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INDONESIAN ARCHITECTURE

GEOGRAPHICAL DATA:
- Indonesia is located between the Indian Ocean and the Pacific Ocean
- There are more than 17,000 islands in Indonesia that extend 5,150 kilometers (3,200 miles) all across,
right from the east to the west. Only around 6,000 are inhabited in reality.
- These islands are located along the equator between Asia and Australia. Due to its location, Indonesian
Islands experiences a hot and humid climate throughout the year.

Influence to Architecture
1. Building houses off the ground allows breezes to moderate the hot
tropical temperatures; it elevates the dwelling above storm water
runoff and mud; it allows houses to be built on rivers and wetland
margins; it keeps people, goods and food from dampness and
moisture; lifts living quarters above malaria-carrying mosquitos;
and reduces the risk of dry rot and termites.

2. The sharply inclined roof allows the heavy tropical rain to quickly
sheet off, and large overhanging eaves keep water out of the
house and provide shade in the heat.

3. In hot and humid low-lying coastal regions, homes can have many windows providing good
cross-ventilation, whereas in cooler mountainous interior areas, homes often have a vast roof and
few windows. Traditional buildings in Indonesia are built on stilts with oversized saddle roofs
which have been the home of the Batak and the Toraja.

CLIMATIC:
TROPICAL: The climate of Indonesia is almost entirely tropical. Temperature varies little from
season to season, and Indonesia experiences relatively little change in the length of daylight hours from one
season to the next; the difference between the longest day and the shortest day of the year is only forty-eight
minutes. This allows crops to be grown all year round.

Influence to Architecture
1. Row houses, canals and enclosed solid walls - first thought as protection against tropical diseases
coming from tropical air, years later the Dutch learnt to adapt their architectural style with local building
features (long eaves, verandahs, porticos, large windows and ventilation openings)
2. The sharply inclined roof allows the heavy tropical rain to quickly sheet off, and large
overhanging eaves keep water out of the house and provide shade in the heat. In hot and humid-low lying
coastal regions, homes can have many windows providing good cross-ventilation, whereas in cooler
mountainous interior areas, homes often have a vast roof and few windows.

RELIGION:

 The government only recognizes six official religions (Islam, Protestantism, Catholicism, Hinduism,
Buddhism and Confucianism).
 Indonesian law requires that every Indonesian citizen hold an identity card that identifies that person
with one of these six religions, although citizens may be able to leave that section blank.
 agnosticism or atheism, and blasphemy is illegals
Influence to Architecture
1. Architecture in Indonesia focuses on defining terms that relate to
their religions such as; Islam, Buddhist, early Indonesia Hindu, and
Balinese Hindu.
2. They make representations of religious sculptures, carvings, and
temples. It is important to realize that the Indonesian forms of the
above religions have been adapted to accommodate pre-existing
Indonesian beliefs and customs and that this is evident in the
religious architecture found in Indonesia today.
3. Architectural heritage influences by religious are commonly found
in Java.

ARCHITECTURAL CHARACTER
Traditional and vernacular architecture in Indonesia originates from two sources.
1. Great Hindu tradition brought to Indonesia from India via Java.
2. Indigenous architecture pre-dating the Hindu epic.

It has its own unique form because Indonesia has 33 provinces; each of Indonesian’s ethnic groups
has its own distinctive form of the traditional vernacular architecture, known as Rumah adat.
Traditional Indonesian homes are not architect designed, rather villagers build their own homes, or
community will their resources for a structure built under the direction of a master builder and/or a
carpenter.
RUMAH ADAT
- Rumah adat or Custom House is at the center of a web of customs, social relations, traditional
taboos, myths, and religions that villagers together.
- The house provides the focus for the family and its and is the point of departure for activities of
its residents.
Characteristics
- timber construction, - steep sloping roofs and heavy
- varied and elaborate roof - Built on stilts except for Java
- longhouses on stilts
It has its own unique form because Indonesia has 33 provinces;

