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GA in Distribution Systems

Kyu-Ho Kim, Member, IEEE, Yu-Jeong Lee and Sang-Bong Rhee, Student Member, IEEE,

Sang-Kuen Lee and Seok-Ku You, Member, IEEE

Abstract--This paper presents a fuzzy-GA method to resolve [3]. Griffin and Tomsovic present the algorithm to determine

dispersed generator placement for distribution systems. The the near optimal, with respect to system losses, placement of

problem formulation considers an objective to reduce power loss these units on the power grid. Further, the impacts of dispersed

costs of distribution systems and the constraints with the number generation at the distribution level are performed with an

or size of dispersed generators and the deviation of the bus

voltage. The main idea of solving fuzzy nonlinear goal

emphasis on resistive losses, and capacity savings [4]. Celli

programming is to transform the original objective function and and Pilo propose the method to establish the optimal

constraints into the equivalent multi-objectives functions with distributed generation allocation on distribution network based

fuzzy sets to evaluate their imprecise nature and solve the on a Genetic Algorithm considering all the technical

problem using the proposed genetic algorithm, without any constraints, like feeder capacity limits, feeder voltage profile

transformation for this nonlinear problem to a linear model or and three-phase short circuit current in the network nodes [5].

other methods. Moreover, this algorithm proposes a satisfying

method to solve the constrained multiple objective problem. Nara and Hayashi presents tabu search application for finding

Analyzing the results and updating the expected value of each the optimal allocation of DGs from a viewpoint of loss

objective function allow the dispatcher to obtain the compromised minimization [6].

or satisfied solution efficiently. In this paper, the problem formulation proposed considers

The method proposed is applied to the sample systems to an objective to reduce power loss costs of distribution systems

demonstrate its effectiveness. and the constraints with the number or size of dispersed

generators and the deviation of the bus voltage. This objective

Index Terms—Dispersed Generation Placement, Distribution

Systems, Fuzzy-GA, Multi-Objectives function and constraints are transformed into multi-objectives

functions and modeled with fuzzy sets to evaluate their

imprecise nature. Moreover, we try to get the compromised

I. INTRODUCTION solution of multi-objectives and imprecise information using

R ecently, the placement of dispersed generation systems goal programming and genetic algorithms.

(DGs) such as photovoltaic cells, fuel cells, battery energy The method proposed is applied to the sample systems to

storage systems and cogeneration system on the distribution demonstrate its effectiveness.

system can significantly impact power quality and voltage

conditions at customers[1]. Meanwhile dispersed generators II. PROBLEM FORMULATION

can reduce distribution loss and replace large-scale generators The loads are assumed to vary in a conformal way and the

if they are placed appropriately in the distribution systems. load variations are supposed to be in discrete levels. Under

DGs are closer to customers so that transmission and these assumptions, the so-called load duration curve can be

distribution cost are avoided or reduced and the latest approximated by a piecewise linear function [7].

technologies have been perfected and are widely practiced [2]. A. Objective Function

Many approaches have been proposed to solve dispersed

The objective function in the dispersed generators

generators placement in distribution systems. Rau and Wan

placement problem is formulated by summing up the power

present the method to identify optimal locations of distributed

loss costs for each load level multiplied by the duration of the

resources in a network to minimize losses, line loadings, and

load level [8].

reactive power requirement by the second order algorithms

nt

Min. objective func. = K e ∑ T i Ploss

i

(1)

Kyu-Ho Kim is with Dept. of Electrical Eng. Ansan College of Tech.,

i =0

Korea (e-mail: kyuho@ansantc.ac.kr)

Yu-Jeong Lee is with Dept. of Electrical Eng. Hanyang University, Korea i

(e-mail: yujeong02@bcline.com) where K e is the constants for energy. Ploss is the power loss

Sang-Bong Rhee is with Dept. of Electrical Eng. Hanyang University,

Korea (e-mail: rrsd@ihanyang.ac.kr) for load level i with a time duration T i . nt is the number of

Sang-Kuen Lee is with Dept. of Electrical Eng. Wonju National College, load levels respectively.

