L) + 15 000 2 100 (L) + 18 000
makeup of the total traffic.

38 Journal of the South African Institution of Civil Engineering  •  Volume 59  Number 4  December 2017
Table 2: Simplification of classification scheme for comparison purposes from Roosboom shows a high percentage of
Type 3 and Type 4 vehicles. While Auxerre
Type SANRAL code SANRAL description
already exhibited a large percentage of long
1 5 Two-axle single unit heavy trucks, there is indication of possibly
2 8 Three-axle single unit even heavier traffic density on South African
roads. This is the result of South African
3 9, 12, 13 Multi-axle single trailer
legislation allowing vehicles to be loaded up
4 14, 15, 16, 17 Multi-axle multi-trailer to 56 t, while European trucks are generally
restricted to 40 t.
Figure 7 exhibits the calculated gross
Comparison of traffic data Table 2 (of SANRAL classes into the four vehicle weight GVW > 30 kN and axle load
The data from the N3 was first categorised different types) is utilised throughout this PA > 10 kN frequency distributions of the
to fit the same format as in (Sedlacek et al document. Roosboom sample transposed over the fre-
2008; Hanswille & Sedlacek 2007) to allow quencies from (Hanswille & Sedlacek 2007),
for a sensible comparison. The SANRAL Gross vehicle weight shown in Figure 4. Overall, it seems like
classification scheme provides 17 different It is interesting to look at the traffic compo- the heavy traffic intensity at Roosboom is
classes (COTO 2013), while the Auxerre sition and the frequency distribution of each quite similar to Auxerre, with the exception
traffic is divided into four different types. vehicle type, especially heavy-load vehicles. of heavier GVW at very small frequencies,
Type 1 is a double-axle vehicle, Type 2 cov- Figure 6 shows the percentage of the total possibly a result of overloading. The GVW is
ers rigid vehicles with more than two axles, truck traffic that is made up by each type of consistently larger when compared to other
Type 3 is articulated vehicles and Type 4 vehicle. It is apparent that Type 3 is prevalent European data. The observed axle loads at
is drawbar vehicles. The distribution in for the Auxerre data sample, while the data Roosboom, on the other hand, are signifi-
cantly smaller when compared to Auxerre,
and in the similar range when compared to
the other stations.
10.8%
4
47.1% Further comparisons according to
the specified vehicle types are shown in
65.2% Figure 8. A representative sample of vehicles
Vehicle type

3
42.3%
per 24 hours was used by (Hanswille &
1.3%
Sedlacek 2007). To allow comparison, a
2 24-hour data sample from Roosboom on 4
2.4%
August 2015 was used as a representative
22.7% of daily traffic. Full month data was also
1
8.2%
checked in order to make sure that there are
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 no significant deviations. As a result, the
Frequency of different vehicle types in Lane 1 (%) frequency distribution for daily and monthly
Auxerre Roosboom traffic is very similar, with the exception of
some outlying very heavy vehicles present in
Figure 6: Frequency of the different vehicle types in Lane 1 the data representing the full month.

Total weight of heavy vehicles Axle loads

750 200

600 Auxerre Auxerre


Périphérique 150 Brohltal

Brohltal
450
PA (kN)
G (kN)

Forth Doxey
Doxey 100

300 Forth

50 Roosboom
Roosboom
150

0 0
10 –4 10 –3 10 –2 10 –1 1 10 –4 10 –3 10 –2 10 –1 1
n/n30 n/n10

Figure 7: G
 ross vehicle weight and axle weight distribution of recorded traffic data

Journal of the South African Institution of Civil Engineering  •  Volume 59  Number 4  December 2017 39
The most important observation from
Type 1
24 Figure 8 is the higher number of loaded Type
4 vehicles at N3 Roosboom compared to
Auxerre, with the picture for Type 3 trucks
swapped around. The key reason is that
16
Frequency (%)

Type 3 trucks are the most efficient heavy-


freight vehicles within the European legisla-
tive context (and therefore dominate the scene
8 in terms of utilisation and loading efficiency),
while Type 4 trucks fulfil this role in South
Africa. Auxerre traffic apparently exhibits a
0 higher number of heavier vehicles for Types
0 80 160 240 320 400 480 560 640 720 1 and 2, possibly because of greater loading
GVW (kN) allowances on road-friendly suspensions.

Type 2 Axle loads at Roosboom


24 It is not only the GVW frequency distribu-
tion, but also the frequency distribution of
the axle loads, that needs consideration for
16
the development of a bridge loading model.
Frequency (%)

Generally the frequency distribution of axle


loads exhibits, similar to GVW, two distinct
peaks relating to the unloaded and loaded
8 axles. The properties of loaded axles are of
interest. A comparison of axle load frequen-
cies for the one-month Roosboom sample is
0 shown in Figure 9 for both vehicle Types 3
0 80 160 240 320 400 480 560 640 720 and 4. Types 1 and 2 are omitted in this paper
GVW (kN) because they are light vehicles and comprise
only approximately 15% of total N3 heavy
Type 3 traffic. The first axle carrying the engine
24 is essentially always loaded and the heavier
engines for the higher powered 7-axle trucks
are evident. The first axle also has a lower
16 permissible legal allowance (7.7 tons) than the
Frequency (%)

other axles. The rest of the axles generally


exhibit the two distinctive peaks, which is
especially apparent for Type 4 vehicles. These
8
vehicles tend to be efficiently loaded in both
directions, and the axle distribution also
tends to be more stable, while there is a clear
0 indication of less effective loading of Type 3
0 80 160 240 320 400 480 560 640 720
vehicles. The heaviest load may, however, be
GVW (kN)
observed on Type 3 – Axle 2. The distribution
is in line with the fact that the permissible
Type 4 load on the driving double axles (Axles 2
24 and 3) is 9 tons per axle, while the maximum
permissible load for the trailer triple axles is
only 8 tons per axle.
16 Typically, a distribution function is fit-
Frequency (%)

ted to the data in order to characterise the


random variables representing the loaded
axle load. In this case, normal distributions
8
were fitted to the loaded axle by engineering
judgement, as can be seen in Figure 10. It
is important to note that mean value and
0 standard deviation are of particular interest
0 80 160 240 320 400 480 560 640 720
regarding the fitting. Normal distribution is
GVW (kN)
observed for axle loads in general (Bogath &
Bergmeister 1997).
Auxerre Roosboom Table 3 and Figure 11 show the mean
values and standard deviations of axle loads
Figure 8: W
 eight gross vehicle distributions for Auxerre and Roosboom in kN in kN for the various axles of vehicle Types 3

40 Journal of the South African Institution of Civil Engineering  •  Volume 59  Number 4  December 2017
Axle 1 Axle 2
8 4

6 3
Frequency (%)

Frequency (%)
4 2

2 1

0 0
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 0 2 4 6 8 10 12
P (t) P (t)

Axle 3 Axle 4
4 4

3 3
Frequency (%)

Frequency (%)

2 2

1 1

0 0
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 0 2 4 6 8 10 12
P (t) P (t)

Axle 5 Axle 6
4 4

3 3
Frequency (%)

Frequency (%)

2 2

1 1

0 0
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 0 2 4 6 8 10 12
P (t) P (t)

Type 4 Type 3

Figure 9: A
 xle load frequencies of Type 3 and Type 4 vehicles, Roosboom WIM

Journal of the South African Institution of Civil Engineering  •  Volume 59  Number 4  December 2017 41
2 000 2 000
μ = 70.6 kN μ = 75.5 kN
σ = 9.9 kN σ = 10.8 kN

1 500 1 500
Fitted
distribution
Frequency

Frequency
1 000 1 000
Fitted
distribution

500 500

0 0
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 0 2 4 6 8 10 12
(a) P (t) (b) P (t)

Figure 10: F itted normal distribution to axle load frequency – (a) Type 3 axle 4 and (b) Type 4 axle 4 vehicles

and 4, as compared to the data available for again highlights the fact that the total weight extrapolated values can be expected for
Auxerre traffic. Similar mean values are of the vehicles is larger in comparison to axle loads.
provided by Bosman (2008), thus validating Auxerre, even though axle loads observed The axle spacing measured at Roosboom
the results obtained here. at Auxerre, especially Axle 2, exhibit (shown in Table 4 and Figure 12) is difficult
As can be seen in Table 3, the data larger mean values. Another very important to compare to values on record for Auxerre,
provided for Auxerre traffic has a maximum observation is the value of standard devia- due to the different classes of vehicles.
number of five axles, while Roosboom has tion which largely influences the statistical However, the most important parameter,
recorded seven axles. Nevertheless, the extrapolation of axle loads. The larger the namely the spacing at the tandem axle,
maximum mean value is recorded for Axle 2 standard deviation is, the larger the extreme seems to be comparable, and the value of
of Auxerre traffic. It is also very interesting value that can be expected. It is clear that 1.2 m specified for LM1 could be relevant
to observe the mean values of the Roosboom Roosboom data has comparatively smaller in South Africa, since the research showed
sample, where all of the axles (besides front) standard deviation, along with smaller that the spacing between driving double-
tend to be in the range of 70–80 kN. This mean value. This is an indication that lower axles on truck tractors in South Africa is

Table 3: Axle loads in kN – normal distributions


Axle 1 Axle 2 Axle 3 Axle 4 Axle 5 Axle 6 Axle 7
Type Station
μ σ μ σ μ σ μ σ μ σ μ σ μ σ

Auxerre 79.2 11.1 124.5 20.4 92.1 13.9 88.0 13.0 77.3 15.6 – – – –
T3
Roosboom 55.4 8.1 79.2 10.5 78.5 9.8 70.6 9.9 68.7 8.8 69.7 10.3 – –

Auxerre 82.0 18.1 128.9 18.6 83.7 15.9 81.1 15.1 67.3 19.0 – – – –
T4
Roosboom 58.9 6.9 75.0 8.3 74.9 8.8 75.5 10.8 77.0 9.6 72.1 9.8 71.6 10.1

Type 3 Type 4
160 160

140 140

120 120

100 100
P (kN)

P (kN)

80 80

60 60

40 40

20 20

0 0
1 2 3 4 5 6 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Axle Axle

Auxerre Roosboom

Figure 11: G
 raphical representation of mean axle loads and associated standard deviation – Type 3 and Type 4 vehicles

42 Journal of the South African Institution of Civil Engineering  •  Volume 59  Number 4  December 2017
Table 4: Axle spacing – normal distribution
Axle 1–2 Axle 2–3 Axle 3–4 Axle 4–5 Axle 5–6 Axle 6–7
Type Station
μ σ μ σ μ σ μ σ μ σ μ σ

Auxerre 3.30 0.26 4.71 0.78 1.22 0.13 1.23 0.14 – – – –


T3
Roosboom 3.48 0.87 2.22 2.24 6.63 2.02 1.41 0.58 1.34 0.06 – –

Auxerre 4.27 0.40 4.12 0.31 4.00 0.42 1.25 0.03 – – – –


T4
Roosboom 3.26 0.83 1.48 0.85 5.86 1.15 1.51 0.98 5.48 1.35 1.46 0.60

Type 3 Type 4
10 8

7
8
6

6 5
S (m)

S (m)
4
4 3

2
2
1

0 0
1–2 2–3 3–4 4–5 5–6 1–2 2–3 3–4 4–5 5–6 6–7
Axle Axle

Auxerre Roosboom

Figure 12: G
 raphical representation of mean axle spacing and associated standard deviation – Type 3 and Type 4 vehicles

approximately 1.35 m, with a spread as small (Slavik 2013) to estimate the loading char- compared to default distributions for freight
as ± 3% (Slavik & De Wet 2012). acteristics of a particular road based on route categories A to D. It is evident that
In light of the observations above, the available traffic counts. As a result a method axle load distributions on freight routes can
loading model for South African highways called ALDIS was developed by Slavik (2013) be vastly different. Roosboom axle load fre-
is likely to have lower axle loads, but higher to estimate axle load distributions. The quencies correspond closely to Category B.
distributed loading, to compensate for the ALDIS methodology was also incorporated The shape of Category A also shows that
heavier vehicles and their large frequency. into a spreadsheet model called MOLD worse loading examples than Roosboom have
This, however, must be validated with (Modelling of Load Distributions). This been recorded on South African National
further evaluation of WIM measurements, method is used to illustrate the variability of Routes. At the same time, the Roosboom
simulations of traffic loads on various influ- axle loading on different routes. southbound seems to closely follow the end
ence lines representing various static systems The method was developed using a strati- tail for Category A.
and a proper investigation of dynamic ampli- fied selection of 22 weigh-in-motion stations Due to the aggregate nature of the data, it
fication effects. on South African freight routes and relies on should be noted that the axle load does not
three input parameters to estimate the axle necessarily follow a normal distribution, yet
load distribution: the distribution may be used in determina-
General axle loading in ■■ Intensity of overloading law enforcement tion of the vertical characteristic load on
South Africa (strong, some or none) bridges due to traffic.
In order to develop a suitable bridge loading ■■ Freight route category (ranging from
model, a wide range of data is necessary in A, export routes with most trucks fully Characteristic load
order to sufficiently describe the statistical loaded to D, routes with mostly lightly Generally, a traffic loading model is devel-
parameters of load axles observed on South loaded trucks) oped on the basis of numerical simulations.
African roads. It is more prudent to use data ■■ Heavy vehicle composition (split into Artificial traffic realisations are gener-
from more than a single source to obtain a short, medium and long heavy vehicles). ated based on distributions fitted to the
representative figure. The frequency distri- Figure 13 shows a screenshot from MOLD real traffic measurements. Alternatively,
bution is a key parameter in derivation of a of the axle load distribution for Roosboom, distributions from MOLD may be utilised
bridge load model. using the actual vehicle classification from in order to study more generalised traffic.
Mechanistic pavement design methods loop counts, ‘some’ law enforcement and the Subsequently, the generated artificial traf-
rely on axle load distributions to optimise freight route category defined as Category B. fic flow serves as the basis for calculation
the design of pavement layers. This detailed Figure 14 shows how the actual WIM- of load effects on a bridge structure due
axle loading information is often not measured axle load distributions for to vehicular loads. This results in a set of
available, and methods have been derived Roosboom northbound and southbound observed data. The maxima distribution in

