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force on the nonlinear pull-in instability and

Vibrations of FGM microswitches under elec-

trostatic Actuation

R. Gholami, R. Ansari, H. Rouhi

www.elsevier.com/locate/nlm

PII: S0020-7462(15)00145-6

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijnonlinmec.2015.08.007

Reference: NLM2532

Revised date: 16 May 2015

Accepted date: 11 August 2015

Cite this article as: R. Gholami, R. Ansari, H. Rouhi, Studying the Effects of

small scale and Casimir force on the nonlinear pull-in instability and

Vibrations of FGM microswitches under electrostatic Actuation, International

Journal of Non-Linear Mechanics, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijnonlinmec.2015.08.007

This is a PDF file of an unedited manuscript that has been accepted for

publication. As a service to our customers we are providing this early version of

the manuscript. The manuscript will undergo copyediting, typesetting, and

review of the resulting galley proof before it is published in its final citable form.

Please note that during the production process errors may be discovered which

could affect the content, and all legal disclaimers that apply to the journal

pertain.

Studying the Effects of Small Scale and Casimir Force on the Nonlinear Pull-In Instability

and Vibrations of FGM Microswitches under Electrostatic Actuation

a

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Lahijan Branch, Islamic Azad University, P.O. Box 1616, Lahijan, Iran

b

Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Guilan, Rasht, Iran, P.O. Box 41635-3756

Abstract

The size-dependent nonlinear pull-in instability and free vibration of electrostatically actuated

microswitches with the consideration of Casimir force effect are studied using a numerical

solution approach. To this end, a non-classical nonlinear beam model is developed based on

Mindlin’s strain gradient elasticity and the Timoshenko beam theory. The geometric nonlinearity

is taken into account according to the von Kármán hypothesis. Also, the microswitches are

assumed to be made of functionally graded materials (FGMs). To obtain the size-dependent

governing equations and boundary conditions, the virtual work principle is applied. The

presented equations can be simply reduced to those on the basis of modified versions of strain

gradient and couple stress theories (MSGT and MCST) as well as the classical elasticity theory.

For solving the problem, the generalized differential quadrature (GDQ) method and the pseudo

arc-length continuation technique are employed. In the numerical results, the influences of

different parameters such as length scale parameter, Casimir force, material gradient index and

geometrical properties on the pull-in instability and free vibration of actuated microswitches are

examined.

gradient theory; Timoshenko beam theory; Casimir force; Functionally graded material

1. Introduction

Electrostatically actuated micro-systems such as micro-switches are widely used in different

applications. Microswitches can be used in energy conversion mechanisms, automotive

*

Corresponding author. Tel. /fax: +98 1412222906.

1

applications, information processing, gyroscopes, toys, accessories, microsensors such as

accelerometers, etc. [1-5]. The pull-in instability is one of the important phenomena related to

such systems. The pull-in instability happens when the input voltage exceeds a critical value,

called pull-in voltage, and as a result the microstructure suddenly collapses. This phenomenon

was first observed by Nathanson et al. [6] and Taylor [7] experimentally.

In recent years, the mathematical modeling of pull-in instability of electrostatically actuated

microstructures has attracted a lot of attention from the research community. There are a number

of works on this topic in the literature based on the classical elasticity theory (e.g. [8-18]).

Several experimental studies have shown that the mechanical behavior of microstructures is size-

dependent [19-23]. Hence, for better understanding the mechanical responses of structures at

microscale, size-dependent elasticity theories such as the strain gradient theory (SGT), the couple

stress theory (CST) and the nonlocal theory (NT) should be used. In CST [24, 25], two material

length scale parameters (in addition to two classical material constants) are employed for

capturing the size effects. Also, in SGT [26, 27], the first and second derivatives of strain tensor

effective on the strain energy density are taken into account. As compared to CST, SGT includes

some higher-order stresses as well as classical and couple stresses. Moreover, in the modified

versions of CST and SGT (MCST & MSGT) [28, 29], one and three length scale parameters are

respectively used to consider the size effects. Also, the theory of nonlocal continuum mechanics

initiated by Eringen [30, 31] has been widely accepted in analyzing small-scale structures for

which the influence of small length scales can no longer be neglected. The application of

aforementioned higher-order theories to the pull-in problem of microstructures has been reported

by many researchers. The reader is referred to [32-42], [43-49] and [50-52] for SGT-, CST- and

NT-based papers, respectively.

Using the strain gradient theory, Wang et al. [33] studied the pull-in phenomenon in

electrostatically actuated microbeam-based micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS).

Rahaeifard and Ahmadian [36] analyzed the pull-in instability of electrostatically actuated

micro-cantilevers using SGT. Moreover, Seyyed Fakhrabadi et al. [37] provided an analytical

solution to investigate the nonlinear behaviors of electrostatically actuated carbon nanotubes

(CNTs) based on strain gradient theory. Sedighi and his associates [38] studied the static and

dynamic pull-in instabilities of cantilever nanoactuators using SGT. They revealed the

considerable effect of small scale on the pull-in behavior of nanoactuators with very small sizes.

2

Sedighi [39] also investigated the size-dependent dynamic pull-in instability of vibrating

electrically actuated microbeams using SGT. The dynamic behavior of micro- and nanobeams

subjected to electrostatic actuation was studied by Maani Miandoab et al. [40] within the

framework of SGT. They also evaluated Young's modulus and length scale parameters of poly

silicon nanobeams through fitting the static pull-in voltages predicted based on SGT to the

experimental data [41]. On the basis of MSGT, Tadi Beni [42] studied the pull-in instability of

electrostatically actuated nano-bridges and nano-cantilevers.

Based on MCST, Rahaeifard et al. [44] investigated the static pull-in instability of

microcantilevers. Rokni et al. [48] developed analytical solutions for size-dependent static pull-

in instability of electrostatic micro-actuators. Based upon MCST, Askari and Tahani [49] studied

the dynamic pull-in of micro-electro-mechanical beam subjected to shock acceleration pulse.

In the context of nonlocal elasticity theory, Mousavi et al. [50] studied the pull-in instability

of nano-switches under electrostatic and intermolecular forces. Seyyed Fakhrabadi et al. [51]

investigated the nonlocal pull-in instability of electrostatically actuated CNTs. Moreover, size-

dependent nonlinear static and dynamic responses of capacitive nanoactuators subjected to a DC

voltage were analyzed using NT by Najar et al. [52].

Recently, the effects of Casimir force and functionally graded material properties on the

instability and vibrational behaviors of microbeams have been considered in some research

works. For example, Jia et al. [53] considered the Casimir force effect on the forced vibration of

electrically actuated micro-switches near resonance region. Based on MCST, Abbasnejad et al.

[54] investigated the pull-in instability of electrostatically actuated microbeams made of FGMs.

Sedighi and his co-workers [55] took the influences of Casimir and van der Waals attractions

into account for the analysis of dynamic pull-in instability of vibrating nano-actuators. The

Casimir force effect was also considered in the analysis of electrostatically actuated

nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS) [56]. Furthermore, Sedighi et al. [57] studied the

dynamic instability of FGM nano-bridges with considering Casimir attraction and electric filed

actuation.

