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THE OTOMOTIF COLLEGE

DAT 2402 Advanced Drivetrain


Assignment 1

Diploma in Automotive Technology

A Junid
(DAT201509-02102)

30 January 2018
DAT 2402 Assignment 1 – Adam Junid - DAT201509-02102

Table of Contents
Page
Topic Assignment Questions / Problems...................................................... 2
Answer to Question 1................................................................................... 3
Answer to Question 2…………..................................................................... 4
Answer to Question 3…................................................................................ 5
Answer to Question 4……………................................................................. 8
Answer to Question 5................................................................................... 10
Answer to Question 6…................................................................................ 11
Answer to Question 6…................................................................................ 11
Answer to Question 7…................................................................................ 12
Answer to Question 8…................................................................................ 13
Answer to Question 9…................................................................................ 14

Diploma in Automotive Technology Student Number: DAT201509-02102


30 January 2018 Page 1 of 15
DAT 2402 Assignment 1 – Adam Junid - DAT201509-02102

Questions:

1. Describe the operation of universal joint

2. Explain how a differential works

3. What are the types of differential and describe each type?

4. Describe the different types of rear axles and bearings.

5. Describe the different types of vibration?

6. What are the type of CV joint and describe each type?

7. Describe the operation of CV joint.

8. Describe what are troubles encountered in drive train. State what are the
remedies of each trouble as recommended by car manufacturer?

9. Describe the operation of LSD and different types of LSD in the market.

Diploma in Automotive Technology Student Number: DAT201509-02102


30 January 2018 Page 2 of 15
DAT 2402 Assignment 1 – Adam Junid - DAT201509-02102

Question 1

A universal joint is a joint or coupling of a pair of hinges located close


together, oriented at 90° to each other, connected by a cross shaft. It allows
rotation transmission between two shafts, or two flange couplings:

To avoid rotation speed oscillations, universal joints should be operated in a


paired straight line, or at equal diffraction angles in the same plane:

Diploma in Automotive Technology Student Number: DAT201509-02102


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DAT 2402 Assignment 1 – Adam Junid - DAT201509-02102

Question 2

A differential gear set is typically used to allow half shafts to rotate at


different rates (speeds) when a vehicle is cornering:

Diploma in Automotive Technology Student Number: DAT201509-02102


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DAT 2402 Assignment 1 – Adam Junid - DAT201509-02102

Question 3

Types of differentials include:

1) Open conventional types, which may be installed in either:

a. Banjo type casings, which allow differential removal via


removal of casing cover that differential is mounted on:

b. Split type casings, which allow differential access sideways, or

c. Carrier-type casings, where differential is accessible but not


removable

Diploma in Automotive Technology Student Number: DAT201509-02102


30 January 2018 Page 5 of 15
DAT 2402 Assignment 1 – Adam Junid - DAT201509-02102

2) Differentials with Limited Slip functionality.

The differential slip control may be achieved via friction disc/clutch-


packs, viscous plates, locking mechanisms, or the patented Torsen

Diploma in Automotive Technology Student Number: DAT201509-02102


30 January 2018 Page 6 of 15
DAT 2402 Assignment 1 – Adam Junid - DAT201509-02102

differential that works using a paired triplet set of worm wheels on a


pair of worm gears. In the Torsen design, differential slippage only
occurs when both wheels rotate differentially, not when only one
rotates in the case of wheel slippage.

Diploma in Automotive Technology Student Number: DAT201509-02102


30 January 2018 Page 7 of 15
DAT 2402 Assignment 1 – Adam Junid - DAT201509-02102

Question 4

Rear axles may be of the following types:

Shaft type Description Illustration


• Semi • Used in
floating passenger
vehicles & light
trucks
• Shaft as well as
housing
supports vehicle
weight
• Inner end of axle
supported by
side gears of
differential
• Outer end of
shaft carried by
bearing located
between shaft &
housing

• Full • Outer & inner


floating ends of shaft
carried by
bearing located
between shaft &
housing
• Axle housing
takes full weight
of vehicle

• ¾ floating • Outer bearing


located between
hub & housing
• Axle housing
takes weight of
stationary
vehicle
• Axle takes some
cornering and
bump forces

Diploma in Automotive Technology Student Number: DAT201509-02102


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DAT 2402 Assignment 1 – Adam Junid - DAT201509-02102

Summary:

Diploma in Automotive Technology Student Number: DAT201509-02102


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DAT 2402 Assignment 1 – Adam Junid - DAT201509-02102

Question 5

Broadly, noise is an audio subcategory of vibrations. Types of noise


vibrations can be categorised according to vehicle source location as follows:

Mathematically, vibrations can be categorised into 1st order, 2nd order &
mixed/interference (a.k.a. beat and/or boom) vibrations. Their sources are
indicated as follows:

Note:
In Automotive technology, noise, vibration, and harshness (NVH), also known as
noise and vibration (N&V), is the study and modification of the noise and vibration
characteristics of vehicles, particularly cars and trucks. While noise and vibration
can be readily measured, harshness is a subjective quality.

