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90 Revista Humanidades e Inovação v.3, n.

3 - 2016

FLUTUAÇÕES DE SENTIDO DA PALAVRA “OCUPAÇÃO”

VARIATIONS OF SENSE OF THE WORD “OCCUPATION”


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Resumo: !"#$%&'()$&#*%+,)-%$%!$,.#,%!$.#$/)0&.,#0$#$.)!$%0")&#!$.)$12&+0*)$.#$/%34'-$%)!$.,!+0&!)!$506*,+%.)!$
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*,-(0%(#7$#$!)+,#.%.#$.)$5#-!%7#-")$.)$!)+,O*)()$8&%-+S!$?,#&&#$/)0&.,#0L$5%&%$T0#7$)!$+)-.,+,)-%7#-")!$
7%"#&,%,!$#$!,76O*,+)!$%(#7$!)6&#$%$!)+,#.%.#$#7$07%$&#*%:;)$.#$,-"#&.#5#-.S-+,%G$U%$+)-+#5:;)$.#$/)0&.,#0L$
%!$,.#,%!$!;)$.#5#-.#-"#!$.%$!0%$+)-.,:;)$.#$5&).0:;)$%!!,7$+)7)$-%$9,!;)$.#$/%34'-$#$.)!$%0")&#!$.)$12&+0*)G
Palavras-chaveV$)+05%:;)W$!,(-)$,.#)*O(,+)W$+%75)W$+%5,"%*G

Abstract: X4,!$%&'+*#$&#*%"#!$"4#$,.#%!$)8$/)0&.,#0$%-.$"4#$/%34'-$1,&+*#$")$"4#$.,!+)0&!#!$506*,!4#.$,-$.,(,"%*$
-#Y!$7#.,%$%6)0"$"4#$!"&,3#$+%&&,#.$)0"$6Z$!"0.#-"!$8&)7$"4#$=-,9#&!,"Z$)8$>;)$?%0*)$@=>?A$6#"Y##-$"4#$7)-"4!$
)8$[%Z$%-.$\0-#$CDEFG$X4#$%-%*Z!,!$,!$8)+0!#.$)-$"4#$7#%-,-(!$)8$"4#$Y)&.$])++05%')-^$,-$"4,!$-#Y!$506*,!4#.$
)-$5)&"%*!$%-.$)-*,-#$#.,')-!$)8$-#Y!5%5#&!L$!##-$"4&)0(4$"4#$+)-+#5"!$)8$,.#)*)(,+%*$!,(-$@1,&+*#$)8$/%34'-AL$
_#*.$%-.$+%5,"%*$@/)0&.,#0AG$`"$,!$5)!!,6*#$")$6&,-($"4#!#$&#R#+')-!$)-$*%-(0%(#$%-.$!)+,#"Z$"4)0(4"$)8$"4#$a&#-+4$
!)+,)*)(,!"$?,#&&#$/)0&.,#0L$8)&$Y4)7$"4#$7%"#&,%*$%-.$!Z76)*,+$+)-!"&%,-"!$%+"$)-$!)+,#"Z$,-$%-$,-"#&.#5#-.#-"$
&#*%')-!4,5G$`-$.#!,(-,-($)8$/)0&.,#0L$,.#%!$%&#$.#5#-.#-"$)-$"4#$5&).0+')-$+)-.,')-$%!$Y#**$%!$")$/%34'-$%-.$
"4#$1,&+*#$%0"4)&!G
KeywordsV$)++05%')-W$,.#)*)(,+%*$!,(-W$_#*.W$+%5,"%*G