It should be mentioned that Witvrouw and Mehta [58] proposed a new non-homogeneous

functionally graded polycrystalline-SiGe (poly-SiGe) layer in MEMS so as to obtain the desired

electrical and mechanical properties. Moreover, Gromova et al. [59] presented an experimental

investigation on the characterization and strain gradient optimization of PECVD poly-SiGe

3

layers for MEMS applications. Hasanyan et al. [60] analyzed the pull-in instability of

functionally graded MEMS as a result of heat generated by an electric current.

In the present article, within the framework of most general form of strain gradient theory

(Mindlin’s SGT [26]) that encompasses MSGT and MCST, the nonlinear pull-in instability and

vibrational behavior of functionally graded Timoshenko microswitches subjected to the

electrostatic actuation are investigated with considering the effect of Casimir force. The virtual

work principle is utilized to derive the size-dependent governing equations and boundary

conditions which are then discretized based upon the generalized differential quadrature (GDQ)

method. The resulting nonlinear algebraic parameterized equations are finally solved by means

of the pseudo arc-length continuation algorithm.

According to Mindlin’s strain gradient theory [26], the stored strain energy Π s in a continuum

made of linear elastic materials occupying region ∀ with negligible deflection is given by

1

2 ∫∀

Πs = ( σ : ε + τ M ξ ) dV (1)

where σ , τ , ε and ξ denote stress, double stress tensors, strain and third-order strain gradient

tensors, respectively. The strain tensors are expressed as

1

ε = ∇u + ( ∇u ) + ( ∇u )( ∇u ) ,

T T

(2a)

2

1

ξ = ∇ε = ∇ ∇u + ( ∇u ) + ( ∇u )( ∇u ) .

T T

(2b)

2

in which ui denotes the components of the displacement vector u . The stresses are also defined

as [26]

(3a

σ ij = σ ji = λε kk δ ij + 2 µε ij

)

(3b

1

τ ijk = τ ikj = a1 (ξ kppδ ij + 2ξ ppiδ jk + ξ jppδ ik ) + 2a2ξippδ jk + a3 (ξ ppk δ ij + ξ ppjδ ik ) + 2a4ξijk + a5 (ξ jki + ξ kji

2 )

where δ ij is the Kronecker delta. The physical description of τ ijk can be found in [26].

4

Also, λ and µ are Lamé’s parameters defined as

Eν E

λ= , µ= . (4)

(1 + ν) (1 − 2 ν) 2 (1 + ν)

As shown in Fig. 1, an FGM microbeam made from a mixture of ceramic and metal with the

length L and thickness h subjected to the transverse force q is considered. A coordinate system

( x, y , z ) is selected on the central axis of the beam, where x , y and z axes are taken along the

length, width and height directions of beam, respectively. It is assumed that the microbeam at

bottom surface ( z = − h / 2) and top surface ( z = h / 2) is ceramic-rich and metal-rich,

respectively. The volume fractions of ceramic (denoted by subscript c ) and metal (denoted by

subscript m ) phases are defined by the following power-law functions

k k

1 z 1 z (5)

Vc ( z ) = + , Vm ( z ) = 1 − +

2 h 2 h

where k stands for the material gradient index. Effective Young’s modulus (E) and Poisson’s

ratio (ν) can be written as

Based on the Timoshenko beam theory, the displacements of an arbitrary point in the

microswitch along x, y and z axes are introduced as

u1 = U ( x ) − zΨ ( x ) , u2 = 0, u3 = W ( x ) (7)

in which U ( x ) , W ( x ) and Ψ ( x ) are the axial displacement of center of cross sections,

lateral deflection, and rotation angle of the cross section with respect to the vertical direction,

respectively. For a Timoshenko microbeam under tiny slopes after deflection and possible finite

transverse deflection, the nonlinear strain-displacement relations can be approximated by the von

Kármán hypothesis as follows

2 2

∂u1 1 ∂W ∂U ∂Ψ 1 ∂W 1 ∂W

ε xx = + = −z + , ε xz = −Ψ (8)

∂x 2 ∂x ∂x ∂x 2 ∂x 2 ∂x

By substituting Eqs. (7) and (8) into Eq. (2b) one can arrive at the following nonzero constituents

of ξ

∂ 2U ∂W ∂ 2W ∂ 2Ψ 1 ∂ 2W ∂Ψ ∂Ψ (9)

ξ xxx = 2

+ 2

− z 2

, ξ xxz = ξ xzx = 2 − , ξ zxx = − .

∂x ∂x ∂x ∂x 2 ∂x ∂x ∂x

The main components of symmetric section of the stress tensor are expressed by means of the

kinematic parameters as

5

∂U 1 ∂W 2 ∂Ψ ∂W

σ xx = ( λ + 2 µ ) + −z , σ xz = µ − Ψ . (10)

∂x 2 ∂x ∂x ∂x

Inserting Eq. (9) into (3b) leads to the following nonzero constituents of the higher-order

stresses

∂ 2U ∂W ∂ 2W ∂2Ψ

τ xxx = 2 ( a1 + a2 + a3 + a4 + a5 ) 2

+ − z ,

∂x ∂x ∂x 2 ∂x 2

1 ∂ 2W 1 ∂Ψ (11)

( a3 + 2a4 + a5 ) 2 − ( a1 + a3 + 2a4 + 3a5 ) ,

τ xxz = τ xzx =

2 ∂x 2 ∂x

2

1 ∂W 1 ∂Ψ

τ zxx = ( a1 + 2a5 ) 2 − ( a1 + 4a2 + 4a4 + 2a5 ) .

2 ∂x 2 ∂x

Symbols Π C and Π NC are used to denote the strain energies corresponding to the classical and

strain gradient theories, respectively. By introducing Eqs. (8-11) into (1), the strain energy due to

the variations of classical and higher-order stresses with respect to the initial configuration can

be obtained as

1 ∂U 1 ∂W 2

L

1 ∂Ψ ∂W

Π C = ∫σ : ε dV = ∫ N xx + − M xx + Qx − Ψ dx , (12a)

2V 2 0 ∂x 2 ∂x ∂x ∂x

1

2 V∫

N NC = τ M ξdV

(12b)

∂ U ∂W ∂ W ∂ 2W ∂Ψ ∂Ψ

L 2 2

∂2Ψ

= ∫ Txxx 2 + 2

− M xxx 2

+ Txxz 2

− − Tzxx dx

0 ∂x ∂x ∂x ∂x ∂x ∂x ∂x

where the normal resultant force N xx , shear force Q x , bending moment M xx , and other higher-

order resultant forces and higher-order moments ( Txxx , M xxx , Txxz , Tzxx ), in relation with higher-

order stresses acting on a section are given as

A

(13)

{M xx , M xxx } = ∫ {σ xx , τ xxx } zdA

A

6

L

Π w = ∫qWdx (14)

0

where the external transverse force can be the electrostatic force acting on the deformable

microswitch and Casimir forces. With neglecting the fringing field correction, the electrostatic

force acting on the deformable microswitch is approximated by the parallel capacitor formula as

[33]

ε0V2

Fe ( x ) = 2

, (15)

2 (G − W )

in which ε 0 is the permittivity in vacuum and V is the applied voltage. Moreover, the Casimir

force is calculated by the following relation [61]

π 2 C

Fc ( x ) = 4

, (16)

240 ( G − W )

where = 1.055 × 10−34 Js is Planck’s constant divided by 2π ; and C = 3 × 108 ms −1 is the speed

of light.

