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Vol. XXXVI No. 1 January 2018


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MATHEMATICS TODAY | JANUARY ‘18 7


This column is aimed at Class XI students so that they can prepare for competitive exams such as JEE Main/Advanced, etc. and
be also in command of what is being covered in their school as part of NCERT syllabus. The problems here are a happy blend
of the straight and the twisted, the simple and the difficult and the easy and the challenging.
*ALOK KUMAR, B.Tech, IIT Kanpur

ELLIPSE z The major and minor axis together are called


z The Ellipse is a conic whose eccentricity is less than principal axis of the ellipse.
unity i.e., e < 1. z A chord which passes through focus is called a focal
chord and which passes through the centre is called
z Standard equation of an ellipse referred to its principal
a diameter of the conic.
x2 y2
axes along the co-ordinate axes is 2 + 2 = 1 , z A chord perpendicular to the major axis is called
where a > b a b a double ordinate.
2
b z The focal chord perpendicular to the major axis is
Eccentricity : e = 1 − 2 ⇒ a2e2 = a2 – b2(0 < e < 1)
a called the latus rectum. Length of latus rectum (LL′)
Foci : S ≡ (ae, 0) and S′ ≡ (–ae, 0) 2b2
a a = = 2a(1 − e 2 )
The equation of directrices are x = and x = − a
e e z The sum of the focal distances of any point on the
Vertices : A′ ≡ (–a, 0) and A ≡ (a, 0) ellipse is equal to the major axis. Hence, distance
of focus from the extremity of a minor axis is equal
to semi major axis.
i.e., BS = CA.
z The point P(x 1 , y 1 ) lies outside, inside or on
x2 y2
the ellipse according as, 1 + 1 − 1 >, < or = 0
a 2 b2
(respectively)
z A circle described on major axis as diameter is
called the auxiliary circle. Let Q be a point on the
z The line segment A′A of length 2a(a > b) is called auxiliary circle x2 + y2 = a2 such that QP produced is
the major axis of the ellipse. perpendicular to the x-axis then P and Q are called
z The y-axis intersects the ellipse at the points as the corresponding points on the ellipse and the
B′ ≡ (0, –b) and B ≡ (0, b). The line segment B′B of auxiliary circle respectively ‘q’ is called the eccentric
length 2b(b < a) is called the minor axis of the ellipse. angle of the point P on the ellipse (0 ≤ q < 2p).

* Alok Kumar is a winner of INDIAN NATIONAL MATHEMATICS OLYMPIAD (INMO-91).


He trains IIT and Olympiad aspirants.

8 MATHEMATICS TODAY | JANUARY ‘18


circle. The equation to this locus is x2 + y2 = a2 + b2
i.e. a circle whose centre is the centre of the ellipse
and whose radius is the length of the line joining
the ends of the major and minor axis.
HYPERBOLA
z The hyperbola is a conic whose eccentricity is
greater than unity i.e., e > 1.
The equations x = a cosq and y = b sinq together x2 y2
Standard equation of the hyperbola is − = 1.
x2 y2
z
represent the ellipse + = 1, where q is a a2 b2
parameter. a 2 b2 b2
Note : If P(q) ≡ (a cos q, b sin q) is on the ellipse Eccentricity : e = 1+ ⇒ a2 e2 = a2 + b2
a2
then, Q(q) ≡ (a cos q, a sinq) is on the auxiliary circle. Foci : S ≡ (ae , 0) and S′ ≡ (–ae , 0).
x2 y2
z The line y = mx + c meets the ellipse = 1 in
+
a 2 b2
two points real, coincident or imaginary according
as c2 is <, = or > a2m2 + b2 .
Hence, y = mx + c is tangent to the ellipse
x2 y2
+ = 1 if c2 = a2m2 + b2.
a 2 b2
The equation to the chord of the ellipse joining two
points with eccentric angles a and b is given by
x α +β y α +β α −β a a
cos 
  + sin   = cos  . Equation of directrices : x = and x = −
a 2 b 2 2  e e
xx1 yy1 Vertices : A ≡ (a, 0) and A′ ≡ (–a, 0).
z + = 1 is tangent to the ellipse at (x1, y1).
a2 b2 2b2
For general ellipse replace x2 by xx1, y2 by yy1, 2x Latus rectum : l = = 2a(e 2 − 1) .
a
by x + x1, 2y by y + y1, 2xy by xy1 + yx1.
z The line segment A′A of length 2a in which the
z y = mx ± a2m2 + b2 is tangent to the ellipse for foci S′ and S both lie is called the transverse axis of
all values of m. the hyperbola.
x cos θ y sin θ z The line segment B′B between the two points
z + = 1 is tangent to the ellipse at the B′ ≡ (0, – b) and B ≡ (0, b) is called as the conjugate
a b
point (a cosq, b sinq). axis of the hyperbola. The transverse axis and the
z The eccentric angles of point of contact of two conjugate axis of the hyperbola are together called
parallel tangents differ by an angle p. the principal axes of the hyperbola.
z Equation of the normal at (x1, y1) is z The difference of the focal distances of any point P
on the hyperbola is constant and equal to transverse
a 2 x b2 y
− = a2 – b2 = a2 e2 . axis i.e. ||PS| – |PS′|| = 2a. The distance SS′ = focal
x1 y1
length.
z Equation of the normal at the point (a cosq, b sinq)
z Two hyperbolas such that transverse & conjugate
is ax ⋅ secq –by ⋅ cosecq = a2 – b2.
axes of one hyperbola are respectively the conjugate
z Equation of a normal in terms of its slope ‘m’ is y & the transverse axes of the other are called
(a2 − b2 ) m conjugate hyperbolas of each other .
y = mx − .
a2 + b2m2 x2 y2 x2 y2
i.e. 2 − 2 = 1 and − 2 + = 1 are conjugate
z Locus of the point of intersection of the tangents a b a b2
which meet at right angles is called the director hyperbola of each other.

10 MATHEMATICS TODAY | JANUARY ‘18


MATHEMATICS TODAY | JANUARY ‘18 11
z If e1 and e2 are the eccentricities of the hyperbola 2 2 2
and its conjugate then e1–2+ e2–2 = 1. Also, y = m x ± a m − b can be taken as the
z The particular kind of hyperbola in which the x2 y2
tangents to the hyperbola = 1. −
lengths of the transverse and conjugate axis are a 2 b2
equal is called an equilateral hyperbola.
z E qu at i on of a c h ord j oi n i ng a an d b i s
Note : Eccentricity of the rectangular hyperbola
x α −β y α +β α +β
is 2 and the length of its latus rectum is equal cos − sin = cos .
a 2 b 2 2
to its transverse or conjugate axis.
z The equation of the normal to the hyperbola
x2 y2
− = 1 at the point p(x1, y1) on it is
a2 b2
a 2 x b2 y
+ = a 2 + b2 = a 2e 2 .
x1 y1
z The equat ion of t he nor mal at t he p oint
2 2
P(a secq, b tanq) on the hyperbola x − y = 1 is
ax by a 2 b2
+ = a 2 + b2 = a 2 e 2 .
z A circle drawn with centre C & transverse axis sec θ tan θ
as a diameter is called the auxiliary circle of the
z The locus of the intersection of tangents which are
hyperbola. Equation of the auxiliary circle is
at right angles is known as the director circle of the
x2 + y2 = a2. Note from the figure that P and Q are
hyperbola. The equation to the director circle is
called the ‘‘corresponding points” on the hyperbola
and the auxiliary circle. ‘q’ is called the eccentric x2 + y2 = a2 – b2 .
angle of the point ‘P ’ on the hyperbola (0 ≤ q < 2p). If b2 < a2 this circle is real; if b2 = a2 the radius of
the circle is zero and it reduces to a point circle
z The point (x1, y1) will be outside, on or inside the
at the origin. In this case, the centre is the only
x2 y2
hyperbola according as 1 − 1 − 1 >, = or < 0 point from which the tangents at right angles can
(respectively) a 2 b2 be drawn to the curve. If b2 > a2 , the radius of the
z The straight line y = mx + c is a secant, a tangent or circle is imaginary, so that there is no such circle
x2 y2 and so no tangents at right angle can be drawn to
passes outside the hyperbola − = 1 according the curve.
2 2
2 2 2
as c >, =, < a m – b . 2 a b
z Let y = mx + c is the asymptote of the hyperbola
Hence, y = mx + c is tangent to the hyperbola
x2 y2
x2 y2 − = 1.
− = 1 if c2 = a2m2 – b2. a 2 b2
a 2 b2 2 2 Solving these two we get the quadratic as
z Equation of the tangent to the hyperbola x − y = 1 (b2 – a2m2)x2 – 2a2mcx – a2(b2 + c2) = 0 ...(i)
a 2 b2
xx1 yy 1 x– y
at the point (x1, y1) is − 2 = 1. a b=0
a2 b
In general two tangents can be drawn from an
B (0, b)
external point (x1, y1) to the hyperbola and they
are y – y1 = m1 (x – x1) and y – y2 = m2 (x – x2),
where m 1 and m 2 are roots of the equation 
(x12 – a2)m2 – 2x1y1m + y12 + b2 = 0. (–a, 0) A C A (a, 0)
2 2
z Equation of the tangent to the hyperbola x − y = 1
a 2 b2
B (0, –b)
x sec θ y tan θ x+y
at the point (a secq, b tanq) is − = 1. a b =0
a b

12 MATHEMATICS TODAY | JANUARY ‘18


MATHEMATICS TODAY | JANUARY ‘18 13
In order that y = mx + c be an asymptote , both 2. The pole of the straight line x + 4y = 4 with respect
roots of equation (i) must approach infinity, the to ellipse x2 + 4y2 = 4 is
conditions for which are : coeff. of x2 = 0 and (a) (1, 4) (b) (1, 1) (c) (4, 1) (d) (4, 4)
coeff. of x = 0.
b x2 y2
⇒ b2 – a2m2 = 0 or m = ± 3. In the ellipse = 1, the equation of diameter
+
a a 2 b2
and a2mc = 0 ⇒ c = 0. b
\ Equations of asymptote are conjugate to the diameter y = x , is
a
x y x y b a
+ = 0 and − = 0 (a) y = − x (b) y = − x
a b a b a b
On combining equation to the asymptotes, we get b
(c) x = − y (d) none of these
x2 y2 a
− =0
a 2 b2 4. Minimum area of the triangle by any tangent to the
z When b = a, then, the asymptotes of the rectangular x2 y2
hyperbola x2 – y2 = a2 or y = ± x which are at ellipse + = 1 with the coordinate axes is
right angles. a2 b2
z If a hyperbola is equilateral then the conjugate a 2 + b2 (a + b)2
(a) (b)
hyperbola is also equilateral. 2 2
z A hyperbola and its conjugate have the same (a − b)2
(c) ab (d)
asymptote. 2
z The equation of the pair of asymptotes differ the 5. The eccentricity of the ellipse
hyperbola and the conjugate hyperbola by the same 25x2 + 16y2 – 150x – 175 = 0 is
constant only. (a) 2/5 (b) 2/3
∂f ∂f (c) 4/5 (d) 3/5
z Find and .Then the point of intersection of
∂x ∂y 6. If 5x2 + ly2 = 20 represents a rectangular hyperbola,
∂f ∂f then l equals
= 0 and = 0 gives the centre of the hyperbola.
∂x ∂y (a) 5 (b) 4
Important Points on Rectangular Hyperbola (c) –5 (d) none of these
z Equation is xy = c2 with parametric representation 7. The locus of the point of intersection of the lines
x = ct, y = c/t, t ∈ R. bxt – ayt = ab and bx + ay = abt is
z Equation of a chord joining the points P(t1) and (a) a parabola (b) an ellipse
Q(t2) is x + t1t2 y = c(t1 + t2). (c) a hyperbola (d) none of these
z Equation of the tangent at P(x1, y1) is xy1 + x1y = 2c2
x 8. The eccentricity of the hyperbola can never be
and at P(ct, c/t) is + ty = 2c. equal to
t
z Chord with a given middle point as (h, k) is 9 1 1
(a) (b) 2 (c) 3 (d) 2
kx + hy = 2hk . 5 9 8
z Equation of the normal at P(ct, c/t) is xt3 – yt = c(t4 –1). 9. The locus of the centre of a circle, which touches
z Vertex of this hyperbola is (c, c) and (–c, –c), focus externally the given two circles, is
is ( 2c , 2c) and (− 2c, − 2c) , the directrices are (a) circle (b) parabola
x + y = ± 2 c and latus rectum = 2 2c. (c) hyperbola (d) ellipse
PROBLEMS 10. The foci of the hyperbola 9x2 – 16y2 = 144 are
Single Correct Answer Type (a) (±4, 0) (b) (0, ±4)
1. The eccentricity of the hyperbola conjugate to (c) (±5, 0) (d) (0, ±5)
x2 – 3y2 = 2x + 8 is 11. The equation x2 + 4xy + y2 + 2x + 4y + 2 = 0
2 represents
(a) (b) 3
3 (a) an ellipse (b) a pair of straight lines
(c) 2 (d) none of these (c) a hyperbola (d) none of these