Introdução
.&($/$012&*$!$)32%34*"&5$%2!&6%7!282!&*"&%4)9:"9$;&*2&<=(>:%2&*$&?"@AB)&C&:;"&4;52(D")D$&
($8$(E)>4"& 5"("& 2!& $!D:*2!& %4)9:=!B>2!& !2#($& 2!& 5(2>$!!2!& *$& >2)!BD:4F12& *$& $):)>4"*2!& )"&
!2>4$*"*$G&+;&*2!&5(4)>45"4!&>2)>$4D2!&5(252!D2!&5$%2&9(:52H&2&*2&!49)2&4*$2%794>2H&8:)*";$)D"I
!$&)"!&($%"FJ$!&$)D($&"!&82(;"!&"!!:;4*"!&5$%"&5(2*:F12&;"D$(4"%&$&4*$4"!&$&!$)B*2!&$;&>4(>:%"F12&
)"&!2>4$*"*$G&
K&<=(>:%2&*$&?"@AB)&824&:;&9(:52&82(;"*2&52(&5$)!"*2($!&*$&L($"!&*2&>2)A$>4;$)D2&D12&
*43$(!"!&>2;2&6%2!26"H&%4)9:=!B>"H&>(=B>"&%4D$(L(4"H&6%2%294"H&M:$&5(2*:N4:&:;"&2#("&3"!D"&$&(4>"&*2&
4)=>42&*2&!C>:%2&OO&"DC&;$"*2!&*2!&")2!&PQRS&)"&TU!!4"G&V$!!$&9(:52H&5"(B>45"(";&W4@A"4%&?"@AB)H&
-L3$%&W$*34C*$3H&X"%$)B)&X2%2>A4)23H&W"D3$4&Y"9")H&$)D($&2:D(2!&4)D$%$>D:"4!G
.&5(2*:F12&*$&?"@AB)&$&*2&<=(>:%2&824&!$&>2)!BD:4)*2&"2&%2)92&*$!!$&5$(=2*2&$;&D2()2&
*"& 82(;:%"F12& *$& >2)>$4D2!& 8:)*";$)D"4!Z& "D2& CB>2H& 4*$2%294"H& *4!>:(!2H& $):)>4"*2H& $):)>4"*2&
>2)>($D2H&*4"%294!;2H&$!8$("H&9E)$(2&*2&*4!>:(!2H&":D2(4"H&$!B%2G&[&4;52(D")D$&2#!$(3"(&M:$&\)2&
>2)]:)D2& *2!& $!D:*2!& *2& <=(>:%2H& )$)A:;& >2)>$4D2& !49)46>"& 4!2%"*";$)D$G& ^2*2!& 2!& D$(;2!& _&
>4$)`6>2!H&6%2!76>2!H&%4)9:=!B>2!H&$):)>4"B32!H&*4!>:(!432!&_&9")A";&>2(52&)"&"(B>:%"F12&>2;&
2!&*$;"4!a&b?T. ^H&cSPcH&5GPPdH&2:&!$]"H&2&!49)46>"*2&*$&>"*"&>2)>$4D2&C&>2)!D(:=*2&$;&($%"F12&"2!&
2:D(2!&>2)>$4D2!&;"4!&*2&M:$&4!2%"*";$)D$G&+;&*2!&!$:!&52)D2!&8:)*";$)D"4!&!$(4"&\)12&"5%4>"(&
>2)>$4D2!&"&6;&*$&>2;5($$)*$(&:;&*4!>:(!2H&;"!&*$40"(&M:$&2!&*4!>:(!2!&($3$%$;&!:"&82(;"&*$&
5(2*:N4(&!$)B*2H&"&5"(B(&*$&52)D2&*$&34!D"&*4"%794>2a&b?T. ^H&cSPSH&5G&cedG&
K&*4L%292&C&2&52)D2&>$)D("%&"&5"(B(&*2&M:"%&2&5$)!";$)D2&*2&9(:52&!$&$05")*$H&"&>2)!D(:F12&
*2&3=)>:%2&$)D($&2&\$:a&$&2&\2:D(2aH&#"!$&5"("&"&>2)>$5F12&*4"%794>"&*"&%4)9:"9$;H&)"&M:"%&!:]$4D2!H&
%4)9:"9$;&$&!4D:"F12&*$&5(2*:F12&$!D12&82(D$;$)D$&($%">42)"*2!G&,:#]">$)D$&"&D2*2!&2!&>2)>$4D2!&
*$!$)32%34*2!H&$!DL&:;"&34!12&*$&>2)A$>4;$)D2&>2;2&8(:D2&*$&:;"&52!D:("&CB>"&$&($!52)!L3$%G&
\.& 5$(B)E)>4"& *$& :;"& 5$(!5$>B3"& *4"%794>"& !$& *L& 5$%"& ")L%4!$& *"!& $!5$>46>4*"*$!& *4!>:(!43"!&
>2)!BD:B3"!&*$&!4D:"FJ$!&$;&M:$&"&%4)9:"9$;&$&*$D$(;4)"*"!&"B34*"*$!&!$&4)D$(5$)$D(";&$&!$&
4)D$(*$6)$;H&$&*2&>2;5(2;4!!2&CB>2&*2&5$!M:4!"*2(&>2;&2&2#]$D2H&M:$H&*$!!"&5$(!5$>B3"H&C&:;&
!:]$4D2&A4!D7(4>2a&b?T. ^H&cSPSH&5G&cQdG
f2&>"5=D:%2&\.&4)D$("F12&3$(#"%aH&?"@AB)&$&X2%2>A4)23&"6(;";&M:$&"&>2;:)4>"F12&3$(#"%&
91 Revista Humanidades e Inovação v.3, n. 3 - 2016