1

L

∂U ∂Ψ ∂W

2 2

ΠT = ∫ ∫ ρ −z + dAdx

2 0 A ∂t ∂t ∂t

(17)

1 ∂U ∂W

L 2 2 2

∂U ∂Ψ ∂Ψ

= ∫ I0 − 2 I1 + I2 + I0 dx

2 0 ∂t ∂t ∂t ∂t ∂t

where ρ and A are the mass density and cross-sectional area of microswitch, respectively. The

inertia terms appeared in Eq. (17) are defined by

h2

{ I 0 , I1 , I 2 } = ∫ ρ ( z ) { 1, z, z 2 } dz.

−h 2 (18)

By using the virtual work principle, taking the variations of U , W and Ψ , integrating by parts

and setting the coefficients of δ U , δ W and δΨ equal to zero; the governing equations and

associated boundary conditions are derived as

∂N xx ∂ 2 Txxx ∂ 2U ∂2Ψ

− = I 0 2 − I1 2 , (19a)

∂x ∂x 2 ∂t ∂t

7

∂ ∂Txxx ∂W ∂Q x ∂ 2Txxz ∂ 2W

N

xx − + − + q = I ,

∂x ∂x ∂x ∂x (19b)

0

∂x 2 ∂t 2

Qx − + = I 2 2 − I1 2 . (19c)

∂x ∂x 2 ∂t ∂t

∂Txxx

N xx − =0 or δU x = 0, L = 0, (19d)

∂x x = 0,L

∂Txxx dW ∂Txxz

N xx − ∂x dx + Q x + ∂x = 0 or δW x = 0,L = 0, (19e)

x = 0,L

∂M xxx

M xx + Txxz + Tzxx − =0 or δΨ x = 0,L = 0, (19f)

∂x x = 0,L

∂U

Txxx x = 0,L

= 0 or δ x = 0,L = 0, (19g)

∂x

∂W ∂W

Txxx + Txxz = 0 or δ x = 0, L = 0, (19h)

∂x x = 0,L ∂x

∂Ψ

M xxx x = 0,L

=0 or δ x = 0, L = 0. (19i)

∂x

By defining the following parameters

h /2 h /2

1

{ A11 , B11 , D11} = ∫ ( λ + 2µ ) {1, z, z 2 } dz, A22 = − ∫ ( a1 + a3 + 2a4 + 3a5 ) dz,

− h /2

2 − h /2

h /2

− h /2

h /2 h /2

1

A44 = ∫

2 − h /2

( a5 + 2a4 + a3 ) dz,{ A55 , B55 , D55 } = ∫ µ 1, z, z 2 dz, { }

− h /2

8

h /2

1

2 − h∫/2

A66 = ( 2a1 + 5a5 + a3 + 6a4 + 4a2 ) dz.

x L (U ,W ) G t A110

ζ = , η = , ( u, w ) = ,ψ = Ψ , g 0 = ,τ = , (21a)

L h h h L I 00

( a11 , a55 , b11 , b55 ,, d11 , d55 ) = , , , , 2

, 2

,

A110 A110 A110 h A110 h A110 h A110 h

A22 A A A B D

( a22 , a44 , a66 ) = 2

, 44 2 , 66 2 , ( a33 , b33 , d33 ) = 33 2 , 33 3 , 33 4 , (21b)

A110 h A110 h A110 h A110 h A110 h A110 h

I0 I1 I2 qL2 2 ε 0 V 2 L2 4 π 2 CL2

0 1 2

I , I , I = , , 2

, q0 = , α = ,β =

I 00 I 00 h I 00 h hA110 h 3 A110 240h5 A110

in which A110 and I 00 are the values of A11 and I 0 for a homogeneous microswitch made of

metal. Using the dimensionless parameters, the dimensionless governing equations together with

the dimensionless boundary conditions can be written as

(2

∂ u 1 ∂w ∂ w

2

∂ ψ a33 ∂ u 1 ∂w ∂ w 3 ∂ w ∂ w b33 ∂ ψ

2 2 4 4

∂u 2 3

∂ 2ψ

2a

4 ¯ 2 ¯

a11 2 + − b − + + + = I 0 − I 1

∂ζ η ∂ζ ∂ζ 2 11 ∂ζ 2 η 2 ∂ζ 4 η ∂ζ ∂ζ 4 η ∂x 2 ∂x3 η 2 ∂ζ 4 ∂τ 2 ∂τ 2

)

(2

a44 ∂ 4 w a22 ∂ 3ψ a11 ∂u ∂ 2 w ∂ 2u ∂w 3 ∂ 2 w ∂w

2

∂2w ∂ψ

k s a55 2 − η − 2 − + + +

∂ζ ∂ζ η ∂ζ

4

η ∂ζ 3 η ∂ζ ∂ζ 2 ∂ζ 2 ∂ζ 2η ∂ζ 2 ∂ζ 2b

)

− + − + + + − 4

η ∂ζ ∂ζ 2 ∂ζ ∂ζ 2 η 3 ∂ζ 4 ∂ζ ∂ζ 3 ∂ζ 2 η 3 ∂ζ ∂ζ 4 ∂ζ 2 ∂ζ 3 η 4 ∂ζ

(2

∂w ∂ u 1 ∂w ∂ w

2 2

∂ ψ d33 ∂ ψ a22 ∂ w 2

∂ ψ b33 ∂ u 2c1 ∂w ∂ 4 w 3 ∂

4 3 2 4

k s a55η − ηψ − b11 2 + + d − + + a + + +

∂ζ ∂ζ η ∂ζ ∂ζ 2 11 ∂ζ 2 η 2 ∂ζ 4 η ∂ζ 3 66 ∂ζ 2 η 2 ∂ζ 4 ) η ∂ζ ∂ζ 4 η ∂

(2

2d

9

∂u 1 ∂w 2 )

∂ψ a33 ∂ 3u 1 ∂w ∂ 3 w 1 ∂ 2 w b33 ∂ 3ψ

2

+ 2 + 2 =0

∂ζ 2η ∂ζ

∂ζ η

∂ζ η ∂ζ ∂ζ η ∂ζ η ∂ζ 3

∂u ∂ 2u 1 ∂w ∂ 2 w ∂ 2ψ (2

δ ζ = 0, L = 0 or 33 2

a + − b = 0,

∂ζ ∂ζ η ∂ζ ∂ζ 2 33 ∂ζ 2 2e

ζ = 0,1

)

(2

a11 ∂u ∂w 1 ∂w b11 ∂ψ ∂w a44 ∂ 3 w

3

∂w

δ w ζ = 0,1 = 0 or ks a55 − ηψ + + − + 2 3 2f)

