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Dispersed Generator Placement using Fuzzy-

GA in Distribution Systems
Kyu-Ho Kim, Member, IEEE, Yu-Jeong Lee and Sang-Bong Rhee, Student Member, IEEE,
Sang-Kuen Lee and Seok-Ku You, Member, IEEE

Abstract--This paper presents a fuzzy-GA method to resolve [3]. Griffin and Tomsovic present the algorithm to determine
dispersed generator placement for distribution systems. The the near optimal, with respect to system losses, placement of
problem formulation considers an objective to reduce power loss these units on the power grid. Further, the impacts of dispersed
costs of distribution systems and the constraints with the number generation at the distribution level are performed with an
or size of dispersed generators and the deviation of the bus
voltage. The main idea of solving fuzzy nonlinear goal
emphasis on resistive losses, and capacity savings [4]. Celli
programming is to transform the original objective function and and Pilo propose the method to establish the optimal
constraints into the equivalent multi-objectives functions with distributed generation allocation on distribution network based
fuzzy sets to evaluate their imprecise nature and solve the on a Genetic Algorithm considering all the technical
problem using the proposed genetic algorithm, without any constraints, like feeder capacity limits, feeder voltage profile
transformation for this nonlinear problem to a linear model or and three-phase short circuit current in the network nodes [5].
other methods. Moreover, this algorithm proposes a satisfying
method to solve the constrained multiple objective problem. Nara and Hayashi presents tabu search application for finding
Analyzing the results and updating the expected value of each the optimal allocation of DGs from a viewpoint of loss
objective function allow the dispatcher to obtain the compromised minimization [6].
or satisfied solution efficiently. In this paper, the problem formulation proposed considers
The method proposed is applied to the sample systems to an objective to reduce power loss costs of distribution systems
demonstrate its effectiveness. and the constraints with the number or size of dispersed
generators and the deviation of the bus voltage. This objective
Index Terms—Dispersed Generation Placement, Distribution
Systems, Fuzzy-GA, Multi-Objectives function and constraints are transformed into multi-objectives
functions and modeled with fuzzy sets to evaluate their
imprecise nature. Moreover, we try to get the compromised
I. INTRODUCTION solution of multi-objectives and imprecise information using

R ecently, the placement of dispersed generation systems goal programming and genetic algorithms.
(DGs) such as photovoltaic cells, fuel cells, battery energy The method proposed is applied to the sample systems to
storage systems and cogeneration system on the distribution demonstrate its effectiveness.
system can significantly impact power quality and voltage
conditions at customers[1]. Meanwhile dispersed generators II. PROBLEM FORMULATION
can reduce distribution loss and replace large-scale generators The loads are assumed to vary in a conformal way and the
if they are placed appropriately in the distribution systems. load variations are supposed to be in discrete levels. Under
DGs are closer to customers so that transmission and these assumptions, the so-called load duration curve can be
distribution cost are avoided or reduced and the latest approximated by a piecewise linear function [7].
technologies have been perfected and are widely practiced [2]. A. Objective Function
Many approaches have been proposed to solve dispersed
The objective function in the dispersed generators
generators placement in distribution systems. Rau and Wan
placement problem is formulated by summing up the power
present the method to identify optimal locations of distributed
loss costs for each load level multiplied by the duration of the
resources in a network to minimize losses, line loadings, and
load level [8].
reactive power requirement by the second order algorithms
nt
Min. objective func. = K e ∑ T i Ploss
i
(1)
Kyu-Ho Kim is with Dept. of Electrical Eng. Ansan College of Tech.,
i =0
Korea (e-mail: kyuho@ansantc.ac.kr)
Yu-Jeong Lee is with Dept. of Electrical Eng. Hanyang University, Korea i
(e-mail: yujeong02@bcline.com) where K e is the constants for energy. Ploss is the power loss
Sang-Bong Rhee is with Dept. of Electrical Eng. Hanyang University,
Korea (e-mail: rrsd@ihanyang.ac.kr) for load level i with a time duration T i . nt is the number of
Sang-Kuen Lee is with Dept. of Electrical Eng. Wonju National College, load levels respectively.
Korea (e-mail: sklee@sky.wonju.ac.kr)
Seok-Ku You is with Dept. of Electrical Eng. Hanyang University, Korea
(e-mail: skyou@email.hanyang)