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A4!D2(4>";$)D$&)"&>2;:)4>"F12&3$(#"%&>2)>($D"H&)12&)2&!4!D$;"&%4)9:=!B>2&"#!D("D2&*"!&82(;"!&*"&
%=)9:"&)$;&)2&5!4M:4!;2&4)*434*:"%&*2!&8"%")D$!a&bb?.Yh^ fiXKjK<h fKXH&kPQcQl&cSPSH&5GPcmdG&
.&>2)!>4E)>4"&4)*434*:"%&C&>2)!BD:=*"&)2&;$42&!2>4"%H&52(&;$42&*$&>2)D$U*2!&!=9)4>2!&"*M:4(4*2!&
)"&4)D$("F12&3$(#"%G&K&!49)2&C&"&;"D$(4"%4N"F12&*"&>2;:)4>"F12G&n%$&"*M:4($&)232!&!$)B*2!&)2&
5%")2&4)D$(42(&"&5"(B(&*2!&!$)B*2!&*"&!4D:"F12&!2>4"%&4;$*4"D"&$&";5%"G&\.&5"%"3("&C&2&8$)o;$)2&
4*$2%794>2& 52(& $0>$%E)>4"G& .& ($"%4*"*$& D2*"& *"& 5"%"3("& C& "#!2(34*"& 52(& !:"& 8:)F12& *$& !49)2a&
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!2>47%292&8(")>E!&-4$(($&?2:(*4$:H&5"("&M:$;&2!&>2)*4>42)";$)D2!&;"D$(4"4!&$&!4;#7%4>2!&"9$;&
!2#($& "& !2>4$*"*$& $;& :;"& ($%"F12& *$& 4)D$(*$5$)*E)>4"G& f"& >2)>$5F12& *$& ?2:(*4$:H& "!& 4*$4"!&
!12&*$5$)*$)D$!&*"&!:"&>2)*4F12&*$&5(2*:F12G&,$9:)*2&$%$H&2&M:$&>4(>:%"&)12&C&"&%=)9:"H&;"!&
*4!>:(!2!& $!B%4!B>";$)D$& >"(">D$(4N"*2!& "2& ;$!;2& D$;52& 5$%"& 5(2*:F12& $& 5$%"& ($>$5F12H& \"!&
D(2>"!&%4)9:=!B>"!&_&($%"FJ$!&*$&>2;:)4>"F12&_&!12&D";#C;&($%"FJ$!&*$&52*$(&!4;#7%4>2H&$;&M:$&
!$&"D:"%4N";&"!&($%"FJ$!&*$&82(F"&$)D($&2!&%2>:D2($!&2:&!$:!&($!5$>B32!&9(:52!&b?K+TV n+H&PQmpH&
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*4!D")>4"*2!&*"M:$%$!&M:$&2(4$)D"(";&!:"&5(2*:F12G&.!!4;H&5"("&$)D$)*$(;2!&"!&52!!4#4%4*"*$!&
"#$(D"!&5"("&*$>48("F12&*2!&D$0D2!&5$%2!&($>$5D2($!&D2()"I!$&)$>$!!L(42&4)4>4"%;$)D$&2%A"(&5"("&2&
$):)>4"*2&M:$&824&5(2*:N4*2&$&5"("&"!&>2)*4FJ$!&*$&!:"&5(2*:F12G