∂ζ η ∂ζ ∂ζ 2η ∂ζ η ∂ζ ∂ζ η ∂ζ

a ∂ 2ψ a33 ∂ 3u ∂w 1 ∂w 2 ∂ 3 w 1 ∂w ∂ 2 w 2 b ∂ 3ψ ∂w

+ 22 − 3 + + 2 + 3

33

= 0,

η ∂ζ 2 η 3 ∂ζ ∂ζ η ∂ζ ∂ζ

3

η ∂ζ ∂ζ η ∂ζ 3 ∂ζ

ζ = 0,1

(2

∂w ∂2w ∂ψ a33 ∂ 2u 1 ∂w ∂ 2 w ∂w b33 ∂ 2ψ ∂w 2g

δ = 0 or 44

a 2

+ a22η + 2+ 2

− 2 = 0,

∂ζ ζ = 0,1 ∂ζ ∂ζ η ∂ζ η ∂ζ ∂ζ ∂ζ η ∂ζ ∂ζ

ζ = 0,1 )

∂ψ b33 ∂ 3u 1 ∂w ∂ 3 w 1 ∂ 2 w

∂u 1 ∂w 2 2 (2

δψ ζ =0,1 = 0 or b11 + − d11 − + +

∂ζ η 2 ∂ζ 3 η ∂ζ ∂ζ 3 η ∂ζ 2 2h

∂ζ 2η ∂ζ

)

d33 ∂ 3ψ a22 ∂ 2 w ∂ψ

+ 2 3

− 2

− a66 =0

η ∂ζ η ∂ζ ∂ζ ζ = 0,1

∂ψ ∂ 2 u 1 ∂w ∂ 2 w ∂ 2ψ (2

δ = 0 or b33 2

+ −

33d = 0.

∂ζ ζ = 0,1 ∂ζ η ∂ζ ∂ζ 2 ∂ζ 2 ζ = 0,1

2i)

∂ 2u 1 ∂w ∂ 2 w ∂ 2ψ

u = a33 2 + −b = 0,

∂ζ η ∂ζ ∂ζ 2 33 ∂ζ 2

w = a44 + a22η + + − = 0,

∂ζ 2 ∂ζ η ∂ζ 2 η ∂ζ ∂ζ 2 ∂ζ η ∂ζ 2 ∂ζ

10

∂u 1 ∂w 2 ∂ψ b33 ∂ 3u 1 ∂w ∂ 3 w 1 ∂ 2 w d33 ∂ 3ψ a22 ∂ 2 w

2

∂ψ ∂ 2u 1

b11 + − d11 − + + + − − a66 = b33 +

∂ζ 2η ∂ζ ∂ζ η 2 ∂ζ 3 η ∂ζ ∂ζ 3 η ∂ζ 2 η 2 ∂ζ 3 η ∂ζ 2 ∂ζ ∂ζ 2 η

∂u ∂u ∂ψ

u= =w= =ψ = = 0. (24)

∂ζ ∂ζ ∂ζ

4 1 1 4 1

a1 = µ l22 − l12 , a2 = µ l02 − l12 − l22 , a3 = − µ l12 + l22 ,

15 15 2 15 2

(25)

1 2

a4 = µ l12 + l22 , a5 = µ l12 − l22 .

3 3

the obtained equations so far can be reduced to those based on MSGT [29]. In Eq. (25), l0 , l1 and

l2 show independent material length scale parameters, which are associated with the dilatation

gradients, deviatoric stretch gradients and symmetric rotation gradients, respectively. In addition,

when l0 = l1 = 0 , the model of MCST is retrieved [28]. The relations of classical elasticity theory

(CT) are also recovered when all material length scale parameters become equal to zero.

4. Solution

The GDQ method [62] is used to discretize the governing equations and boundary conditions.

The shifted Chebyshev–Gauss–Lobatto grid points are employed to generate grid points in ξ i

direction

1 i −1 (26)

ξi = 1 − cos π , i = 1, 2, … , N

2 N −1

T T

U = {U1 , U 2 , … , U N } , W = {W1 , W2 , … , WN } , Ψ = {Ψ1 , Ψ 2 , … , Ψ N } ,

T (27)

Now, one can write the discretized form of governing equations Eqs. (22a-22c) as

Ä (28)

M X+ KX + N ( X ) + Q ( W, α , β ) = 0

in which X , K and N ( X) are field variables vector, stiffness matrix, geometric stiffness matrix,

mass matrix and nonlinear part vector, respectively, which are given as

11

0 (29a)

U Nu ( X )

α2 β4

X = W , Q ( W, α , β ) = 2

+ 4

, N ( X ) = N w ( X ) ,

Ψ 2 ( g 0 − W ) 240 ( g 0 − W ) N ( X)

ψ

0

¹ ( 0) ¹

0 (29b)

− I 1 Dξ 0 I 2 Dξ( )

¹

− I 1 Dξ( )

0

M= 0 0

¹ ( 0)

¹

− I 3 Dξ( )

0

I 2 Dξ 0

a11Dξ − 2 Dξ 0 − b11D(2)

ξ + Dξ

η η2

a 44 (4) a 22 (3)

K= 0 k s a 55 D(2)

ξ − Dξ − k s a 55 ηD(1)

ξ − Dξ

η2 η

(2) b33 (4) a 22 (3) d

− b11Dξ + 2 Dξ k s a 55 ηD(1)

ξ + Dξ − k s a 55 η2 D(0) (2)

ξ + (a 66 + d11 ) Dξ −

33

2

D(4)

ξ

η η η

(29c)

1 (1) a 1 3

N u (X) = a11

η

( 2

)(

η η

1

) 4

η

2

(

Dξ W o Dξ( ) W − 332 Dξ( ) W o Dξ( ) W + Dξ( ) W o Dξ( ) W

3

)( ) ( )( )

a11 (1) 3

Nw ( X ) =

η

( ( 2)

)(

( 2) ( 3)

Dξ U o Dξ W + Dξ U o Dξ W +

2η

) ( )(

Dξ( ) W o Dξ( ) W o Dξ( ) W

2 1 1

) ( )( )( )

−

b11

η

(( D Ψ ) o ( D W ) + ( D W ) o ( D Ψ )) − aη (( D U ) o ( D W ) + ( D U ) o ( D W ))

(1)

ξ

( 2)

ξ

(1)

ξ

( 2)

ξ

33

3

( 4)

ξ

(1)

ξ

( 3)

ξ

( 2)

ξ

a 33 b

−

η 4 (( )( )( ) ( )( )(

4 Dξ(1) W o Dξ( 2) W o Dξ( 3) W + Dξ( 4) W o Dξ(1) W o Dξ(1) W + Dξ( 2) W o Dξ( 2) W o Dξ( 2) W + 333

η

) ( )( )( )) Dξ1 W

1 (1) b 1 3

N ψ (X) = − b11

η

( 2

)(

η η

1

)4

η

2

(

Dξ W o Dξ( ) W + 332 Dξ( ) W o Dξ( ) W + Dξ( ) W o Dξ( ) W

3

)( ) ( )( )

(29d)

where o signals the Hadamard product. Furthermore, the weighting coefficients of the first

derivative and higher-order derivatives are calculated by

12

Ix , r = 0

P (ξ i )

, , i ≠ j and i, j = 1, …, N and r = 1

( ξi − ξ j ) P (ξ j )

D(ξr ) = Wij(r) = (1) ( r −1) Wij( r −1)

ij (30)

r Wij Wii − ξ − ξ , i ≠ j and i, j = 1, …, N and r = 2,3, … N − 1

i j

N

− ∑ Wij(r) , i = j and i, j = 1, …, N and r = 1, 2,3, … N − 1

j=1; j≠ i

N

where I x is a N × N identity matrix and P ( x i ) = ∏ (ξ

j=1; j≠ i

i − ξj) .