14 MATHEMATICS TODAY | JANUARY ‘18


12. The auxiliary equation of circle of hyperbola 20. If the straight line x cosa + y sina = p be a tangent
x 2
y 2
x2 y2
− = 1, is to the hyperbola − = 1, then
a2 b2 a 2 b2
(a) x2 + y2 = a2 (b) x2 + y2 = b2 (a) a2 cos2a + b2 sin2a = p2
(c) x2 + y2 = a2 + b2 (d) x2 + y2 = a2 – b2 (b) a2 cos2a – b2 sin2a = p2
(c) a2 sin2a + b2 cos2a = p2
13. If the line y = 2x + l be a tangent to the hyperbola
(d) a2 sin2a – b2 cos2a = p2
36x2 – 25y2 = 3600, then l =
(a) 16 (b) –16 21. If the tangent on the point (2 secf, 3tanf) of the
(c) ±16 (d) none of these x2 y2
hyperbola − = 1 is parallel to 3x – y + 4 = 0,
14. The equation of the tangents to the conic 3x2 – y2 = 3 4 9
perpendicular to the line x + 3y = 2 is then the value of f is
(a) 45° (b) 60° (c) 30° (d) 75°
(a) y = 3x ± 6 (b) y = 6 x ± 3
22. What is the slope of the tangent line drawn to the
(c) y = x ± 6 (d) y = 3x ± 6
hyperbola xy = a(a ≠ 0) at the point (a, 1)?
15. The locus of the point of intersection of any two (a) 1/a (b) –1/a (c) a (d) – a
perpendicular tangents to the hyperbola is a circle
which is called the director circle of the hyperbola, 23. The straight line x + y = 2 p will touch the
then the equation of this circle is hyperbola 4x2 – 9y2 = 36, if
(a) p2 = 2 (b) p2 = 5
(a) x2 + y2 = a2 + b2 (b) x2 + y2 = a2 – b2 2
2 2 (c) 5p = 2 (d) 2p2 = 5
(c) x + y = 2ab (d) none of these
16. The equation of the tangents to the hyperbola x2 y2
24. Let E be the ellipse + = 1 and C be the circle
3x2 – 4y2 = 12 which cuts equal intercepts from 9 4
the axes, are x2 + y2 = 9. Let P and Q be the points (1, 2) and
(a) y + x = ±1 (b) y – x = ±1 (2, 1) respectively. Then
(c) 3x + 4y = ±1 (d) 3x – 4y = ±1 (a) Q lies inside C but outside E
(b) Q lies outside both C and E
17. If m1 and m2 are the slopes of the tangents to the
(c) P lies inside both C and E
2 2
hyperbola x − y = 1 which pass through the (d) P lies inside C but outside E
25 16 25. The distance between the directrices of the ellipse
point (6, 2), then
x2 y2
24 2 + = 1 is
(a) m1 + m2 = (b) m1m2 = 36 20
11 11
(a) 8 (b) 12 (c) 18 (d) 24
48 11
(c) m1 + m2 = (d) m1m2 = 26. The equation of the ellipse whose vertices are
11 20
18. The value of m for which y = mx + 6 is a tangent to (±5, 0) and foci are (±4, 0) is
2 2 (a) 9x2 + 25y2 = 225 (b) 25x2 + 9y2 = 225
the hyperbola x − y = 1, is (c) 3x2 + 4y2 = 192 (d) none of these
100 49
27. The equation of the ellipse whose one of the
17 20 vertices is (0, 7) and the corresponding directrix is
(a) (b)
20 17 y = 12, is
3 20 (a) 95x2 + 144y2 = 4655 (b) 144x2 + 95y2 = 4655
(c) (d) (c) 95x2 + 144y2 = 13680 (d) none of these
20 3
19. The equation of the tangent to the conic 28. For the ellipse 3x2 + 4y2 = 12, the length of latus
x2 – y2 – 8x + 2y + 11 = 0 at (2, 1) is rectum is
(a) x + 2 = 0 (b) 2x + 1 = 0 3 8 3
(a) (b) 3 (c) (d)
(c) x – 2 = 0 (d) x + y + 1 = 0 2 3 2

MATHEMATICS TODAY | JANUARY ‘18 15


29. Eccentricity of the ellipse 9x2 + 25y2 = 225 is 39. The equation of the normal at the point (2, 3) on
4 9 34 the ellipse 9x2 + 16y2 = 180, is
(a) 3 (b) (c) (d) (a) 3y = 8x – 10 (b) 3y – 8x + 7 = 0
5 5 25 5
(c) 8y + 3x + 7 = 0 (d) 3x + 2y + 7 = 0
30. What is the equation of the ellipse with foci (±2, 0)
1 40. If (4, 0) and (–4, 0) be the vertices and (6, 0) and
and eccentricity = ? (–6, 0) be the foci of a hyperbola, then its eccentricity is
2
(a) 3x2 + 4y2 = 48 (b) 4x2 + 3y2 = 48 (a) 5/2 (b) 2 (c) 3/2 (d) 2
2 2
(c) 3x + 4y = 0 (d) 4x2 + 3y2 = 0 41. If (0, ±4) and (0, ±2) be the foci and vertices of a
31. The equation of ellipse whose distance between hyperbola, then its equation is
2 2 2 2
the foci is equal to 8 and distance between the
(a) x − y = 1 (b) x − y = 1
directrices is 18, is 4 12 12 4
(a) 5x2 – 9y2 = 180 (b) 9x2 + 5y2 = 180 y2 x2 y2 x2
2 2
(c) x + 9y = 180 (d) 5x2 + 9y2 = 180 (c) − =1 (d) − =1
4 12 12 4
32. The centre of the ellipse 4x2 + 9y2 – 16x – 54y + 61 = 0 is
42. The eccentricity of the hyperbola 4x2 – 9y2 = 16, is
(a) (1,3) (b) (2, 3)
8 5 13 4
(c) (3, 2) (d) (3, 1) (a) (b) (c) (d)
3 4 3 3
33. The equation of an ellipse whose eccentricity is 1/2
43. The eccentricity of the hyperbola 2x2 – y2 = 6 is
and the vertices are (4, 0) and (10, 0) is
(a) 3x2 + 4y2 – 42x + 120 = 0 (a) 2 (b) 2 (c) 3 (d) 3
2 2
44. The equation x – 16xy – 11y – 12x + 6y + 21 = 0
(b) 3x2 + 4y2 + 42x + 120 = 0
(c) 3x2 + 4y2 + 42x – 120 = 0 represents
(d) 3x2 + 4y2 – 42x – 120 = 0 (a) parabola (b) ellipse
(c) hyperbola (d) two straight lines
34. The eccentricity of the ellipse
9x2 + 5y2 – 18x – 20y – 16 = 0 is 45. The equation of the hyperbola referred to its axes
(a) 1/2 (b) 2/3 (c) 1/3 (d) 3/4 as axes of coordinate and whose distance between
35. The position of the point (1, 3) with respect to the the foci is 16 and eccentricity is 2, is
ellipse 4x2 + 9y2 – 16x – 54y + 61 = 0 (a) x2 – y2 = 16 (b) x2 – y2 = 32
2 2
(c) x – 2y = 16 (d) y2 – x2 = 16
(a) outside the ellipse (b) on the ellipse
(c) on the major axis (d) on the minor axis x2 y2
46. If the foci of the ellipse + = 1 and the
36. The locus of the point of intersection of mutually 2 2 16 b2
x y 1
x2 y2 hyperbola − = coincide, then the value
perpendicular tangent to the ellipse + = 1, is 144 81 25
a 2 b2 2
of b is
(a) a straight line (b) a parabola (a) 1 (b) 5 (c) 7 (d) 9
(c) a director circle (d) none of these 47. The eccentricity of the hyperbola
37. The equation of the tangents drawn at the ends of 1999 2
the major axis of the ellipse 9x2 + 5y2 – 30y = 0, are (x − y 2 ) = 1 is
3
(a) y = ±3 (b) x = ± 5 (a) 3 (b) 2 (c) 2 (d) 2 2
(c) y = 0, y = 6 (d) none of these
Assertion & Reason Type
38. The line y = mx + c is a normal to the ellipse
Directions : In the following questions, Statement-1 is
x2 y2 followed by Statement-2. Mark the correct choice as :
+ = 1, if c =
a 2 b2 (a) Statement-1 is true, Statement-2 is true, Statement-2
(a2 + b2 )m is a correct explanation for Statement-1.
(a) –(2am + bm2) (b)
a2 + b2m2 (b) Statement-1 is true, Statement-2 is true, Statement-2
is not a correct explanation for Statement-1.
(a2 − b2 )m (a2 − b2 )m
(c) − (d) (c) Statement-1 is true, Statement-2 is false.
a2 + b2m2 a 2 + b2 (d) Statement-1 is false, Statement-2 is true.

16 MATHEMATICS TODAY | JANUARY ‘18


48. Statement-1 : The foci of the hyperbola xy = 36 are 54. The maximum possible length of semi latus rectum
(6 2 , 6 2 ) and (−6 2 , − 6 2 ). is
Statement-2 : The foci of the hyperbola (a) 2 + 3 (b) 3 + 3
x2 y2 (c) 4 + 3 (d) 1 + 3
− = 1 are  ± a2 − b2 , 0  .
a 2
b2   Paragraph for Q.No. 55 - 57
x2 y2
49. Statement-1 : The angle of intersection between the Let P, Q, R be three points on the ellipse =1 +
x2 y2 a 2 b2
ellipse + = 1 and the circle x2 + y2 = ab is and let P′, Q′, R′ be their corresponding points on it’s
2 2
a b auxiliary circle, then
 b − a 
tan −1  . 55. The maximum area of the triangle PQR is
 ab 
3 3 3 3
Statement-2 : The point of intersection of the ellipse (a) ab (b) ab
4 2
x2 y2  ab ab 
+ = 1 and x 2 + y 2 = ab is  , . 3
2
a b 2
 a+ b a + b  (c) ab (d) pab
4
50. Statement-1 : The condition on a and b for which Area of ∆PQR
56. =
x2 y2 Area of ∆P ′Q ′R ′
two distinct chords of the ellipse + =1
2a2 2b2 a b
(a) (b)
passing through (a, –b) are bisected by x + y = b is b a
a2 + 6ab – 7b2 > 0. 1
x2 y2 (c) (d) none of these
Statement 2 : Equation of the chord of + =1 2
a 2 b2 57. When the area of triangle PQR is maximum, the
whose mid point is (x1, y1) of the form T = S1 centroid of triangle P′Q′R′ lies at
xx yy x2 y2 (a) one focus (b) one vertex
i.e. 21 + 21 − 1 = 12 + 12 − 1. (c) centre (d) on one directrix
a b a b
51. Statement-1 : If the point (x, y) lies on the curve Paragraph for Q.No. 58 - 60
2x2 + y2 – 24y + 80 = 0 then the maximum value of Suppose an ellipse and a circle are respectively given
x2 + y2 is 400. x2 y2
by the equation = 1 ...(i) and
+
Statement-2 : The point (x, y) is at a distance of a 2 b2
x 2 + y 2 from origin. x2 + y2 + 2gx + 2fy + c = 0 ...(ii)
The equation,
Comprehension Type  x2 y2  2 2 ...(iii)
Paragraph for Q.No. 52 - 54  2 + 2 − 1 + λ(x + y + 2 gx + 2 fy + c) = 0
A parabola is drawn through two given points A(1, 0) a b 
and B(–1, 0) such that its directrix always touches the represents a curve which passes through the common
circle x2 + y2 = 4. Then points of the ellipse (i) and the circle (ii).
We can choose l so that the equation (iii) represents
52. The equation of directrix is of the form
(a) x cosa + y sina = 1 (b) x cosa + y sina = 2 a pair of straight lines. In general we get three values
(c) x cosa + y sina = 3 (d) x tana + y seca = 2 of l, indicating three pair of straight lines can be
drawn through the points. Also when (iii) represents
53. The locus of focus of the parabola is a pair of straight lines they are parallel to the lines
x2 y2 x2 y2 x2 y2
(a) + =1 (b) + =1 + + λ(x 2 + y 2 ) = 0, which represents a pair of
4 3 4 5 2 2
a b
x2 y2 x2 y2 lines equally inclined to axes (the term containing y is
(c) + =1 (d) + =1
3 4 5 4 absent). Hence two straight lines through the points

MATHEMATICS TODAY | JANUARY ‘18 17


of intersection of an ellipse and any circle make equal 63. The minimum distance of 4x2 + y2 + 4x – 4y + 5 = 0
angles with the axes. from the line –4x + 3y = 3 is
58. The radius of the circle passing through the point 64. The distance between the directrices of the ellipse
2 2 K
x
+
y
= 1 and x 2 − y 2 = 0 is (4 x − 8)2 + 16 y 2 = (x + 3 y + 10)2 is K then is
of intersection of 2 2 2
a b
ab 2 ab x2 y2
(a) (b) 65. Number of points on the ellipse + = 1 from
50 20
a 2 + b2 a 2 + b2 which pair of perpendicular tangents are drawn to
a 2 − b2 a 2 + b2 x2 y2
(c) (d) the ellipse + = 1 is
a 2 + b2 a 2 + b2 16 9
59. Suppose two lines are drawn through the common 66. If L be the length of common tangent to the ellipse
x2 y2 x2 y2
points of intersection of − = 1 and x2 + y2 + + = 1 and the circle x2 + y2 = 16 intercepted
a 2 b2 25 4
3L
2gx + 2fy + c = 0. If these lines are inclined at an by the coordinate axis then is
2
angle a, b to x-axis then
SOLUTIONS
π
(a) a = b (b) α + β = 1. (c): Given, equation of hyperbola is x2 – 3y2 = 2x + 8
2 ⇒ x2 – 2x – 3y2 = 8
b
(c) a + b = p (d) α + β = 2 tan −1   (x − 1)2 y 2
a ⇒ (x − 1)2 − 3 y 2 = 9 ⇒ − =1
9 3
60. The no. of pair of straight lines through the points of
(x − 1)2 y 2
intersection of x2 – y2 = 1 and x2 + y2 – 4x – 5 = 0 is Conjugate of this hyperbola is − + =1
(a) 0 (b) 1 9 3
(c) 2 (d) 3  a 2 + b2 
and its eccentricity (e) =  
Matrix–Match Type
 b2 
61. Match the following.
9+3
Column-I Column-II Here, a2 = 9, b2 = 3 ∴ e = =2
3
(A) The locus of mid-points of (p) hyperbola 2. (b) : We know that equation of polar at point (h, k) is
chords of an ellipse which
hx ky hx ky
are drawn through an end + =1 ⇒ + = 1 ⇒ hx + 4ky = 4 ...(i)
2 2 4 1
of minor axis, is a b
(B) The locus of an end of latus (q) circle which is similar to given straight line x + 4y = 4 ...(ii)
rectum of all ellipses having Comparing (i) and (ii), we get h = 1, k = 1.
a given major axis is Hence, the point is (1, 1).
(C) The locus of the foot of (r) parabola −b
3. (a) : y = x (Two diameters y = m1x and y = m2x
perpendicular from a focus a
of the ellipse on any tangent is b2
will be conjugate diameters, if m1m2 = − 2 ).
(D) A variable line is drawn (s) ellipse a
through a fixed point cuts 4. (c) : Equation of tangent at (a cosq, b sinq) is
axes at A and B. The locus x y Y
cos θ + sin θ = 1
of the mid point of AB is a b Q
(a cos, b sin)
Integer Answer Type  a 
P= , 0
 cos θ 
62. If e is the eccentricity of the hyperbola (5x – 10)2 + O P X
25e  b 
(5y + 15)2 = (12x – 5y + 1)2 then Q =  0,
13
is equal to  sin θ 