Journal of the South African Institution of Civil Engineering  •  Volume 59  Number 4  December 2017 43
1 1
MOLD (Modelling/Molding
MOLD (Modelling/Molding
of Load Distributions)
of Load Distributions)
ver 1 .0 ver 1 .0

INPUT INPUT OUTPUT OUTPUT

Law Enforcement
Law Enforcement BIN, t Freq. BIN, t Freq.
Some
Law EnforcementLaw Enforcement Some Axle Load Axle
Distribution
Load Distribution 0.5 0.0996 0.5 0.0996
35 35 1.5 1.4677 1.5 1.4677
Route Category Route Category 2.5 6.2819 2.5 6.2819
Category %Category % 30 30 3.5 9.0042 3.5 9.0042
A 0%A 0% 4.5 11.2446 4.5 11.2446
B 100%
B 100% 25 25 5.5 18.1105 5.5 18.1105
C 0%C 0% 6.5 18.9951 6.5 18.9951

Frequency, %

Frequency, %
D 0%D 0% 20 20 7.5 21.4528 7.5 21.4528
8.5 9.3354 8.5 9.3354
Heavy Vehicle Classification
Heavy Vehicle Classification 15 15 9.5 3.0553 9.5 3.0553
Heavy Custom
Heavy Vehicle Split Vehicle Split Custom 10.5 0.7431 10.5 0.7431
10 10 11.5 0.1591 11.5 0.1591
Class Option
Class AOption B AC BD C D 12.5 0.0400 12.5 0.0400
Custom Custom8.4% 8.4% 5 5 13.5 0.0087 13.5 0.0087
Short Short
Default Default
12.1% 12.1% 14.5 0.0021 14.5 0.0021
Custom Custom
19.0% 19.0% 0 0 15.5 0.0000 15.5 0.0000
Med Med
Default Default
21.8% 21.8% Sum 100.0000Sum 100.0000

10.5
11.5
12.5
13.5
14.5
10.5
15.5
11.5
12.5
13.5
14.5
15.5
9.5
6.5
7.5
8.5

7.5
8.5
9.5
3.5
4.5
5.5
0.5
1.5
2.5

2.5
3.5
4.5
5.5
6.5
0.5
1.5
Custom Custom
72.6% 72.6% Axle Load, t Axle Load, t
Long Long
Default Default
66.1% 66.1% E80/HV 2.68 E80/HV 2.68

Figure 13: MOLD axle load distribution, freight route Category B

a specified period Fn(x) is simply obtained appropriate to utilise asymptotic models generation of artificial traffic should be tied
according to Equation 2: and estimate approximate distributions to the MOLD model. This would allow for
based on the extreme data only, which in investigation of the influence of parameters
Fn(x) = F(x)n(2) this case may be daily maxima of observed such as road category and law enforcement
internal forces. A simplified approach for a on the characteristic load. It would therefore
where n is related to the number of vehicles single vehicle in the local context was shown make it possible to study these parameters,
in the required return period and F(x) is a to provide a basis for further calibration perform sensitivity analysis and develop a
distribution of observed internal force. (Anderson 2006). The thorough statistical robust solution for the loading model. As
This approach may, however, lead to
large discrepancies of maxima when even Lenner, de Wet, Viljoen
extrapolation of all load effects considering
multiple vehicles and multiple lanes is out
an example, the law enforcement para­
meter is shown here in detail. The tail-end
small discrepancies of observed data are of the scope of this paper, but it should be distribution variation and mean value shift
present (Coles 1991). It is therefore more mentioned that the input parameters for the according to the level of law enforcement can

40

35

30

25
Frequency (%)

20

15

10

0
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
1 2 3 4 5 6Axle load (t)7 8 9 10 11 12
RSB Nb RSB Sb Cat A Cat B Cat C Cat D
Axle Load [t]
Figure 14: R
 oosboom axle load distributions, compared to MOLD Categories A–D

44RSB Nb RSB Sb Cat A Cat B


Journal of the South African Institution of Civil Engineering  •  Volume 59  Number 4  December 2017
Cat C Cat D
40 20

35

30 15

Frequency (%)
25
Frequency (%)

20 10

15

10 5

0 0
0 5 10 15 8.5 10.5 12.5 14.5
(a) P (t) (b) P (t)

Strong Some None

Figure 15: Frequency distribution of axle loads of Category A with variable law enforcement – (a) shift of mean value, and (b) tail-end distribution

be observed in Figure 15. A change in axle however, necessary. Although localised load Anderson, J 2006. Review of South African live load
load distribution, especially of the tail-end, effects were not considered in this paper, it models for traffic loading on bridge and culvert
will certainly influence the characteristic may be assumed that they are less of a con- structures using Weigh-in-Motion (WIM) data. MSc
load. Further detailed study is absolutely cern when revising the TMH-7 loading. Dissertation, University of Cape Town.
necessary, along with proper extrapolation In order to remediate the current situa- Bogath, J & Bergmeister, K 1997. Neues Lastmodell für
of results to the specified return period or tion, it is recommended to develop or adapt Straßenbrücken. Bauingenieur, 74(6): 271–277.
bridge design lifetime. a loading model that simplifies the existing Bosman, J 2008. Traffic loading characteristics of
unnecessarily cumbersome provisions. The South African heavy vehicles. Proceedings, 8th
model should in the interim be calibrated to International Symposium on Heavy Vehicle Weights
conclusions the current TMH-7 loading levels. This may and Dimensions, 14–18 March, Johannesburg.
SAICE (2008) recognised the need for revis- be problematic due to clearly high levels of EN (European Standard) 2010. EN 1991-22010. Actions on
ing the TMH-7 load model (CSRA 1981). A ADTT and high GVW, but can be justified Structures. Part 2: Traffic Loading on Bridges. Brussels:
single model for both global and local verifi- for the interim, given the past satisfactory European Committee for Standardization (CEN).
cation is desirable. It is, however, clear from performance of South African bridges. Coles, S 1991. An Introduction to Statistical Modeling of
the presented results that a simple adoption Further studies of axle load frequency Extreme Values. London: Springer.
of LM1 from EN 1991-2 (EN 2010) is not accounting for parameters such as route COTO (Committee of Transport Officials) 2013.
possible, due to a number of reasons. category and law enforcement are neces- TMH 14. South African Standard Automatic Traffic
LM1 loading generally provides higher sary in order to develop a new model. It is Data Collection Format. Pretoria: SANRAL.
internal forces when compared to TMH-7 pertinent to develop representative axle loads COTO (Committee of Transport Officials) 2014.
loading, with lower values found only at and perform numerical simulations, along TMH 8. Traffic and Axle Load Monitoring
lane width discrepancies. This implies that with statistical extrapolation of internal Procedures. Pretoria: SANRAL
a direct adoption of current LM1 loading forces, in order to establish a loading model COTO (Committee of Transport Officials) 2016.
would result in more expensive bridge that reflects the current traffic and associ- TMH 3 Specifications for the Provision of Traffic
structures across South Africa, without sub- ated loading levels while providing sufficient and Weigh-in-Motion Monitoring Service Draft 1.5.
stantiation, considering the satisfactory past safety margin and economical construction. Pretoria: SANRAL.
performance of existing structures. COST 323 2002. Weigh-in-Motion of Road Vehicles:
The gross vehicle weights (GVW) Final Report. Appendix I: European WIM
observed in South Africa are, however, AcknowledgEments Specification. Paris: COST/LCPC.
even higher than the vehicular loads con- The authors would like to acknowledge N3 CSRA (Committee of State Road Authorities) 1981.
sidered during the development of LM1. Toll Concession for the use of WIM data, and TMH 7 Code of Practice for the Design of Highway
This implies that the current TMH-7 NA Subcommittee B of the Research Committee Bridges and Culverts in South Africa. Part 2:
distributed loading may be too low and at Stellenbosch University for financial sup- Specification for Loads. Pretoria. Pretoria: CSRA,
may provide an insufficient safety margin, port. Comments and suggestions provided by Department of Transport.
given the actual load conditions faced by the reviewers are appreciated. CSRA (Committee of State Road Authorities) 1991.
South African bridges. TMH 7 Code of Practice for the Design of Highway
Axle loads on the N3 highway in South Bridges and Culverts in South Africa. Part 2: Traffic
Africa are lower in comparison to data from References Loading (1991) Proposed substitution of Section 2.6.
1986 Auxerre, France. The extrapolated ACEA (European Automobile Manufacturers’ Pretoria: CSRA, Department of Transport.
characteristic axle loads are likely to be lower Association) 2015. Heavy-duty Vehicle Weight De Wet, D 2008. Revision of the South African Flexible
as well, due to the reduced standard devia- Restrictions in the EU – Enforcement and Pavement Design Method. Correction of systematic
tion. Further data from additional routes are, Compliance Technologies. Ljubljana, Slovenia: ZAG. error in WIM data, 3rd draft. Pretoria: SANRAL.

Journal of the South African Institution of Civil Engineering  •  Volume 59  Number 4  December 2017 45
De Wet, D 2010. Post-calibration and quality system calibration practices. Washington, DC: Slavik, M 2013. Axle-load estimation without Weigh-
management of Weigh-in-Motion traffic data. MSc Transportation Research Board. in-Motion survey. Proceedings, 32nd Southern
Dissertation, Stellenbosch University. SAICE 2008. Report on the Structural Eurocode Summit: African Transport Conference, 8–11 July, Pretoria,
De Wet, D 2012. Data-based WIM calibration and data 8 February. Pretoria: SAICE Joint Structural Division. 128–137.
quality assessment in South Africa. Proceedings, 6th SANS (South African National Standard) 2011. SANS Slavik, M & De Wet, D 2012. Checking WIM
International Conference on Weigh-in-Motion, 4–7 10160-1:2011. Basis of Structural Design and Actions axle-spacing measurements. Proceedings, 6th
June, Dallas, TX, 209–217. for Buildings and Industrial Structures. Pretoria: International Conference on Weigh-in-Motion, 4–7
De Wet, D & Slavik, M 2013. Technical specification SABS Standards Division. June, Dallas, TX.
for traffic data collection for toll concessionaires. Schildhauer, C 2006. South African standard traffic Smith, A & Visser, A 2008. A South African road
Pretoria: AECOM. data collection format, Version 2.00, Issue network classification based on traffic loading.
Hanswille, G & Sedlacek, G 2007. Background report 2006/05/05. Pretoria: SANRAL. Proceedings, 8th International Symposium on Heavy
– Traffic loads on roads bridges: Basis of the load Sedlacek, G, Merzenich, G & Paschen, M 2008. Vehicle Weights and Dimensions, 14–18 March,
models in EN 1991-2 and DIN – Report 101, Draft. Background document to EN 1991- Part 2 – Traffic Johannesburg.
Papagiannakis, A, Quinly, R & Brandt, S 2008. NCHRP loads for road bridges – and consequences for the
Synthesis 386 – High-speed Weigh-in-Motion design. JRC Scientific and Technical Reports.

46 Journal of the South African Institution of Civil Engineering  •  Volume 59  Number 4  December 2017
An investigation into TECHNICAL PAPER
the evidence of seasonal Journal of the South African
Institution of Civil Engineering
rainfall pattern shifts in the ISSN 1021-2019
Vol 59 No 4, December 2017, Pages 47–55, Paper 1281

Western Cape, South Africa PROF JA DU PLESSIS (Pr Eng) is Head of the
Department of Civil Engineering in the
Engineering Faculty of Stellenbosch University,
J A du Plessis, B Schloms where he has also been responsible for
Hydrology for the past 15 years. He obtained his
PhD (Water Governance), MEng (Water Resource
Climate change is a highly contentious topic in the modern world. There is much evidence to Management) and BEng (Civil) from the
University of Stellenbosch. He has more than 30
indicate that climatic shifts and extreme weather anomalies are taking place globally, in some
years’ experience in the water sector. Prof Du Plessis is a member of the South
places more than others. This paper presents the findings on research to determine whether African Institution of Civil Engineering (SAICE) and serves on their Education
shifts in seasonal rainfall patterns are indeed already visible in historical rainfall data in the and Training Panel. He is also a Fellow of IMESA (Institute of Municipal
Western Cape of South Africa. The paper aims to provide some baseline information which can Engineering of Southern Africa) and serves on both their Council and their
stimulate further research in this field. Executive Committee.