A similar procedure can be used to discretize the boundary conditions. For instance, the

discretized form of clamped boundary condition becomes

U = W = Ψ = D(1) (1) (1)

ξ U = Dξ W = Dξ Ψ = 0 at ξ = 0,1 (31)

By inserting the boundary conditions for boundary grid points in the discretized form of

domain equations, a set of nonlinear equations will be achieved as follows

F ( W, U, V, α , β ) = 0 ; F : R3 N + R 2 → R3N (32)

In order to solve this set of parameterized nonlinear equations, one parameter such as β is fixed

and another one such as α is considered as an active parameter; afterwards, the set of

F : R 3N +1 → R 3N can be solved using the pseudo arc-length method [63] which enables us to

follow the unstable solution branches as well as the stable ones.

In this section, selected numerical results are presented on the size-dependent pull-in instability

and free vibration of microswitches under simply supported-simply supported (SS-SS), simply

supported-clamped (SS-C) and clamped-clamped (C-C) boundary conditions.

First, in order to check the validity and accuracy of the present analysis, the linear and nonlinear

pull-in voltages of a clamped-clamped silicon microbeam obtained from the present analysis are

compared with those of the numerical solutions given in [64] and experimental data reported in

[65], as shown in Table 1. The parameters used in the verification are as L = 1mm ,

b(width) = 30 µ m , h = 2.4 µ m , g 0 = 10.1 µ m and l0 = l1 = l2 = l = 0 . It is seen that there is a

reasonable agreement between the present results and those of [64] and [65].

Also, in order to verify the convergence of the present numerical method, Table 2 is given in

which the linear and nonlinear pull-in voltages of homogenous clamped-clamped microbeams

13

with different lengths corresponding to various total numbers of the grid points are presented.

Furthermore, in this table, two other comparisons are made between the present results and those

obtained using a numerical solution procedure given in [66] and the experimental data of [67]. It

is assumed that b = 100 µ m, g 0 = 1.18 µ m and h =1.5 µ m . The converging trend of results is

clearly observed. It is also seen that there is an excellent agreement between the present results

and those of [66] and [67]. According to Table 2, N = 31 is utilized for all of the following

numerical calculations.

As stated, the FGM microswitch is assumed to be made of a ceramic phase and a metal one.

In this paper, the FGM is considered to be a mixture of aluminum (Al) and ceramic (SiC) and all

of the following numerical results are obtained for an FGM microswitch with the following

material properties

E m = 70 GPa , ν m = 0.3 and ρ m = 2702 kg / m 3 for Al

Moreover, as the values of material length scale parameters l0 , l1 and l2 for the FGMs have not

been reported in the literature up to now, these parameters are approximately assumed to be

equal to l0 = l1 = l2 = 15 µ m .

Figs. 2 and 3 show the variation of nondimensional center gap (Non. Dim. Center Gap) of FGM

microswitches versus nondimensional applied voltage (Non. Dim. Voltage) and nondimensional

Casimir parameter (Non. Dim. Casimir Parameter) based on MSGT. These figures are given for

different values of thickness-to-length scale parameter ratios (nondimensional length scale

parameter, h / l ). The solid circles indicate the beginning of pull-in instability. The upper branch

is stable whereas the lower branch is unstable. The pull-in instability happens where these

branches of solution collide at a certain applied voltage/Casimir force at which the slope of curve

approaches infinity. The size effect on the pull-in behavior of microswitches is clearly seen from

the figures. It is observed that as the nondimensional length scale parameter decreases, the pull-

in voltage and pull-in Casimir parameter increase. A considerable difference is seen between the

prediction of MSGT and that of its classical counterpart when the thickness of microswitch

becomes comparable with the length scale parameter. However, two sets of results tend to

converge at sufficiently large values of h / l .

It should be remarked that the intermolecular force can play a significant role in the

performance of microswitches when the only reason of pull-in phenomenon is the Casimir force

[13]. For a given initial gap, as the magnitude of Casimir force becomes equal or larger than the

14

critical Casimir force, the pull-in may occur even without an applied voltage. Hence, the Casimir

force may considerably reduce the pull-in voltage particularly for small initial gaps.

Figs. 4 and 5 provide a comparison between the results of different elasticity theories and

models on the pull-in voltage and pull-in Casimir parameter of microswitches. The results of

these figures are generated using MSGT, MCST and CT based on both linear and nonlinear

Timoshenko beam models. One can find that with increasing the nondimensional length scale

parameter, the curves of all models tend to converge. This converging trend can reveal the

reliability of the present solution approach. The discrepancy between the curves is significant at

small scales: the nondimensional critical voltages and Casimir parameters of MSGT are larger

than those of MCST, and the latter ones are also larger than those of CT. In addition, Figs. 4 and

5 illustrate that the influence of geometric nonlinearity becomes more prominent as the

nondimensional length scale parameter increases, especially for SS-SS microswitches.

The effects of material gradient index on the pull-in characteristics of microswitches are

highlighted in Figs. 6 and 7. It is observed that as the material gradient index increases, the pull-

in voltage and pull-in Casimir parameter become smaller.

The effect of length-to-thickness ratio ( L / h ) is also shown in Figs. 8 and 9. These figures

indicate the importance of modeling short microswitches using the Timoshenko beam theory.

According to the figures, as expected, the pull-in instability is postponed as the microswitch

becomes shorter.

The effect of nondimensional initial center gap on the nondimensional critical pull-in voltage can

be studied in Fig. 10. The results of this figure are generated corresponding to both linear and

nonlinear models based upon MSGT for different values of h / l . The classical results are also

given for the comparison purpose. It is seen that the pull-in voltage of both linear and nonlinear

models gets larger as the initial center gap increases. Furthermore, it is observed that the pull-in

voltage is underestimated when the mid-plane stretching effect is ignored. Fig. 10 shows that the

difference between the linear and nonlinear models becomes more significant when the initial

center gap increases. The nonlinear effects are also dependent on the scale, so that the difference

between the solid (nonlinear) and dashed (linear) curves is intensified by increasing the

nondimensional length scale parameter. Also, one can find that the nonlinear effects are more

pronounced for microswitches subject to softer end conditions.