Fundamentação teórica
n)D($& 2!& >2)>$4D2!& M:$& 8:)*";$)D";& 2& 5$)!";$)D2& *$& -4$(($& ?2:(*4$:& $!D12& >";52& $&
4%6,"0!G&<";52&C&:;&*2;=)42&$!5$>=6>2&*$&"F12&!2>4"%&>2;&($9("!&*$D$(;4)"*"!H&>2;&3"%2($!H&
2#]$D2!&$&4)D$($!!$!&$!5$>=6>2!G&K&M:$&*$D$(;4)"&"&34*"&$;&:;&>";52&C&"&"F12&*2!&4)*43=*:2!&$&*2!&
9(:52!H&>2)!BD:=*2!&$&>2)!BD:4)D$!&*"!&($%"FJ$!&*$&82(F"H&M:$&4)3$!D$;&D$;52H&*4)A$4(2&$&D("#"%A2G&
.!&5(25(4$*"*$!&*$&:;&>";52H&"%C;&*2&A"#4D:!&$!5$>=6>2H&!12&"&$!D(:D:("H&"&254)412&>2)!$)!:"%H&
"!&%$4!&M:$&2&($9$;&$&M:$&($9:%";&"&%:D"&5$%"&*2;4)"F12&*2&>";52G&.2!&4)D$($!!$!&52!D2!&$;&
]292H&?2:(*4$:&*$)2;4)"&+%5,"%*&s&)2&!$)B*2&*2!&#$)!&$>2)o;4>2!H&;"!&D";#C;&*2&>2)]:)D2&*$&
#$)!&>:%D:("4!H&!2>4"4!H&!4;#7%4>2!G&.!!4;H&2(9")4N"&2&>2)>$4D2&$;&D(E!&>"D$92(4"!Z&"d&>"54D"%&>:%D:("%H&
M:$&>2;5($$)*$&2&>2)A$>4;$)D2H&"!&A"#4%4*"*$!H&"!&4)82(;"FJ$!&>2(($!52)*$)D$!&"2&>2)]:)D2&
*$&M:"%46>"FJ$!&4)D$%$>D:"4!&5(2*:N4*"!&$&D(")!;4B*"!&5$%"&8";=%4"H&$&5$%"!&4)!BD:4FJ$!&$!>2%"($!H&
!2#&D(E!&82(;"!Z&2&$!D"*2&4)>2(52("*2H&>2;2&*4!52!4F12&*:(L3$%&*2&>2(52&b52(&$0$;5%2H&"&82(;"&
*$&!$&"5($!$)D"(&$;&5U#%4>2dt&2&$!D"*2&2#]$B32H&>2;2&"&52!!$&*$&#$)!&>:%D:("4!&b52(&$0$;5%2H&"&
52!!$&*$&2#("!&*$&"(D$dt&$!D"*2&4)!BD:>42)"%4N"*2H&!")>42)"*2&5$%"!&4)!BD:4FJ$!H&>2;2&2!&`D:%2!&
">"*E;4>2!t&#d&>"54D"%&!2>4"%H&>2(($!52)*$)D$&"2&>2)]:)D2&*$&">$!!2!&!2>4"4!H&M:$&>2;5($$)*$&2&
($%">42)";$)D2&$&"&($*$&*$&>2)D"D2!t&>d&2&>"54D"%&!4;#7%4>2H&>2(($!52)*$)D$&"2&>2)]:)D2&*$&(4D:"4!&
*$&($>2)A$>4;$)D2&!2>4"%H&$&M:$&>2;5($$)*$&2&5($!`942H&"&A2)("&$D>G&K&>"54D"%&!4;#7%4>2&C&:;"&
!=)D$!$&*2!&*$;"4!&b>:%D:("%H&$>2)o;4>2&$&!2>4"%G
b%6,"0!&C&:;&!4!D$;"&*$&*4!52!4FJ$!H&;2*2!&*$&5$(>$#$(H&*$&!$)B(H&*$&8"N$(H&*$&5$)!"(H&
M:$&%$3"&2&!$(&!2>4"%&"&"94(&*$&*$D$(;4)"*"&82(;"&$;&:;"&>4(>:)!Du)>4"&*"*"G&.!&*4!52!4FJ$!&!12&
"!& $!D(:D:("!& !2>4"4!& 4)D$()"%4N"*"!H& (2B)"!& >2(52("4!& $& ;$)D"4!& "5($$)*4*"!H& 52(& ;$42& *$& :;&
5(2>$!!2&*2&M:"%&]L&)12&D$;2!&;"4!&>2)!>4E)>4"&$&M:$&!$&$05($!!"&52(&:;"&"BD:*$&\)"D:("%a&*$&)2!&
>2)*:N4(;2!&$;&:;&*$D$(;4)"*2&;$42G&K&4%6,"0!&CH&52(D")D2H&2&5(2*:D2&*"&$05$(4E)>4"&#429(L6>"&
4)*434*:"%H&*"&$05$(4E)>4"&A4!D7(4>"&>2%$B3"&$&*"&4)D$("F12&$)D($&$!!"!&$05$(4E)>4"!G&?2:(*4$:&"*2D"&
o termo %(#-"#& $;& 3$N& *$& !:]$4D2H& 524!& 2!& 5(4)>=542!& 9$("*2($!& $& 2(9")4N"*2($!& *"!& 5(LB>"!& $&
($5($!$)D"FJ$!H&*"!&"FJ$!&$&5$)!";$)D2!&!12&D")D2&>2%$B32!&>2;2&4)*434*:"4!H&)"&;$*4*"&$;&M:$&
2&>2%$B32&$!DL&*$52!4D"*2&)2&4)*43=*:2&!2#&"&82(;"&*$&$!D(:D:("!&;$)D"4!G
h$(;")2&^A4(vI<A$(M:$!&)2&"(B92&/)0&.,#0V$%$"#)&,%$-%$5&I'+%&bcSSqd&"5($!$)D"&"!!4;&2&
;CD2*2&*2&!2>47%292Z&