18 MATHEMATICS TODAY | JANUARY ‘18


1  a  b  ab 4 3 h 4
Area of ∆OPQ =     = ∴ = ⇒ = ...(i)
2  cos θ   sin θ  |sin 2θ | h k k 3
\ (Area)min = ab. 3h2 – 4k2 = 12 ...(ii)
Using (i) and (ii), we get the tangents as y – x = ± 1.
5. (d) : 25(x – 3)2 + 16y2 = 400
17. (a) : The line through (6, 2) is
(x − 3)2 y 2 16 3 y – 2 = m(x – 6) ⇒ y = mx + 2 – 6m
+ =1 \ e = 1− =
16 25 25 5 Now from condition of tangency, (2 – 6m)2 = 25m2 – 16
6. (c) : Since the general equation of second degree ⇒ 36m2 + 4 – 24m – 25m2 + 16 = 0
represents a rectangular hyperbola, if D ≠ 0, h2 > ab ⇒ 11m2 – 24m + 20 = 0
and coefficient of x2 + coefficient of y2 = 0. Therefore Obviously its roots are m1 and m2, therefore
the given equation represents a rectangular hyperbola, 24 20
m1 + m2 = and m1m2 =
if l + 5 = 0 i.e., l = – 5. 11 11
7. (c) : Multiplying both, we get x2 y2
18. (a) : If y = mx + c touches − 2 = 1,
2
x2 y2 2 2
then c = a m – b .2 2 a b
(bx )2 − (ay )2 = (ab)2 ⇒ −=1
a 2 b2 2
Here, c = 6, a = 100, b = 49 2
which is the standard equation of hyperbola. 17
∴ 36 = 100m2 − 49 ⇒ 100m2 = 85 ⇒ m = .
2 20
8. (b) : Since e > 1 always for hyperbola and < 1.
3 19. (c) : Equation of the tangent to x2 – y2 – 8x + 2y
9. (c) : We know that when a circle touches externally + 11 = 0 at (2, 1) is 2x – y – 4(x + 2) + (y + 1) + 11 = 0 or x = 2.
to the two given circles, then the locus of the circle will 20. (b) : x cosa + y sina = p ⇒ y = – cota x + p coseca
be hyperbola.
x2 y2 y2 x2
10. (c) : The equation of hyperbola is − =1 It is tangent to the hyperbola − = 1.
5 16 9 a 2 b2
Now b2 = a2 (e 2 − 1) ⇒ e = Therefore, p2 cosec2a = a2 cot2 a – b2
4
5  ⇒ a2 cos2a – b2 sin2a = p2.

Hence foci are (±ae, 0) ⇒  ± 4 ⋅ , 0  i.e., (±5, 0). 21. (c) : We have, x = 2 secf and y = 3 tanf
 4 
dx dy
11. (c) : Since h2 > ab ⇒ = 2 secftanf and = 3 sec2 φ
Hence it is a hyperbola. dφ dφ
dy dy / dφ 3 sec2 φ
12. (a) : The equation is (x – 0)2 + (y – 0)2 = a2. \ = =
dx dx / dφ 2 sec φ tan φ
13. (c) : If y = 2x + l is tangent to given hyperbola, then
dy 3
= cosecφ ...(i)
λ = ± a2m2 − b2 = ± (100)(4) − 144 = ± 256 = ±16 dx 2
But, tangent is parallel to 3x – y + 4 = 0 ...(ii)
x2 y2
14. (a) : Tangents to − = 1 and perpendicular to 3
1 3 By (i) and (ii), cosecφ = 3 ⇒ cosecφ = 2 ∴ φ = 30°.
x + 3y – 2 = 0 are given by y = 3x ± 9 − 3 = 3x ± 6. 2
22. (b) : Given equation of hyperbola is xy = a
x2 y2 Slope of tangent at point (x1, y1) is
15. (b) : Equation of hyperbola is − =1
a2 b2  dy 
m=  ∴
xdy
+ y =0 ⇒
dy − y
=
 dx ( x , y ) dx dx x
Tangents to hyperbola are y = mx ± a2m2 − b2 ...(i) 1 1
 dy  1
−1 a2 At point (a, 1), we have m =   =−
Tangents perpendicular to (i) are y = x± − b2  dx (a,1) a
m 2
m
23. (d) : The condition for the line y = mx + c will touch
Eliminating m, we get x2 + y2 = a2 – b2.
x y x2 y2
16. (b) : The tangent at (h, k) is − =1 the hyperbola − = 1 if c2 = a2m2 – b2
2 2
4/h 3/k a b

MATHEMATICS TODAY | JANUARY ‘18 19


Here, m = − 1, c = 2 p, a2 = 9, b2 = 4 2a
31. (d) : We have, 2ae = 8, = 18 ⇒ a = 4 × 9 = 6
e
\ We get 2p2 = 5
2 4 6
x2 y2 e = , b = 6 1− = 5 =2 5
24. (d) : The given ellipse is + = 1. The value of 3 9 3
9 4 x2 y2
x2 y2 Hence the required equation is + =1
the expression + − 1 is positive for x = 1, y = 2 36 20
9 4 i.e., 5x2 + 9y2 = 180.
and negative for x = 2, y = 1. Therefore P lies outside
32. (b) : 4(x – 2)2 + 9(y – 3)2 = 36
E and Q lies inside E. The value of the expression Hence, the centre is (2, 3).
x2 + y2 – 9 is negative for both the points P and Q.
33. (a) : Major axis = 6 = 2a ⇒ a = 3
Therefore P and Q both lie inside C. Hence, P lies inside
C but outside E. 1 1 3 3
Now, e = ⇒ b = 3 1− =
25. (c) : We have, a = 6, b = 2 5 2 4 2
Also centre is (7, 0)
20 16 2
\ b2 = a2 (1 − e 2 ) ⇒ = (1 − e 2 ) ⇒ e = = (x − 7)2 y2
36 36 3 Equation is + =1
a 9 (27 / 4)
But directrices are x = ±
e ⇒ 3x2 + 4y2 – 42x + 120 = 0
6 34. (b) : Given equation can be written as
Hence, distance between them is 2⋅ = 18.
2/3
(x − 1)2 ( y − 2)2 b2 − a 2 9−5 2
26. (a) : Vertices ≡ (±5, 0) ≡ (±a, 0) ⇒ a = 5 + =1 ∴ e = = =
5 9 2 9 3
4 b
Foci (±4, 0) ≡ (±ae, 0) ⇒ e = 35. (c) : E ≡ 4 + 9(3)2 – 16(1) – 54(3) + 61 < 0
5
Therefore, the point is inside the ellipse.
 16 
∴ b2 = (25) 1 −  = 9 ⇒ b = 9 4(x − 2)2 9( y − 3)2
 25  + =1
36 36
x2 y2 Equation of major axis is y – 3 = 0 and point (1, 3)
Hence equation is + = 1 i.e., 9x2 + 25y2 = 225
25 9 lies on it.
27. (b) : We have, vertex = (0,7) ⇒ b = 7 36. (c) : It is the director circle.
b 7 37. (c) : Change the equation 9x2 + 5y2 – 30y = 0 in
Directrix y = 12 ⇒ = 12 ⇒ e =
e 12 standard form 9x2 + 5(y2 – 6y) = 0
95 7 95 x 2 ( y − 3)2
Also, a = 7 = ⇒ 9 x 2 + 5( y 2 − 6 y + 9) = 45 ⇒ + =1
144 12 5 9
 a2 < b2 , so axis of ellipse is on y-axis.
Hence equation of ellipse is 144x2 + 95y2 = 4655. At y axis, put x = 0, so we get
x2 y2 2b2 0 + 5y2 – 30y = 0 ⇒ y = 0, y = 6
28. (b) : + = 1. Latus rectum = = 3. i.e., tangents at vertex is y = 0, y = 6.
4 3 a
38. (c) : As we know that the line lx + my + n = 0 is
x2 y2
29. (b) : The ellipse is + =1 x2 y2 a2 b2 (a2 − b2 )2
25 9 normal to + = 1, if + . But in
=
2 a 2 b2 l 2 m2 n2
b 9 4 this condition, we have to replace l by m, m by –1 and n
∴ e = 1− 2 = 1− =
a 25 5
(a2 − b2 )m
by c, then the required condition is c = ± .
30. (a) : Since, ae = ± 2 ⇒ a = ± 4 ( e = 1 / 2)
a2 + b2m2
Now b2 = a2(1 – e2) ⇒ b2 = 16(1 – 1/4) ⇒ b2 = 12 x − x1 y − y1
2 2 39. (b) : = , which is the equation of
2
Hence ellipse is
x
+
y
= 1 ⇒ 3x 2 + 4 y 2 = 48 x1 / a y1 / b2
16 12 normal at point (x1, y1).

20 MATHEMATICS TODAY | JANUARY ‘18


180 48. (c) : Foci of xy = 36 are (c 2 , c 2 )
In the given ellipse, a2 = 20, b2 =
16 and (−c 2 , − c 2 ) = (6 2 , 6 2 ), (−6 2 , − 6 2 )
Hence the equation of normal at the point (2, 3) is \ Statement-1 is true.
x −2 y −3
= ⇒ 40(x − 2) = 15( y − 3) x2 y2
2 / 20 48 / 180 The foci of − = 1 are  ± a2 + b2 , 0 
a 2
b 2  
⇒ 8x – 3y = 7 ⇒ 3y – 8x + 7 = 0.
\ Statement-2 is false.
40. (c) : Vertices (±4, 0) ≡ (±a, 0) ⇒ a = 4  a 2b ab2 
6 3 49. (c) : The point of intersection is,  , ,
Foci (±6, 0) ≡ (±ae, 0) ⇒ e = =  a + b a + b 
4 2
−b2 a a
41. (c) : Foci = (0, ±4) ≡ (0, ±be) ⇒ be = 4 with m1 = 2 , m2 = − .
a b b
Vertices (= 0, ±2) ≡ (0, ±b) ⇒ b = 2 ⇒ a = 2 3
 m − m2  b −a 
⇒ θ = tan −1  1 = tan −1  .
−x2 y2
y2 x2  1 + m m 
1 2  ab 
Hence equation is + = 1 or − =1
(2 3 )2 (2)2 4 12
50. (a) : Let the mid point (t, b – t).
2 2
42. (c) : Given equation of hyperbola, x − y
2
= 1, tx
+
(b − t ) y = t 2 + (b − t )
4 (16 / 9)
4 2a2 2b2 2a2 2b2
∴ a = 2, b = . As we know, b2 = a2(e2 – 1) It passes through (a, −b ) .
3
2
16 13 13 ta b (b − t ) t2 (b −t)
⇒ = 4(e 2 − 1) ⇒ e 2 = ∴e= − = 2 +
9 9 3 2a2 2b2 2a 2b2
x2 y2 ⇒ t2(a2 + b2) – ab(3a + b)t + 2a2b2 = 0
43. (d) : − = 1 ⇒ a2 = 3 and b2 = 6 For real t, a2b2(3a + b)2 – 4(a2 + b2)2a2b2 > 0
(6 / 2) 6
9a2 + 6ab + b2 – 8a2 – 8b2 > 0
b2 a2 + 6ab – 7b2 > 0
Therefore e = +1 ⇒ e = 3
a2 51. (a) : Given equation of ellipse is
2
44. (c) : D ≠ 0, h2 > ab x 2 ( y − 12)
+ = 1. The maximum value of x2 + y2
45. (b) : 2ae = 16, e = 2 ⇒ a = 4 2 and b = 4 2 32 64
is the distance between (0, 0) & (0, 20).
x2 y2
∴ Equation is − = 1 ⇒ x 2 − y 2 = 32 52. (b) 53. (a) 54. (a)
2 2
(4 2 ) (4 2 )
52 - 54 : Any point on circle x2 + y2 = 4 is (2cosa, 2sina)
2 2 \ Equation of directrix is x(cosa) + y(sina) – 2 = 0
x y 1
46. (c) : Hyperbola is − =
144 81 25 Let focus be (x1, y1). Then as A(1, 0), B(–1, 0) lie on
parabola we must have
144 81 81 225 15 5 (x1 − 1)2 + y12 = (cos α − 2)2 
a= ,b= , e1 = 1 + = = =
25 25 144 144 12 4  ⇒ x1 = 2 cos α,
(x1 + 1)2 + y12 = (cos α + 2)2 
 12 5  y1 = ± 3 sinα
Therefore, foci = (±ae1 , 0) =  ± . , 0  = (±3, 0) x 2
y 2
 5 4  \ Locus of focus is + = 1 and focus is of the
Also, focus of ellipse = (4e, 0). 4 3
form (2 cos α, ± 3 sin α).
3  9 \ Length of semi latus rectum of parabola
⇒ e = . Hence, b2 = 16 1 −  = 7
4  16  = ⊥r distance from focus to directrix 2 ± 3 sin2 α.
47. (b) : Here a = b, so it is a rectangular hyperbola.
Hence maximum possible length = 2 + 3
Hence, eccentricity, e = 2.