Fig. 11 shows the variation of nondimensional natural frequency against dimensioness applied

voltage corresponding to various values of h / l . The results of this figure are obtained using the

nonlinear model based on Eq. (28). First, it is observed that for all types of boundary conditions,

when the applied voltage is so large and accordingly the dynamic pull-in occurs, the

nondimensional frequency quickly tends to zero. Another finding is that for microswitches with

15

C-C and SS-C end conditions, when the applied voltage increases, the frequency monotonously

decreases. This trend is similar for all nondimensional length scale parametes. But the free

vibration behavior of microswitches with SS-SS boundary conditions is different from that

observed for microswitches under other types of boundary conditions. In this case, the frequency

monotonously decreases with increasing the voltage for small values of h / l ; but the variation of

frequency with the voltage at large values of h / l is not monotonous. This maye be attributed to

the effect of nonlinear strain hardening for SS-SS boundary conditions at larger values of h / l .

Moreover, Fig. 12 is given for the linear frequencies. By comparing this figure with Fig. 11

one can realize that at small nondimensional length scale parameters, the difference between the

results of linear and nonlinear models is insignificant especially for C-C boundary conditions.

But, it is observed that for microbeams with SS-SS and SS-C end conditions at large

nondimensional length scale parameters, there is a considerable difference between the results of

two models. It can be thus concluded that the nonlinearity effects are more important when the

nondimensional length scale parameter gets larger and the boundary conditions become softer.

The variation of nondimensional frequency versus nondimensional Casimir parameter is

indicated in Fig. 13. As the Casimir force increases, the frequencies monotonously decreases for

all kinds of end supports and all values of h / l . The size effect can also be seen in this figure.

6. Conclusion

In this article, the nonlinear pull-in and free vibration behaviors of electrostatically actuated

microswitches made of FGMs including the Casimir force effect were investigated. In order to

capture the size effects, the most general form of strain gradient elasticity was utilized. The

developed elastic model was based on the Timoshenko beam theory and von Kármán’s

geometric nonlinearity. A variational approach was employed to derive the governing equations

which were then numerically solved using the GDQ and pseudo arc-length methods. In the

numerical results, the nonlinear pull-in instability and free vibration characteristics of SS-SS, C-

C and SS-C microswitches were analyzed. The results were obtained based on different elasticity

theories including MCST, MSGT and CT using both linear and nonlinear beam models. The

effects of length scale parameter, geometric nonlinearity, length-to-thickness ratio, material

gradient index and initial center gap were shown. Some important conclusions are as follows.

The size has an important effect on the pull-in voltage and pull-in Casimir parameter of

microswitches when their thickness is comparable with the length scale parameter. The pull-in

16

stability of microswitches improves as h / l decreases. Also, by increasing the aforementioned

ratio, the results of size-dependent model tend to those of classical model.

nondimensional length scale parameter and also by softening the boundary conditions.

Moreover, the pull-in voltage is underestimated when the mid-plane stretching effect is

neglected.

The results of considered elasticity theories tend to converge at large values of h / l . At small

sizes, the results of MSGT are larger than those of MCST and CT.

• The pull-in voltage increases as the initial center gap becomes larger. In addition, by

increasing the initial center gap, the nonlinearity is intensified.

• The free vibration response of actuated SS-SS microswitches is different from that of

C-C and SS-C ones.

Acknowledgments

The corresponding author gratefully acknowledges the support provided by Lahijan Branch,

Islamic Azad University.

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List of Captions

Table 1: Linear and nonlinear pull-in voltages (V) and pull-in displacements ( µ m ) of an

electrostatically actuated homogenous clamped-clamped microbeam

Table 2: Convergence of the linear and nonlinear pull-in voltages (V) of electrostatically

actuated homogenous clamped-clamped microbeams with different lengths

Figure 1: Schematic view of an actuated microswitch subjected to the transverse force

24

Figure 2: Nondimensional center gap versus nondimensional applied voltage for different

nondimensional length scale parameters based on MSGT ( L / h = 12, k = 0.2, g 0 = 1.2 )

Figure 3: Nondimensional center gap versus nondimensional Casimir parameter for different

nondimensional length scale parameters based on MSGT ( L / h = 12, k = 0.2, g 0 = 1.2 )

Figure 4: Nondimensional critical voltage versus nondimensional length scale parameter based

on different models ( L / h = 12, k = 0.2,, g 0 = 1.2 )

parameter based on different models ( L / h = 12, k = 0.2,, g 0 = 1.2 )

Figure 6: Nondimensional center gap versus nondimensional applied voltage for different

material gradient indexes based on MSGT ( L / h = 12, h / l = 2, g 0 = 1.2 )

Figure 7: Nondimensional center gap versus nondimensional Casimir parameter for different

material gradient indexes based on MSGT ( L / h = 12, h / l = 2, g 0 = 1.2 )

Figure 8: Nondimensional center gap versus nondimensional applied voltage for different lenth-

to-thickness ratios based on MSGT ( h / l = 2, k = 0.2, g 0 = 1.2 )

Figure 9: Nondimensional center gap versus nondimensional Casimir parameter for different

lenth-to-thickness ratios based on MSGT ( h / l = 2, k = 0.2, g 0 = 1.2 )

Figure 10: Nondimensional critical pull-in voltage versus initial center gap ( g0 ) for different

nondimensional length scale parameters based on linear and nonlinear models (

L / h = 12, k = 0.2 )

Figure 11: Nondimensional frequency versus nondimensional applied voltage for different

nondimensional length scal parameters based on MSGT and the nonlinear model (

L / h = 12, k = 0.2, g0 = 1.2 )

Figure 12: Nondimensional frequency versus nondimensional applied voltage for different

nondimensional length scal parameters based on MSGT and the linear model (

L / h = 12, k = 0.2, g 0 = 1.2 )

Figure 13: Nondimensional frequency versus nondimensional Casimir parameter for different

nondimensional length scal parameters based on MSGT ( L / h = 12, k = 0.2, g 0 = 1.2 )

25

Table 1: Linear and nonlinear pull-in voltages (V) and pull-in displacements ( µ m ) of an

electrostatically actuated homogenous clamped-clamped microbeam

Case Voltage Displacemen Voltage Displacement (

(V) t ( µm ) (V) µm )

49 4.5 118.5 6.5

Experimental [65] Pull-in voltage = 100V , Pull-in displacement = 5 µ m

Table 2: Convergence of the linear and nonlinear pull-in voltages (V) of electrostatically

actuated homogenous clamped-clamped microbeams with different lengths

L Numerical simulation Experi

N = 11 N = 21 N = 31

[66] mental

( µm) Linear Nonlinear Linear Nonlinear Linear Nonlinear Linear Nonlinear [67]

210 27.4604 28.2888 27.4614 28.2904 27.4614 28.2904 27.506 28.352 27.95

310 13.8175 14.1569 13.8179 14.1576 13.8179 14.1576 13.834 14.182 13.78

410 8.7619 8.9329 8.7621 8.9333 8.7621 8.9333 8.769 8.945 9.13

26

510 6.2967 6.3939 6.2968 6.3941 6.2968 6.3941 6.300 6.401 6.57

27

Figure 1: Schematic view of an actuated microswitch subjected to the transverse force