1. Province Aceh
Acehnese traditional houses called "Rumoh Aceh".
Three main parts
-seuramoë keuë (front porch)
-seuramoëTeungoh (central foyer)
-seuramoë likot (back porch).
(additional part that is rumoh Dapu (homekitchen))

Rumah Aceh : Rumoh Aceh

2. Rumah Adat Batak (Province North Sumatra / Batak)


- Batak architecture (North Sumatra) includes the boat-shaped jabu homes of the Toba Batak people,
with dominating carved gables and dramatic oversized roof

-Karo traditional house "Siwaluh Jabu" looks great and is higher in comparison with other custom
homes. The roof is made of fibers and is usually coupled with the roofs of the smaller
triangle is called a "ayo-ayo rumah" and "tersek". With soaring roof layers Karo's house has a
distinctive shape compared with other traditional houses that have only one layer of roofing in
North Sumatra.

Construction System:
- post, beam and lintel structural system with either wooden or bamboo walls that are non-load
bearing
- rather than nails, mortis and tenon joints and wooden pegs are used
-the form of building custom homes symbolizing "standing buffalo".
-top of the roof with a buffalo head.
Batak Karo : Siwaluh Jabu

 Batak Toba: Bolon, The form of custom homes in the area Simalungun quite
attractive. Complexcustom homes in the village
of Ancient Causeway consists of several buildings that "houseBolon", Bolon hall, drying, abstinence hall ne
ed, and dimples. Read my next blog: Traditional House of North Sumatera

Batak Toba : Bolon


 Nias Island: "Omo Niha", The shape and layout of the house type and type Gomo Moro. Homewith
the type of Moro, ovoid shape diagram. While the house type Gomo, schematics nearly a square, but
contain curved lines. Nias construction of houses made of hard wood and sturdy.Poles are high, so
people can get into under the house. Forms of traditional chief's house, the roof is dominant compared
to other houses.
Nias Island House : Omo Niha
3. Province West Sumatra / Padang
The traditional house of West Sumatra, especially from ethnic Minangkabau called "Rumah
Gadang".Usually built on a plot of land belonging to the parent family in the
tribe / people are hereditary. Not far fromgadang house complexes are usually also built a mosque that
serves as a place of worship and residence ofthe adult male but not yet married.
Tower House is made rectangular and divided into two front and rear portion, generally made
of wood, and a cursory look like a house on stilts with the roof shape of a typical, stand out like a buffalo
horn, the local community and was formerly called gonjong roof is made from fibers before switching with
a tin roof.Bagonjong house is inspired by the local community of legend, which tells of the arrival of their
ancestorsby boat from the sea. Another characteristic of this traditional
house is not wearing metal spikes but the useof wooden pegs, yet powerful enough as a binder.

- The Minangkabau of West Sumatra builds the rumah gadang, distinctive for their multiple gables with
dramatically upsweeping ridge ends. Rumah gadang (Minangkabau: &big house&) or rumah bagonjong
(Minangkabau: &spired roof house&)
- traditional homes (Indonesian: &rumah adat&) of the Minangkabau. The architecture, construction,
internal and external decoration, and the functions of the house reflect the culture and values of the
Minangkabau.
- A rumah gadang serves as a residence, a hall for family meetings, and for ceremonial activities. In the
matrilineal Minangkabau society, the rumah gadang is owned by the women of the family who live there;
ownership is passed from mother to daughter.
Two basic designs (reflect two variations of Minangkabau social structure):
- The koto piliang design reflects an aristocratic and hierarchical social structure, with the house containing
anjuang (raised floors) at each end to permit elevated seating of clan leaders during ceremonial events.
- The bodi caniago design reflects a democratic social structure, with the floors being flat and on one level.