Korea (e-mail: sklee@sky.wonju.ac.kr)

Seok-Ku You is with Dept. of Electrical Eng. Hanyang University, Korea

(e-mail: skyou@email.hanyang)

1148

B. Constraints limit, f k ( X ) is the k − th nonlinear goal constraints,

1) Power Flow Equations:

g i ( X ) is the i − th nonlinear system constraints, bk is the

F i ( xi , PGi ,k ) = 0 (2)

target valve according to goal k, Gi is the limitation of system

i

where PG ,k is the dispersed generation control variable at bus constraint i, q0 is the number of fuzzy-min goal constraints,

k and x is the state variable for load level i. q1 − q0 is the number of fuzzy-max constraints, q 2 − q1 is

2) Operational constraints on bus voltages:

i the number of fuzzy-equal constraints, m is the number of

Vmin ≤ V i ≤ Vmax

i

(3) system constraints.

The membership functions are defined as follows:

where V is voltage magnitude, max and min are the upper and

For fuzzy-min,

lower limit of voltage magnitude for load level i respectively.

3) The constraint on the number or size of DGs:

1 if f k ( X ) < bk ,

PGi ,k ,min ≤ PGi ,k ≤ PGi ,k ,max (4)

f (X ) − b

1 − k R (6)

where PGi ,k is the number or size of bus k at load level i , max µ k ( f k ( X )) = tk

and min are the upper and lower limit of the number or size if bk ≤ f k ( X ) ≤ bk + t kR ,

DGs for load level i respectively. 0

if f k ( X ) > bk + t kR

III. FUZZY NONLINEAR GOAL PROGRAMMING

µ (f (X))

Goal programming is a powerful method, which involves k k

multi-objectives and is one of the excellent models in many

real-world problems. The goal programming is to establish 1

specific goals for each priority level, formulate objective

functions for each objective, and then seek a solution that

minimize the deviations of these objective functions from their

respective goals. The main idea of solving fuzzy nonlinear

f (X)

goal programming (f-NGP) is to transform the original k

b +t R

0

problem into the equivalent nonlinear programming problem b

k k k

and solve the problem using the proposed genetic algorithm, Fig. 1 The membership function of fuzzy-min

without any transformation for this nonlinear problem to a

linear model or other methods [9,10].

A typical formulation of f-NGP can be defined as follows: For fuzzy-max,

Find X to optimize the following fuzzy goals:

f k ( X ) <≈ bk , k = 1,2,⋅ ⋅ ⋅, q0 0 if f k ( X ) < bk − t kL ,

f k ( X ) >≈ bk , k = 1,2,⋅ ⋅ ⋅, q1 L

(5) f k ( X ) − (bk − t k ) (7)

f k ( X ) =≈ bk , k = 1,2,⋅ ⋅ ⋅, q 2

µ k ( f k ( X )) = t kL

s.t.

if bk − t kL ≤ f k ( X ) ≤ bk ,

g i ( X ) ≤ Gi i = 1,2,⋅ ⋅ ⋅, m 1 if f k ( X ) > bk

where X is n-dimensional decision vector, the symbol <≈

(the type of fuzzy-min) referring to approximately less than or

equal to the aspiration level bk signifies that the decision µ (f (X))

maker is satisfied even if greater than bk up to a certain

tolerance limit, the symbol >≈ (the type of fuzzy-max) 1

referring to approximately greater than or equal to the

aspiration level bk signifies that decision maker is satisfied

even if less than bk up to a certain limit, the symbol =≈ (the

type of fuzzy-equal) referring to that f k ( X ) should be in the 0 f (X)

b − tL

vicinity of the aspiration bk signifies that the decision maker Fig. 2 The membership

b

function of fuzzy- max

1149

For fuzzy-equal, and genetic algorithms.

1) Minimize the Power Loss Costs

nt

0 if f k ( X ) < bk − t kL ,

L

Min f1 ( X ) = K e ∑ T i Ploss

i i ,0

− Ploss (10)

f k ( X ) − (b k −t k ) i =0

t kL i ,0

f1 represents power loss deviation, Ploss is the power loss

if bk − t kL ≤ f k ( X ) ≤ b , (8) at load level i before DGs placement.

µ (f (X))

µ k ( f k ( X )) = 1 if f k ( X ) = bk , 1 1

f k ( X ) − bk

1 −

t kR 1

if bk ≤ f k ( X ) ≤ bk + t kR ,

0 if f k ( X ) > bk + t kR

f (X)

0 1

µ (f (X)) Ploss

i ,0

k k

Fig. 4 The membership function for the minimization of power loss costs

2) Minimize the number or size of DGs

1

Min f 2 ( X ) = max ∆PGi ,k k = 1,2,⋅ ⋅ ⋅, N G (11)

k

k , N G is the total number of DGs,

0

b − tL R k deviation of the number or size of DGs. In Figure 6, max and

k k b b + t

k k k min are the upper and lower limit of voltage deviation.