0-7803-7519-X/02/$17.00 © 2002 IEEE


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B. Constraints limit, f k ( X ) is the k − th nonlinear goal constraints,
1) Power Flow Equations:
g i ( X ) is the i − th nonlinear system constraints, bk is the
F i ( xi , PGi ,k ) = 0 (2)
target valve according to goal k, Gi is the limitation of system
i
where PG ,k is the dispersed generation control variable at bus constraint i, q0 is the number of fuzzy-min goal constraints,
k and x is the state variable for load level i. q1 − q0 is the number of fuzzy-max constraints, q 2 − q1 is
2) Operational constraints on bus voltages:
i the number of fuzzy-equal constraints, m is the number of
Vmin ≤ V i ≤ Vmax
i
(3) system constraints.
The membership functions are defined as follows:
where V is voltage magnitude, max and min are the upper and
For fuzzy-min,
lower limit of voltage magnitude for load level i respectively.
3) The constraint on the number or size of DGs:
1 if f k ( X ) < bk ,
PGi ,k ,min ≤ PGi ,k ≤ PGi ,k ,max (4) 
 f (X ) − b
1 − k R (6)
where PGi ,k is the number or size of bus k at load level i , max µ k ( f k ( X )) =  tk

and min are the upper and lower limit of the number or size  if bk ≤ f k ( X ) ≤ bk + t kR ,
DGs for load level i respectively. 0
 if f k ( X ) > bk + t kR
III. FUZZY NONLINEAR GOAL PROGRAMMING
µ (f (X))
Goal programming is a powerful method, which involves k k
multi-objectives and is one of the excellent models in many
real-world problems. The goal programming is to establish 1
specific goals for each priority level, formulate objective
functions for each objective, and then seek a solution that
minimize the deviations of these objective functions from their
respective goals. The main idea of solving fuzzy nonlinear
f (X)
goal programming (f-NGP) is to transform the original k
b +t R
0
problem into the equivalent nonlinear programming problem b
k k k
and solve the problem using the proposed genetic algorithm, Fig. 1 The membership function of fuzzy-min
without any transformation for this nonlinear problem to a
linear model or other methods [9,10].
A typical formulation of f-NGP can be defined as follows: For fuzzy-max,
Find X to optimize the following fuzzy goals:
f k ( X ) <≈ bk , k = 1,2,⋅ ⋅ ⋅, q0 0 if f k ( X ) < bk − t kL ,
f k ( X ) >≈ bk , k = 1,2,⋅ ⋅ ⋅, q1  L
(5)  f k ( X ) − (bk − t k ) (7)
f k ( X ) =≈ bk , k = 1,2,⋅ ⋅ ⋅, q 2 
µ k ( f k ( X )) =  t kL
s.t. 
 if bk − t kL ≤ f k ( X ) ≤ bk ,
g i ( X ) ≤ Gi i = 1,2,⋅ ⋅ ⋅, m 1 if f k ( X ) > bk
where X is n-dimensional decision vector, the symbol <≈
(the type of fuzzy-min) referring to approximately less than or
equal to the aspiration level bk signifies that the decision µ (f (X))
maker is satisfied even if greater than bk up to a certain
tolerance limit, the symbol >≈ (the type of fuzzy-max) 1
referring to approximately greater than or equal to the
aspiration level bk signifies that decision maker is satisfied
even if less than bk up to a certain limit, the symbol =≈ (the
type of fuzzy-equal) referring to that f k ( X ) should be in the 0 f (X)
b − tL
vicinity of the aspiration bk signifies that the decision maker Fig. 2 The membership
b
function of fuzzy- max

is satisfied even if greater than (or less than) bk up to a certain

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For fuzzy-equal, and genetic algorithms.
1) Minimize the Power Loss Costs
nt
0 if f k ( X ) < bk − t kL ,
 L
Min f1 ( X ) = K e ∑ T i Ploss
i i ,0
− Ploss (10)
 f k ( X ) − (b k −t k ) i =0
 t kL i ,0
 f1 represents power loss deviation, Ploss is the power loss
 if bk − t kL ≤ f k ( X ) ≤ b , (8) at load level i before DGs placement.
 µ (f (X))
µ k ( f k ( X )) = 1 if f k ( X ) = bk , 1 1
 f k ( X ) − bk
1 −
 t kR 1