1 1

0.9 0.9

α cr = 1.594 α cr = 1.164

0.8 0.8

α cr = 1.275 α cr = 0.926

Non. Dim. Center Gap

0.7 0.7

α cr = 1.114 α cr = 0.815

0.6 0.6

α cr = 1.023 α cr = 0.755

0.5 α cr = 0.931 0.5

α cr = 0.698

0.4 α cr = 0.874 0.4 α cr = 0.664

0.3 α cr = 0.826 0.3 α cr = 0.638

0.2 α cr = 0.8 0.2 α cr = 0.624

0.1 0.1

0 0

0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2

Non. Dim. Voltage ( α ) Non. Dim. Voltage ( α )

28

(c) SS-SS

1

0.9

h/l = 3, α cr = 0.649

Non. Dim. Center Gap

0.7

h/l = 4, α cr = 0.585

0.6

h/l = 5, α cr = 0.554

0.5

h/l = 7, α cr = 0.525

0.4 h/l = 10, α cr = 0.51

0.3 h/l = 20, α cr = 0.499

0.2 Classic, α cr = 0.494

0.1

0

0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8

Non. Dim. Voltage ( α )

Figure 2: Nondimensional center gap versus nondimensional applied voltage for different

nondimensional length scale parameters based on MSGT ( L / h = 12, k = 0.2, g0 = 1.2 )

1 1

0.9 β cr = 3.926 0.9 β cr = 3.335

0.8 β cr = 3.496 0.8 β cr = 2.946

Non. Dim. Center Gap

β cr = 3.255

Non. Dim. Center Gap

0.6 β cr = 3.109

0.6 β cr = 2.619

β cr = 2.953

0.5 0.5 β cr = 2.495

β cr = 2.851

0.4 0.4 β cr = 2.418

β cr = 2.763

0.3 β cr = 2.356

β cr = 2.716

0.3

β cr = 2.324

0.2 0.2

0.1 0.1

0 0

0 0.4 0.8 1.2 1.6 2 2.4 2.8 3.2 3.6 4 0 0.4 0.8 1.2 1.6 2 2.4 2.8 3.2 3.6

Non. Dim. Casimir Parameter ( β ) Non. Dim. Casimir Parameter ( β )

29

(c) SS-SS

1

0.9 h/l = 2, β cr = 2.732

0.8 h/l = 3, β cr = 2.407

Non. Dim. Center Gap

h/l = 7, β cr = 2.074

0.5

h/l = 10, β cr = 2.025

0.4

h/l = 20, β cr = 1.989

0.3

Classic, β cr = 1.975

0.2

0.1

0

0 0.3 0.6 0.9 1.2 1.5 1.8 2.1 2.4 2.7

Non. Dim. Casimir Parameter ( β )

Figure 3: Nondimensional center gap versus nondimensional Casimir parameter for different

nondimensional length scale parameters based on MSGT ( L / h = 12, k = 0.2, g0 = 1.2 )

30

(a) C-C (b) SS-C

2.4 1.8

Non. Dim. Critical Voltage (α cr )

2.2

1.6

2

1.4

1.8

1.6 1.2

1.4 1

1.2

0.8

1

0.8 0.6

0.6 0.4

2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20

Non. Dim. Length Scale Parameter ( h/l ) (c) SS-SS Non. Dim. Length Scale Parameter ( h/l )

1.4

Non. Dim. Critical Voltage (α cr )

MCST, Nonlinear

1 CT, Nonlinear

MSGT, Linear

0.8 MCST, Linear

CT, Linear

0.6

0.4

0.2

2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20

Non. Dim. Length Scale Parameter ( h/l )

Figure 4: Nondimensional critical voltage versus nondimensional length scale parameter based

on different models ( L / h = 12, k = 0.2, g0 = 1.2 )

31

(a) C-C (b) SS-C

4.2

5

Non. Dim. Critical Casimir Parameter ( βcr )

4.8 4

4.6 3.8

4.4 3.6

4.2 3.4

4

3.2

3.8

3

3.6

3.4 2.8

3.2 2.6

3 2.4

2.8 2.2

2.6 2

2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20

2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20

Non. Dim. Length Scale Parameter ( h/l )

Non. Dim. Length Scale Parameter ( h/l ) (c) SS-SS

Non. Dim. Critical Casimir Parameter (βcr )

3.6

3.4 MSGT, Nonlinear

MCST, Nonlinear

3.2

CT, Nonlinear

3 MSGT, Linear

2.8 MCST, Linear

CT, Linear

2.6

2.4

2.2

2

1.8

2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20

Non. Dim. Length Scale Parameter ( h/l )

parameter based on different models ( L / h = 12, k = 0.2, g0 = 1.2 )

32

(a) C-C (b) SS-C

1 1

0.9 0.9

α cr = 1.735

0.8 0.8 α cr = 1.265

α cr = 1.594

0.7 α cr = 1.164

0.7

Non. Dim. Center Gap

α cr = 1.408

α cr = 1.031

0.6 α cr = 1.244 0.6

α cr = 0.914

0.5 α cr = 1.121 0.5

α cr = 0.826

α cr = 0.94

0.4 0.4 α cr = 0.693

α cr = 0.845

0.3 0.3 α cr = 0.623

α cr = 0.687

α cr = 0.506

0.2 0.2

0.1 0.1

0 0

0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2

Non. Dim. Voltage ( α ) Non. Dim. Voltage ( α )

(c) SS-SS

1

Ceramic, α cr = 0.865

0.9

k = 0.2, α cr = 0.803

0.8 k = 0.6, α cr = 0.721

Non. Dim. Center Gap

0.6 k = 2.0, α cr = 0.591

k = 10, α cr = 0.443

0.4

Metal, α cr = 0.352

0.3

0.2

0.1

0

0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9

Non. Dim. Voltage ( α )

Figure 6: Nondimensional center gap versus nondimensional applied voltage for different

material gradient indexes based on MSGT ( L / h = 12, h / l = 2, g 0 = 1.2 )

33

(a) C-C (b) SS-C

1 1

0.9 β cr = 4.097 0.9 β cr = 3.477

0.8 β cr = 3.926 β cr = 3.335

0.8

β cr = 3.688 β cr = 3.136

Non. Dim. Center Gap

0.7 0.7

β cr = 3.466 β cr = 2.951

0.6 0.6

β cr = 3.29 β cr = 2.803

0.5 β cr = 3.012 0.5

β cr = 2.569

0.4 β cr = 2.856 0.4 β cr = 2.435

0.3 β cr = 2.573 0.3 β cr = 2.191

0.2 0.2

0.1 0.1

0 0

0 0.4 0.8 1.2 1.6 2 2.4 2.8 3.2 3.6 4 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5

Non. Dim. Casimir Parameter ( β ) Non. Dim. Casimir Parameter ( β )

(c) SS-SS

1

0.9 Ceramic, β cr = 2.842

0.8 k = 0.2, β cr = 2.732

Non. Dim. Center Gap

k = 2.0, β cr = 2.331

0.5

k = 5.0, β cr = 2.139

0.4

k = 10, β cr = 2.019

0.3

Metal, β cr = 1.799

0.2

0.1

0

0 0.4 0.8 1.2 1.6 2 2.4 2.8

Non. Dim. Casimir Parameter ( β )