Different analytical methods were formulated to investigate the relationships between daily Contact details:
rainfall indices over a set timescale. Data was collected from the South African Weather Service Department of Civil Engineering
(SAWS) in order to accumulate 20 rainfall stations, each with at least 100 years of historical daily Stellenbosch University
Private Bag X1
rainfall data. Statistical analysis, linear trend line distributions, time lag comparisons, cumulative
Matieland 7602
distributions, moving average plots and autocorrelation relationships were applied to the data. South Africa
The results of the analysis indicated that (1) the rainfall season undergoes fluctuations of T: +27 21 808 4358
wetter and drier years (approximately 20-year cycles), (2) the South Coast region exhibits a shift E: jadup@sun.ac.za
towards a longer rainfall season, and in contrast the Mediterranean region is shifting to a shorter
rainfall season when linear trend lines were analysed, and (3) the moving average plots showed BIANCA SCHLOMS (BEng Civil), who is a member
only isolated seasonal shifts at the boundary months. of SAICE, is a roads engineer for the Western
Cape Department of Transport and Public Works,
where she has been working since the
completion of her engineering degree at
Introduction Coast region, which stretches eastward from Stellenbosch University in 2014, and where she is
South Africa is classified as a predomi- Cape Agulhas, is influenced by the movement enrolled in a graduate programme that prepares
nantly semi-arid country. However, due to of warm, moist air from the Indian Ocean, her for registration as a professional engineer.

its variable topography, its climate varies producing all-year rainfall. The effect of the Contact details:
from desert and semi-desert in the dry Indian Ocean does not extend further than Department of Civil Engineering
Stellenbosch University
northwestern region to sub-humid and wet the Cape Fold Belt which forms a natural
Private Bag X1
along the eastern coastal area (Benhin 2006). divide between the South Coast and Karoo Matieland 7602
The Western Cape Province is located at climate regions. The Karoo region is therefore South Africa
the southwestern tip of South Africa and is limited to the inland plateau of South Africa. T: +27 (0) 82 306 9279
bordered by the Northern Cape to the north, It also receives all-year rainfall, with a sum- E: bianca.schloms@gmail.com
the Eastern Cape to the east and the Indian mer maximum in the form of thundershowers
and Atlantic Oceans to the south and west (Van Niekerk & Joubert 2011).
respectively. The Western Cape covers an area The main objectives of this research are
of 129 370 km² (Winter et al 2001) and experi- to investigate rainfall patterns in the Western
ences a range of climatic and topographic Cape Province, and to determine whether any
heterogeneity. The region is dominated by the shifts in seasonal rainfall patterns are evident
Cape Fold Belt which extends along the length in historical rainfall records. A number of
of the province, forming on L-shaped moun- previous studies examined the long-term
tain range. Van Niekerk and Joubert (2011) changes in rainfall in South Africa. Acosta
identified three climatic zones induced by the et al (1999) predicted a loss of up to 25%
Cape Fold Belt, namely the Mediterranean, of the Western Cape’s then current (1999)
South Coast and Karoo regions (Figure 1). winter rainfall. Lynch et al (2001) observed
The Mediterranean region, which encom- a gradual increase in annual rainfall in the
passes the southwestern and west coast part Potchefstroom area from 1925 to 1998. In
of the province, typically receives winter rain- contrast, Van Wageningen and Du Plessis
fall (May to August) from cyclones originating (2007) observed a yearly decrease, specifically
over the South Atlantic. The leading stimulus after 1998, in the number of rainfall events,
for winter rainfall in this region is the com- and a logical increase in rainfall intensity at
bination of the cold Benguela current and the foot of Table Mountain in Cape Town. Du
the northward displacement of high-pressure Toit and O’Connor (2014) mirror a significant
systems. In contrast, the climate of the South increase in rainfall intensity since 1988 in the Keywords: rainfall pattern, shifts in seasonal rainfall, climate change

47
Du Plessis JA, Schloms B. An investigation into the evidence of seasonal rainfall pattern shifts in the Western Cape, South Africa.
J. S. Afr. Inst. Civ. Eng. 2017:59(4), Art. #1281, 9 pages. http://dx.doi.org/10.17159/2309-8775/2017/v59n4a5
considered as teleconnections (climate
anomalies being related to each other over
large distances) which may respectively
contribute to rainfall over the South Western
Cape, during different times of the year.

Climate Change
According to the Intergovernmental Panel
Cape Fold Belt
on Climate Change (IPCC) (IPCC 2001),
Karoo climate change is considered to be the
Mediterranean
Region change in climate over a period of time. It
Region
can be the result of natural variability or can
be attributed directly or indirectly to human
Cape Fold Belt activity. Those variables alter the structure
of the earth’s atmosphere. However, climate
South Coast
Region change is not just a shift in a single climatic
condition, such as temperature, but a shift in
many interlinked climate variables, such as
temperature, rainfall, humidity, frost, chill
units and atmospheric carbon dioxide to
Figure 1: T opographical map of the Western Cape Province (boundary shown by the highlighted name only a few.
area) which illustrates the Cape Fold Belt (indicated by the black solid line) and the The concept of greenhouse gas emissions
resulting climate zones (Mediterranean, South Coast and Karoo – orange dotted line) and their contribution to climate change is
a well exhausted debate amongst politicians,
eastern Karoo. At a national level, Lumsden the precarious position of the Western Cape scientists and the eco-friendly community.
et al (2009) noted an increase in the number Province, relative to the warm Indian Ocean What many do not realise is that the green-
of rainfall days and rainfall intensities in and the cold Atlantic Ocean, creates a hub house effect occurs naturally. Radiation
the eastern half of South Africa where, by for diverse oceanic and atmospheric circula- from the sun is absorbed mainly through
contrast, the west coast and adjacent interior tion systems which influence the climate, the surface of the earth. Atmospheric and
showed a decrease. and more specifically the rainfall, of the oceanic circulations redistribute this energy,
According to the Western Cape province (Chase & Thomas 2007). which is then radiated back into space. The
Department of Agriculture, Economic In the winter months, the South Atlantic IPCC (2001) states that whenever this cycle
Development and Tourism (2014), more high-pressure system shifts northward, is influenced in any way (e.g. a change in
than 50% of South Africa’s agricultural which carries cold fronts to the west coast. the retention or release of radiation from
exports is produced by the Western Cape, The combination of these cold fronts and the earth, or a change in the redistribution
and it supplies about 20% of the national the persistent winds over the cold Benguela of energy across land, ocean, or through the
agricultural production. The Mediterranean region introduces rain to the Mediterranean atmosphere), the climate will be affected.
climate of the Western Cape specifically Region, specifically along the west coast According to the Synthesis Report of the
yields a very productive wine industry in the (Chase & Thomas 2007). Cut-off low Fifth Assessment Report of the IPCC (2014),
Cape Wineland area. Much of the produce pressure systems are a common weather the temperature at the Earth’s surface has
is exported all over the world, while, at the occurrence in South Africa, bringing rain to become progressively warmer per decade
same time, it also stimulates tourism in the certain parts of the country, typically from since 1850. Due to a rapidly growing economy
area. The remainder of the area is acknowl- March to May, and September to November. and population, a definite increase in the
edged for its trade in animal products, some Cut-off low pressure systems are exactly anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions
of which include sheep (meat and wool), what their name suggests. It is described as has been evident since the pre-industrial era.
chickens (eggs), cows (dairy), beef and pork airflow over South Africa, in the mid-levels Predictions of global precipitation changes on
(meat). The coastline is also abundant in of the atmosphere, usually flowing from west a regional and seasonal scale are uncertain;
a large variety of marine life which fuels a to east. Heavy rains are the result of this however, studies have found that extreme
highly profitable fishing sector. Much of airflow being disturbed, forming a trough weather anomalies are likely to change.
the Western Cape relies on its tourism and which intensifies and develops into a low- With clear suggestions of possible
agricultural industry for economic enrich- pressure system. The low-pressure system changes in the climatic conditions due to
ment, and it is therefore clear that any shift gets “cut off” from the westerly flow and various reasons, the purpose of this research
in seasonal rainfall patterns, which might causes heavy rains in the western and south- is to investigate, based on statistical analysis,
influence agricultural production, is of great ern parts of the country (Singleton & Reason whether significant shifts can be observed
importance to the Western Cape. 2007). The Cape Fold Belt triggers an oro- in the seasonal rainfall patterns within the
graphic effect along the South Coast Region, Western Cape Province. No attempt is made
initiating all-year rainfall. The Karoo Region to link a definite cause to a possible shift,
Rainfall Mechanisms similarly also receives all-year rainfall, with but rather to identify a broad appreciation
Ocean currents flowing past landmasses a summer maximum. Reason and Rouault of whether shifts in rainfall patters do occur
have a major influence on their climate and (2005), and Philippon et al (2011) conclude in the Western Cape, and to propose further
environment, specifically the coastal regions that the Antarctic Oscillation (AAO) and research which may provide a better under-
which are directly affected. It is evident that El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) are standing thereof.

48 Journal of the South African Institution of Civil Engineering  •  Volume 59  Number 4  December 2017
Methodology Table 1: Final selected rainfall stations within the Western Cape Province
Record
Acquired data Station Position Elevation Start End
Station Name Length
Number (coordinates) (masl) (year) (year)
Data was originally sourced from both the (years)
Agricultural Research Council Institute for 1 Cape Point –34.3530S; 18.4900E 228 1900 2014 114
Soil, Climate and Water (ARC-ISCW) and 2 SAAO –33.9350S; 18.4770E 15 1900 2014 114
the South African Weather Service (SAWS)
3 Darling –33.4050S; 18.3800E 260 1900 2014 114
to ensure data from at least two independ-
4 Piketberg –32.9060S; 18.7540E 230 1900 2014 114
ent sources to allow for a greater selection
of rainfall stations. However, data from the 5 Algeria –32.3720S; 19.0570E 505 1908 2014 106
ARC-ISCW did not provide data sets that 6 Tulbagh –33.2840S; 19.1400E 163 1900 2014 114
were long enough, hence these were omit- 7 Paarl –33.7210S; 18.9710E 109 1900 2014 114
ted. Daily rainfall data was sourced as the 8 Grabouw –34.1450S; 19.0240E 283 1902 2014 112
ideal median between monthly rainfall data,
9 Worcester –33.6560S; 19.4330E 222 1900 2014 114
which could have concealed possible small
trends, and hourly rainfall data, which is not 10 Touwsrivier –33.3380S; 20.0310E 774 1900 2014 114

available for a significant length of time, as 11 Montagu –33.7840S; 20.1300E 223 1900 2014 114
well as being too specific. 12 Cape Agulhas –34.8260S; 20.0130E 11 1900 2014 114
Kruger (2006) emphasises that quality 13 Mossel Bay –34.1670S; 22.1330E 76 1902 2014 112
control is more difficult to manage with
14 Plettenberg Bay –34.0580S; 23.3720E 95 1900 2012 112
rainfall data, compared to other climatic
15 De Rust –33.4880S; 22.5340E 466 1914 2014 100
factors such as temperature, partially due
to rainfall having relatively poor spatial 16 Oudtshoorn –33.5800S; 22.2000E 332 1900 2014 114
correlation. In other words, the Western 17 Prins Albert –33.2200S; 22.0290E 619 1900 2014 114
Cape’s diverse topography and relatively 18 Ladysmith –33.4950S; 21.2700E 545 1900 2014 114
sparse distribution of rainfall stations make
19 Laingsburg –33.1980S; 20.8580E 650 1901 2014 113
it difficult to find a significant correlation
20 Tafelberg –32.2640S; 21.6230E 1 033 1912 2014 102
between rainfall stations. Thunderstorms
also occur sporadically and over small, local-
ised areas, which could influence the cor-
relation between rainfall stations. However,
in this research it is argued that the use of
monthly rainfall over a 100-year period will
overcome the possible impact of isolated,
localised thunderstorms on the correlation,
and therefore the completeness of rainfall
data sets. Thunderstorms typically occur on
a single day for a few hours at most, making
up less than 1% of the data in the data set.
Therefore, if thunderstorms are a regular 20
5
occurrence, it would be included in the year
to year monthly rainfall data.
4
Rainfall data, for the most part, was
accepted as being correct, relying on the 19
6 17
SAWS for their respective quality control 10
3 18
15
measures to ensure the accuracy of the data. 16
9
The final selection of rainfall stations 7 11
used for this research depended on: 2
14
1. The length of rainfall data set (≥ 100 years) 8
13
2. The authenticity of the data, i.e. data sets 1
with little or no missing data 80 km
3. The regional distribution of the rainfall 12 40 mi
stations, in other words, an even and
representative distribution (geographical Figure 2: S elected rainfall stations illustrating the three different climate zones (green circle:
position within the Western Cape) of the Mediterranean; blue square: South Coast; red triangle: Karoo)
stations meeting the requirements of (1)
and (2) above. data within the data set. Data sets exhibit- stations (20) was based on their record
ing little or no missing data (less than 10% length and their geographical distribution
Rainfall station selection of the total data within the data set) were within the Western Cape. The final stations,
The record length for each station was accepted for possible inclusion in the analy- selected according to the aforementioned
evaluated first. Rainfall stations with sis. This process yielded approximately 30 conditions, are presented in Table 1.
record lengths longer than 100 years were rainfall stations. These stations were plotted The distribution of the rainfall stations is
considered, based on the extent of missing spatially and the final selection of rainfall presented in Figure 2, where it is illustrated