Fig. 3 The membership function of fuzzy-equal µ (f (X))

2 2

where we assume that membership functions are strictly

1

monotone decreasing(or increasing) and continuous functions

with respect to f k ( X ) , while t kL and t kR are maximal left

and right tolerance limit to bk .

Then formulation (5) is equivalent to solving the following f (X)

nonlinear programming problem:

0 ∆PGi ,,min

k ∆PGi ,,max

k

2

q2 Fig. 5 The membership function for the minimization of the number or size of

max ∑ ω k λ k DGs

k =1 3) Minimize the number of the deviation of voltage

(9)

s.t.

Min f 3 ( X ) = max ∆Vi i = 1,2,⋅ ⋅ ⋅, N L (12)

g i ( X ) ≤ Gi i = 1,2,L , m i

where

0 ≤ λk ≤ 1 k = 1,2 ,L , q 2

∆Vi = Vi − 1.0 , N b is the total number of the buses,

where ω k is the suitable weight factor which is assigned by the

Vi denotes the voltage on bus i , f 3 represents the

decision maker. One of the major difficulties is that the

decision maker sets the relative importance of goals correctly. maximal deviation of bus voltage.

µ (f (X))

IV. SOLUTION ALGORITHMS FOR DGS PLACEMENT

to reduce power loss costs of distribution systems and the

constraints with the number of dispersed generators and the

deviation of the bus voltage. This objective function and 0 ∆Vi ,min ∆Vi ,max f (X)

constraints are transformed into multi-objectives functions and

modeled with fuzzy sets to evaluate their imprecise nature. Fig. 6 The membership function for the minimization of the deviation of

voltage

Moreover, we try to get the compromised solution of multi-

objectives and imprecise information using goal programming

1150

The main idea of solving fuzzy nonlinear goal programming Whole arithmetical crossover

is to transform the original objective function and constraints This operator is defined as a linear combination of two

into the equivalent multi-objectives functions with fuzzy sets vectors: if X and

t

Y t are to be crossed, the resulting

to evaluate their imprecise nature and solve the problem using offspring are given by

the proposed genetic algorithm, without any transformation for

this nonlinear problem to a linear model or other methods.

X t +1 = [a ⋅ Y t + (1 − a ) ⋅ X t ]

(14)

This objective function and constraints are transformed into Y t +1 = [a ⋅ X t + (1 − a) ⋅ Y t ]

multi-objectives functions and modeled with fuzzy sets to

evaluate their imprecise nature. t and t+1 are current and next generation respectively. Xt

t t +1 t +1

and Y are parent and X and Y offspring. int[*]

B. Genetic Algorithms

returns integer number. This operator uses a simpler static

Genetic algorithm (GA) is very powerful search method

system parameter a ∈ [0..1].

based on the mechanics of natural selection and natural

genetics, and is different from conventional search algorithms Non-uniform mutation

[11]. GA searches from a population of points in the search Mutation operator is applied to each gene according to

space simultaneously. And, GA does not need derivatives or mutation probability independently. Non-uniform mutation is

other auxiliary knowledge. The Algorithm procedure and used in this paper and is shown in (15).

detailed explanation are as follows: xii + ∆( t , y ), y = xiimax − xii

' if a random digit is 0 ,

Step 1. Representation and Initialization xii =

xii − ∆( t , y ), y = xii − xii

min

Initialize N subpopulation assigned to each load level. The (15)

genes of each individual in N subpopulation are randomly

generated within the maximum and minimum limits of each if a random digit is 1,

variable. This paper presents the method that determines ∆( t , y ) = y ⋅ r ⋅ ( 1 − t / T )b

locations to be installed and sizes of DGs simultaneously. The

where the function returns a value in the range[0,y] such that

strings in GA consist of the bus number index and the size of

the probability of ∆ (t , y ) being close to 0 increases as t

DGs. In GA application, multi-population formulations consist

of each subpopulation assigned to each load level for the increases. This property causes this operator to search the

purpose of convergence improvement [12]. space uniformly initially (when t is small), and very locally at

later generations. r is a random number from [0..1], T is the

Step 2. Fitness Evaluation and Penalty Function maximal generation number, and b is a system parameter for

Evaluate the fitness after unbalanced distribution load flow determining the degree of non-uniformity.

using each gene of individual in N subpopulation. The

evaluation function for optimal capacitor placement and V. NUMERICAL RESULTS

control in unbalanced distribution systems is calculated as the It was applied to 12 buses sample systems for proving the

result of the following function. Constraints of problem efficiency of the algorithms.

formulation could be translated into penalty function.