MATHEMATICS TODAY | JANUARY ‘18 21


55. (a) : Let P = (a cosa, b sina), P ′ = (a cosa, a sin a) x y
Q = (a cos b, b sinb), Q′ = (a cosb, a sinb) (D) Line + = 1 passes through fixed point (a, b)
a b
R = (a cosg, b sing), R′ = (a cosg, a sing). α β
α −β β − γ γ −α ∴ + =1
Area of DPQR is 2ab sin sin sin a b
2 2 2 a b
h = ,k =
 3
Its max value is 2ab .  
 2 
( 3 /2 )( )
3 /2 =
3 3ab
4 α β
2 2
 α β  αβ
+ = 2 ⇒ x −   y −  =
Area of ∆PQR x y  2   2 4
56. (b) :
Area of ∆P ′Q ′ R′ 62. (5) : Equation can be rewritten as
1 cos α − cos γ sin α − sin γ 13 12 x − 5 y + 1 13
ab (x − 2)2 + ( y + 3)2 = So, e = .
2 cos α − cos β sin α − sin β b 5 13 5
= =
1 2 cos α − cos γ sin α − sin γ a  1 
a 63. (1) : The given curve represents the point  − , 2 
2 cos α − cos β sin α − sin β \ Minimum distance = 1.  2 

57. (c) : Area of DPQR is max when a – b = b – g 2 2


 1  (x + 3 y + 10)
64. (8) : (x − 2)2 + y 2 =   ⇒ e = 1/2
= g – a = 120° and DP ′Q′R′ is equilateral hence its 2 4
centroid is (0, 0) centre of the ellipse. Perpendicular distance from (2, 0) to x + 3 y + 10 = 0
2a2b2 a a
58. (b) : x 2 + y 2 = is − ae ⇒ 2a − = 6 ⇒ a = 4
e 2
a 2 + b2 2a
Distance between directrices = = 16 = K
2a2b2 2ab e
\ Radius of the circle = =
2
a +b 2
a + b2 2 x2 y2
65. (4) : Director circle of + = 1 is x2 + y2 = 25
59. (c) : As the lines joining common point of 16 9
x2 y2
intersection must be equally inclined to the axis The director circle will cut the ellipse + = 1 at
4 points. 50 20
tana = – tanb ⇒ a + b = np
60. (c) : Any curve through their point of intersection 66. (7) : The equation of the tangent at (5 cosq, 2sinq)
is x2 + y2 – 4x – 5 + l(x2 – y2 – 1) = 0 x y
is cos θ + sin θ = 1
⇒ (1 + l)x2 + (1 – l)y2 – 4x – 5 – l = 0 5 2
1
Curve will be pair of straight lines, if If it is a tangent to the circle then =4
abc + 2fgh – af2 – by2 – ch2 = 0 cos2 θ sin2 θ
+
⇒ (1 + l)(1 – l)(–5 –l) + 0 – (1 + l)⋅0 – (1 – l)⋅4 10 3 25 4
⇒ cos θ = ,sin θ =
+ (5 + l)⋅0 = 0 4 7 2 7
⇒ (l – 1)(l + 3)2 = 0 ⇒ l = 1, –3 Let A and B be the points where the tangent meets the
\ Two pair of straight lines can be drawn. coordinate axis then
61. (A) → (s), (B) → (r), (C) → (q), (D) → (p)  5   2 
A , 0 , B  0,
(A) The chord with mid point (h, k)  cos θ   sin θ 
hx ky h2 k 2 x2 y2 y 25 4 14
+ = + ∴ Locus is + = L= + =
a 2 b2 a 2 b2 a 2 b2 b cos θ2 2
sin θ 3
(B) (h, k) be the end of the latus rectum. 
h = ae, k = a(1 – e2) Solution Sender of Maths Musing
h2 = –a(k – a) ⇒ x2 = –a(y – a), parabola. SET-180
(C) y − mx = ± a2m2 + b2 \ x2 + y2 = a2 • N. Jayanthi (Hyderabad)

22 MATHEMATICS TODAY | JANUARY ‘18


CLASS XI Series 9

CBSE
Statistics | Probability

STATISTICS
X Range = Maximum value – Minimum value
1 1
n  σ2 = Σ( xi − x )2 , σ = Σ( xi − x )2
N N
 ∑ fidi 
 i =1  X Variance and standard deviation of a continuous
X Mean, x = A + ×h
frequency distribution
N
Where A = assumed Mean, h = width of class 1 1
σ 2 = Σfi ( xi − x )2 , σ = N Σfi xi2 − (Σfi xi )2
x −A N N
intervals and di = i
h X Shortcut method to find variance and standard
X Mean deviation for ungrouped data deviation.
h2 
Σ xi − x Σ xi − M σ2 = N Σfi yi2 − (Σfi yi )2  ,
M .D.( x ) = , M .D.( M ) = 2
n n N
Mean deviation for grouped data h x −A
X
σ= N Σfi yi2 − (Σfi yi )2 , where yi = i ,
N h
Σfi xi − x Σfi xi − M
M .D.(x ) = , M .D.(M ) = , A = assumed mean, h = width of class intervals
N N σ
where N = fi X Coefficient of Variation (C.V.) = × 100, x– ≠ 0.
x
X Variance and standard deviation of a discrete For series with equal means, the series with lesser
frequency distribution standard deviation is more consistent or less scattered.

PROBABILITY
X Event A or B = A B = {x : x ∈ A or x ∈ B} (i) 0 ≤ P( i) ≤ 1
X Event A and B = A B = {x : x ∈ A and x ∈ B} (ii) P( i) = 1 i ∈S
X Set A′ = S – A where S = sample space (iii) P(A) = P( i) i ∈A
X A – B = Event ‘A but not B’ = A B′ X P(A B) = P(A) + P(B) – P(A B)
X For disjoint sets, A B=f X P(A B C) = P(A) + P(B) + P(C) – P(A B) –
X Number P( i ) associated with sample point P (B C) – P(C A) + P(A B C)
i
such that X P(A′) = 1 – P(A)

MATHEMATICS TODAY | JANUARY ‘18 23


WORK IT OUT 13. The following is the record of goals scored by team
VERY SHORT ANSWER TYPE A in football session.
1. Calculate the mean deviation about median from No. of goals
the following data: 340, 150, 210, 240, 300, 310, 320. scored by 0 1 2 3 4
2. There are 4 red and 3 black balls in a bag. If one ball team A
is taken out of this bag at random, then represent No. of
1 9 7 5 3
the sample space and the event of this ball being matches
black.
For team B, the number of goals scored per match
3. Two dice are thrown simultaneously. What is the was 2.5, with a S.D. of 1.25. Find which team may be
probability of obtaining a total score of 7? considered more consistent.
4. For a sample of size 60, we have the information
14. What is the probability that in a group of 3 people at
∑ xi2 = 18000 and ∑ xi = 960. Find the variance. least two will have the same birthday? Assume that
5. What is the probability of getting a total of less than there are 365 days in a year and no one has his/her
12 in the throw of two dice? birthday on the 29th of February.
SHORT ANSWER TYPE 15. A box contains 4 red, 5 white and 6 black balls. A
6. The mean and variance of 7 observations are person draws 4 balls from the box at random. Find
8 and 16 respectively. If five of the observations are the probability of selecting at least one ball of each
2, 4, 10, 12, 14, find the remaining observations. colour.
7. If a number of two digits is formed with the digits LONG ANSWER TYPE - II
2, 3, 5, 7, 9, without repetition of digits, what is the
probability that the number formed is 35? 16. Let x1, x2, x3, ..., xn be n values of a variable X, and
let xi = a + hui, i = 1, 2, ..., n, where u1, u2, ..., un
8. Three coins are tossed together. Find the probability are the values of variable U. Then, prove that
of getting Var (X) = h2 Var (U), h ≠0.
(i) at least two heads.
(ii) at least one head and one tail. 17. There are n articles to be distributed among N
people. Find the probability of a particular person
9. The probability that a student will receive A, B, C
or D grade are 0.35, 0.45, 0.09 and 0.11 respectively. getting r(< n) articles.
Find the probability that the student will receive 18. Find the mean and standard deviation of the first n
(i) A or B grade terms of an A.P. whose first term is a and common
(ii) at most a C grade. difference is d.
10. In a race, the odds in favour of horses P, Q, R, S 19. Find the mean and variance of the data 1, 2, 2, 3, 3,
are 1 : 2, 1 : 3, 1 : 4 and 1 : 5 respectively. Find the 3, 4, 4, 4, 4, ...... n, n, n,.........., n where the number r
probability that one of them wins the race. occurs r times, r = 1, 2, 3, ..., n.
LONG ANSWER TYPE - I
20. The mean and standard deviation of 20 observations
11. Four cards are drawn at random from a pack of 52 are found to be 10 and 2 respectively. On rechecking,
playing cards. Find the probability of getting it was found that an observation 8 was incorrect.
(i) all the four cards of the same suit Calculate the correct mean and standard deviation
(ii) all the four cards of the same number.
in each of the following cases :
12. Calculate the mean deviation from the median of (i) If the wrong item is omitted.
the following data: (ii) If it is replaced by 12.
Wages
SOLUTIONS
per week 10-20 20-30 30-40 40-50 50-60 60-70 70-80
(in `) 1. Arranging the observations in ascending order of
No. of magnitude, we obtain 150, 210, 240, 300, 310, 320, 340.
4 6 10 20 10 6 4
workers Clearly, the middle observation is 300. So, median = 300.

24 MATHEMATICS TODAY | JANUARY ‘18


xi |di| = |xi – 300| 7. Let S = the sample space
and E = the event that the number formed is 35
340 40
Now n(E) = 1 and n(S) = total number of numbers of
150 150 two digits formed with the digits 2, 3, 5, 7, 9 without
210 90 repetition = 5P2 = 5 × 4 = 20
240 60 n (E) 1
\ Required probability, P( E ) = =
300 0 n (S) 20
310 10 8. Let S be the sample space for the given experiment.
320 20 A = the event of getting "at least two heads"
|di| = Σ|xi – 300| = 370 B = the event of getting "at least one head and one tail"
Now S = {(H, H, H), (H, H, T), (H, T, H), (T, H, H), (T, H, T),
1 1 370
∴ M.D.(M ) =
n
∑ | di | = ∑| xi − 300 | =
7 7
= 52.8 (T, T, H), (H, T, T), (T, T, T)}
\ n(S) = 8
2. Let Ri denotes red balls and Bi denotes black balls. (i) A = {(H, H, H), (H, H, T), (H, T, H), (T, H, H)}
S = Set of all possible outcomes when one ball is drawn n ( A) 4 1
from the bag = {R1, R2, R3, R4, B1, B2, B3} \ Required probability , P ( A) = = = .
n (S) 8 2
and E = Event of ball being black = {B1, B2, B3}
(ii) B = {(H, H, T), (H, T, H), (T, H, H), (H, T, T),
3. Let S be the sample space and E be the event of
"obtaining a total of 7." (T, H, T), (T, T, H)}
n ( B) 6 3
Then, n(S) = 6 × 6 = 36 \ Required probability, P (B) = = = .
n (S) 8 4
Also, E = {(1, 6), (2, 5), (3, 4), (4, 3), (5, 2), (6, 1)}
\ n(E) = 6 9. Let E1, E2, E3 and E4 denote the events of the student
n (E) 6 1 receiving A, B, C and D grades respectively.
Now, required probability, P( E ) = = = .
n (S) 36 6 Then, P(E 1) = 0.35, P(E2) = 0.45, P(E3) = 0.09 and
2 P(E4) = 0.11
4. Since, σ 2 =
∑ xi2 ∑ xi 
−
60  60  (i) Required probability = P(A or B grade)
2 = P(E1 E2)
18000  960 
= − = 300 − 256 = 44. = P(E1) + P(E2) = 0.35 + 0.45
60  60 
= 0.80
5. Let S be the sample space and E be the event that (ii) Required probability = P(at most a C grade)
the sum of numbers coming up is 12 = P(C or D grade)
Then, n(S) = 6 × 6 = 36 = P(E3 E4) = P(E3) + P(E4)
and E = {(6, 6)} \ n(E) = 1
= 0.09 + 0.11 = 0.20
n (E) 1
∴ P( E ) = = 10. Let A, B, C and D be the events that the horses
n (S) 36
35 P, Q, R and S respectively win the race.
\ Required probability, P( E ′) = 1 − P( E ) = 1 1 1 1
36 Then, P( A) = , P( B) = , P(C ) = and P(D ) =
6. Let a and b be the two observations. 3 4 5 6
a + b + 2 + 4 + 10 + 12 + 14 Since there can be only one winner,
x =8⇒ =8 \ A, B, C and D are mutually exclusive events
7
\ a + b = 56 – 42 = 14
a2 + b2 + 22 + 42 + 102 + 122 + 142 2 MPP-9 CLASS XI ANSWER KEY
σ2 = 16 ⇒ − 8 = 16
7 1. (c) 2. (b) 3. (c) 4. (c) 5. (d)
\ a2 + b2 = 7(64 + 16) – 460 = 100 6. (b) 7. (a,c) 8. (c,d) 9. (a,b,d) 10. (a,b,c)
a + b = 14, a2 + b2 = 100 11. (a,b,c,d) 12. (c,d) 13. (a,d) 14. (b) 15. (d)
⇒ a = 8, b = 6 or a = 6, b = 8 16. (c) 17. (2) 18. (3) 19. (2) 20. (2)