Journal of the South African Institution of Civil Engineering  •  Volume 59  Number 4  December 2017 49
that they adequately represent the three dif- 100
ferent climatic regions in the Western Cape.
The typical mean precipitation distribu- 90
tion for the Mediterranean, South Coast
and Karoo climatic regions is illustrated in 80
Figure 3.
70
Using the results according to Van
Niekerk and Joubert (2011), presented in
60
Figure 3, each rainfall station was catego-
rised based on the following criteria which

mm
50
define the rainfall season:
Mediterranean Region – May (April) to 40
August (September)
South Coast Region – All-year rainfall 30
Karoo Region – November to March.
20

10
ANALYSIS AND RESULTS
To investigate the research question regard- 0
ing the presence of any possible changes in Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
the rainfall patterns in the Western Cape, Mediterranean South Coast Karoo
four main analyses were conducted:
1. A statistical analysis of key parameters, Figure 3: Monthly mean precipitation for the Mediterranean, South Coast and Karoo climatic
using trend lines regions (Van Niekerk & Joubert 2011)
2. A time lag analysis to compare changes in
some statistical parameters for different the statistical parameters were plotted as Table 2 (with specific reference to the
data sets a function of time in years for a specific months of February and March) and Figure 4
3. A cumulative plot analysis month. This provides an indication of the can be used, for example, to conclude that
4. A moving average analysis. monthly trend from year to year. A positive the total, maximum, 85% and average
These analyses will be discussed briefly and or negative gradient indicates an increase or monthly rainfall trend for February decreas-
the results presented in the section to follow, decrease, respectively, in monthly rainfall. es (shown by negative gradient values), and
wherein conclusions will be drawn from the The strength of the relationship (trend) is the trend for the corresponding rainfall
results presented. reflected in the regression coefficient. The statistics for March increases (shown by
regression coefficient is a value which varies positive gradient values) over the full record
Statistical analysis between 0 and 1. A value of 1 indicates a length (1900 to 2014). It can be concluded
Various statistical parameters were used perfect fit, while 0 represents no statistical that in this specific case, based on all four
to evaluate daily rainfall data on a monthly correlation. The total monthly rainfall, maxi- statistical parameters, the rainfall pattern is
basis. These parameters include total, maxi- mum daily rainfall, 85th percentile monthly possibly shifting, indicating a later end of the
mum and minimum, average and percentile rainfall and average daily rainfall were plot- rainfall season.
monthly rainfall. In this research, daily data ted for a specific month from year 1900 to The results of the linear trend analysis
was obtained and used to calculate average year 2014. indicated that the linear regression coef-
daily rainfall and the total monthly rainfall. Linear trend lines were then fitted to ficients were very low (no value greater than
Thereafter, the maximum and minimum the different data sets for each of the four 0.2), which demonstrates that the statistical
daily rainfall values were identified for each statistical parameters and the gradient value significance, in terms of a linear model, of
month and were recorded as the month’s was recorded. The gradient of the trend the changing trend of the rainfall data for all
daily minima and maxima. The 25th and line was then plotted for each month under the stations included in this research is very
85th percentiles of the monthly rainfall data evaluation. The results of the analysis for the poor. Nonetheless, opposing gradient values
were included in the analysis to observe Oudtshoorn station (Station 16 in Table 1) at the boundary months (i.e. boundary of the
trends in daily rainfall data between the are shown in Table 2 and are presented peak rainfall period for the specific climatic
minimum, average and maximum daily graphically in Figure 4. zone), which were present in two or more of
rainfall values.
Table 2: Trend line gradient values for the Oudtshoorn Rainfall Station
Linear trend analysis Trend Line Gradient Value
To determine whether a relationship exists
between values in a data set, a trend line Total Monthly Monthly Monthly 85% Average Daily
Rainfall Maximum Rainfall Percentile Rainfall Rainfall
was fitted to the data. For the purpose of
this research, a linear trend line would be November 0.0097 –0.0244 0.0045 0.0003
most beneficial as it would show either December –0.0102 –0.0253 –0.0529 –0.0415
an increasing or decreasing trend. The
January 0.0095 –0.0224 0.0053 0.0003
inclination of the trend line is identified
by the gradient of the straight line (linear) February –0.0114 –0.0247 –0.0344 –0.0367
equation. To identify a possible shift in the
March 0.0413 0.0069 0.0039 0.0013
seasonal rainfall from one year to the next,

50 Journal of the South African Institution of Civil Engineering  •  Volume 59  Number 4  December 2017
0.06

0.04

0.02
Growing trend

–0.02

–0.04

–0.06
November December January February March
Total Maximum 85% Average

Figure 4: Gradient trend values per month (November to March) for the Oudtshoorn rainfall station

the calculated statistical parameters, were


identified and recorded.
When the stations were grouped into
their respective climatic zones, specific
trends were evident. These include:
■■ 100% of the stations in the South Coast
Region showed a decrease in at least two
statistical parameters of the rainfall data
in March, and an increase in April –
pointing towards the possibility of a later
end to the rainfall season in this zone. 20
5
■■ 70% of the stations in the Mediterranean
Region showed an increase in at least two 57%
4
statistical parameters of the rainfall data
in August, and a decrease in September 19
6 17
– pointing towards the possibility of 10
3 18
70% 15
an earlier end to the rainfall season in 16
9
this zone. 7 11
■■ 57% of the stations in the Karoo Region 2
100% 14
showed an increase in at least two sta- 8
13
tistical parameters of the rainfall data in 1
November, and a decrease in December – 80 km
pointing towards the possibility of an 12 40 mi
earlier start to the rainfall season in
this zone. Figure 5: A
 visual interpretation of the consequential results depicting a likely shift in a specific
These results are illustrated in Figure 5. climatic zone and its corresponding percentage representation of the stations within
that climatic zone, based on the monthly trend lines of statistical parameters
Time lag comparison
The time lag plot is the name given to the over the first 10 years of the time series with rainfall values over the sequential 10-year
comparison of two data sets, in this case the that of the last 10 years. This comparison subsets fall between the two boundary
comparison of two 10-year averaged total was then followed by a second step where comparisons, and unsupported if they do
monthly rainfall data sets. It is a simple way a comparison of sequential 10-year subsets not. The time lag approach was important
to visualise a possible “shift” in a data set within the two boundaries, i.e. total to compare the main rainfall seasons
over time, and may provide an indication of monthly rainfall over a 10-year period and and to determine whether the rainfall in
the trend which is likely to occur. lagged by 10 years, was done. The results these periods had shifted backwards (later
In an attempt to determine the presence can indicate whether the initial assumption rain), forwards (earlier rain) or remained
of a possible shift in rainfall patterns, this of comparing the boundary cases in step 1 constant. It also aided in confirming what
method is beneficial in comparing, as a first was indeed valid or not. It will be supported could be established as the “rainfall season”
step, the averaged total monthly rainfall if most of the averaged total monthly and whether a change had occurred along

Journal of the South African Institution of Civil Engineering  •  Volume 59  Number 4  December 2017 51
the boundary months. In Figure 6, the solid 140
lines represent the averaged total monthly
First Last
rainfall over the first 10-year period and

10-year averaged total monthly rainfall (mm)


120
last 10-year period of a specific station’s
data set. The singular points represent the
averaged total monthly rainfall values over 100
the lagged 10-year subsets between the first
and last 10-year periods. For this research, 80
focus is not placed on which 10-year period
the black dot represents, but rather whether
60
it lies within the boundary of the first and
last 10 years of the data set. In this case it
is evident that most of the subset values 40

do not.
If the shift, shown by the different 20
averaged total monthly rainfall values as
observed in Figure 6, is a true reflection of 0
the trend, all the 10-year subset values are Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
expected to distribute themselves between Month
the two solid lines, which would confirm First Last
a gradual shift in the rainfall season (peak
rainfall month shifting from June to August). Figure 6: The averaged total monthly rainfall distribution over different 10-year subsets at the
However, this is not the case with the South African Astronomical Observatory Rainfall Station. The two curves indicate the
10-year time-step average rainfall values pre- averaged total monthly rainfall values over the first 10-year period and the last 10-year
sented in Figure 6, with the data points being period in the data set
seemingly scattered at random.
It is, however, interesting to note the
relationships between stations in the same
area. It was found that in the areas depicted
in Figure 7, the stations showed similar shifts
from the first 10 years to the last 10 years.
The encircled stations in the Mediterranean
Region indicate a foreward shift (later
start of the rainfall season) in average total
monthly rainfall from June to August. The
included stations in the Karoo Region show
a forward shift from March to June (later 20
5
start of the rainfall season) and the South
Coast Region indicates a backward shift
4
from October to August (earlier decrease in
rainfall at end of season). 19
6 17
No similarities or patterns could be 10
3 18
15
identified between the stations which have 16
9
not been grouped as shown by Figure 7. They 7 11
therefore did not conform to the shifts indi- 2
14
cated above, but exhibited patterns unique 8
13
to their position within the Western Cape 1
Province. 80 km

12 40 mi
Cumulative plot
Cumulative, by definition, means “increas- Figure 7: A
 reas of similar seasonal rainfall shifts using the time lag comparison method; the three
ing or decreasing by successive addition” different colours/shapes illustrate the different climatic regions as specified previously
(Concise Oxford English Dictionary 1964).
For data without any changes, a perfect given by Equation 1 and could be effective in general trend relationship is illustrated as in
cumulative distribution would maintain a the analysis of rainfall data when plotted as a Figure 8.
constant gradient, and any deviation from function of time. Figure 8 illustrates three possible out-
the general trend would indicate either an comes that can result from a cumulative plot.
increase or decrease of the data as a function Tn = tn + Tn–1(1) When the research problem is considered,
of time. The cumulative distribution draws a constant gradient would indicate no sig-
attention to consistent variations from the where tn is the total rainfall in a specific year nificant shift in the rainfall pattern, while
mean and is therefore a valuable tool for and Tn-1 is the cumulative total rainfall of increasing variation would indicate that
observing possible changes within a data set. all the previous years. When the cumulative rainfall is increasing with time and decreas-
The cumulative distribution function Tn is values are plotted as a function of time, the ing variation would indicate that rainfall is

52 Journal of the South African Institution of Civil Engineering  •  Volume 59  Number 4  December 2017
decreasing over time. A shift would be dem-
onstrated by a point where two consecutive
months show consistent opposite trends (i.e.
one month shows a decreasing variation and
the next shows an increasing variation).
When the cumulative total monthly
rainfall values are plotted against time, the
Cumulative value

general trend for the 20 rainfall stations


shows that no major change in rainfall can
be identified based on a year to year obser-
vation, illustrated by a mostly consistent
gradient. This relationship is depicted for the
South African Astronomical Observatory
rainfall station (Station 2 in Table 1) in
Figure 9, which can be considered typical for
the Mediterranean climatic region.
In general, small fluctuations from the
Time cumulative trend were observed, but for the
Increasing variation from the mean
Constant gradient
Decreasing variation from the mean most part the gradient of the cumulative
Constant Gradient Increasing variation from the mean trend remained the same. If the assumption
Decreasing variation from the mean
that a change in the rainfall patterns of the
Figure 8: T ypical total cumulative distribution Western Cape is valid, a deviation from the
general trend would have to be observed in
some of the months.
12 000
Figures 10(a) and (b) illustrate what is
meant by a small fluctuation from the gen-
10 000 eral cumulative trend for the same rainfall
station shown in Figure 9. These trends usu-
Cumulative rainfall (mm)

8 000 ally appear as single (approximately 20-year)


or double (approximately 40-year) cycles.
6 000 The general trend, when all rainfall sta-
tions were considered, did not indicate any
4 000 continuous increasing or decreasing shifts
from the mean. It does, however, illustrate
2 000 small fluctuations from the mean (as illus-
trated in Figure 10) which are indicative of
0
rainfall variability.
1900 1920 1940 1960 1980 2000 2020
Time (years) Moving average
April May June July A moving average is a method which analy-
August September October ses a series of data points by determining
the averages of different subsets (Business
Figure 9: C
 umulative total monthly rainfall for the South African Astronomical Observatory Dictionary 2016). The simple moving average
Rainfall Station (Number 2), which can be considered typical for the Mediterranean method adjusts fluctuations of consecutive
climatic region values in a data set which identifies the