Deriva do princípio de que a dinâmica social se dá no interior


de um campo, um segmento do social, cujos agentes,
!" #$"%&'( )( *+%,&'( -./( " ',&' 01)'( )',)2$324'5( 4( 6%)( )7)(
92 Revista Humanidades e Inovação v.3, n. 3 - 2016

denomina habitus. O campo é delimitado pelos valores ou


formas de +%5,"%* que lhe dão sustentação. A dinâmica social
no interior de cada campo é regida pelas lutas em que os
agentes procuram manter ou alterar as relações de força e a
" '-+ 8% 09&("4'(:&+/4'(")(24, -47()',)2$32&;(<)''4'(7%-4'('9&(
levadas a efeito estratégias não conscientes, que se fundam no
4%6,"0! !" # "%47()("&'(*+%,&'()/(2&!= -&;(>'(")-)+/ !4!-)'(
"4'(2&!"%-4'( !" # "%47()(2&7)?#4('9&(4'(,&' 01)'(,4+?2%74+)'(
de todo agente na estrutura de relações. De forma que, em
cada +%75)L$)$4%6,"0!, '&2 47/)!-)(2&!'?-%$"&(,&+()/84-)'(
entre indivíduos e grupos, determina as posições e o conjunto
de posições determina o habitus (THIRY-CHERQHES, 2006,
p.31).