Figure 7: Nondimensional center gap versus nondimensional Casimir parameter for different

material gradient indexes based on MSGT ( L / h = 12, h / l = 2, g0 = 1.2 )

34

(a) C-C (b) SS-C

1 1

0.9 0.9

0.8 0.8

α cr = 2.144

α cr = 1.618

0.7

Non. Dim. Center Gap

0.7 α cr = 1.832

α cr = 1.357

0.6 α cr = 1.594 0.6

α cr = 1.164

α cr = 1.256 0.5

0.5 α cr = 0.901

α cr = 1.029

0.4 0.4 α cr = 0.732

0.3 0.3

0.2 0.2

0.1 0.1

0 0

0 0.3 0.6 0.9 1.2 1.5 1.8 2.1 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6

Non. Dim. Voltage ( α ) Non. Dim. Voltage ( α )

(c) SS-SS

1

L/h = 8, α cr = 1.158

0.9

L/h = 10, α cr = 0.95

0.8 L/h = 12, α cr = 0.803

Non. Dim. Center Gap

0.6 L/h = 20, α cr = 0.492

0.5

0.4

0.3

0.2

0.1

0

0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2

Non. Dim. Voltage ( α )

Figure 8: Nondimensional center gap versus nondimensional applied voltage for different length-

to-thickness ratios based on MSGT ( h / l = 2, k = 0.2, g0 = 1.2 )

35

(a) C-C (b) SS-C

1 1

0.9 0.9

β cr = 4.543 β cr = 3.921

0.8 0.8

β cr = 4.205 β cr = 3.597

0.7 0.7

Non. Dim. Center Gap

β cr = 3.926 β cr = 3.335

0.6 β cr = 3.487 0.6 β cr = 2.936

0.5 β cr = 3.159 0.5 β cr = 2.647

0.4 0.4

0.3 0.3

0.2 0.2

0.1 0.1

0 0

0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4

Non. Dim. Casimir Parameter ( β ) Non. Dim. Casimir Parameter ( β )

(c) SS-SS

1

0.9

L/h = 8, β cr = 3.274

0.8

L/h = 10, β cr = 2.969

Non. Dim. Center Gap

0.7

L/h = 12, β cr = 2.732

0.6

L/h = 16, β cr = 2.386

0.5 L/h = 20, β cr = 2.143

0.4

0.3

0.2

0.1

0

0 0.4 0.8 1.2 1.6 2 2.4 2.8 3.2

Non. Dim. Casimir Parameter ( β )

Figure 9: Nondimensional center gap versus nondimensional Casimir parameter for different

length-to-thickness ratios based on MSGT ( h / l = 2, k = 0.2, g0 = 1.2 )

36

(a) C-C (b) SS-C

4

2.8

3.5

Non. Dim. Critical Pull-in Voltage

2.4

3

2

2.5

1.6

2

1.2

1.5

1 0.8

0.5 0.4

0 0

0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2

Non. Dim. Initial Gap ( g0 ) Non. Dim. Initial Gap ( g0 )

(c) SS-SS

2

h/l = 2, Nonlinear

1.8

h/l = 2, Linear

Non. Dim. Critical Pull-in Voltage

h/l = 3, Linear

1.4 h/l = 5, Nonlinear

1.2 h/l = 5, Linear

Classic, Nonlinear

1 Classic, Linear

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

0

0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2

Non. Dim. Initial Gap ( g0 )

Figure 10: Nondimensional critical pull-in voltage versus initial center gap ( g0 ) for different

nondimensional length scale parameters based on linear and nonlinear models (

L / h = 12, k = 0.2 )

37

(a) C-C (b) SS-C

2.2 1.6

2 h/l = 2

1.4 h/l = 3

1.8 h/l = 4

1.2

Non. Dim. Frequency (ω )

1.6 h/l = 5

h/l = 7

1.4 1 h/l = 10

1.2 h/l = 20

0.8

Classic

1

0.8 0.6

0.6 0.4

0.4

0.2

0.2

0 0

0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2

Non. Dim. Voltage ( α ) Non. Dim. Voltage ( α )

(c) SS-SS

1

h/l = 2

0.9 h/l = 3

h/l = 4

0.8

h/l = 5

Non. Dim. Frequency (ω )

0.7 h/l = 7

h/l = 10

0.6

h/l = 20

0.5 Classic

0.4

0.3

0.2

0.1

0

0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8

Non. Dim. Voltage ( α )

Figure 11: Nondimensional frequency versus nondimensional applied voltage for different

nondimensional length scal parameters based on MSGT and the nonlinear model (

L / h = 12, k = 0.2, g 0 = 1.2 )

38

(a) C-C (b) SS-C

2.2 1.6

2

1.4

1.8

1.2

1.6

Non. Dim. Frequency (ω )

1.4 1

1.2

0.8

1

0.8 0.6

0.6 0.4

0.4

0.2

0.2

0 0

0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1 1.1 1.2

Non. Dim. Voltage ( α ) Non. Dim. Voltage ( α )

(c) SS-SS

1.1

h/l = 2

1 h/l = 3

0.9 h/l = 4

h/l = 5

Non. Dim. Frequency (ω )

0.8

h/l = 7

0.7 h/l = 10

0.6 h/l = 20

Classic

0.5

0.4

0.3

0.2

0.1

0

0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8

Non. Dim. Voltage ( α )

Figure 12: Nondimensional frequency versus nondimensional applied voltage for different

nondimensional length scal parameters based on MSGT and the linear model (

L / h = 12, k = 0.2, g 0 = 1.2 )

39

(a) C-C (b) SS-C

2.2 1.6

2

1.4

1.8

Non. Dim. Frequency (ω )

1.2

1.6

1.4 1

1.2

0.8

1

0.8 0.6

0.6

0.4

0.4

0.2

0.2

0 0

0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4

Non. Dim. Casimir Parameter ( β ) Non. Dim. Casimir Parameter ( β )

(c) SS-SS

1.1

h/l = 2

1 h/l = 3

0.9 h/l = 4

h/l = 5

Non. Dim. Frequency (ω )

0.8

h/l = 7

0.7 h/l = 10

0.6 h/l = 20

Classic

0.5

0.4

0.3

0.2

0.1

0

0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3

Non. Dim. Casimir Parameter ( β )

Figure 13: Nondimensional frequency versus nondimensional Casimir parameter for different

nondimensional length scal parameters based on MSGT ( L / h = 12, k = 0.2, g 0 = 1.2 )

40

Highlights

• Developing a non-classical nonlinear beam model for FGM microswitches

• Considering size effects based on the most general form of SGT

• Considering the shear deformation effects based on the Timoshenko beam theory

• Deriving the governing equations including the Casimir force effect using a variational approach

• Solving the pull-in and free vibration problems of electrostatically actuated microswitches

• Studying the effects of length scale parameter, Casimir force, types of boundary conditions and other

parameters in the results

41

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