12 000 7 000
Cumulative rainfall (mm)

Cumulative rainfall (mm)

10 000 Single cycle of a wetter period 6 000 Double cycle of a wetter period
5 000
8 000
4 000
6 000
3 000
4 000
2 000
2 000 1 000
0 0
1900 1920 1940 1960 1980 2000 2020 1900 1920 1940 1960 1980 2000 2020
Time (years) Time (years)
April May September October

Figure 10(a): Cumulative total monthly rainfall distribution for April Figure 10(b): Cumulative total monthly rainfall distribution for
and May over the full record length (South African September and October over the full record length (South
Astronomical Observatory Rainfall Station) African Astronomical Observatory Rainfall Station)

Journal of the South African Institution of Civil Engineering  •  Volume 59  Number 4  December 2017 53
140 periods of wetter and drier years within
the rainfall season. This relationship
120 oscillates in periods of approximately
20 years.
Average rainfall (mm)

100
2. The gradient of the trend plot (linear
trend plot) brought to light some interest-
80
ing points in all three climatic regions.
60 The rainfall season is possibly shortening
in the Mediterranean Region and com-
40 paratively lengthening in the South Coast
and Karoo Regions. Although it was
20
proved that the statistical significance of
0
this data was very poor, this statement
1900 1920 1940 1960 1980 2000 2020 does, however, correspond with the con-
Year clusions made by Lumsden et al (2009),
April May i.e. that the western half of the province
(Mediterranean Region) will experience
Figure 11: M
 oving average over a 10-year period of total monthly rainfall for the months of April warmer but drier weather, and the eastern
and May lagged by one year for the South African Astronomical Observatory Station half (South Coast and Karoo Regions) will
(Number 2). comparatively experience warmer but
wetter weather.
direction of a specific trend. It could be When the moving average plots for all the 3. It was found that the moving average
extremely beneficial when applied to rainfall stations were analysed, the border months plots indicated isolated occurrences
data to compare the general trend of con- received special attention. It proved difficult of variation in rainfall patterns in the
secutive subsets. In this research, consecu- to identify significant shifts or points of Mediterranean and South Coast Regions.
tive months were analysed where opposite change within the data sets. When the sta- A longer data set would need to be ana-
trends (i.e. one increases while the other tions were grouped into their respective cli- lysed to determine if these occurrences
decreases) could indicate a possible shift in matic regions, specific trends were evident, are repeated over a few decades.
rainfall patterns. which include: Although no significant single trend was
In this analysis, subsets of 10 years were ■■ 100% of the stations in the South Coast found across the Western Cape, the fea-
used with a one-year time lag interval and Region showed an increasing October tures that have been brought to light show
the average total monthly rainfall calculated and decreasing November trend from interesting changes that have occurred in
for each subset. This approach was imple- approximately 1980 to 1995, pointing the past century. It is clear that further
mented for each month, and the moving towards the possibility of an earlier start research needs to be done to gain a better
averages that had been calculated were to the rainfall season in this region over understanding of the possible chang-
plotted over the full record length. Figure 11 this period. ing rainfall trends in the Western Cape
demonstrates this technique for the months ■■ 80% of the stations in the Mediterranean Province. This could include doing more
of April and May for Station 2, the South Region showed an increasing September localised analysis within the three climatic
African Astronomical Observatory, in the and decreasing October trend between regions, or analysing the different regional
Mediterranean Region as an example. 1970 and 2000 which expresses the pos- rainfall patterns and not specific rainfall
Figure 11 indicates that there is a con- sibility of an earlier end to the rainfall stations within the regions. An analysis of
tinuous escalation of the mean, between season in this region during this period. the annual rainfall pattern, as apposed to
1940 and 1960, which would suggest an ■■ The Karoo Region showed no significant only analysing the perceived main rainfall
increase in the total monthly rainfall experi- trend. season, might also provide a better under-
enced from year to year for a specific month standing of the possible changes suggested
(April and May in this case). Conversely, a by climate change theory. In conclusion,
continuous decline of the mean, as indicated Conclusion South Africa needs to accumulate a more
between 1910 and 1930, would suggest a Climate change is one of the most debated extensive database of climate data in order
decrease in the total monthly rainfall experi- topics of the modern world. The United to perform more detailed analyses. Research
enced from year to year for a specific month. Nations Conference on Environment and as presented in this paper provides baseline
Figure 11 can also indicate that the general Development (UNCED), informally known research, which can be used as a reference
increasing and decreasing trends of the two as the Earth Summit, meets every year to for future research.
illustrated months correlate with each other discuss the impacts of climate change and
and show periods of wetter or drier years. how to slow this process. There are many
Similar fluctuations indicating slightly wet- factors indicating that climate change is References
ter or drier periods, as seen previously with indeed taking place. However, whether Acosta, R, Myles, A, Cherian, A, Granich, S, Mintzer,
the cumulative plot, appear in the moving climate change has had an effect on the I, Suares, A & Von Hippel, D 1999. Climate change
average approach. These cycles seem to have Western Cape seasonal rainfall patterns dur- information kit. United Nations Environment
a lifespan of single (20-year) and double ing the past 100 years is inconclusive. Programme (UNEP) and the United Nations
(40-year) periods. At points where these Three features are evident from the Framework Convention on Climate Change
increasing or decreasing trends diverge for research provided in this paper: (UNFCCC). Available at: http://www.unfccc.
consecutive months, it would indicate pos- 1. A pattern that seems to be evident in all int/cop3/fccc/climate/factcont.htm (accessed in
sible shifts in the rainfall pattern. the different analyses is that there are February 2016).

54 Journal of the South African Institution of Civil Engineering  •  Volume 59  Number 4  December 2017
Benhin, J K A 2006. Climate change and South Maskell, K & Johnson, C A (Eds.). Cambridge, UK: Reason, C J C & Rouault, M 2005. Links between
African agriculture. Discussion Paper 21. Centre Cambridge University Press. the Antarctic Oscillation and winter rainfall over
for Environmental Economics and Policy in Africa IPCC 2014. Climate change 2014: Synthesis report. western South Africa. Geophysical Research Letters,
(CEEPA), University of Pretoria. Available at: https:// Contribution of Working Groups I, II and III to the 32(7). doi: 10.1029/2005GL022419.
www.researchgate.net/publication/265074602 Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Singleton, A T & Reason, C J C 2007. Variability in the
Business Dictionary.com. n.d. Moving average. http:// Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). Pachauri, R K & characteristics of cut-off low pressure systems over
www.businessdictionary.com/definition/moving- Meyer, L A (Eds.). Geneva, Switzerland: IPCC. subtropical southern Africa. International Journal of
average.html Kruger, A 2006. Observed trends in daily precipitation Climatology, 27: 295–310.
Chase, B M & Thomas, D S 2007. Multiphase late indices in South Africa: 1910–2004. International Western Cape Department of Economic Development
Quaternary aeolian sediment accumulation in Journal of Climatology, 26(15): 2275–2285. and Tourism. 2014. Annual Report 2013–2014.
western South Africa: Timing and relationship to Lumsden, T G, Schulze, R E & Hewitson, B C 2009. Cape Town: Government Printing Works.
palaeoclimatic changes inferred from the marine Evaluation of potential changes in hydrologically Van Niekerk, A & Joubert, S J 2011. Input variable
record. Quaternary International, 166(1): 29–41. relevant statistics of rainfall in Southern Africa selection for interpreting high-resolution climate
Concise Oxford English Dictionary, 5th ed. 1964. under conditions of climate change. Water SA, surfaces for the Western Cape. Water SA,
London: Oxford University Press. 35(5): 649–656. 37(3): 271–279.
Du Toit, J C O & O’Connor, T G 2014. Changes in Lynch, S D, Zulu, J T, King, K N & Knoesen, D M 2001. Van Wageningen, A & Du Plessis, J A 2007. Are
rainfall pattern in the eastern Karoo, South Africa, The analysis of 74 years of rainfall recorded by the rainfall intensities changing, could climate change
over the past 123 years. Water SA, 40(3): 453-460. Irwins on two farms south of Potchefstroom. Water be blamed and what could be the impact for
IPCC 2001. Climate change 2001: The scientific basis. SA, 27(4): 559–564. hydrologists? Water SA, 33(4): 571–574.
Contribution of Working Group I to the Third Philippon, N, Rouault, M, Richard, Y & Favre, A 2011. Winter, K, Bottaro, J & Oelofse, C 2001. Oxford
Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel The influence of ENSO [El Niño Southern Oscillation] intermediate atlas of Southern Africa. Cape Town:
on Climate Change (IPCC). Houghton, J T., Ding, Y, on winter rainfall in South Africa. International Oxford University Press.
Griggs, D J, Noguer, M, Van der Linden, P J, Dai, X, Journal of Climatology, 32(15): 2333–2347.

Journal of the South African Institution of Civil Engineering  •  Volume 59  Number 4  December 2017 55
TECHNICAL PAPER Application of metaheuristic
Journal of the South African
Institution of Civil Engineering
algorithms to the improvement
ISSN 1021-2019
Vol 59 No 4, December 2017, Pages 56–63, Paper 1564 of the MyCiTi BRT network in
OBIORA A NNENE is a student member of the
Cape Town
South African Institution of Civil Engineering
(SAICE), and is presently completing his doctoral
studies at the Centre for Transport Studies in the
O A Nnene, M H P Zuidgeest, E A Beukes
Civil Engineering Department at the University
of Cape Town. He graduated with an MSc (Civil
Engineering) from the University of Cape Town, This paper discusses a design approach aimed at improving bus transit networks and their
and his research interest is in Transportation
operations. In combining metaheuristic algorithms and a GIS procedure the paper shows
Engineering and Planning, with emphasis on public transportation network
design and improvements. Prior to this he worked as a civil engineer in
how the level of network utilisation of a bus service can be improved. To achieve this goal,
highway design and construction. the procedure is applied to the design of a bus network. It is then, accordingly, compared
with the current phase of the MyCiTi BRT network in the City of Cape Town, South Africa. The
Contact details:
Centre for Transport Studies results indicate that the designed network performs better in terms of network utilisation and
Department of Civil Engineering other operational parameters. It is hoped that this research will add value to the design and
University of Cape Town implementation of bus networks in Cape Town, together with their operation.
Private Bag X3
Rondebosch 7701
South Africa
T: +27 73 658 7656 INTRODUCTION AND to optimise the existing network, thereby
E: nnnobi002@myuct.ac.za PROBLEM DESCRIPTION improving its utilisation. The results will also
The large amount of resources (economic, inform the future design and implementation
PROF MARK HP ZUIDGEEST is a member of the land and environmental) required to supply of the MyCiTi BRT.
South African Institution of Civil Engineering transportation infrastructure and services, Cape Town’s public transportation net-
(SAICE), and is currently Associate Professor of makes it imperative to continually seek cheap- work is comparable to those in other South
Transportation Planning and Engineering
er ways of providing them. Such initiatives African cities. Some features of the network
(SANRAL Chair) at the University of Cape Town.
He graduated with an MSc (Civil Engineering) include, inter alia: developing and adopting include the existence of non-integrated
from the University of Twente, The Netherlands, optimal transit network design procedures, public transit services; imbalanced network
in 1997, and a PhD from the Netherlands implementing travel demand management utilisation (over-utilised in some parts of the
Research School for Transport, Infrastructure and Logistics (TRAIL) in 2005. His schemes, and reviewing existing public City and under-utilised in others), due to
fields of interest include land use – transport systems analysis, with an
transit policies and practices with a view to flawed legacy transportation planning poli-
emphasis on questions around sustainability, equity and accessibility.
improving them. A case study is the ongoing cies; and selective network coverage, which
Contact details:
Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) moderation exercise imposes high network access costs on some
Centre for Transport Studies
Department of Civil Engineering
in the City of Cape Town, as revealed in the inhabitants, particularly the urban poor of
University of Cape Town MyCiTi business plan update (CoCT 2015), the City (Behrens 2004).
Private Bag X3 which was embarked upon by the transporta- Some of these issues arise from the exist-
Rondebosch 7701 tion authority in the City with the aim to: ing transit network design approaches in the
South Africa
1. Optimise the network in order to increase City, which basically involves the development
T: +27 21 650 4756
E: mark.zuidgeest@uct.ac.za
its utilisation levels of ad-hoc solutions to given network design
2. Curtail some routes and frequencies problems. In contrast, this paper will attempt
DR EDWARD A BEUKES is an associate member
where demand is low to improve the existing service by utilising
of the South African Institution of Civil 3. Tackle administrative issues that hamper Public Transit Network Design (PTND)
Engineering (SAICE), and is currently a principal the smooth running of the service knowledge, which focuses on the systematic
professional officer at the City of Cape Town’s 4. Investigate potential cost reductions application of mathematical modelling tech-
Transportation and Urban Development
resulting from improved bus/driver ratios niques and computer-based algorithms to
Authority. He graduated with his MSc and PhD
in Civil Engineering from the University of Cape
5. Develop strategies for Transit Oriented solve transit network problems. With recent
Town in 2006 and 2011 respectively. His fields of Development (TOD) and shifts in urban advances in computational science it is now
interest include transport systems planning and modelling. He also has vast form, over the longer term, to improve possible to take on large-scale transit network
industry experience and, until his current position, he was a civil engineer sustainable transport services. problems. This may not have been possible
with Ero Engineers for over seven years.
While this list is not as exhaustive as previously, due to the prohibitive cost in terms
Contact details: articulated in the original business plan, of computing resources. To this end, an inno-
PO Box X9181 the scope of the work described here is vative model for network optimisation, which
Cape Town 8001 South Africa
restricted to the first two points that deal is adapted from genetic algorithms (GA) and
T: +27 21 400 1073
E: eddiebeukes@gmail.com with network design and operations manage- combined with a GIS-based operation, is pre-
ment. Therefore, with the implementation sented in this paper. The model is compared
of the Cape Town BRT services still in its with the first phase of the MyCiti network to
early stages, the main objective of this paper demonstrate how an improvement in network
Keywords: MyCiti, metaheuristics, network design, network utilisation, BRT is to propose a model which can be used utilisation can be achieved.