3

Fitness func. = ∑ ω k µ k ( f k ( X )) The simulation constants are as follows:

k =1

(13) Energy cost K e : $0.06/kWh

0 ≤ λk ≤ 1 k = 1,2,3 Number of available placement of DGs: 4

Available capacity of DGs [kW]: 10, 20, 30, 40, 50

Step 3. Criterion of convergence ∆PGi ,,min

k : Min. available capacity of DGs

If it is maximum generation, stop. Otherwise, go to step 4.

∆PGi ,,max

k :50 * Number of available placement of DGs

Step 4. Manipulate Genes of Individual

∆Vi ,min : 0.03

For the purpose of generating a new and improved

population from old one, GA uses genetic operators such as ∆Vi ,max : 0.05

reproduction, whole arithmetical crossover, non-uniform

Time period [h]: 8(9:00 – 17:00)

mutation. After the manipulation of genes, go to step 2. The

Year: 10

detailed explanation of Operators used in this paper is as

follows:

A summary of system data is presented in Table I and II.

Reproduction

This system includes 12 buses and 11 branches. Figure 7

New offspring are produced by the roulette wheel

illustrates the network structure of the system.

reproduction rule. By incorporating elitism, the string with the

Three load levels and load duration time data are given in

best fitness value is always preserved in the next generation.

Table III.

1151

The proposed algorithm searches the location and size of TABLE IV SIMULATION RESULTS

DGs to be installed simultaneously. Table IV shows the Load Level Bus no. 11 Bus no. 12

locations and sizes of DGs placement. Figure 8 shows the

110% 50 50

variation of loss costs as the generation varies. In table V, the Total

comparison of loss costs between pre and post placement of capacity of 90% 0 50

DGs is shown. The loss costs for the system without any DGs DGs [kW]

70% 0 50

placement was found to be $30,298.37. After DGs placement,

the loss costs are $22,743.87. From the result, it is seen that

the saving costs are $7,554.5 during 10 years. Vmax , Vave and

TABLE V

Vmin are improved and the system losses are reduced in each COMPARISON OF VOLTAGE MAGNITUDE, LOSS AND COSTS BETWEEN PRE AND

POST DGS PLACEMENT

load level.

Comparison between pre and post installation

substation pre installation post installation

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

Load level - 110%

LINE DATA OF 12 BUSES AND 11 BRANCHES SYSTEM

Sys. Loss[kW] 25.59 16.89

Branch Sending Receiving

R (ohms) X (ohms)

no. end end

Load level - 90%

1 1 2 1.093 0.455

2 2 3 1.184 0.494 Vmax 0.9949 0.9954

3 3 4 2.095 0.873

4

5

4

5

5

6

3.188

1.093

1.329

0.455

Vave 0.9720 0.9764

6 6 7 1.002 0.417 Vmin 0.9488 0.9587

7 7 8 4.403 1.215

8 8 9 5.642 1.597 Sys. Loss[kW] 16.80 13.49

9 9 10 2.89 0.818

10 10 11 1.514 0.428 Load level - 70%

11 11 12 1.238 0.351

Vmax 0.9961 0.9964

TABLE II Vave 0.9784 0.9818

LOAD DATA OF 12 BUSES SYSTEM

Node no. of

PL (kW) QL (kVAR) Vmin 0.9606 0.9682

Receiving end

1 0 0 Sys. Loss[kW] 9.97 8.03

2 60 60

3 40 30 Total loss cost[$]

$30,298.37 $22,743.87

4 55 55 of 10 years

5 30 30

6 20 15

7 55 55

8 45 45

26 000 1.40 E+0 08

9 40 40

10 35 30 25 000 Loss C o sts

1.20 E+0 08

P enalty F unction V alue

1.00 E+0 08

12 15 15 24 000

Loss C osts [$]

8.00 E+0 07

TABLE III 23 000

LOAD LEVEL AND LOAD DURATION TIME 6.00 E+0 07

22 000

Load level (%) 110 90 70 4.00 E+0 07

Time interval (hours) 7300 14600 7300

20 000 0.00 E+0 00

0 20 40 60 80 10 0

G enerations

1152

VI. CONCLUSION VIII. BIOGRAPHIES

This paper presents a fuzzy-GA method to resolve

dispersed generator placement for distribution systems. Kyu-Ho Kim received his B.S., M.S. and Ph.D. degrees from Hanyang

