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IMPROVED OIL RECOVERY


Unit 11 -Waterflooding II
Review
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 Use the Welge Construction to determine


 water saturation at the producing end of the system at
water breakthrough
 average water saturation in the reservoir at breakthrough
 the producing water cut at breakthrough
A
Saturation at Irreducible
flood front water saturation

Water cut at
water
breakthrough Average water
saturation at
breakthrough

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at flood front

Swirr

Avg. Sw at water breakthrough

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Welge Construction
Exam Practise Question
PENG 6010-April/May 2010
Question 4 b)i, b) ii, b) iii and b) iv

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Exam Practise Question
6 PENG 6010-April/May 2010

Question 4 b)i, b) ii, b) iii and b) iv


Given:

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Unit 11- Learning Outcomes cont’d
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 Define areal, vertical and volumetric sweep efficiencies

 List factors affecting areal sweep efficiency

 List factors affecting vertical sweep efficiency

 Identify the well-pattern configurations used in waterflooding

 Use Dykstra-Parsons method for to predict oil recovery in a

linear waterflood
9 Volumetric Displacement Efficiency
See handout
Chapter 4
pg 73-74
EOR, Green and Willhite
Areal Sweep Efficiency, EA

Idealized reservoir

Factors affecting EA
• reservoir permeability heterogeneity
•injection/production well pattern
• mobility ratio
• relative importance of gravity and viscous forces

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Permeability variation,V
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 V
 permeability variation
 Dykstra-Parsons coefficient of permeability variation

 V 0 for a homogeneous reservoir


 V 1 for an extremely heterogeneous reservoir
 most reservoirs V~ 0.7
Flooding patterns (from Craig, 1971)
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Pilot Projects
TWO-SPOT

THREE-SPOT

Pattern Boundary
Producer
Injector
Areal Sweep Efficiency, EA

Idealized reservoir

Factors affecting EA
• reservoir permeability heterogeneity
• mobility ratio
•injection/production well pattern
• relative importance of gravity and viscous forces

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The Reservoir Engineering Aspects of
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Waterflooding, Craig
See handout/text
Page 48-55
AREAL SWEEP EFFICIENCY

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Areal Sweep at Water
Breakthrough
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 See figures 5.2-5.6


 Note:
 which factors affect sweep?
 there is agreement among most
investigators when M ≤1.0
 useful range of sweep efficiency can
be obtained for M ≥ 1.0
 X-ray shadowgraph technique more
reliable for M ≥ 1.0
Vd ,displaceable volume

= cumulative injected fluid /(pattern pore


volume x displacement efficiency of the
flood)

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Areal Sweep Efficiency, EA

Idealized reservoir

Factors affecting EA
• reservoir permeability heterogeneity
•injection/production well pattern
• mobility ratio
• relative importance of gravity and viscous forces

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Areal Sweep at Water Breakthrough
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 Figures 5.10, 5.11 and 5.12


 Areal sweep efficiency a function of d/a for
 Staggered drives
 Direct line drives

 Five spot (staggered line drive with d/a =0.5)


AREAL SWEEP EFFICIENCY

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Areal Sweep after Water Breakthrough
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 Areal sweep efficiency continues to increase until it


reaches 100%
 Four-spot

 Five-spot

 Seven-spot

 Nine-spot

 Line drives
Injectivities in various waterflood patterns
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 See Table 5.12 (page 55)


 Assuming steady state conditions
 No initial gas saturation
 Mobility ratio of 1
 Agreement between researchers
 At M <1.0, fluid injectivity declines as areal
sweep increases
 At M > 1.0. fluid injectivity increases as
complete coverage is approached
Vertical Sweep Efficiency, EI

EI is controlled primarily by four factors: gravity


segregation caused by differences in
1. density
2. mobility ratio
3. vertical to horizontal permeability variation
4. capillary forces

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Welge Construction
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Step 4
Draw tangent from Swirr to intersect with fw vs Sw curve

i. Water saturation at the producing end of the system at water


breakthrough
At intersection with tangent and curve- Read Sw (x-axis)
ii. The producing water cut at breakthrough
At intersection with tangent and curve - Read fw (y-axis)
iii. Average water saturation in the reservoir at breakthrough
At intersection with tangent and fw =1.0 – Read Sw

iii. Oil -water mobility ratio


Use krw at average Sw behind the front
Use kro ahead of flood front
Given mo and mw
Welge Construction continued
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 Use the frontal advance theory to predict waterflood


performance
 plot oil recovery vs. time

 determine rate of oil production

 Determine water cut


28 Waterflooding by G. Paul Willhite

Section 3.5
Displacement performance for a linear
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waterflood
Determine
 Volume of oil displaced at any time
 Rate of oil production
 Producing water cut after water breakthrough