56
Nnene OA, Zuidgeest MHP, Beukes EA. Application of metaheuristic algorithms to the improvement of the MyCiTi BRT network in Cape Town.
J. S. Afr. Inst. Civ. Eng. 2017:59(4), Art. #1564, 8 pages. http://dx.doi.org/10.17159/2309-8775/2017/v59n4a6
Table 1: D
 etails of parameters used in the model formulation may not necessarily be optimal, but is consid-
ered good enough given the circumstances.
Variable Description Unit

R number of routes in the network positive integer

r any route in R, where r = 1 ... R index MODEL FORMULATION


The objective of this transit network design
B bus fleet size available for the network buses
optimisation problem is to obtain a solu-
b any bus in B, where b = 1 ... B index tion from a population of feasible network
set of feeder, collector and bus links that serves travel demand on the options, which minimises transit costs
Grk a set
route r where k is the index for each type of link of route r for the users and operators of a given bus
g any link g in Grk where g ∈ Grk index network, subject to feasibility constraints on
route length, route frequency, bus capacity,
drg length of link g, where r = 1 ... R and g ∈ Grk km
bus breakeven load factor and travel demand
qrg modelled passenger transit demand on link g, where r = 1 ... R and g ∈ Grk passengers assignment. The objective function of the
optimisation model therefore seeks to reduce
t rg modelled travel times on link g, where r = 1 ... R and g ∈ Grk h
costs for users, as a way of increasing the
{drg } set of link lengths on the routes {drg }:{drg :r ∈ {1, ∙∙∙R}, g ∈ Grk} a set utilisation of the service. The parameters
{qrg } set of passenger volumes on the routes {qrg }:{qrg :r ∈ {1, ∙∙∙R}, g ∈ Grk} a set used in the model formulation are presented
in Table 1.
{t rg } set of travel times on the routes {t rg }:{t rg :r ∈ {1, ∙∙∙R}, g ∈ Grk} a set
In formulating the objective function the
{b|r} set of buses assigned to route r a set following three separate terms are formu-
length of route r, with Drmin
≤ Dr ≤ where Drmax Drmax and lated, and each one is subsequently described
Dr km
Drmin are maximum and minimum values in full:
qr total passenger transit demand passengers
z1({qrg },{trg }) =W1(∑k ∑ g ∈ G k qrg ∙ trg ∙ Ctk)(1)
r
tr travel time on route r mins

bus frequency on route r, with f rmin ≤ f r ≤ f rmax where f rmax and f rmin are z 2(qr ,{qrg }) = W2(Pun(qr – ∑ g ∈ G k qrg ))(2)
fr buses/h r
maximum and minimum values

Cb passenger capacity of any bus in the fleet seats/bus z 3( f r ,{drg }) = W3(∑ Rr=1∑ g ∈ G k drg ∙ f r ∙ Cop)(3)
r

break-even load factor for a bus, where Lmax and Lmin are max and
L
min values
dimensionless The terms {qrg }, {trg }, {drg } represent the sets
of passenger volumes, travel times and
unit equivalent cost of user travel time for each mode where k is the
Ctk ZAR/h the length of the component links of the
index for each type of link
network routes (see Table 1). The objective
Cop unit cost of operating the bus per km ZAR/km
function (see Equation 4) comprises three
Pun penalty for unsatisfied passenger transit demand ZAR/passenger terms (z1, z 2 and z 3 in Equations 1–3 above).
ω a route choice function used in the transit demand assignment model dimensionless
In z1 which symbolises the total weighted
cost of travel incurred by users over the
W1 weight factor reflecting the relative importance of user cost dimensionless network (comprising passenger access time
W2 weight reflecting the relative importance of unsatisfied demand cost dimensionless and in-vehicle travel time), the link set Grk
represents all the links (feeder collector
W3 weight reflecting the relative importance of operator cost dimensionless
and main links) that facilitate passenger
flow on the network routes, with the index
LITERATURE REVIEW typically combinatorial optimisation prob- k denoting the travel mode for each link
Transit Network Design (TND) deals strictly lems. Such problems have a finite set of solu- group. Similarly, the equivalent time cost for
with the planning of transit lines and the tions with a defined representation, such as a the links is represented by Ctk which is the
efficient coordination of their operations to graph, while the number of potential solutions link cost by mode for each respective link k.
provide a satisfactory service to passengers is enormous and grows exponentially as Lastly, qrg and trg are the passenger volume
(Ceder 2015). It branches out of the broader the number of decision variables increases and travel time on each link. It should be
transportation planning field and concentrates (Schrijver 2003). TNDPs can be classified noted that there is room for the inclusion
on the optimised design of transportation in the computational complexity literature of additional time factors in the formula-
networks by attempting to minimise transit as “np-hard” (non-deterministic polynomial tion of the user cost, such as transfer time;
costs and maximise network operating effi- time). This implies that their equivalent deci- however, such modifications fall outside the
ciency, subject to certain feasibility constraints. sion problem is np-complete, hence there is scope of this paper. The expression z 2 (see
When formulated as an optimisation problem, no verifiable efficient algorithm that exists to Equation 2) denotes the weighted cost of
a Transit Network Design Problem (TNDP), is solve them in polynomial time (Talbi 2009; unsatisfied demand represented as the dif-
typically characterised by an objective function Fan & Machemehl 2004). Consequently, ference between the total transit demand qr
which is a mathematical expression to be opti- searching through the entire solution set for and the demand served by the sum of links
mised, constraint(s) that should be satisfied in the optimal solution is virtually impossible. on each network solution (∑ g ∈ G k qrg ). Finally,
r
order to arrive at a feasible solution, and design This situation therefore calls for the develop- z 3 (see Equation 3) represents the weighted
variables and other parameters. ment of a strategy to search for a good solu- operator cost of travel over the network. It
According to Baaj and Mahmassani tion to the problem within an acceptable time should be noted that the values for the cost
(1991), TNDPs, especially large-scale ones, are frame, with the possibility that the solution factors (see Ctk, Pun and Cop in Table 1) and

Journal of the South African Institution of Civil Engineering  •  Volume 59  Number 4  December 2017 57
weightings (see W1, W2 , W3 in Table 1) used Table 2: D
 ifferences between metaheuristic algorithms and empirical network design approaches
in the objective function were obtained from
Metaheuristic algorithms Empirical transit network design approach
transport experts from the City of Cape
Town’s Department of Transport. The objec- Allows for the formulation of the TNDP as an Does not formulate the TNDP as an optimisation
optimisation problem problem
tive function is thus stated as the summation
of z1, z 2 and z 3 as follows: Creates solutions that can be applied to a wide They are mostly tailored to solve a specific
array of transit network optimisation problems problem

Min: Z = (W1(∑k ∑ g ∈ G k qrg . trg . Ctk) Less expensive as it requires open source More expensive as it requires relatively costly
r
programming codes, as well as computational proprietary transportation planning software,
+ W2(Pun(qr – ∑G k qrg )) resources such as adequate computer hardware in addition to the computational resources and
r
and memory to solve a TNDP memory
+ W3(∑ Rr=1∑ g ∈ G k drg . f r . Cop))(4)
r This is not the case with the empirical methods,
They can be applied to large-scale TNDP
as large case studies must be simplified due to
and determine its operational parameters
Subject to: its enormous computational rigour and resource
simultaneously
requirement

qr = ω[Ctk (r, f r)](5) They can obtain a good feasible solution to a


They require significantly more time and effort to
network design problem in a relatively short time
arrive at a solution
frame
Lmin ≤ L ≤ Lmax(6)

Where: EARLIER SOLUTION ATTEMPTS PROPOSED SOLUTION


Previous approaches of solving the TNDP The solution approach proposed in this
∑ Rr=1 f r . ∑ g ∈ G k drg were either empirical or analytical. paper will be implemented with an algo-
L= r
∑ Rr=1 f r . ∑b ∈ {b|r} Cb . ∑ g ∈ drg Empirical techniques focus on the use of: rithm named a Bus Route Network Design
(1) proprietary transportation planning Algorithm (BRNDA) (see outline of algo-
∀r = 1...R, ∀b = 1...B(6.1) software which are often very expensive; rithm below). It is adapted from a genetic
(2) documented strategies (design manu- algorithm (GA). The choice of a GA as the
qrg ≤ ∑b ∈ {b|r} Cb ∀r = 1...R, ∀g ∈ Grk (7) als) such as the South African Technical solution algorithm in this paper is motivated
Recommendation for Highways (SATRH) by the issues raised in the preceding section,
Drmin ≤ ∑drg ≤ Drmax ∀r = 1...R(8) and the National Cooperative Highway concerning the advantage of metaheuristics
Research Program (NCHRP); and (3) other over empirical methods when applied to
f rmin ≤ f r ≤ f rmax ∀r = 1...R(9) manually iterative processes. On the other np-hard problems. Furthermore, the fact that
hand, analytical methods employ math- genetic algorithms have also been used to
The first constraint in the model (see ematical programming techniques to solve find solutions to problems in several disci-
Equation 5) is a travel demand assignment a transit network design problem. However, plines (Michalewicz 1996) make them a good
constraint that describes user behaviour the major criticism of empirical and analyti- fit for the problem at hand.
on the network in terms of passenger route cal methods is their limited application to As reported by (Poli et al 2008), GA is
choice, under equilibrium conditions, and it large-scale network design problems (Shih a class of metaheuristic algorithms whose
estimates the total volume of travel demand & Mahmassani 1994). This is occasioned operations were conceptualised from the
assigned to the bus network. Equation 6 is a by the overly simplistic assumptions that principles of natural selection and genetics.
bus break-even load factor constraint, which need to be made in formulating them as A typical GA (Talbi 2009; Michalewicz
is a function of the number of passengers mathematical models, and the excessive 1996) consists of a population of individuals
assigned to individual routes on the bus net- computational time required to solve them or chromosomes which, in turn, contains
work. The constraint requires that the flows (Chakroborty 2003). genes. In terms of the TNDP, an individual
in full buses are bound by the maximum Owing to these limitations, computation- (chromosome) will be a network with its
value (Lmax, see Equation 6) of the bus break- al solution techniques that utilise computer- routes denoting the genes. Each chromo-
even load factor L (see Equations 6.1) where based optimisation algorithms were devel- some in the population usually represents
{b|r} is the set of buses assigned to route r. oped to solve the TNDP. These classes of a feasible solution, or in the case of the
Equation 7 is the bus capacity constraint algorithms are considered an improvement TNDP, a network solution. Genetic algo-
which defines the maximum amount of pas- on the earlier mentioned solution techniques, rithms are approximate procedures and, as
senger demand that can be satisfied on the since they can generate “acceptable” solutions such, they do not obtain a globally optimal
network. Equation 8 is a route length con- in a reasonable time. This paper therefore solution. However, they can generate a
straint, which indicates the upper and lower makes a case for the use of a computational locally optimal solution (usually considered
bounds beyond which it would be illogical approach based on metaheuristic algorithms acceptable) in a reasonable amount of time.
to operate the bus service. This constraint in the design of public transit networks. Typically an initial population is randomly
prevents the algorithm from proposing to Metaheuristics are a class of algorithms used generated in the first step of the GA, fol-
operate a bus service on a route where walk- as a strategy to guide the search for the solu- lowed by an evaluation of the individuals in
ing is preferred, due to its short distance, or tion of an optimisation problem. Examples of the population to determine their “fitness”
operating one on routes that are extremely metaheuristics are genetic algorithms (GA), or objective function value.
long, which could discourage maintaining tabu search, simulated annealing, ant colony A pair of individual solutions or “parents”
adequate bus schedules. The last constraint optimisation and greedy search algorithms with desirable objective function values,
(Equation 9) is the frequency feasibility con- (Fan & Machemehl 2006). Some of the dif- chosen from the solution search space,
straint, which is introduced to represent the ferences between metaheuristic algorithms has a higher possibility of combining to
maximum and minimum operable frequency and empirical solution techniques are given produce the next “generation of offspring”
on each route within the bus network. in Table 2. through a process known as “reproduction”