University, Korea, in 1988, 1990 and 1996, respectively. He is currently an

The problem formulation proposed considers an objective Assistant Professor in the Department of Electrical Engineering at Ansan

to reduce power losses of distribution systems and the College of Technology. His research interests include power system control

constraints with the number or size of dispersed generators and and operation, optimal power flow and evolutionary computation.

the deviation of the bus voltage. This objective function and

Yu-Jeong Lee received M.S. (1992) degrees from Hanyang University where

constraints are transformed into multi-objectives functions and

he is currently Ph.D. student in Electrical Engineering. His research interests

modeled with fuzzy sets to evaluate their imprecise nature. include distributed generation system, Genetic Algorithms, power system

Moreover, we try to get the global solution of multi-objectives analysis, operation, and control.

and imprecise information using goal programming and

genetic algorithms. Sang-Bong Rhee received B.S.(1994) and M.S.(1999) degrees from Hanyang

University where he is currently Ph.D. student in Electrical Engineering. His

By using this algorithm, the dispatcher can obtain the most research interests include artificial intelligence applications, distribution

compromised or satisfied solution among multi-objectives. power system analysis, operation, and control.

Sang-Keun Lee received his B.S., M.S. and Ph.D. degrees from Hanyang

University, Korea, in 1986, 1988 and 1994, respectively. He is currently an

VII. REFERENCES Associate Professor in the Department of Electrical Engineering at Wonju

[1] R. C. Dugan and S. A. Thomas et. al, “Integrating Dispersed Storage National College. His research interests include power system control and

and Generation (DGS) with An Automated Distributed System”, IEEE operation, optimal power flow and evolutionary computation.

Trans. PAS, PP.1142-1146, 1984.

[2] D. T. Rizy and W. T. Jewell et. al, “Operation and design Seok-Ku You received his Ph.D. degree from Hanyang University, Korea. He

Considerations for electric Distribution Systems with Dispersed Storage is currently Professor of Electrical Engineering at Hanyang University. His

and Generation (DGS)”, IEEE Trans. PAS, PP.2864-2871, 1985. research interests include power system control and operation, protection

[3] Rau, N.S and Yih Heui Wan, “Optimum location of resources in relay system and power system stability.

distributed planning”, Power Systems, IEEE Trans. on, Volume: 9 Issue:

4, PP.2014 –2020, Nov. 1994

[4] Griffin, T, Tomsovic, K, Secrest, D and Law, A, “ Placement of

dispersed generations systems for reduced losses”, System Sciences,

2000. Proceedings of the 33rd Annual Hawaii International Conference

on , 2000 , PP.1446 –1454

[5] Celli, G and Pilo, F, “Optimal distributed generation allocation in MV

distribution networks”, 22nd IEEE Power Engineering Society

International Conference on, 2001, PP.81-86.

[6] Nara, K, Hayashi, Y, Ikeda, K and Ashizawa, T, “Application of tabu

search to optimal placement of distributed generators”, Power

Engineering Society Winter Meeting, 2001, IEEE, Volume: 2, PP.918 –

923

[7] J. J. Grainger and S. H. Lee, “Optimum size and location of shunt

capacitors for reduction of losses on distribution feeders”, IEEE Trans.

on Power Apparatus and Systems, Vol. PAS-100, pp.1105-1116, March,

1981

[8] M. Baran and F. Wu, “Optimal capacitor placement on radial

distribution system”, IEEE Trans. on Power Delivery, Vol. 4, No. 1,

pp.725-734, January, 1989

[9] Gen, M, Ida, K and Kim, J, “Fuzzy goal programming using genetic

algorithm, Evolutionary Computation”, 1997., IEEE International

Conference on , PP. 413 –418

[10] Hsiao, Y. T and Chien, C. Y, “Enhancement of restoration service in

distribution systems using a combination fuzzy-GA method”, Power

Systems, IEEE Transactions on , Volume: 15 Issue, PP. 1394 –1404 ,

Nov. 2000

[11] Z. Michalewicz, “Genetic algorithms + Data structures = Evolution

Programs”, Second Edition, Springer Verlag, 1992

[12] K. H. Kim, S. K. You, “Voltage Profile Improvement by Capacitor

Placement and Control in Unbalanced Distribution Systems using GA”,

Power Engineering Society Summer Meeting, 1999, IEEE, Volume: 2,

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[13] Das, Nagi, and Kothari, “Novel method for solving radial distribution

networks Generation, Transmission and Distribution”, IEE Proceedings,

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1153

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