 if bk ≤ f k ( X ) ≤ bk + t kR ,
0 if f k ( X ) > bk + t kR

f (X)
0 1
µ (f (X)) Ploss
i ,0
k k
Fig. 4 The membership function for the minimization of power loss costs
2) Minimize the number or size of DGs
1
Min f 2 ( X ) = max ∆PGi ,k k = 1,2,⋅ ⋅ ⋅, N G (11)
k

∆PGi ,k = PGi ,k − PGi ,,min


k , N G is the total number of DGs,

f (X) i means load level and f 2 represents the maximal


0
b − tL R k deviation of the number or size of DGs. In Figure 6, max and
k k b b + t
k k k min are the upper and lower limit of voltage deviation.
Fig. 3 The membership function of fuzzy-equal µ (f (X))
2 2
where we assume that membership functions are strictly
1
monotone decreasing(or increasing) and continuous functions
with respect to f k ( X ) , while t kL and t kR are maximal left
and right tolerance limit to bk .
Then formulation (5) is equivalent to solving the following f (X)
nonlinear programming problem:
0 ∆PGi ,,min
k ∆PGi ,,max
k
2
q2 Fig. 5 The membership function for the minimization of the number or size of
max ∑ ω k λ k DGs
k =1 3) Minimize the number of the deviation of voltage
(9)
s.t.
Min f 3 ( X ) = max ∆Vi i = 1,2,⋅ ⋅ ⋅, N L (12)
g i ( X ) ≤ Gi i = 1,2,L , m i
where
0 ≤ λk ≤ 1 k = 1,2 ,L , q 2
∆Vi = Vi − 1.0 , N b is the total number of the buses,
where ω k is the suitable weight factor which is assigned by the
Vi denotes the voltage on bus i , f 3 represents the
decision maker. One of the major difficulties is that the
decision maker sets the relative importance of goals correctly. maximal deviation of bus voltage.

µ (f (X))
IV. SOLUTION ALGORITHMS FOR DGS PLACEMENT

A. Fuzzy Membership of Objective Function and Constraints 1

The problem formulation proposed considers an objective


to reduce power loss costs of distribution systems and the
constraints with the number of dispersed generators and the
deviation of the bus voltage. This objective function and 0 ∆Vi ,min ∆Vi ,max f (X)
constraints are transformed into multi-objectives functions and
modeled with fuzzy sets to evaluate their imprecise nature. Fig. 6 The membership function for the minimization of the deviation of
voltage
Moreover, we try to get the compromised solution of multi-
objectives and imprecise information using goal programming

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The main idea of solving fuzzy nonlinear goal programming Whole arithmetical crossover
is to transform the original objective function and constraints This operator is defined as a linear combination of two
into the equivalent multi-objectives functions with fuzzy sets vectors: if X and
t
Y t are to be crossed, the resulting
to evaluate their imprecise nature and solve the problem using offspring are given by
the proposed genetic algorithm, without any transformation for
this nonlinear problem to a linear model or other methods.
X t +1 = [a ⋅ Y t + (1 − a ) ⋅ X t ]
(14)
This objective function and constraints are transformed into Y t +1 = [a ⋅ X t + (1 − a) ⋅ Y t ]
multi-objectives functions and modeled with fuzzy sets to
evaluate their imprecise nature. t and t+1 are current and next generation respectively. Xt
t t +1 t +1
and Y are parent and X and Y offspring. int[*]
B. Genetic Algorithms
returns integer number. This operator uses a simpler static
Genetic algorithm (GA) is very powerful search method
system parameter a ∈ [0..1].
based on the mechanics of natural selection and natural
genetics, and is different from conventional search algorithms Non-uniform mutation
[11]. GA searches from a population of points in the search Mutation operator is applied to each gene according to
space simultaneously. And, GA does not need derivatives or mutation probability independently. Non-uniform mutation is
other auxiliary knowledge. The Algorithm procedure and used in this paper and is shown in (15).
detailed explanation are as follows:  xii + ∆( t , y ), y = xiimax − xii

