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1. The phrase “Ten plus Two plus Three” dominated educational discussions, formal as well
as informal, for quite some time during the decade 1966-1976.

2. It referred to as a major educational reform after independence.

3. The structure of education in India is spread over a period of about 20 years divided into
stages in a hierarchical order, and with increased degree of selectivity, as we move up the
ladder from primary to the university.

4. The first 15 years of education are represented as 10+2+3 indicating

 10 years of general education for all who attend school

 two years of diversified education preparing the students either for college education or
for job market
 three years of college education leading to the award of the first degree

5. These stages indicate three terminal points giving the students opportunities at each point
to decide the next course of action and make proper educational choice depending on
their interests, abilities and aptitudes.


The new structure of education, which was recommended by various committees and
commissions, had certain characteristic features, which made it advantageous over the earlier
patterns, and hence, made it acceptable to all in the long run. The salient features of the new
pattern are listed below:

1. It lengthened the total duration of education up to first degree level by one year, which
improved the standards of both school and college education by giving an opportunity to
improve curricula.

2. Before the introduction of 10+2+3, a student entered college education at the age of 15
or 16 years. This was an inappropriate time for a child to be forced to follow the teaching
methods practised in college education. In all the advanced countries, the age of entering
the college is 18 years. The new pattern solved his problem by shifting one year to school
education from college education.

3. The university education is characterized by increasing amount of self-study, which can

be effectively done after attaining adequate level of maturity in terms of age. The twelve
years of schooling would prepare the young children better for university education. This
would improve not only the level of achievement of the individual students, but also the
general standard of university education.

4. The new pattern has envisaged the vocationalization of secondary education so as to
make it terminal for a large majority of students, who would enter the word of work
instead of lining up at the college gate for admission for want of any other alternative.
This would reduce pressure of enrollment on the university system.

5. The 10+2+3 pattern proposed general education to be imparted during the first 10 years
of schooling without any diversification to ensure that every child learns all subjects up to
a minimum essential level. It enabled science and mathematics to be introduced as
compulsory subjects up to class ten. This would provide every child with a solid
foundation for further studies.

6. It proposed to introduce work experience at secondary level, partly to prepare the

students for vocational stream at +2 stage, but mainly to develop in them a respect and
favourable attitude to manual work.

7. The 10+2+3 was not simply a mathematical expression to represent structure and
duration of education, rather, it implied a comprehensive improvement in curricula at all
stages so as to enhance overall quality of education.

8. The +2 stage was supposed to be divided into two streams —an academic and a
vocational, the former to prepare the students for higher studies in the university, and the
latter to prepare the students for identified vocations.

9. A student’s decision to choose the stream of study, and consequently, his future carrier
after class X was tentative, because there was a provision to switch over from one stream
to another at the appropriate time.

10. Education at senior secondary stage would be cheaper when given as a part of school
education than when given as a part of college education, thus making education at this
stage cost-effective. This would benefit both, the students and the government.

11. The addition of one year would enable the universities to improve undergraduate
curricula in order to raise academic standards so as to make the quality of education
comparable to international standards.