MATHEMATICS TODAY | JANUARY ‘18 25


Now, required probability = P(A B C D) \ l = 40, f = 20, h = 10, C = 20.
= P(A) + P(B) + P(C) + P(D) N /2 − C 30 − 20
1 1 1 1 19 So, Median = l + × h = 40 + × 10 = 45.
= + + + = f 20
3 4 5 6 20 Thus, we have
11. Let S = the sample space fi|xi – 45| = fi|di| = 680 and N = 60.
A = event that all the four cards are of the same suit. ∑ fi | di | 680
\ Mean deviation from median = = = 11.33
and B = event that all the four cards have the same number N 60
n(S) = total number of ways of drawing 4 cards from 13. Let the assumed mean for team A = 2.
a pack of 52 cards = 52C4
No. of goals No. of di = xi – A fi di fi di2
(i) The four suits are club, space, heart and diamond,
by team A matches = xi – 2
each having 13 cards.
(fi)
Now, n(A) = number of ways of getting all the
0 1 –2 –2 4
four cards of the same suit
= 13C4 + 13C4 + 13C4 + 13C4 = 4(13C4) 1 9 –1 –9 9
\ Required probability, 2 7 0 0 0
n ( A) 4 (13 C4 ) 44 3 5 1 5 5
P ( A) = = =
n (S) 52 4165 4 3 2 6 12
C4
(ii) Four cards bearing the same number can be drawn fi = 25 fidi = 0 fidi2
in the following ways : = 30
(2, 2, 2, 2), ...., (10, 10, 10, 10),
Σ fi di 0
(A, A, A, A), (J, J, J, J), (Q, Q, Q, Q), (K, K, K, K) A . M. = x = A + = 2+ =2
\ n(B) = number of favourable cases = 13 Σ fi 25
n ( B) 13 2
\ Required probability, P( B) = = Σ fi di2  Σ fi di  30 6
n (S) 52 C4 S. D. = σ = − = = = 1. 1
Σ fi  Σ fi  25 5
1
=
20825 For team A : Coefficient of variation

12. Wages Mid- Frequency Cummulative |di|= fi|di| σ 1. 1


per Values frequency |xi – 45|
= × 100 = × 100 = 55
x 2
week ( x i)
(in `) 1.25
For team B : Coefficient of variation = × 100 = 50
10-20 15 4 4 30 120 2. 5
20-30 25 6 10 20 120 Clearly 55 > 50. Hence team 'B' is more consistent.
30-40 35 10 20 10 100 14. Let S = the sample space
40-50 45 20 40 0 0 and E = the event that "at least two people have the
50-60 55 10 50 10 100 same birthday"
60-70 65 6 56 20 120 \ E ′ = all the three people have distinct birthdays
70-80 75 4 60 30 120 Then, n(S) = number of ways in which three persons may
have their birthdays = 365 × 365 × 365 = 3653
N = Σ fi Σ fi |di| and n(E ′) = 365 × 364 × 363
= 60 = 680
n ( E ′) 365 × 364 × 363 364 × 363
Now, P( E ′) = = =
N n (S) 3653 3652
Here, N = 60. So, = 30. The cumulative frequency
2 Hence, required probability,
N
just greater than = 30 is 40 and the corresponding 364 × 363
2 P ( E ) = 1 − P ( E ′) = 1 −
class is 40-50. So, 40-50 is the median class. 3652

26 MATHEMATICS TODAY | JANUARY ‘18


15. Let S = the sample space \ n(E) = number of ways in which a particular person
Selecting the balls such that there is at least one ball gets r articles
of each colour can be drawn in the following mutually = nCr × (N – 1)n – r
exclusive ways : Hence, required probability,
(i) 1 red, 1 white and 2 black balls n n−r
n (E ) Cr × (N − 1)
(ii) 1 red, 2 white and 1 black balls P (E ) = =
(iii) 2 red, 1 white and 1 black balls n (S) Nn
Let A = event that 1 red, 1 white and 2 black balls are 18. Here the first n terms of the A.P. would be
drawn a, a + d, a + 2d + ... + a + (n – 1)d respectively.
B = event that 1 red, 2 white and 1 black balls are drawn Let the assumed mean be a.
C = event that 2 red, 1 white and 1 black balls are drawn xi di = xi – a di2
Here A, B and C are mutually exclusive events.
Hence required probability = P(A B C) a 0 0
= P(A) + P(B) + P(C) a+d d d2
4
C1 ⋅5 C1 ⋅6 C2 4 C1 ⋅5 C2 ⋅6 C1 4 C2 ⋅5 C1 ⋅6 C1 48 a + 2d 2d 4d2
= + + =
15 15 15 91 ... ... ...
C4 C4 C4
... ... ...
16. We have,
xi = a + h ui, i = 1, 2, ..., n a + (n – 1)d (n – 1)d (n – 1)2 d2
n n Now, di = 0 + d + 2d + .... + (n – 1)d
⇒ ∑ xi = ∑ (a + h ui ) n (n − 1) d
i =1 i =1 = [1 + 2 + ... + (n − 1)]d =
n n
2
and di2 = 0 + d2 + 4d2 + .... + (n – 1)2d2
⇒ ∑ xi = na + h ∑ ui = [12 + 22 + ... + (n – 1)2]d2
i =1 i =1

1 n 1 n  n(n − 1)(2n − 1) d 2
⇒ ∑ xi = a + h  ∑ ui  =
n i =1 6
 n i =1  Σ di (n − 1) d
The actual mean, x = a + =a+
 1 n 1 n  n 2
⇒ X=a+hU  X = ∑ xi and U = ∑ ui 
 n i =1 n i =1  Σ di2 Σd 
2

\ xi – X = (a + h ui) – (a + h U), i = 1, 2, ..., n Standard deviation, σ = − i


n  n 
⇒ xi – X = h (ui – U), i = 1, 2, ..., n
⇒ (xi – X)2 = h2(ui – U)2, i = 1, 2, ..., n EXAM CORNER 2018
1  1 n 
⇒ ∑(xi − X )2 = h2  ∑ (ui − U )2  Exam Date
n  n i =1  VITEEE 4th April to 15th April
2
⇒ Var (X) = h Var (U). JEE Main 8th April (Offline), 15th & 16th April (Online)
17. Let S = the sample space SRMJEEE 16th April to 30th April
E = the event that a particular person gets r(< n) articles.
Karnataka CET 18th April & 19th April
Now, each article can be given to any one of the N
people. WBJEE 22nd April
\ Each article can be distributed in N ways. Kerala PET 23rd April & 24th April
\ n(S) = number of ways of distributing n articles AMU (Engg.) 29th April
among N people
COMEDK (Engg.) 13th May
= N × N × ... × N = Nn.
r articles out of n articles can be given to a particular BITSAT 16th May to 31st May
person in nCr ways and the remaining (n – r) articles JEE Advanced 20th May
can be distributed to remaining (N – 1) people in AIIMS 27th May
(N – 1)n – r ways.

MATHEMATICS TODAY | JANUARY ‘18 27


2 (i) If we omit the wrong item, 8 from the observations,
(n − 1)(2n − 1) d 2  n − 1 2 then 19 observations are left
= − d
6  2  Correct xi + 8 = incorrect xi
(n − 1)  2n − 1 n − 1  (n − 1)(n + 1) \ Correct xi = 200 – 8 = 192
=d  −  =d 192
2  3 2  12 ∴ Correct mean = = 10.10
19
n2 − 1 and correct xi2 + 82 = incorrect xi2
=d
12 \ Correct xi2 = 2080 – 64 = 2016
1 + 2 + 2 + ..... + n + n 1
Correct variance = (correct xi2)
19. x = 19
1 + 2 + 3 + .... + n – (correct mean)2
2
12 + 22 + 32 + ... + n2 n(n + 1)(2n + 1) 2n + 1 =
2016  192 
−
1440
= = =   =
n(n + 1) / 2 6n(n + 1) / 2 3 19 19 361
1440
2 2 2 2 \ Correct standard deviation = = 1.997
1 ⋅ 1 + 2 ⋅ 2 + .... + n ⋅ n  2n + 1  361
σ2 = −
n(n + 1) / 2  3  (ii) If we replace the wrong item by 12, then
Incorrect xi – 8 + 12 = correct xi
2
13 + 23 + 33 + .... + n3  2n + 1  \ Correct xi = 200 + 4 = 204
= −
n(n + 1) / 2  3  204
and correct mean = = 10.2
n(n + 1) (2n + 1)2 n2 + n − 2 (n − 1)(n + 2)
20
= − = = and incorrect xi2 – 82 + 122 = correct x2i
2 9 18 18 \ Correct xi2 = 2080 – 82 + 122 = 2160
20. We have, n = 20, x = 10 and = 2 1
Correct variance = (correct xi2)
1 20
∴ x = Σ xi ⇒ Σxi = nx = 20 × 10 = 200 – (correct mean)2
n 2
2160  204  1584
\ Incorrect xi = 200 and = 2 ⇒ 2 = 4 =− =
20  20  400
1 1
⇒ Σ x2 − x 2 = 4 ⇒ Σ x 2 − 100 = 4 \ Correct standard deviation
n i 20 i
⇒ xi2 = 2080 1584
= = 1.9899
\ Incorrect xi2 = 2080 400 

28 MATHEMATICS TODAY | JANUARY ‘18


MPP-9 Class XI

T his specially designed column enables students to self analyse their


extent of understanding of specified chapters. Give yourself four
marks for correct answer and deduct one mark for wrong answer.
Self check table given at the end will help you to check your
readiness.

Conic Sections
Total Marks : 80 Time Taken : 60 Min.
Only One Option Correct Type (a) 2 (b) 4 (c) 6 (d) 5
1. Equation of the smallest circle passing through 6. Tangent is the drawn to the ellipse
the centre of the circle x2 + y2 + 2x + 4y + 4 = 0 x2   π 
+ y = 1at (3 3 cos θ,sin θ)  where θ ∈  0,   .
and touching the circle x2 + y2 – 4x – 2y – 3 = 0 27   2 
externally is Then the value of q such that sum of intercepts on
(a) x2 + y2 – x + y – 4 = 0 axes made by this tangent is minimum is
(b) x2 + y2 + x – y – 6 = 0 π π π π
(a) (b) (c) (d) .
(c) x2 + y2 + x + 3y + 2 = 0 3 6 8 4
(d) none of these
One or More Than One Option(s) Correct Type
2. The equation of the parabola whose vertex and
focus lie on the axis of x at distances a and a1 from 7. Parabola y2 = 4x and the cirlce having it's centre
the origin respectively is at (6, 5) intersect at right angle. Possible point of
(a) y2 = 4(a1 – a)X (b) y2 = 4(a1 – a)(X – a) intersection of these curves can be
2
(c) y = 4(a1 – a)(X – a1) (d) none of these (a) (9, 6) (b) (2, 8 ) (c) (4, 4) (d) (3, 2 3)
3. The curve described parametrically by x = t2 + t + 1, 8. If the tangent at the point P(q) to the ellipse
y = t2 – t + 1 represents 16x2 + 11y2 = 256 is also a tangent to the circle
(a) a pair of straight line (b) an ellipse x2 + y2 – 2x = 15, then q is equal to
(c) a parabola (d) a hyperbola 2π 4π 5π π
4. If angle between the tangents at the end points of (a) (b) (c) (d)
3 3 3 3
x2 y2 x 2
y 2
the chords of the hyperbola − = 1 is 90°, then 9. If foci of 2 − 2 = 1 coincide with the foci of
9 4 a b
locus of the mid points of the chords is x2 y2
2 − = 1 and eccentricity of the hyperbola is 2,
2 2  x2 y2  25 9
(a) x + y = 9  −  then
 9 4 
2 (a) a2 + b2 = 16
 x2 y2  (b) there is no director circle of the hyperbola
(b) x 2 + y 2 = 4  − 
 9 4  (c) centre of the director circle is (0, 0)
2 (d) length of latusrectum of the hyperbola = 12
 x2 y2 
(c) x 2 + y 2 = 5  −  (d) none of these 10. At a point P on the parabola y2 = 4ax, tangent and
 9 4  normal are drawn. Tangent intersects the x-axis at
5. If number of common tangents of the circles Q and normal intersects the curve at R such that
x2 + y2 + 2x + 6y + 1 = 0 and x2 + y2 – 6x + k = 0 is chord PR subtends an angle of 90° at its vertex.
three, then value of k is. Then

MATHEMATICS TODAY | JANUARY ‘18 29


Matrix Match Type
(a) PQ = 2a 6 (b) PR = 6a 3
16. Match the following.
(c) area of ∆PQR = 18 2a2
Column I Column II
(d) PQ = 3a 2
x2 y2 The foci of the hyperbola
11. P and Q are two points on the ellipse =1 + 8x2 – y2 – 64x + 10y + 71 = 0
P. 1. 5
a 2 b2
whose eccentric angles are differ by 90°, then are
(a) locus of point of intersection of tangents at Director circles of
Q. 3x2 + 2y2 = 6 and 3x2 – 2y2 = 6 2. 2, 3
x2 y2
P and Q is + =2 are x2 + y2 = k, where k is
a 2 b2
x2 y2 1 The foci of the hyperbola
(b) locus of mid-point (P, Q) is 2 + 2 =
a b 2 R. 9x2 – 16y2 – 36x + 96y + 36 = 0 3. (10, 5)
(c) product of slopes of OP and OQ where O is the are
−b2 Two circles x2 + y2 + px + py – 7 = 0
centre is 2 and x2 + y2 – 10x + 2py + 1 = 0
a 1 S. 4. (2, 8)
will orthogonally, then the value
(d) max. area of DOPQ is ab
2 p is
12. The director circle of a hyperbola is x2 + y2 – 4y = 0. P Q R S
One end of the major axis is (2, 0) then the focus is (a) 2 1 3 4
(a) ( 3, 2 − 3 ) (
(b) − 3, 2 + 3 ) (b)
(c)
1
3
3
1
4
4
2
2
(c) ( 6, 2 − 6) (d) (− 6, 2 + 6) (d) 3 4 1 2
13. If the ellipse x2 + 2y2 = 4 and the hyperbola S = 0 Integer Answer Type
have same end points of the latus rectum, then the 17. Number of distinct normal lines that can be drawn
eccentricity of the hyperbola can be x2 y2
π π to ellipse + = 1 from the point P (0, 6) is
(a) cosec (b) cosec 169 25
4 3
π π π π 18. From a point on y = x + 1 tangents are drawn to
(c) 2 sin + sin (d) 2 sin + sin
3 4 3 4 x2
− y 2 = 1 such that the chord of contact passes
Comprehension Type 2 x +y
through fixed point (x1, y1), then 1 1 is
Tangent to the parabola y = x2 + ax + 1, at the point of y1
intersection of y-axis also touches the circle x2 + y2 = r2. 19. If the normals of the parabola y2 = 4x drawn at the
Also, no point of the parabola is below the x-axis. end points of its latus rectum are tangents to the
14. The radius of circle when a attains its maximum circle (x – 3)2 + (y + 2)2 = r2, then the value of r2 is
value 20. The straight line 2x – 3y = 1 divides the circular
1 1
(a) (b) (c) 1 (d) 5 region x2 + y2 ≤ 6 into two parts.
10 5
 3   5 3   1 1   1 1 
15. The minimum area bounded by the tangent and the If S =   2,  ,  ,  ,  ,  ,  ,  
coordinates axes is  4   2 4   4 4   8 4 
1 1 1 then the number of points(s) in S lying inside the
(a) 1 (b) (c) (d) smaller part is
3 2 4 
Keys are published in this issue. Search now! J
Check your score! If your score is
> 90% EXCELLENT WORK ! You are well prepared to take the challenge of final exam.