Diploma in Automotive Technology Student Number: DAT201509-02102


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DAT 2402 Assignment 1 – Adam Junid - DAT201509-02102

Question 6

Types of CV joints are as follows:

1) Rzeppa CV joint, which allows up to 50° angular movement between shaft


axis but no axial movement:

2) Tripod joint, which allows up to 20° angular movement between shaft axis
and some axial movement:

Diploma in Automotive Technology Student Number: DAT201509-02102


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DAT 2402 Assignment 1 – Adam Junid - DAT201509-02102

Question 7

CV Joint operation is as follows:

1) For Rzeppa joints, balls arranged in a spherical joint cage enable constant
rotational velocity at various angles:

2) For tripod joints, needle bearing caps at a tripod joint allow rotational
velocity at various angles, and also allows some axial shaft movement,
enabling shaft length variance according to suspension arm angle hinge
movement:

Diploma in Automotive Technology Student Number: DAT201509-02102


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DAT 2402 Assignment 1 – Adam Junid - DAT201509-02102

Question 8

Drivetrain trouble Remedy


1) Gear noise • Insufficient lubricating oil:
replenish with correct amount
• Low viscosity, poor quality oil:
replace with correct quality of
gear oil
• Wrong adjustment of drive
pinion and ring gear (backlash):
check/adjust or replace
• Improper tooth contact in mesh
between drive pinion and ring
gear: adjust or replace
• Broken or damaged teeth or side
gears or differential pinion gears:
replace
2) Bearing noise • Damaged or worn bearings or
worn parts (constant noise):
replace
• Insufficient or poor quality gear
oil (constant noise): replenish or
replace
• Broken bearings on axle shafts
(noise during turning): replace
• Damaged bearings of rear drive
pinion (noise during coasting):
replace
3) Vehicle does not move when put • Broken teeth of crown wheel and
in gear pinion: The broken part needs to
be replaced
• Broken cross or star pinion: The
broken part needs to be replaced
• Broken flange key: The broken
part needs to be replaced
• Broken propeller shaft: The
broken part needs to be replaced
• Broken axle shaft: The broken
part needs to be replaced

Diploma in Automotive Technology Student Number: DAT201509-02102


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DAT 2402 Assignment 1 – Adam Junid - DAT201509-02102

Question 9

Type Limited Slip Operation Illustration


Differential (LSD)
1) Clutch Slip is limited via friction
pack discs contacting each
(friction other. The amount of
discs) friction may be adjusted
type using shims, or an
acceleration/deceleratio
n-triggered spring
mechanism (e.g. 1-way,
2-way or 1.5-way
mechanisms)
2) Viscous Slip is limited when
type silicone-based fluid in a
stack of perforated
interleaved accumulates
heat due to friction. This
heat will cause the fluid
to expand, and expand
the coupler causing the
discs to be pulled
together resulting in a
non-viscous plate-to-
plate friction and a
dramatic drop in speed
difference. This is known
as the hump
phenomenon and it
allows the side of the
coupler to gently lock. In
contrast to the
mechanical type, the
limiting action is much
softer and more
proportional to the slip,
and so is easier to cope
with for the average
driver.

Viscous types are often


used as a centre
differential for 4WD
vehicles

Diploma in Automotive Technology Student Number: DAT201509-02102


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DAT 2402 Assignment 1 – Adam Junid - DAT201509-02102

3) Geared Geared, torque-sensitive


(Torsen) mechanical limited-slip
LSDs differentials use worm
gears and spur gears to
distribute and
differentiate input power
between two drive
wheels or front and back
axles.

The worm gear and spur


gears (a.k.a. worm
wheel) are interlinked
such that differential
movement only occurs if
both wheels are rotating,
and the worm gear pairs
can rotate the spur gear
pairs (but not vice versa).

When one wheel gets


stuck due to the other
slipping, the differential
essentially locks via spur
gear pairs being unable
to rotate worm gear
pairs.

Diploma in Automotive Technology Student Number: DAT201509-02102


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