58 Journal of the South African Institution of Civil Engineering  •  Volume 59  Number 4  December 2017
(Kumar 2012). This process is facilitated Network Creation Algorithm (NCA)
Start by the interaction of genetic operators The network creation stage of the BRNDA
– selection, crossover and mutation (see is essentially a three-step process compris-
Siriwardene & Perera 2006 for details). ing demand generation, stop setting and
Initialise
population Generally the algorithm yields better route development stages. An intermediate
generations in successive iterations until it step between the stop setting and route
No attains a predefined termination criterion. developments, known as a pedestrian
In subsequent sections the operations of the utilisation module, is also introduced to
Complete?
BRNDA will be described, in addition to its appropriately model pedestrian access to
application to a typical public transit net- the designed network solution. The output
Yes work design problem. The solution space for of this stage is a large pool of feasible
the bus network problem, as modelled in the routes from which the initial bus network
Evaluate and previous section, will be “searched” by the population will be initialised. The com-
rank individual BRNDA for an “acceptable” solution, given, ponent steps of the BRNDA are discussed
fitness
some predetermined criteria. A basic flow as follows:
No
diagram of a GA is presented in Figure 1.
Complete?
The so-called BRNDA comprises three Demand generation
sub-processes that are similar to the opera- The demand generation consists of the trip
tors of a GA, namely (1) a generator func- generation and trip distribution steps in the
Yes No tion or Network Creation Algorithm (NCA), four-step transportation modelling process
comprising the network generation and util- (de Dios Ortúzar & Willumsen 2011). Trip
Generate offspring productions and attractions are estimated
isation phases respectively; (2) an evaluator
•  Selection
•  Crossover function or Network Analysis Procedure for each Transportation Analysis Zone
•  Mutation (NAP), which analyses the generated bus (TAZ) within the Cape Town transporta-
No
network; and (3) a GA-based Network tion area using available geographic, topo-
Complete?
Search Algorithm (NSA), a solution strategy graphic, and demographic data of the study
that involves the simulation of biological area’s inhabitants.
evolution. In the BRNDA, each individual
Yes
solution is represented by a bus network Stop setting
option that possesses a specific number of After demand generation, the optimal
Update genes or routes. The BRNDA is developed number of stops within the transportation
population with the Python scripting language (Python area under study is obtained by balancing
Software Foundation 2012), using two open- the trade-off between the total average
No
source libraries – Inspyred Evolutionary distance passengers need to access the stops
Complete? computation library (Garrett 2014) and and the average total travel time it takes a
networkX graphing library (Hagberg et al bus to operate between the stops. To achieve
2008). The former offers an extensible GA this, stops are initially generated randomly
Yes
template which the authors modified by in the transportation area, followed by an
writing custom functions for the BRNDA, iterative relocation of the generated stops,
Termination while the latter is used to represent the until the average distance for accessing the
Stop Yes
criteria met? topology of the network solutions in graphi- stops is minimal. It should be noted that, in
cal format. The components of the solution this model, stops are not allowed on network
model proposed in this paper can be seen in links that coincide with freeways in the
Figure 1: F low chart of a basic genetic algorithm Table 3. transportation area.

Table 3: Components of the BRNDA solution model


BRNDA component Input data User parameters Procedures Output

■■ Demographic data ■■ Number of routes ■■ Demand generation


Network Creation ■■ Geographic data ■■ Maximum route length ■■ Stop setting
Generated network solutions
Algorithm (NCA) ■■ Topographic data ■■ Minimum route length ■■ Pedestrian utilisation
■■ Pedestrian access distance ■■ Minimum route overlap ■■ Route development

Network solutions:
■■ Frequency ■■ Fitness values
■■ User travel time cost ■■ Link flows
■■ Network solutions from the ■■ Traffic assignment
Network Analysis ■■ User cost weight ■■ Headways
NCA ■■ Evaluation of network
Procedure (NAP) ■■ Unsatisfied demand penalty ■■ Frequencies
■■ Trip demand matrix solutions
■■ Operator cost ■■ Trip time
■■ Operator cost weight ■■ Network capacity
■■ Route density

■■ Maximum generation
■■ Population size
Network Search ■■ Evaluated solutions from the Search for optimal network
■■ Mutation probability Final optimal network
Algorithm (NSA) NAP and their fitness values solution
■■ Crossover probability
■■ Number of crossover points

Journal of the South African Institution of Civil Engineering  •  Volume 59  Number 4  December 2017 59
Pedestrian utilisation module Table 4: Performance indicators for the designed networks
For pedestrian access to the final designed
Average Average
network, a GIS buffer tool is used to create Objective
Number of network network % Network % Unsatisfied
function
buffer zones around the stops. The zones routes (n) headway frequency utilisation demand
value
(min) (veh/h)
define the maximum distance a pedestrian
must walk to access the given stop, hence 20 997 953 35 2 80.10 19.90
pedestrian demand for the designed network 40 999 968 20 3 86.31 13.69
will be obtained from within each stop’s
60 998 026 16 4 90.50 9.50
buffer zone. The objective of this operation is
to accurately model pedestrian access to the 80 998 159 15 4 91.31 8.69
stops of the designed network. For instance, 100 994 894 15 4 94.49 5.51
if a buffer zone of 5 km is created around a
stop, only pedestrians within the buffer zone 120 992 953 14 4 93.73 6.27

can potentially access that stop. However, 140 995 957 10 6 94.41 5.59
buffer distances of 1 km and 2.8 km were
160 997 438 6 10 94.00 6.00
used in this work; the former was used for
stops that are situated in parts of the City
with access to public transit facilities, while Table 5: Additional performance indicators for the designed networks
the latter was specified for areas without
Average Average
access to the network. These specified buffer Average Network
vehicle Average vehicle travel
Number of vehicle route density
distances correspond with observed access kilometres vehicle travel time per
routes (n) kilometres (pax km/
per passenger time (veh/hr) passenger
distances discussed by Behrens (2004). (veh/km) line length)
(veh/km/pax) (veh/hr/pax)

20 5 849 0.49 1 224 61.1 3 345


Route Development
At this stage, an implementation of Dijkstra’s 40 17 436 0.45 1 562 24.0 4 221
shortest path algorithm (Johnson 1973) is
60 29 992 0.32 2 304 14.7 5 128
used to obtain the shortest path between the
stops. The routes are created using criteria 80 48 608 0.32 2 448 9.7 5 352
such as maximum and minimum route 100 65 002 0.22 2 714 5.4 6 448
length, and maximum allowed deviation
120 75 541 0.23 2 808 5.1 6 919
of the route from the shortest path. This
pool of feasible routes, created through this 140 88 469 0.24 3 326 5.4 6 414
process, serves as the source from which the
160 107 067 0.18 4 824 4.8 7 904
BRNDA selects routes for each network solu-
tion when it initialises the population.
respectively. The output from both functions, networks. The results of the test are presented
Network Analysis Procedure (NAP) namely the generated candidate networks and in Table 4, showing a combination of network-
In the network analysis stage, candidate their fitness values, are used as inputs in the based and operational indicators.
network solutions are analysed so that their NSA stage. The generated candidate networks In Table 4 the network utilisation increases
performance can be evaluated. The initial step are first initialised as parents, then individuals as the size of the network increases. This is
in the NAP involves the assignment of travel in the population are assigned their respective realistic, since the amount of travel demand
demand to each network solution by means of fitness values, after which the algorithm uses satisfied on a network usually grows as the
a user equilibrium assignment (Sheffi 1985), to the fitness values to determine each indi- number of operated routes increase. The best
obtain total travel demand (qr in Table 1) which vidual’s survival capacity. Lastly, the process network option in terms of objective function
is satisfied by the routes of each candidate bus of reproduction is carried out by the respec- value (Z in Equation 4) is the network with
network solution. After demand assignment, tive actions of the earlier discussed genetic 120 routes. It can also be observed that it
the unsatisfied demand for each respective operators – selection, crossover and mutation. performs relatively better than the other
network solution is evaluated as the differ- A termination criterion (based on the number options in terms of unsatisfied demand (Pun
ence between the total travel demand and the of generations) is then used to ensure that the in Table 1). Another noticeable trend in
demand satisfied by that solution; each solution algorithm stops once this criterion is met. Table 4 is that, as travel demand increases,
is penalised (Pun in Table 1) in proportion to there is a reduction in vehicle headways,
its amount of unsatisfied demand. The satis- which entails an increase in service frequency.
fied and unsatisfied demands are then used TESTING THE BRNDA Therefore, on the whole, passenger travel
as inputs, alongside other objective function To test the BRNDA, networks of different time and vehicle operating distance per
parameters, to evaluate the fitness scores for sizes (20 – 160 routes) are designed and passenger decrease. This observation implies
each network solution. Finally, the scores are evaluated using both network and operational that there is a general increase in network
then assigned to the respective solutions as performance indicators. Data for the tests was efficiency as travel demand increases, which
their performance measure. made available by the transportation authority justifies the axiom that the marginal cost of
in Cape Town – Transport for Cape Town transit reduces with increasing ridership (Lee
Network Search Algorithm (NSA) (TCT). A comparison is then made between 2006). Finally, the results in Table 4 show that
After evaluating the generated networks, as the designed networks’ characteristics to the network with 100 routes has the lowest
discussed in the preceding section, the NSA see if they are practical when compared to unsatisfied demand (5.51%). However, this
starts by calling both the NCA and NAP patterns obtained on realistic public transit may be attributed to its low demand, hence

60 Journal of the South African Institution of Civil Engineering  •  Volume 59  Number 4  December 2017
among the larger networks the network Table 6: Numerical results of MyCiTi BRT vs BRNDA network
with 120 routes has the least unsatisfied
BRNDA network options
demand and highest network route density. MyCiTi
Further numerical results in terms of vehicle Best Median Worst
operational characteristics, presented in Network size (number of routes) 50 50 50 50
Table 5, also show a realistic trend for the
Network utilisation (%) 68.94 92.86 82.48 45.03
indicators, since there is an increase in
average vehicle travel time and average vehicle Unsatisfied demand (%) 31.06 7.14 17.52 54.97
travel distance as the network size (number
Objective function value 9 983 053 9 900 735 9 961 498 9 992 164
of routes) increases. The obvious implication
of an increase in the number of transit routes Total vehicle distance (km) 26 095 24 774 28 999 32 750
operated in a network is that there will be Total vehicle time (h) 2 790 2 150 3 298 4 826
an increase in travel demand volumes (qr in
Network route density (pax/route) 425 450 402 325
Table 1) that can be handled, assuming that
the network is not saturated. This will likely Total network utilisation (%) 85 92 86 58
motivate an operator to increase the number
Average network headway (min) 16 12 20 25
of vehicle trips on that network, thereby
resulting in an increase in the number of
trips, longer vehicle operating hours, and parameters being decimals (continuous over design options were compared with that of
longer vehicle operating kilometres. a very broad range) it was practically impos- the MyCiTi. Performance indicators are used,
sible to test all value combinations for these because the networks cannot be compared
Comparing the BRNDA parameters, given the time constraints for the directly. As seen before in the testing stage of
Network to the MyCiTi BRT research. Hence, the strategy used to obtain the BRNDA, a mix of both network and opera-
In this section a bus network is designed with a reference value for each parameter involved tional indicators are tested, including demand
the BRNDA and compared with the MyCiTi randomly generating a set of 30 values for volumes, unsatisfied demand, area frequency,
BRT status quo network. Optimal values for each parameter, after which the algorithm was objective function values, total vehicle operat-
design parameters, such as maximum number tested five times with the values, and the Mean ing time, and total vehicle operating distance.
of generations, mutation and crossover prob- Average Deviation (MAD) for each run was
ability factors, and weight factors utilised obtained relative to their objective function Numerical results
in this paper are obtained from a sensitivity values. In the last stage of the test, the network The numerical results, shown in Table 6,
analysis. With some of the earlier mentioned characteristics of the best, median and worst reveal some of the indicators obtained from

Atlantis

Legend
IPTN Trunk Network
Cape Town Road Network
Brackenfell

CBD Stellenbosch

Hout Bay

Simon's Town

0 10 20 30 40 50

Figure 2: T he BRNDA network overlaid on the Cape Town road network

Journal of the South African Institution of Civil Engineering  •  Volume 59  Number 4  December 2017 61
N