'  if a random digit is 0 ,
Step 1. Representation and Initialization xii = 
 xii − ∆( t , y ), y = xii − xii
min
Initialize N subpopulation assigned to each load level. The (15)
genes of each individual in N subpopulation are randomly 
generated within the maximum and minimum limits of each  if a random digit is 1,
variable. This paper presents the method that determines ∆( t , y ) = y ⋅ r ⋅ ( 1 − t / T )b
locations to be installed and sizes of DGs simultaneously. The
where the function returns a value in the range[0,y] such that
strings in GA consist of the bus number index and the size of
the probability of ∆ (t , y ) being close to 0 increases as t
DGs. In GA application, multi-population formulations consist
of each subpopulation assigned to each load level for the increases. This property causes this operator to search the
purpose of convergence improvement [12]. space uniformly initially (when t is small), and very locally at
later generations. r is a random number from [0..1], T is the
Step 2. Fitness Evaluation and Penalty Function maximal generation number, and b is a system parameter for
Evaluate the fitness after unbalanced distribution load flow determining the degree of non-uniformity.
using each gene of individual in N subpopulation. The
evaluation function for optimal capacitor placement and V. NUMERICAL RESULTS
control in unbalanced distribution systems is calculated as the It was applied to 12 buses sample systems for proving the
result of the following function. Constraints of problem efficiency of the algorithms.
formulation could be translated into penalty function.
3
Fitness func. = ∑ ω k µ k ( f k ( X )) The simulation constants are as follows:
k =1
(13) Energy cost K e : $0.06/kWh
0 ≤ λk ≤ 1 k = 1,2,3 Number of available placement of DGs: 4
Available capacity of DGs [kW]: 10, 20, 30, 40, 50
Step 3. Criterion of convergence ∆PGi ,,min
k : Min. available capacity of DGs
If it is maximum generation, stop. Otherwise, go to step 4.
∆PGi ,,max
k :50 * Number of available placement of DGs
Step 4. Manipulate Genes of Individual
∆Vi ,min : 0.03
For the purpose of generating a new and improved
population from old one, GA uses genetic operators such as ∆Vi ,max : 0.05
reproduction, whole arithmetical crossover, non-uniform
Time period [h]: 8(9:00 – 17:00)
mutation. After the manipulation of genes, go to step 2. The
Year: 10
detailed explanation of Operators used in this paper is as
follows:
A summary of system data is presented in Table I and II.
Reproduction
This system includes 12 buses and 11 branches. Figure 7
New offspring are produced by the roulette wheel
illustrates the network structure of the system.
reproduction rule. By incorporating elitism, the string with the
Three load levels and load duration time data are given in
best fitness value is always preserved in the next generation.
Table III.

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The proposed algorithm searches the location and size of TABLE IV SIMULATION RESULTS
DGs to be installed simultaneously. Table IV shows the Load Level Bus no. 11 Bus no. 12
locations and sizes of DGs placement. Figure 8 shows the
110% 50 50
variation of loss costs as the generation varies. In table V, the Total
comparison of loss costs between pre and post placement of capacity of 90% 0 50
DGs is shown. The loss costs for the system without any DGs DGs [kW]
70% 0 50
placement was found to be $30,298.37. After DGs placement,
the loss costs are $22,743.87. From the result, it is seen that
the saving costs are $7,554.5 during 10 years. Vmax , Vave and
TABLE V
Vmin are improved and the system losses are reduced in each COMPARISON OF VOLTAGE MAGNITUDE, LOSS AND COSTS BETWEEN PRE AND
POST DGS PLACEMENT
load level.
Comparison between pre and post installation
substation pre installation post installation
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
Load level - 110%