Architectural Elements of Rumah Gadang


The elements of a rumah gadang include:
- gonjong, hornlike roof structure
- singkok, triangular wall under the ends of gonjong
- pereng, shelf under the singkok
- anjuang, raised floor at the end of one style of rumah gadang
- dindiang ari, the walls on the side elevations
- dindiang tapi, the walls on the front and back elevations
- papan banyak, front façade
- papan sakapiang, a shelf or middle band on the periphery of the house
house
- salangko, wall enclosing space under a house that has been built on stilt
stilt

Some symbolisms of the house:


- relate to the gonjong reaching to god
- dindiang tapi, which is traditionally made of plaited strips of bamboo, symbolizing
symbolizing the strength and utility of the community which is formed when
individual
Minangkabau become part of the larger community instead of standing alone.
The pillars of the ideal rumah gadang are arranged in five rows which run the length of
the house. These rows divide the interior into four long spaces called lanjar.
The lanjar at the rear of the house is divided into bedrooms (ruang). According to adat,
a rumah gadang must have at least five ruang, and the ideal number is nine. The
other lanjar are used as a common area, called the labuah gajah (elephant road), for
living and ceremonial events.
A number of rice barns (rangkiang) ideally accompany a rumah gadang, with each
having a different name and function. The rangkiang sitinjau lauik, contains rice for the
family, particularly for adat ceremonies. The rangkiang sitangka lapa contains rice for
donation to poor villagers and for times of famine in the village. The rangkiang sibayau-
bayaucontains rice for the daily needs of the family.

Rumah Gadang
4. Province Riau
Traditional House : Rumah melayu selaso jatuh kembar (Rumah Lancang)

Rumah Lancang

5. Province Riau Islands


Traditional House : Rumah Selaso Jatuh Kembar (Rumah Belah Bubung)

Rumah belah bubung


6. Province Jambi
Traditional House : Rumah Panjang

Rumah Panjang

7. Province South Sumatra / Palembang


The house is a wooden stage. In terms of architecture, the wooden houses were called Rumah Limas
/pyramid house because of the shape of a pyramid roof. Inherent nature of South Sumatra with fresh water,
be it wetlands and rivers, people build houses on stilts. Sungai .Musi on the banks of the pyramid there is
still a house overlooking the river entrance.

There are two types of pyramid house in South Sumatra, the pyramid was built houses with floors of
differentheights and are parallel. Limas house whose floor level is often called a pit house. House
building pyramidusing unglen or merbau wood is waterproof. The walls are made
of wooden planks arranged upright. Forup to the house pyramid made of two wooden terraces from the
left and right. Part of the terrace house is usually surrounded by
a wooden fence called tenggalung barred. Philosophical meaning behind thewooden fence that is
to hold that girls are not out of the house.

Part of the room walls are decorated with carved floral motifs are painted with golden color. Not
infrequently,the owner uses the tin and gold carvings and antique chandeliers as an
accessory. Golden yellow color ofpaint that will be retained as distinct from Palembang. In addition
to wood carvings, decorative carvedcabinets along the walls of a confirmation of the guest room
Limas House

8. Province Lampung
Traditional House : Nuwo sesat

Nuwo Sesat
9. Province Bengkulu
Traditional House : Rumah bubungan lima (Rumah Rakyat)

Bubungan Lima House

10. Province Bangka-Belitung Islands


Rumah Adat Tradisional : Rumah rakit/Rumah Gede

Physical form and function of the physical form of traditional house traditional
house Belitong very simple, is home Panggong; houses supported by wooden poles the best choice. All
the building materials made of wood up to the roof, called the shingles

divided into three parts


-patio room,
-living room or main,buffer space
-belakang.Ruang terrace; like a living room so the things that not so important can be
discussed here, even when the royal officials to watch the show on the Rumah Gede willalways
be sitting here.
Rumah Rakit