Atlantis

Legend
IPTN Trunk Network
Cape Town Road Network
Brackenfell

CBD Stellenbosch

Hout Bay

Simon's Town

0 10 20 30 40 50

Figure 3: The MyCiTi bus network overlaid on the Cape Town road network

the MyCiTi BRT network versus the best, results suggest that the network, as designed the public transportation network planning
median and worst performing BRNDA net- in this paper, is an improvement on the toolbox in Cape Town. Future research
work solutions. The previously utilised indi- existing MyCiTi BRT network and its service efforts are currently underway to extend
cators formed the basis of the comparison. levels in terms of the earlier highlighted the research to a multimodal transportation
The BRNDA’s best network clearly shows a objectives. The results also assert the fact context, and to utilise the research and study
higher performance when compared to the that the design approach used in this paper the effect of transportation policies, such as
status quo. These include a 34% increase is superior to that used in designing the transport subsidies, in Cape Town.
in the volume of passengers it can handle, MyCiTi BRT network.
which indicates a higher network utilisation
percentage. Furthermore, the objective func- REFERENCES
tion value of the designed network is also CONCLUSION Baaj, M H & Mahmassani, H S 1991. An AI-based
less than that of the MyCiTi, which shows Current observed trends in the design of approach for transit route system planning and
that the BRNDA network was an improved the MyCiTi BRT service in the City of Cape design. Journal of Advanced Transportation, 25(2):
solution, since the problem was modelled as Town reveal the need to improve the service 187–209.
a minimisation problem. Lastly, the higher on many fronts – network utilisation, service Behrens, R 2004. Understanding travel needs of the
efficiency of the BRNDA network can be operations, and even in administrative terms. poor: Towards improved travel analysis practices in
seen in that it performs better relative to A moderation exercise, which commenced South Africa. Transport Reviews, 24(3): 317–336.
other indicators like network route density, in 2015, constitutes the greatest effort on Ceder, A 2015. Public Transit Planning and Operation:
total vehicle distance and total vehicle time. the part of the City government to date of Modeling, Practice and Behavior. Boca Raton, FL:
In Figures 2 (page 61) and 3 the BRNDA addressing some of these issues. As part of CRC Press/Taylor and Francis.
and the MyCiTi networks are respectively these efforts, the objective of this research Chakroborty, P 2003. Genetic algorithms for optimal
overlaid on the Cape Town road network. was to propose a transit network design urban transit network design. Computer-aided Civil
The routes of the BRNDA network, like solution approach, based on computational and Infrastructure Engineering, 18(3): 184–200.
those of the MyCiTi network, originate from algorithms, which could be used to improve CoCT (City of Cape Town) 2015. MyCiTi Business
the CBD. However, the former has a wider the design of bus networks in the City. Plan 2015 Update. Cape Town. Available at: http://
spread, especially towards the south-eastern The results obtained indicate that the www.myciti.org.za/en/about/management-reports/
parts of the City, which has the greatest need so-called BRNDA can design efficient bus business-plan
for public transport facilities (Behrens 2004). networks. The results make a case for why De Dios Ortúzar, J & Willumsen, L G 2011. Modelling
This implies that the BRNDA has a better the approach should be embraced, and it is transport. Oxford, UK: Wiley.
network coverage, which increases the pos- recommended that metaheuristic algorithms Fan, W & Machemehl, R B 2004. Optimal transit
sibility of a higher network utilisation. These should be considered as a crucial tool in route network design problem: Algorithms,

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implementations, and numerical results. Report International Journal of Machine Learning and Programming Methods. Englewood Cliffs, NJ:
No. SWUTC/04/167244-1, Austin, TX, Center for Computing, 2(4): 365–370. Prentice-Hall.
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Garrett, A 2014. inspyred: A framework for creating Poli, R, Langdon, W B, McPhee, N F & Koza, J R 2008. Siriwardene, N & Perera, B 2006. Selection of genetic
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Kumar, R 2012. Jyotishree: Blending roulette wheel Sheffi, Y 1985. Urban Transportation Networks:
selection & rank selection in genetic algorithms. Equilibrium Analysis with Mathematical

Journal of the South African Institution of Civil Engineering  •  Volume 59  Number 4  December 2017 63
TECHNICAL NOTE
An empirical preliminary
prediction of heave
Journal of the South African
Institution of Civil Engineering
ISSN 1021-2019
Vol 59 No 4, December 2017, Pages 64–66, Note 79
G A Jones

DR GARY JONES graduated from Cambridge


University and received his PhD from the
The method described in the paper titled “Prediction of heave from the plasticity index and
University of Natal. He worked as a road and
geotechnical engineer in Zimbabwe, the United
percentage clay fraction of soils” by Van der Merwe (1964) has been in common use since then.
Kingdom and Uganda, and from 1965 in South It predicts the potential heave due to the moisture change from a relatively dry state to a near-
Africa. After spells with various consultants and saturated state under a covered area, i.e. a maximum state change. In reality this may not always
the Natal Roads Department, he moved to the be the case, and this Note proposes an adaptation to the method whereby the probable change
CSIR (Council for Scientific and Industrial
in moisture content is utilised in the calculation. This is determined by the in-situ moisture and
Research) and then to VKE in Pretoria. Whilst there he, together with (now)
Prof Eben Rust of the University of Pretoria, invented and developed the
the estimated equilibrium moisture content (EMC) derived from the liquid limit.
piezocone for use in soft soils and tailings dams. From 1981 he has been at
SRK Consulting where, after retiring, he became a Corporate Consultant and
continues in this role. INTRODUCTION This technical note suggests a modification
Contact details: The Van der Merwe (1964) method, which is to his method, which depends on an estimate of
SRK Consulting based on observations of heave of buildings moisture change based on the prediction of an
P O Box 55291 on the Free State clays, has been extensively equilibrium moisture content (EMC), derived
Northlands 2116
used for over 50 years in South Africa. It from the liquid limit of the soil, and from meas-
South Africa
T: +27 11 441 1128 has the great advantage that it uses simple urement of the initial moisture content.
E: gjones@srk.co.za routine laboratory tests, Atterberg Limits A summary of the Van der Merwe (1964)
and Gradings, a point emphasised by Van der method is given in the next section, and the
Merwe in his paper. It was intended to give a proposed modification is described in the
preliminary estimate of potential heave, and, following section.
if this was significant, further testing such as
the oedometer could be carried out.
Van der Merwe (1964) also stated that the THE VAN DER MERWE METHOD
“accuracy of this prediction will be governed The Van der Merwe method for the predic-
by the actual moisture changes that occur in tion of heave is summarised as follows:
the soil”. i. The potential soil expansiveness is clas-
To a large extent this important caveat sified as Very High, High, Medium and
has been ignored over the years, and the dis- Low from the Atterberg Limits and clay
tinction between maximum potential heave fraction using Figure 1.
(estimated by his method) and the realistic ii. The potential expansiveness class is then
or probable heave (determined by the actual related to unit heave using the Jennings and
moisture changes) has been lost. Kerrich (1962) correlation given in Table 1.

70

60
Very high 8%
High 4%
Medium 2%

50
PI of whole sample

Low < 2%

40

30

20

Low < 2%
10

0
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80
Clay fraction (%)

Keywords: potential heave, equilibrium moisture, unit heave Figure 1: Plasticity chart

64
Jones GA. An empirical preliminary prediction of heave.
J. S. Afr. Inst. Civ. Eng. 2017:59(4), Art. #TN79, 3 pages. http://dx.doi.org/10.17159/2309-8775/2017/v59n4a7
Table 1: Classes of potential expansiveness Table 2: Depth factor
Class Unit heave m/m strain Depth m 0–1 1–2 2–3 3–4 5–6 6–7 7–8 8–9

Very High 0.08


Factor F 0.85 0.60 0.40 0.27 0.20 0.12 0.08 0.04
High 0.04

Medium 0.02 Table 3: Heave calculation


Low 0.0 Layer Potential expansiveness
Depth Potential
factor heave (m)
No Depth (m) Class Strain (m/m)
iii. A depth factor is introduced by which 1 0–1 Very high 0.08 0.85 0.068
the potential expansiveness is reduced
2 1–2 High 0.04 0.60 0.024
to take account of the in-situ stress “due
to the increase in the weight of overlying 3 2–3 Medium 0.02 0.40 0.008
soil and due to decreases in changes in
Total 0.100
moisture content and other factors” (Van
der Merwe 1964). The depth factor is
given in Table 2. Table 4: Typical Free State clay data conditions are dry, i.e. similar to the original
iv. Heave calculation: The calculation of Free State clays, then the unmodified and
Liquid Plasticity Clay
potential heave for a hypothetical 3 m limits index content % modified methods will predict similar heaves.
thick stratum comprising three layers of At a site recently reported by Jones et al (2016)
Mean 47 22 24
differing potential expansiveness is given the modified estimate was only one third of the
in Table 3. Maximum 59 34 41
unmodified estimate, because the initial mois-
ture content in the low-lying area was high.
At this site swell tests were carried out, and
PROPOSED MODIFIED HEAVE Table 5: Modified unit heave Figure 2 on page 66 summarises the results.
PREDICTION Modified unit heave
Figure 2 shows that for the Very High
As proposed above, the Van der Merwe Class potentially expansive clay:
m/m/w
(1964) method should be modified to take
Very High 0.0050
account of the most probable increase in Swell % = 0.5 Moisture Increase (%)
moisture content under a covered area. High 0.0025
It is suggested that the unit heave shown Medium 0.0013 and this corroborates the modified unit
in Table 1, expressed as strain m/m, should heave given in Table 5 for the Very High
Low 0
be in the more rational unit of strain per class material.
percentage change in moisture content, i.e. The proposed method suggests that the
m/m/w. The question is: What were the These unit heaves can then be used to final moisture content is the EMC, but it is
increases in moisture on which Jennings and calculate probable heave, provided the initial possible that an estimate of heave is required
Kerrich (1962) based their unit heaves? moisture content is known, since an estimate for an increase to saturated moisture, for
Based on their data on Atterberg Limits, of the final moisture, the EMC, can be example to simulate poor drainage or a
gradings and clay content, and Van der derived from the liquid limits. leaking pipe. In such a case the EMC can be
Merwe’s (1964) initial moisture content, For the profile given in the original heave increased by say 3%, the assumed difference
together with equilibrium moisture content calculation in Table 3, the modified calcula- between the EMC and saturation; or alterna-
(EMC), an estimate can be made of the tion is given in Table 6. If the initial moisture tively the saturation moisture content can be
increase in moisture content of the typical Free content is 20% for the hypothetical example, calculated from measurements of the density
State clay on which the original method of W is the increase in moisture, and the heave and unit weight. In this way an indication of
heave prediction is based, as shown in Table 4. is the modified unit heave from Table 5 differential heave can be made.
No data could be found on moisture con- multiplied by the change in moisture W and
tent after heaving had taken place, but the by the Depth Factor.
EMC can be estimated using the equation The estimated heave in this hypothetical CONCLUSION
quoted by Weston (1980): example is half that of the original calcula- The proposed modification requires only
tion. Correspondingly, if the initial in-situ the additional measurement of the in-situ
EMC = LL/2 (1)
Table 6: Modified heave calculation
From the data in Table 4 for Very High
W
Potential Expansiveness material, the EMC Modified
Liquid EMC moisture Depth Probable
Layer PE unit
is therefore 59/2 = 29%, and since the limit % % factor heave (m)
heave
increase
initial moisture is 14% (Van der Merwe
1964), the increase in moisture is then 1 Very High 60 30 10 0.05 0.85 0.042
approximately 15%.
2 High 50 25 5 0.0125 0.60 0.008
The Jennings and Kerrich (1962) unit
heaves in Table 1 can therefore be modified 3 Medium 40 20 0 0 0.40 0
by expressing them as m/m/w, as shown in
Total 0.500
Table 5.

Journal of the South African Institution of Civil Engineering  •  Volume 59  Number 4  December 2017 65
cases, careful consideration should be given
8
to the implications of allocating a lower clas-
7 sification. It would be prudent in all cases
where the empirical approach, modified or
6 unmodified, indicates significant heave, to
carry out swell or other tests to confirm the
5
potential heave.
Swell (%)

y = 0.5174x
4

3 REFERENCES
Jennings, J E & Kerrich, J E 1962. The heaving of
2
buildings and the associated economic consequences
with particular reference to the Orange Free State
1
Goldfields. The Civil Engineer in South Africa, 4(11):
0 221–248.
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 Jones, G A, Meintjes, H A C, Aucamp, J P & Dutchman,
Increase MC (%) J R 2016. A case study of heave due to flooding.
Alluvium @ 10 kPa Residual @ 10kPa Linear (Alluvium @ 10 kPA) Proceedings, 1st Southern African Geotechnical
Conference, 4–6 May, Sun City, 221–228.
Figure 2: Swell pressure test results Van der Merwe, D M 1964. The prediction of heave
from the plasticity index and percentage clay
moisture content to the Atterberg limits and an estimate of probable heave for a realistic fraction of soils. The Civil Engineer in South Africa,
clay content, and this should in any case be or expected moisture change. 6(6): 103–107.
necessary, particularly for investigations of It is likely that in some cases the modified Weston, D J 1980. Expansive roadbed treatment for
clays, since an assessment of their state is estimated heave will be lower than that using Southern Africa. Proceedings, 3rd International
essential. The modification could be seen as the Van der Merwe method and would result Research and Engineering Conference on Expansive
transforming an estimate of potential heave in a lower NHBRC (National Home Builders Clays, Denver, CO, Vol. 1, 339–360.
for a maximum moisture change, to that of Registration Council) classification. In these

66 Journal of the South African Institution of Civil Engineering  •  Volume 59  Number 4  December 2017
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