Vmax 0.9937 0.9984

Fig. 7 12 buses and 11 branches system Vave 0.9654 0.9761

TABLE I Vmin 0.9367 0.9604


LINE DATA OF 12 BUSES AND 11 BRANCHES SYSTEM
Sys. Loss[kW] 25.59 16.89
Branch Sending Receiving
R (ohms) X (ohms)
no. end end
Load level - 90%
1 1 2 1.093 0.455
2 2 3 1.184 0.494 Vmax 0.9949 0.9954
3 3 4 2.095 0.873
4
5
4
5
5
6
3.188
1.093
1.329
0.455
Vave 0.9720 0.9764
6 6 7 1.002 0.417 Vmin 0.9488 0.9587
7 7 8 4.403 1.215
8 8 9 5.642 1.597 Sys. Loss[kW] 16.80 13.49
9 9 10 2.89 0.818
10 10 11 1.514 0.428 Load level - 70%
11 11 12 1.238 0.351
Vmax 0.9961 0.9964
TABLE II Vave 0.9784 0.9818
LOAD DATA OF 12 BUSES SYSTEM
Node no. of
PL (kW) QL (kVAR) Vmin 0.9606 0.9682
Receiving end
1 0 0 Sys. Loss[kW] 9.97 8.03
2 60 60
3 40 30 Total loss cost[$]
$30,298.37 $22,743.87
4 55 55 of 10 years
5 30 30
6 20 15
7 55 55
8 45 45
26 000 1.40 E+0 08
9 40 40
10 35 30 25 000 Loss C o sts
1.20 E+0 08
P enalty F unction V alue

11 40 30 Pen alty Function Value


1.00 E+0 08
12 15 15 24 000
Loss C osts [$]

8.00 E+0 07
TABLE III 23 000
LOAD LEVEL AND LOAD DURATION TIME 6.00 E+0 07
22 000
Load level (%) 110 90 70 4.00 E+0 07

21 000 2.00 E+0 07


Time interval (hours) 7300 14600 7300
20 000 0.00 E+0 00
0 20 40 60 80 10 0
G enerations

Fig. 8 Loss costs and penalty function value

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VI. CONCLUSION VIII. BIOGRAPHIES
This paper presents a fuzzy-GA method to resolve
dispersed generator placement for distribution systems. Kyu-Ho Kim received his B.S., M.S. and Ph.D. degrees from Hanyang
University, Korea, in 1988, 1990 and 1996, respectively. He is currently an
The problem formulation proposed considers an objective Assistant Professor in the Department of Electrical Engineering at Ansan
to reduce power losses of distribution systems and the College of Technology. His research interests include power system control
constraints with the number or size of dispersed generators and and operation, optimal power flow and evolutionary computation.
the deviation of the bus voltage. This objective function and
Yu-Jeong Lee received M.S. (1992) degrees from Hanyang University where
constraints are transformed into multi-objectives functions and
he is currently Ph.D. student in Electrical Engineering. His research interests
modeled with fuzzy sets to evaluate their imprecise nature. include distributed generation system, Genetic Algorithms, power system
Moreover, we try to get the global solution of multi-objectives analysis, operation, and control.
and imprecise information using goal programming and
genetic algorithms. Sang-Bong Rhee received B.S.(1994) and M.S.(1999) degrees from Hanyang
University where he is currently Ph.D. student in Electrical Engineering. His
By using this algorithm, the dispatcher can obtain the most research interests include artificial intelligence applications, distribution
compromised or satisfied solution among multi-objectives. power system analysis, operation, and control.

Sang-Keun Lee received his B.S., M.S. and Ph.D. degrees from Hanyang
University, Korea, in 1986, 1988 and 1994, respectively. He is currently an
VII. REFERENCES Associate Professor in the Department of Electrical Engineering at Wonju
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[2] D. T. Rizy and W. T. Jewell et. al, “Operation and design Seok-Ku You received his Ph.D. degree from Hanyang University, Korea. He
Considerations for electric Distribution Systems with Dispersed Storage is currently Professor of Electrical Engineering at Hanyang University. His
and Generation (DGS)”, IEEE Trans. PAS, PP.2864-2871, 1985. research interests include power system control and operation, protection
[3] Rau, N.S and Yih Heui Wan, “Optimum location of resources in relay system and power system stability.
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[10] Hsiao, Y. T and Chien, C. Y, “Enhancement of restoration service in
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[11] Z. Michalewicz, “Genetic algorithms + Data structures = Evolution
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