No. of questions attempted …… 90-75% GOOD WORK ! You can score good in the final exam.

No. of questions correct …… 74-60% SATISFACTORY ! You need to score more next time.
Marks scored in percentage …… < 60% NOT SATISFACTORY! Revise thoroughly and strengthen your concepts.

30 MATHEMATICS TODAY | JANUARY ‘18


MATHEMATICS TODAY | JANUARY ‘18 31
Trigonometry

This column is aimed at Class XII students so that they can prepare for competitive exams such as JEE Main/Advanced, etc. and
be also in command of what is being covered in their school as part of NCERT syllabus. The problems here are a happy blend
of the straight and the twisted, the simple and the difficult and the easy and the challenging.
*ALOK KUMAR, B.Tech, IIT Kanpur

TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS Application of Trigonometric Functions


An equation involving one or more trigonometric Sine Formula
ratios of an unknown angle is called a trigonometric In any triangle ABC, the sines of the angles are
equation. proportional to the opposite sides
The trigonometric equation may have infinite a b c
= = = 2R
number of solutions (because of their periodic sin A sin B sin C
nature) and can be classified as : where R is circumradius
• Principal solution • General solution of the DABC.
If sinq = sina ⇒ q = np + (–1)n a, n ∈ Z Cosine Formula

If cosq = cosa ⇒ q = 2np ± a n ∈ Z b2 + c2 − a2 c2 + a2 − b2


cos A = cos B =
If tanq = tana ⇒ q = np + a, n ∈ Z 2b c 2c a
If sin2q = sin2a ⇒ q = np ± a, n ∈ Z a2 + b2 − c2
cosC =
If cos2q = cos2a ⇒ q = np ± a, n ∈ Z 2 ab
If tan2q = tan2a ⇒ q = np ± a, n ∈ Z Projection Formula
sinq = 0 ⇒ q = np, n ∈ Z a = b cosC + c cosB b = c cosA + a cosC
π c = a cosB + b cosA
cosq = 0 ⇒ θ = (2n + 1) , n ∈ Z
2 Napolian or Napier's Analogy
tanq = 0 ⇒ q = np, n ∈ Z A− B a−b C
tan  = cot
Trigonometric equations of the form P(sinx ± cosx,  2  a + b 2
sinx cosx) = 0, where p(y, z) is a polynomial, can  B −C  b−c A
be solved by using the substitution sinx ± cosx = t tan   = cot
 2  b+c 2
Trigonometric equations of the form a sinx + b cosx = c,
where a, b, c ∈ R, can be solved by dividing both C − A c − a B
tan  = cot
 2  c + a 2
sides of the equation by a2 + b2
Half Angle Formula
Trigonometric equations can also be solved by
A ( s − b) (s − c )
transforming a product of trigonometric ratios into sin =
their sum or difference and viceversa. 2 bc

* Alok Kumar is a winner of INDIAN NATIONAL MATHEMATICS OLYMPIAD (INMO-91).


He trains IIT and Olympiad aspirants.

34 MATHEMATICS TODAY | JANUARY ‘18


INVERSE TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS
A s ( s − a)
cos = If f : A → B such that f (x) = y is one-one and onto, then
2 bc
there exists a unique function f –1, where f –1: B → A
A ( s − b) (s − c ) and f –1(y) = x, for all x ∈ X, y ∈ Y.
tan =
2 s ( s − a) i.e., domain of f –1 = range of f and range of f –1

a+b+c = domain of f
where s = is semi perimetre of triangle.
2 D o m a in a n d R a n g e o f I n v e r s e T r ig o n o m e tr ic a l
Area of the DABC F u n c t i no s
1
(∆) = ab sin C F u n c t i on s D om ai n R an ge
2
1 1 sin–1x [–1, 1] [–p/2, p/2]
= bc sin A = ca sin B
2 2 cos–1x [–1, 1] [0, p]
(m + n)cotq = mcota – ncotb
tan–1x (– , ) (–p/2, p/2)
a b c abc
R= = = =
2 sin A 2 sin B 2 sin C 4 ∆ cot–1x (– , ) (0, p)

r= , where r is in radius of DABC. sec–1x (– , –1] [1, ) [0, p/2) (p/2, p]
s
A B C cosec–1x (– , –1] [1, ) [–p/2, 0) (0, p/2]
r = (s − a)tan = (s − b)tan = (s − c)tan
2 2 2

r=
B
a sin sin
2
C
2
(
sin–1x + sin–1y = sin–1 x 1 − y 2 + y 1 − x 2 , )
A –1 ≤ x, y ≤ 1, x2 + y2 ≤1
cos

A
2
B C
sin –1 x – sin –1 y = sin –1 x 1 − y 2 − y 1 − x 2 , { }
r = 4 R sin sin sin –1 ≤ x, y ≤ 1 and + ≤ 1 x2 y2
2 2 2
If r1, r2 and r3 are ex radius of DABC respectively
cos–1x + cos–1y = cos–1 xy − 1 − x 2 1 − y 2 ,( )
then, –1 ≤ x, y ≤ 1, x + y 0
∆ A ∆ B
r1 =
s−a
= s tan ; r2 =
2 s−b
= s tan
2 cos–1x – cos–1y = cos–1 xy + 1 − x 2 1 − y 2 ,{ }
∆ C –1 ≤ x, y ≤ 1 and x – y ≤ 0
r3 = = s tan
s−c 2
−1  x + y 
Length of an angle bisector from the angle A, tan–1x + tan–1y = tan   , xy < 1
 1 − xy 
A
2 bc cos  x− y 
βa = 2 tan–1x – tan–1y = tan–1   , xy > –1
b+c  1 + xy 
Length of median from the angle A  2x 
2 tan–1 x = sin–1   , |x| ≤ 1
1  1 + x2 
ma = 2 b2 + 2 c2 − a2  1 − x2 
2  2x 
3 = cos 
–1 
2  , x 0 = tan 
–1  ,–1< x<1
Also, ma2 + mb2 + mc2 = (a2 + b2 + c2 ) 1+ x   1 − x2 
4
Length of altitude from the angle A =
2∆
a
(
2 sin–1x = sin–1 2 x 1 − x 2 , – 1 ≤ x ≤
2
)1
2

MATHEMATICS TODAY | JANUARY ‘18 35


6. If tanq + tan2q + tan3q = tanq tan2q tan3q, then
(
2 cos–1x = sin–1 2 x 1 − x 2 , ) 1
2
≤x≤1 the general value of q is

1 1 (a) np, n ∈Z (b) , n ∈Z
3 sin–1 x = sin–1 (3x – 4x3), – ≤x≤ 6
2 2 π nπ
(c) nπ ± , n ∈ Z (d) , n ∈Z
1 3 2
3 cos–1 x = cos–1 (4x3 – 3x), ≤x≤1
2 7. If cospq = cosqq, p ≠ q, n ∈Z then
 3 x − x3  1 1 2nπ
3 tan–1 x = tan–1   , − <x< (a) q = 2np (b) θ =
2  p±q
 1 − 3x  3 3

(c) θ = (d) none of these
PROBLEMS p+q
8. If sin3a = 4sina sin(x + a) sin(x – a), then x =
Single Correct Answer Type
π π
1. General solution of the equation cotq – tanq = 2 is (a) nπ ± , n ∈ Z (b) nπ ± , n ∈ Z
6 3
π nπ π π π
(a) nπ + (b) + (c) nπ ± , n ∈ Z (d) nπ ± , n ∈ Z
4 2 8 4 2
nπ π
(c) ± (d) none of these 9. The general solution of the equation
4 8
5 ( 3 − 1)sin θ + ( 3 + 1)cos θ = 2 (where n ∈Z) is
2. If cos θ + sec θ = , then the general value of q is
π
2 π π nπ π
π (a) 2nπ ± + (b) nπ + (−1) +
(a) nπ ± , n ∈ Z (b) 2nπ ± , n ∈ Z 4 12 4 12
3 6
π π n π π
π π (c) 2nπ ± − (d) nπ + (−1) −
(c) nπ ± , n ∈ Z (d) 2nπ ± , n ∈ Z 4 12 4 12
6 3
10. The general value q is obtained from the equation
3. If tan2 θ − (1 + 3 )tan θ + 3 = 0 , then the general cos2q = sina is
value of q (where n ∈Z) is π
π π π π (a) 2θ = − α
(a) nπ + , nπ + (b) nπ − , nπ + 2
4 3 4 3 π 
(b) θ = 2nπ ±  − α  , n ∈ Z
π π π π 2 
(c) nπ + , nπ − (d) nπ − , nπ −
4 3 4 3 nπ + (−1)n α
4. If cos2q + 3cosq = 0, then the general value of q is (c) θ = , n ∈Z
2
 −3 + 17 
(a) 2nπ ± cos−1   , n ∈ Z π α
 4 (d) θ = nπ ±  −  , n ∈ Z
4 2
 −3 − 17  11. The equation 3sin2x + 10cosx – 6 = 0 is satisfied, if
(b) 2nπ ± cos−1   , n ∈ Z
 4 −1
−1
(a) x = nπ ± cos (1 / 3) (b) x = 2nπ ± cos (1 / 3)
 −3 + 17 
(c) nπ ± cos−1   , n ∈ Z −1 −1
(c) x = nπ ± cos (1 / 6) (d) x = 2nπ ± cos (1 / 6)
 4
 −3 − 17  12. The general value of q in the equation
(d) nπ ± cos−1   , n ∈ Z 2 3 cos θ = tan θ , is
 4
π π
(a) 2nπ ± , n ∈ Z (b) 2nπ ± , n ∈ Z
5. If tan θ − 2 sec θ = 3 , then the general value of q 6 4
(where n∈Z) is nπ π
(c) nπ + (−1) , n ∈ Z (d) nπ + (−1)n , n ∈ Z
nπ π nπ π 3 4
(a) nπ + (−1) − (b) nπ + (−1) −
4 3 3 4 13. The set of values of x for which the expression
nπ π n π π tan 3x − tan 2 x
(c) nπ + (−1) + (d) nπ + (−1) + = 1 , is
3 4 4 3 1 + tan 3x tan 2 x

36 MATHEMATICS TODAY | JANUARY ‘18


(a) f (b) p/4 23. The smallest positive angle which satisfies the
 π  equation 2 sin2 θ + 3 cos θ + 1 = 0 , is
(c) nπ + : n = 1, 2, 3.....
 4  5π 2π π π
(a) (b) (c) (d)
 π  6 3 3 6
(d) 2nπ + : n = 1, 2, 3..... 24. If cos40° = x and cosq = 1 – 2x2, then the possible
 4 
values of q lying between 0° and 360° is
14. The equation sinx cosx = 2 has (a) 100° and 260° (b) 80° and 280°
(a) one solution (b) two solutions (c) 280° and 100° (d) 110° and 260°
(c) infinite solutions (d) no solutions
 π
15. If sin5x + sin3x + sinx = 0, then the value of x other 25. If tan(pcosq) = cot(psinq), then sin  θ +  equals
 4
π
than 0 lying between 0 ≤ x ≤ is
2 1 1 1 3
(a) p/6 (b) p/12 (c) p/3 (d) p/4 (a) (b) (c) (d)
2 2 2 2 2
16. The number of values of x in the interval [0, 5p] 26. The general solution of sin x − cos x = 2 , for any
satisfying the equation 3sin2x – 7sinx + 2 = 0 is integer n is
(a) 0 (b) 5 (c) 6 (d) 10

17. The equation sinx + siny + sinz = –3 for 0 ≤ x ≤ 2p, (a) np (b) 2nπ +
4
0 ≤ y ≤ 2p, 0 ≤ z ≤ 2p has (c) 2np (d) (2n + 1)p
(a) one solution (b) two sets of solutions
27. If 12cot2q – 31cosecq + 32 = 0, then the value of
(c) four sets of solutions
sinq is
(d) no solution
3 2 −2
18. If 2sin2q = 3cosq where 0 ≤ q ≤ 2p, then q = (a) or 1 (b) or
5 3 3
π 7π π 5π 4 3 1
(a) , (b) , (c) or (d) ±
6 6 3 3 5 4 2
π 7π sin θ + sin 2θ
(c) , (d) none of these 28. Period of is
3 3 cos θ + cos 2θ
19. The domain of definition of the function (a) 2p (b) p (c) 2p/3 (d) p/3
f (x) = sin–1(|x – 1| – 2) is
29. Period of sin θ − 3 cos θ is
(a) [–3, 0] [1, 3] (b) [–2, 0] [1, 4] (a) p/4 (b) p/2 (c) p (d) 2p
(c) [–2, 0] [2, 4] (d) [–2, 0] [1, 2]  2x   3x 
30. The period of the function sin   + sin   is
20. If (2cosx – 1)(3 + 2cosx) = 0, 0 ≤ x ≤ 2p, then x =  3   2 
π π 5π (a) 2p (b) 10p (c) 6p (d) 12p
(a) (b) ,
3 3 3 31. Which of the following functions has period 2p?
π 5π  3 5π π π
(c) , , cos−1  −  (d)  
(a) y = sin  2 πt +  + 2 sin  3πt +  + 3 sin 5πt
2 3  2 3 3  4
21. If sin θ = 3 cos θ, − π < θ < 0 , then q = π π
(b) y = sin t + sin t
5π 4π 4π 5π 3 4
(a) − (b) − (c) (d)
6 6 6 6 (c) y = sint + cos2t
22. The most general value of q which will satisfy both (d) none of these
1 1 32. The possible values of x, which satisfy the trigonometric
the equations sin θ = − and tan θ = is
2 3  x − 1  x + 1 π
equation tan −1   + tan −1  = are
(a) nπ + (−1)n
π
(b) nπ +
π  x − 2  x + 2  4
6 6 1 1
π (a) ± (b) ± 2 (c) ± (d) ± 2
(c) 2nπ ± (d) none of these 2 2
3