11. Province DKI Jakarta


Traditional House : Rumah kebaya

Kebaya House
12. Province West Java / Sunda
Traditional House : Kesepuhan

Kesepuhan House

13. Province Banten


Traditional House : Kasepuhan

Kasepuhan House
14. Province Central Java
Traditional House : Rumah joglo
The architecture of Central Java is characterised by the juxtaposition of the old and the new and a
wide variety of architectural styles, the legacy of many successive influences by the Indians, the Persians
and the Arabs, the Chinese, and the Europeans. In particular, northern coastal cities such as Semarang, Tegal
and Pekalongan can boast fine colonial European architecture.
Famous for its religious heritage, Central Java has some notable religious buildings. The Borobudur
and the Prambanan temple complexes are among the largest Buddhist and Hindu structures in the world. In
general, a characteristic Javanese mosque doesn't have a dome as its roof but a Meru-like roof instead, which
is reminiscent of a Hindu or Buddhist temple. The tower of the famous Mosque of Kudus resembles a
Hindu-Javanese or Balinese temple more than a traditional Middle-Eastern mosque.

Kudus House
15. Province DI Yogyakarta
Traditional House : Rumah Bangsal Kencono

Bangsal Kencono House

16. Province East Java / Surabaya


Traditional House : Rumah joglo

Joglo House
17. Province Bali
-Bali house in accordance with the rules of Asta Kosala Kosali (the Vedas are the layout
of rooms andbuildings, like Feng Shui in Cultural China)

-always filled with ornaments, carvings, tools, and the color. Decorative contain a certain sense of beauty as an expression
of symbols andcommunication delivery. Decorative forms of fauna species also serve as ritual symbols are displayed in the
sculpture.

Bali House

18. Province Nusa Tenggara Barat / Lombok


Traditional House : Dalam loka samawa

Dalam loka samawa


19. Provinsi Nusa Tenggara Timur / Kupang
Traditional House : Sao ata mosa lakitana (Musalaki)

Musalaki House

20. Provinsi West Kalimantan / Pontianak


Traditional House : Rumah panjang

Panjang House
21. Provinsi Central Kalimantan / Palangka Raya
Traditional House : Rumah bentang

Bentang House

22. Provinsi South Kalimantan / Banjarmasin


Traditional House : Rumah Banjar Bubungan Tinggi
23. Provinsi East Kalimantan /Tenggarong
Traditional House : Rumah lamin

24. Provinsi North Sulawesi /Menado


Traditional House : Rumah Pewaris
25. Provinsi Gorontalo
Traditional House : Rumah Dolohupa

26. Provinsi Central Sulawesi /Palu


Traditional House : Souraja / Rumah besar
27. Provinsi Southeast Sulawesi /Kendari
Traditional House : Laikas

28. Province South Sulawesi /Ujung Pandang


Traditional House : Tongkonan
The word 'Tongkonan' is derived from the Toraja word tongkon (‘to sit’). Tongkonan are the center of Torajan
social life. The rituals associated with the tongkonan are important expressions of Torajan spiritual life, and therefore all
family members are impelled to participate, because symbolically the tongkonanrepresents links to their ancestors and to
living and future kin.
29. Province West Sulawesi / Mamuju
Traditional House : banua layuk

30. Province Maluku / Ambon


Traditional House : Baileo
31. Province North Maluku
Traditional House : Sasadu

32. Province Irian Jaya / Papua


Traditional House : Rumah Honai
33. Province West Papua / Manokwari
West Papua has more than 300 indigenous tribes, as a group and live a nomadic life, or to move
where. The traditional house has only one form of "Honai House", though different tribes, languages and
lifestyles. Honai house built by wood and straw, that materials building are readily available in natural
surroundings.
One Honai house, consisting of several families or single heads of households with multiple wifes
and children. Home honai has circular form with a half of coconut-shaped roof. Also open space interior
with 2 level, which on top level used as a bed.
Honai house has one door and small, it usually without windows and ventilation to safe from beast
and keep the room temperature still warm. Center of the room there is a furnace that is used for cooking and
for room heating. As well as a gathering place for families.