Assumptions
 Interstitial water assumed to be immobile
 Phases are incompressible
 Constant Injection rate
 Until water arrives at the end of a system, oil will be produced
at the same rate as water is injected.
 When water breakthrough occurs, a water saturation gradient
exists from the inlet to the end of the system.
Equation 3.80
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The volume of water in the system between x=x1 and


x=x2 can be obtained by integrating

whereVw is the volume of water in the porous medium


between x1 and x2. The volume of oil displaced is
expressed as
Equation 3.81
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 The volume of oil displaced in the region

Where Vo is the volume of oil displaced from the


interval x1≤x≥x2

Which assumptions are being used in the development


of these two equations?
Equation 3.93 & 3.94
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 When x1= 0 and sufficient time has passed for water


to have arrived at the end of the core/system/
producer (x2 =L), the average water saturation in the
system is

 fw1 = 1.0 at x =0
Equations 3.95 ,3.96 and 3.97
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 qtt represents the total volume of water injected


(Wi)
(3.95)

 AL is the PV of the porous rock, Vp

For constant injection rate (3.96)

(3.97)
Equation 3.98
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 Because the displaced hydrocarbon saturation is , the oil


displaced , Np, is given by

where FVF is assumed to be 1.0


Saturation Profile
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 At the end of system (x= L) the water saturation is


Sw2 after water arrives.

 From the development of the Frontal Advance


Equation
(3.76)

(3.99)
Equation 3.100
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 Substituting Equation 3.99 into equation 3.97


(3.100)

 Change in y / change in x in Fig 3.11


(3.102)

 Rearrange 3.100 and compare to 3.102


Production rates- Equations 3.104-3.106
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 The fractional flow of water is determined from the


frontal advance solution for every value of Sw2.
Water oil ratio (WOR)
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 WOR is a measure of the efficiency of the


displacement at a point in the process. In production
operations it represents the volume of water that
must be handled to produce a unit volume of oil.

(3.107)
Time required for displacement
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 Because injection rate does not vary with time


40 Review Worked Example
page 67-69
Predicting waterflood performance
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Step 1 Given:
Plot relative permeability data • Reservoir dimensions
• Angle of dip
Step 2 • Porosity
Calculate the fractional flow of water • Initial water saturation
• Water injection rate
Step 3 • Viscosity of oil and water
Plot fw vs Sw • Relative permeability
• Residual Oil Saturation
• Bo
• Bw
Predicting waterflood performance
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Step 4
Draw tangent from Swirr to intersect with fw vs Sw curve

i. Water saturation at the producing end of the system at


water breakthrough
At intersection with tangent and curve
Read Sw (x-axis)
ii. The producing water cut at breakthrough
At intersection with tangent and curve
Read fw (y-axis)
iii. Average water saturation in the reservoir at breakthrough
At intersection with tangent and fw =1.0
Read Sw
If tangent intersection cannot be determined
Use workflow for on page 68 (1st column) to apply material balance
Predicting waterflood performance
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After  Choose several values of Sw2 and


breakthrough
determine fw2 and f’Sw2 by drawing
tangents to the curve
 See Figure 3.13

 Sw2 = intersection with fw =1


See Table 3.3  Read off fw2
 Qi = Sw2 -Swirr
Predicting waterflood performance
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Cumulative oil
production

Oil production
rate See Table 3.3

Water oil Ratio


In context
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 Waterflood performance –Figure 3.14


 Calculate total water injected at constant rate for
2,529 days
 Calculate OOIP

 Calculate ultimate waterflood recovery


*Ultimate waterflood recovery
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 Given cut off fw =0.95


 Draw tangent to curve at fw=0.95
 Read off average Sw at fw =1.0

Initial Stock tank oil in place in one barrel


of total pore volume, STB

* Craig, Appendix E.1 to E.3


* Ultimate waterflood recovery
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 One barrel of total pore volume in the swept


portion of the reservoir, STB

 Oil remaining in unswept portion per barrel of pore


volume, STB

* Craig, Appendix E.1 to E.3


*Ultimate waterflood recovery
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If say, there is primary recovery before waterflooding

Recovery due to waterflood = Total recovery – primary recovery

* Craig, Appendix E.1 to E.3