MATHEMATICS TODAY | JANUARY ‘18 37


2π −1 −1 π 1
33. If sin −1 x + sin −1 y = and cos x − cos y = 43. Given 0 ≤ x ≤ then the value of
3 3 2
Then, (x, y) is equal to   2 

(a) (0, 1) (b) (1/2, 1) tan sin −1  x + 1 − x  − sin −1 x  is
(c) (1, 1/2) (d) ( 3 / 2, 1)   2 2  
1
34. In DABC, asin(B – C) + bsin(C – A) + csin(A – B) = (a) 1 (b) 3 (c) –1 (d)
(a) 0 (b) a + b + c 3
(c) a2 + b2 + c2 (d) 2(a2 + b2 + c2) 31
44. In a DABC, a = 5, b = 4 and cos( A − B) = , then
35. In triangle ABC, if a, b, c are in A.P., then the value side c is equal to 32
A C (a) 6 (b) 7
sin sin
of 2 2 = (c) 9 (d) none of these
B 45. The smallest angle of the triangle whose sides are
sin
2 6+ 12 , 48 , 24 is
(a) 1 (b) 1/2 (c) 2 (d) –1
(a) p/3 (b) p/4
36. In a DABC, if C = 30°, a = 47 cm and b = 94 cm, (c) p/6 (d) none of these
then the triangle is
(a) Right angled (b) Right angled isosceles 46. If angles of a triangle are in the ratio of 2 : 3 : 7, then
(c) Isosceles (d) none of these the sides are in the ratio of
37. If a = 9, b = 8 and c = x satisfies 3cosC = 2 then (a) 2 : 2 : ( 3 + 1) (b) 2 : 2 : ( 3 + 1)
(a) x = 5 (b) x = 6 (c) 2 : ( 3 + 1) : 2 (d) 2 : ( 3 + 1) : 2
(c) x = 4 (d) x = 7
47. If sides of a triangle are 2 cm, 6 cm and
C 2 A 3b
38. If in a triangle, a cos + c cos2 = , then its ( 3 + 1) cm . Then, the smallest angle of the triangle is
sides will be in 2 2 2 (a) 30° (b) 45° (c) 60° (d) 75°
(a) A.P. (b) G.P. A B
(c) H.P. (d) A.G. − tan
tan
48. In any triangle ABC , 2 2 =
39. In a triangle ABC if 2a2b2 + 2b2c2 = a4 + b4 + c4 , A B
tan + tan
then angle B is equal to 2 2
(a) 45° or 135° (b) 135° or 120° a −b a − b
(a) (b)
(c) 30° or 60° (d) none of these a +b c
40. If a = 2, b = 3, c = 5 in DABC, then C = a −b c
(c) (d)
(a) p/6 (b) p/3 a +b+c a +b
(c) p/2 (d) none of these
Assertion & Reason Type
41. Point D, E are taken on the side BC of a triangle
ABC such that BD = DE = EC. If BAD = x, DAE = y, Directions : In the following questions, Statement-1 is
sin(x + y )sin( y + z ) followed by Statement-2. Mark the correct choice as :
EAC = z, then the value of =
sin x sin z (a) Statement-1 is true, Statement-2 is true, Statement-2
(a) 1 (b) 2 is a correct explanation for Statement-1.
(c) 4 (d) none of these (b) Statement-1 is true, Statement-2 is true, Statement-2
42. If a1, a2, a3 are in A.P. and if d is the common difference, is not a correct explanation for Statement-1.
 d   d  (c) Statement-1 is true, Statement-2 is false.
then tan −1   + tan −1  = (d) Statement-1 is false, Statement-2 is true.
 1 + a1 2
a  1 + a 2 3
a
49. Statement-1: The number of integral values of l,
(a) tan −1  2d 
(b) tan −1  d 
for which the equation 7cosx + 5 sinx = 2l + 1 has a
1+ a a  1+ a a 
 1 3  1 3 solution, is 8.
 2d   2d  Statement-2 : acosq + bsinq = c has atleast one solution
(c) tan −1   (d) tan −1   2 2
 1 + a2 a3   1 − a1a3  if c > a + b .

38 MATHEMATICS TODAY | JANUARY ‘18


50. Statement-1: sin 2 > sin 3. Comprehension Type
π  Paragraph for Q. No. 57 – 59
Statement-2 : If x , y ∈  , π  , x < y , then sinx > siny If curve of y = f(x) and y = g(x) intersects at n different
2 
points x = x1, x2, x3 ...... . Then equation f(x) = g(x) is
π
51. Let a, b, g > 0 and α + β + γ = . said to have n solutions.
2
57. Number of solutions of |cosx| = 2[x] is (where
a! b!
Statement-1: If tan α tan β − + tan β tan γ − [x] is integral part of x)
6 2 (a) 0 (b) 1
c!
+ tan γ tan α − ≤ 0 , where n! = 1·2 …. n) (c) 2 (d) infinite
3
then tan α tan β, tan β tan γ , tan γ tan α are in A.P. 58. The number of solutions of sinpx = |loge|x|| is
Statement-2 : tan α tan β + tan β tan γ + tan γ tan α = 1 (a) 0 (b) 6 (c) 4 (d) 8

52. ABC is an isosceles triangle. ha is the length of the 59. Number of solutions of the equation
altitude from A. hb has a similar meaning. 1 1
sin5 x − cos5 x = − (sinx ≠ cosx) is
Given a ≤ ha and b ≤ hb. cos x sin x
Statement-1 : a : b : c = 1 : 1 : 2 (a) 0 (b) 1
Statement-2 : In any triangle the length of an altitude (c) 2 (d) infinite
does not exceed that of the corresponding median. Paragraph for Q. No. 60 – 62
53. Statement-1 : In a DABC, if a < b < c and r is The sides of a triangle ABC are 7, 8, 6 the smallest
inradius and r1, r2, r3 are the exradii opposite to angle angle being ‘C’.
A, B, C respectively then r < r1 < r2 < r3. 60. The length of the altitude from vertex ‘C’ is
r1 r2 r3 35
Statement-2: For, DABC, r1r2 + r2r3 + r3r1 = (a) 5 3 (b)
r 4
54. Let a, b, c be 3 positive real numbers, such that 7 7
(c) 15 (d) 15
a3 + b3 + c3 + 3abc 3 4
3 > max(a, b, c ), then 61. The length of the median from vertex C is
2
Statement-1 : It is impossible to form a triangle whose 95 95 95 95
sides have length a, b and c. (a) (b) (c) (d)
4 2 2 3
Statement-2 : p > max(a, b, c), p > a, p > b and 62. The length of the internal bisector of angle C is
p > c. 14 14
(a) 30 (b) 6 (c) (d) 2 6
55. Statement-1 : In a DABC, if cosA + 2 cosB + cosC = 2, 5 5
then a, b, c are in A.P. Paragraph for Q. No. 63 – 65
Statement-2 : In a DABC, we have cosA + cosB + cosC Let ABC be any triangle and P be a point inside it such
A B C A (s − b)(s − c ) π π π 2π
= 1 + 4 sin sin sin and sin = , that ∠PAB = , ∠PBA = , ∠PCA = , ∠PAC = .
2 2 2 2 bc 18 9 6 9
Let PCB = x.
B (s − c )(s − a) C (s − a)(s − b) 63. x =
sin = sin =
2 ca 2 ab (a) p/9 (b) 2p/9
where 2s = a + b + c (c) p/3 (d) none of these
56. The angles of a right angled triangle ABC are in A.P. 64. DABC is
(a) equilateral (b) isosceles
r 3 −1 (c) scalene (d) right angled
Statement-1 : =
R 2
65. Which of the following is true?
r 2− 3 (a) BC > AC (b) AC < AB
Statement-2 : =
s 3 (c) AC > AB (d) BC = AC

MATHEMATICS TODAY | JANUARY ‘18 39


Paragraph for Q. No. 66 – 68 (C) If principal values of π
(r) λ + µ = −
n  xr − xr − 1  n  3 6
sin −1  −  and
∑ tan−1  1 + x −1 −1
 = ∑ (tan xr − tan xr − 1 )  2 
r =1  r − 1xr  r = 1
  3
sin −1 cos  sin −1   are
= tan–1xn – tan–1x0, n∈N   2 
66. The value of l and respectively, then
cosec −1 5 + cosec −1 65 + cosec −1 (325) + ... to ∞ is 5π
(s) µ − λ =
π π 6

(a) p (b) (c) (d)
4 2 4 Integer Answer Type
67. The sum to infinite terms of the series 71. If q = cot–1 7 + cot–1 8 + cot–118, then the value of
 1  1  1 cotq must be
cot −1  22 +  + cot −1  23 + 2  + cot −1  24 + 3  + ... is
 2  2   2  72. If q ∈ [0, 5p] and r ∈ R such that 2sinq = r4 – 2r2 + 3
π π then the maximum no. of values of the pair (r, q) is.
(a) (b) (c) cot–12 (d) – cot–12
4 2 73. If l = cos4 [tan–1 {sin (cot–15)}], then the value of
68. The sum to infinite terms of the series 729
cot–13 + cot–17 + cot–113+... is l must be
169
π
(a) (b) cot–12 74. If sin–1 x + sin–1y = p and, if x = ly, then the value
2
of l must be
π
(c) tan–12 (d) 75. The number of solutions of x, which satisfy the
4
equation log|sinx| (1 + cosx) = 2 for x ∈ [0, 2p] is
Matrix–Match Type 50
 2r 
69. Match the following. 76. If S = ∑ tan −1  2 4 
, then the value of
 2+r +r
If in DABC, r = 2, r1 = 4, s = 12 and a < b < c, then r =1
2550
Column-I Column-II cot S must be
638
(A) Area of DABC is (p) 22 C 7
77. In a DABC, a = 5, b = 4 and tan = , then
(B) 4 + 4R (q) 24 2 9
measure of side ‘c’ is
(C) A of triangle is (r) sin–1(4/5)
π
(D) B of triangle is (s) sin–1(3/5) 78. In triangle ABC, a = 5 ; b = 2; ∠A = and c1 and
6
70. Match the following. c2 are the two possible values of third side then |c1 – c2| is
Column-I Column-II 79. In DABC, 3a = b + c then cot B/2 cot C/2 is
(A) If principal values of 80. In DABC, if r1 = 6, R = 5, r = 2, then the value of
(p) λ + µ = π
−1  1  −1 2 6tanA is
sin  −  + tan ( 3 ) and
 2
SOLUTIONS
−1  1
cos − are l and 1. (b) : On simplification, given equation reduces to
 2 
respectively, then cos2q = sin2q
π π nπ π
(B) If principal values of ⇒ tan 2θ = tan ⇒ 2θ = nπ + ⇒ θ = + , n ∈Z
(q) λ + µ = 5π 4 4 2 8
 7π  6
sin −1  sin  and
 6 5
2. (d) : cos2 θ − cos θ + 1 = 0
  5π   2
cos −1  − sin    are l
  6  (5 / 2) ± (25 / 4) − 4 5 ± 3
and respectively, then ⇒ cos θ = =
2 4

40 MATHEMATICS TODAY | JANUARY ‘18


1 π π 1 π  π
⇒ cos θ = = cos   ⇒ θ = 2nπ ± , n ∈ Z or cos 2 x = − = − cos   = cos  π − 
2  3  3 2  3   3
2π π
3. (a) : tan2 θ − tan θ − 3 tan θ + 3 = 0 ⇒ 2 x = 2nπ ± ⇒ x = nπ ±  
3  3
⇒ tan θ(tan θ − 1) − 3 (tan θ − 1) = 0 π π
For x lying between 0 and , we get x =
π π 2 3
⇒ (tan θ − 3 ) (tan θ − 1) = 0 ⇒ θ = nπ + , nπ +
3 4 16. (c)
4. (a) 5. (d) 17. (a) : Given, sinx + siny + sinz = –3 which is satisfied