K&*4($4D2&*$&$)D("*"&)2&>";52&C&*"*2&5$%2&($>2)A$>4;$)D2&*2!&!$:!&3"%2($!&8:)*";$)D"4!H&
5$%2& >2)A$>4;$)D2& *"!& ($9("!& *2& ]292H& 4!D2& CH& *"& A4!D7(4"& *2& >";52H& $& 5$%"& 52!!$& *2& >"54D"%&
$!5$>=6>2G n;&D2*2&>";52H&"&*4!D(4#:4F12&*$&>"54D"%&C&*$!49:"%H&2&M:$&4;5%4>"&>2)/4D2!H&$;&M:$&
4)*43=*:2!&$&9(:52!&*2;4)")D$!&5(2>:(";&*$8$)*$(&!$:!&5(434%C942!t&AL&*4)u;4>"!&*$&>2)>2((E)>4"&
$&*2;4)"F12H&*$(43"*"!&*"!&$!D("DC94"!&*$&>2)!$(3"F12&2:&!:#3$(!12&*"!&$!D(:D:("!&!2>4"4!G&^2*2&
>";52H&52(D")D2H&52!!:4&>2)/4D2!&>2;&2!&"9$)D$!&M:$&2&*2;4)";H&M:$&;2)252%4N";&2&>"54D"%&
$!5$>=6>2&*2&>";52G&&.&*2;4)"F12&CH&$;&9$("%H&!:B%H&#"!$"*"&$;&:;"&342%E)>4"&!4;#7%4>"&M:$&C&
]:%9"*"&%$9=B;"&*$)D(2&*$&>"*"&>";52G&.!&82(;"!&*$&5($!$(3"F12&*"&*2;4)"F12&!12Z

"&>2)!$(3"F12&*"!&82(;"!&*$&>"54D"%t&2&4)3$!B;$)D2&>2;&34!D"!&
g&!:"&($5(2*:F12t&"&!:>$!!12H&>2;&34!D"!&g&;"):D$)F12&*"!&
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Referências
w?„UJYW& I> I> L_HuHZUYWH_& _> W>N> 7)&84.9#!%!:,#.#:)!0)!,4+;();%9<!1&#$,%9).!=(+0)9%+')4.!
do método sociológico na ciência da linguagem. J301> I$(7%# u07+1 % …030 v302%-(7$ _$%$30> OR† %1>
M=! o0+#!B U+($2%(& `^O^ sOP`Pt& ,,> hO4Oh`>

wHXKmYDX> !%"#+#94)!0).!'&#").!,4+;(-./").> M=! o0+#!B D1+-,& OPQh>

wK?YJ& w> o%3-,%(;'0 1$0#8.$(0> Y"B wK?YJ& w%276 MHXy?4D4MYu_?& I03$0 Z%(E#$0> Texto ou discurso?
M=! o0+#!B Z!"2%92!& `^O`& ,,> P4`P>

mYZYHW€KYH Z0#10- ?+#%2% 1$.$20#> m$-,!"$*$#$101%B 7b,Bcclll>0+#%2%>(!5>*3c


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aK?WmD mYZYHW€KYH U!+0$-- 10 #E".+0 ,!32+.+%-0> m$-,!"E'%# %5B 7b,Bcc7!+0$-->+!#>(!5>*3c


*+-(0d,0#0'30e!(+,0f`gZhf`g?if`gZhf`g?h! ?(%--! %5B Og S+" `^O]

aO Estudantes da Usp ocupam prédios da Eca o!320# aO OP 50$! `^O] m$-,!"$*$#$101%B 7b,Bcc
.O>.#!*!>(!5c-0!4,0+#!c"!;($0c`^O]c^gc%-2+10"2%-4104+-,4!(+,054,3%1$!-4104%(047$-2!3$04%4
.%!.30/0>725# ?(%--! %5B Og S+" `^O]
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)!045(,;)23#!"4%+E:"). 63<$ LYuZMDcXWDMoN& '> g`& ,> gi4iP& `^^Q>

zHKW?u mH wK?MYu> Brasil tem 4 universidades no top 10... K$! 1% z0"%$3!O] S+# `^O] m$-,!"$*$#$101%B
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100 Revista Humanidades e Inovação v.3, n. 3 - 2016

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+-,1$.$20#>+-,>*3c0"+03$!c?"+03$!Z!"23!#% ?(%--! %5B Og S+" `^O]

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