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Basic PVT Analysis and Equations of State for

Reservoir Engineering

Real Gases
SPE Paper 26668

„Real Gas Equation


– Evaluation of Ppc & Tpc when
composition is known
– Evaluation of Ppc & Tpc when gas
specific gravity is known
– Corrections for N2, CO2, H2S
Pseudocritical Properties

„When all gas compositions are known


Pseudocritical Properties

‰ Compositions known including corrections


for H2S, N2 and CO2

and
Pseudocritical Properties

„ Compositions known including corrections


for H2S, N2 and CO2

And
In this order
Coefficients in Equation 4
Pseudocritical Properties

„Specific gas gravity & composition of


impurities is known

i = H2S, N2 and CO2- 3 major impurities)


Coefficients in Equation 6
R2 - Statistical Evaluation of Goodness of Fit (How well
you fit the data)

n
SSR = ∑ (Ŷi − Y )2 sum of squares of (predicted – average)
i =1
n
SSE = ∑ (Yi − Ŷi ) 2 sum of errors squared
(true value – predicted value)
i =1

SSY = SSR + SSE

SSR
Coefficient of Determination = R = 2

SYY
When R2 is close to 1 Æ SSE is close to zero! Æ
sum of errors squared is nearly zero
Appreciate Estimates…
A Faster Procedure (but less accurate)

„ Given gas specific gravity read J


„ Given compositions of N2, CO2, H2S correct J
using charts
‡J = J + sum(Correction_i)
‡Note the corrections are negative
A Faster Procedure (but less accurate)

„ Given gas specific gravity read K


„ Given compositions of N2, CO2, H2S correct
K using charts
‡ K = K + sum(Correction_i)
‡ Note the corrections are negative
The Chart for J
The Corrections for J
The Chart & Corrections for K
Procedure

„ Determine Tpc and Ppc


‡Given gas composition
‡Given gas gravity & compositions of
impurities
„ At given p and T determine Tpr and Ppr
„ Determine z for the gas requested
Evaluate z-factor…
Exercise in Class

„ Determine the density of an acid gas at


3,500 psia and 220 oF
„ The gas contains 5% CO2 and 15% H2S
and has a specific gravity of 1.4
Questions & Assignment

„ What errors could you have in your


predictions if the corrections for
impurities are neglected?
„ How good are these new correlations
compared with the existing ones?
„ READ the paper SPE 26668 for
additional details