6. (b) : Given, tanq + tan2q + tan3q = tanqtan2qtan3q only when x = y = z = , for x , y , z ∈[0, 2 π]
2
tan θ + tan 2θ + tan 3θ − tan θ tan 2θ tan 3θ 18. (b) : 2 – 2cos2q = 3cosq
tan 6θ =
1 − ∑ tan θ tan 2θ ⇒ 2cos2q + 3cosq – 2 = 0
= 0, (from the given condition) −3 ± 9 + 16 −3 ± 5
⇒ cos θ = =
⇒ 6q = np ⇒ q = np/6, n ∈ Z 4 4
7. (b) : cos pq = cos qq ⇒ pq = 2np ± qq Neglecting (–) sign, we get
2nπ
1 π π
cos θ = = cos   ⇒ θ = 2nπ ± .
⇒ θ= , n ∈Z 2 3 3
p±q
π 5π
The values of q between 0 and 2p are , .
8. (b) : 3 sin α − 4 sin3α = 4 sin α(sin2 x − sin2 α) 19. (c)
3 3
2
 3 20. (b) : Given, (2cosx – 1)(3 + 2cosx) = 0
∴ sin2 x =   ⇒ sin2 x = sin2 π / 3
 2  1 −3
Then, cos x = as cos x ≠
2 2
⇒ x = nπ ± π / 3, n ∈ Z
 π 
for n = 0, x = 
9. (a) π  3 
⇒ x = 2nπ ± ;  
3  5π
π  π  for n = 1, x = 
10. (d) : cos 2θ = cos  − α  ⇒ 2θ = 2nπ ±  − α   3 
2  2 
π π
π α 21. (b) : tan θ = 3 = tan ⇒ θ = nπ +
⇒ θ = nπ ±  −  , n ∈ Z 3 3
4 2 for − π < θ < 0
11. (b) : We have, 3sin2x + 10cosx – 6 = 0 π −2 π −4 π
Put n = −1, we get θ = − π + = or
⇒ 3(1 – cos2x) + 10 cosx – 6 = 0 3 3 6
On solving, (cosx – 3)(3cosx – 1) = 0 1  π  π
Either cosx = 3 (not possible) 22. (d) : sin θ = − = sin  −  = sin  π + 
2  6  6
1
or cos x = ⇒ x = 2nπ ± cos−1(1 / 3), n ∈ Z 1 π  π  π
3 tan θ = = tan   = tan  π +  ⇒ θ =  π + 
3  6   6   6
12. (c)

π Hence general value of q is 2nπ + .
13. (a) : tan(3x – 2x) = tanx = 1 ⇒ x = nπ + , n ∈ Z 6
4 23. (a) : 2 − 2 cos2 θ + 3 cos θ + 1 = 0
But this value does not satisfy the given equation.
Hence option (a) is the correct answer. ⇒ 2 cos2 θ − 3 cos θ − 3 = 0
14. (d) : sinxcosx = 2 or sin2x = 4, which is impossible. 3 ± 3 + 24 3(1 ± 3)  1
⇒ cos θ = = = 3 − 
15. (c) : Given, sin5x + sin3x + sinx = 0 4 4  2
⇒ –sin3x = sin5x + sinx = 2sin3xcos2x 5π
⇒ θ=
⇒ sin3x = 0 ⇒ x = 0 6

MATHEMATICS TODAY | JANUARY ‘18 41


33. (b)
24. (a) : Here, cos θ = 1 − 2 cos2 40° = −(2 cos2 40° − 1)
= − cos(2 × 40°) = − cos 80° 34. (a) : a sin(B − C ) + b sin(C − A) + c sin( A − B)
= cos(180° + 80°) = cos(180° − 80°) = k (Σ sin A sin(B − C ) = k {Σ sin(B + C )sin(B − C )}
Hence, cos 260°and cos100° i.e., θ = 100° and 260°  1 
= k Σ (cos 2C − cos 2 B) = 0
π   2 
25. (c) : tan(π cos θ) = tan  − π sin θ 
2  A C
sin sin
1  π 1 2 2
∴ sin θ + cos θ = ⇒ sin  θ +  = 35. (b) :
2  4 2 2 B
sin
2
1 1  π
26. (b) : sin x − cos x = 1 ⇒ cos  x +  = −1 ac(s − b)(s − c)(s − b)(s − a) s − b
2 2  4 = =
(s − a)(s − c)bc × ab b
π 3π 5π
⇒ x + = 2nπ ± π ⇒ 2nπ + or 2nπ − But a, b and c are in A. P. ⇒ 2b = a + c
4 4 4
27. 2
(c) : Given, 12 cot θ − 31 cosecθ + 32 = 0 3b
s−b 2 −b 1
⇒ 12(cosec2θ − 1) − 31cosecθ + 32 = 0 Hence, = =
⇒ 12cosec2θ − 31cosecθ + 20 = 0 b b 2
⇒ 12 cosec2θ − 16 cosecθ − 15cosecθ + 20 = 0
⇒ (4 cosecθ − 5)(3 cosecθ − 4) = 0 a2 + b2 − c2
36. (d) : cosC =
2ab
5 4 4 3
⇒ cosecθ = , ∴ sin θ = ,
4 3 5 4 3 (47)2 + (94)2 − c2
⇒ = ⇒ c = 58.24
 3θ  θ 2 2 × 47 × 94
2 sin   cos  
sin θ + sin 2θ  2  2  3θ  2 81 + 64 − x 2
28. (c) : = = tan   37. (d) : cosC = =
cos θ + cos 2θ  3θ  θ 2 3 2⋅9⋅8
2 cos   cos  
2 2
Hence period =
2π ⇒ x 2 = 49 ⇒ x = 7
3
 π s( s − c ) s(s − a) 3b
29. (d) : sin θ − 3 cos θ = 2 sin  θ −  38. (a) : a +c =
 3 ab bc 2
Hence period = 2p ⇒ 2s(s − c + s − a) = 3b2 ⇒ 2s(b) = 3b2 ⇒ 2s = 3b
 2x  2π
30. (d) : Period of sin   = = 3π ⇒ a + b + c = 3b ⇒ a + c = 2b ⇒ a, b, c are in A.P.
 3  2/3
 3x  2 π 4 π 39. (a) : 2a2b2 + 2b2c2 = a4 + b4 + c4
Period of sin   = =
 2  3/2 3 Also, (a2 − b2 + c2 )2 = a4 + b4 + c4 − 2(a2b2 + b2c2 − c2 a2 )
4π ⇒ (a2 − b2 + c2 )2 = 2c2a2
L.C.M. of 3p and = 12p . Hence period is 12p.
3
31. (c) a2 − b2 + c2 1
⇒ =± = cos B
−1  x + 1  −1 −1  x − 1 
2ca 2
32. (a) : tan   = tan 1 − tan  
x+2 x − 2 ⇒ ∠ B = 45° or 135°
x −1
1− a2 + b2 − c2
x +1 x −2 x +1 −1 40. (d) : cosC = = −1
⇒ = ⇒ = 2ab
x+2 x −1 x + 2 2x − 3
1+ ⇒ C = 180° (not possible)
x −2
1 41. (c)
⇒ 2x2 = 1 ⇒ x=±
2 42. (a) : Since, a1, a2, a3 are in A.P.

42 MATHEMATICS TODAY | JANUARY ‘18


⇒ a2 – a1 = d = a3 – a2 ⇒ − 9.6 ≤ 2 λ ≤ 7.6 ⇒ − 4.8 ≤ λ ≤ 3.8
 d   d  ∴ λ = −4, − 3, − 2, − 1, 0, 1, 2, 3
Now, tan −1   + tan −1  
 1 + a1a2   1 + a2 a3 
acosq + bsinq = c has no solution if | c |> a2 + b2
 a −a   a −a 
= tan −1  2 1  + tan −1  3 2  50. (a) :
 1 + a1a2   1 + a2 a3 
= tan–1a2 – tan–1a1 + tan–1a3 – tan–1a2 = tan–1a3 – tan–1a1

 a −a   (a − a ) + (a2 − a1 )   2d 
= tan −1  3 1 = tan −1  3 2  = tan −1  
 1 + a1a3   1 + a1a3   1 + a1a3 
43. (a)
A− B 1 − cos( A − B) 51. (d)
44. (a) : We have, tan  =
 2  1 + cos( A − B) 52. (b) : a ≤ ha = b sinC and b ≤ hb = asinC
⇒ ab ≤ ab sin2C ⇒ 1 ≤ sin2C
1 − (31 / 32) 1 a −b C 1 π
= = ⇒ cot = Hence, sinC = 1 ⇒ ∠C =
1 + (31 / 32) 63 a +b 2 63 2
Hence, Statement-1 is true.
1 C 1 C 7 Clearly, Statement-2 is true but has no relevance with
⇒ cot = ⇒ tan =
9 2 63 2 3 Statement-1.
1 − tan2 (C / 2) 1 − (7 / 9) 1 53. (b)
Now, cos C = ⇒ cos C = = 3 3 3
2 1 + (7 / 9) 8
1 + tan (C / 2) 54. (d) : a + b + c + 3abc > a3
∴ c2 = a2 + b2 − 2ab cos C 2
⇒ b3 + c3 + (−a)3 − 3(−a)(b)(c) > 0
2 1
⇒ c = 25 + 16 − 40 × = 36 ⇒ c = 6
8 1
⇒ (b + c − a)[(b − c)2 + (c + a)2 + (b + a)2 ] > 0
2
45. (c) : Let a = 6 + 12 , b = 48 , c = 24
⇒ b+c–a>0 ⇒ b+c>a
Clearly, c is the smallest side. Therefore, the smallest Similarly, c + a > b and a + b > c
angle C is given by ⇒ a, b, c will form the sides of a triangle.
a2 + b2 − c2 3 π 55. (a) : We have, cosA + cosC = 2(1 – cosB)
cosC = = ⇒ ∠C =
2ab 2 6 A+C A−C B
⇒ 2 cos cos = 4 sin2
46. (a) : Obviously, the angles are 30°, 45°, 105° . 2 2 2
\ a : b : c = sin30° : sin45° : sin105°  A − C 
cos 
1 1 3 +1  2 
= : : = 2 : 2 : ( 3 + 1) ⇒ = 2 ⇒ 2s – b = 2b ⇒ a + c = 2b
2 2 2 2 B
sin
2
47. (b) : Let a = 2, b = 6 , c = 3 + 1 Thus, a, b, c are in A.P.
\ Smallest angle A is given by Clearly, statement-2 is true.
56. (b) : (a – b) + a + (a + b) = p and a + b = p/2
6 + 3 +1+ 2 3 − 4
∴ cos A = ⇒ A = 45° ⇒ angles are p/6, p/3, p/2 ⇒ a = R, b = 3 R,
2 6 ( 3 + 1) c = 2R
48. (b) ∆ 3 r 3 3 (3 − 3 ) 3 −1
∴ r= = R ⇒ = = =
49. (c) : 7cosx + 5sinx = 2l + 1 s 3+ 3 R 3+ 3 6 2
2 λ + 1 ≤ 49 + 25 ⇒ 2 λ + 1 ≤ 74 r 3R 1 1
Also, = × =
− 74 ≤ 2 λ + 1 ≤ 74 2s 3 + 3 (3 + 3 ) R (3 + 3 )( 3 + 1)

MATHEMATICS TODAY | JANUARY ‘18 43


r 1 2− 3 r 2− 3 PB sin x PC sin 40°
⇒ = = ⇒ = Similarly, = , =
2s 6 + 4 3 2 3 s 3 PC sin(80° − x ) PA sin 30°

57. (a) : Use the properties of modulus and greatest


integer function.
58. (b) :

PA PB PC
Now, × × =1
PB PC PA
sin 20° sin x sin 40°
⇒ × × =1
sin 10° sin(80° − x ) sin 30°
⇒ sin (80° – x) – sinx = 2 sin 50° sin x
⇒ 2 sin (40° – x) cos 40° = 2 sin 50° sin x
⇒ sin(40° – x) = sinx ⇒ x = 20°
The graph shows 6 solutions. 64. (b) : A = C = 50°
sin x − cos x 65. (c) : ABC = 80° ⇒ AC is longest side
59. (a) : sin5 x − cos5 x =
sin x cos x 66. (d)
 sin5 x − cos5 x  n
 r +1 1
⇒ sin x cos x   =1 67. (c) : ∑ cot−1  2
lim + 
 sin x − cos x  n→∞ r =1 2r 
⇒ sin2x[sin4 x + sin3xcosx + sin2xcos2x n  2r 
= lim ∑ tan −1 
+ sinxcos3x + cos4 x] = 2 r + 1 
2
n→∞ r =1  1 + 2r ⋅ 2
⇒ (sin2x – 2) (sin2x + 2) = 0
⇒ sin2x = ±2, which is not possible. n  2r + 1 − 2r 
2∆ 2 21 15 7 15
= lim ∑ tan−1  r + 1 
60. (d) : Altitude from 'C ' = = × = n→∞ r =1 1 + 2r ⋅ 2
c 6 4 4
2 2 2 n
61. (c) : 2(9 + m ) = 7 + 8 where ‘m’ is the length r +1
of the median from vertex ‘C’
= lim ∑ (tan−1 2
n → ∞ r =1
− tan −1 2r )

n +1
= lim [tan −1 2 − tan −1 2]
n→∞
π
= tan–1 –tan–12 = − tan −1 2 = cot–12
2
68. (d)
69. (A) → (q), (B) → (q), (C) → (s), (D) → (r)
62. (b) : Length of the internal bisector of angle C ' rr r
r1r2 + r2r3 + r3r1 = 1 2 3 = s2 = 144
2 abs(s − c ) r
= ⇒ 4(r2 + r3) + r2r3 = 2r2r3 = 144 ⇒ r2r3= 72,
a+b
⇒ r2 + r3 = 18 ⇒ |r2 – r3| = 6 ⇒ r2 = 6, r3 = 12
21  21  r s−a 1
2 7⋅8⋅  − 6  Now, = = ⇒ a=6
2 2 10584 14 6 r1 s 2
= = =
7+8 15 5 Similarly, b = 8, c = 10 ⇒ ABC is right angle triangle.
PA PB PA sin 20° 3 1
63. (a) : = ⇒ = Smallest angle is sin−1 , ∆ = × 6 × 8 = 24 sq. units
sin 20° sin10° PB sin10° 5 2
R=5

44 MATHEMATICS TODAY | JANUARY ‘18


70. (A) → (q), (B) → (p, s), (C) → (r) ⇒ (xy – 1)2 = (1 – x2) (1 – y2)
π π π 2π ⇒ x2y2 + 1 – 2xy = 1 – x2 – y2 + x2y2
(A) λ = − + = and µ =
6 3 6 3 ⇒ x2 + y2 – 2xy = 0 ⇒ (x – y)2 = 0 ⇒ x = y
π 2 π 5π 2π π π \ l=1
∴ λ+µ = + = and µ − λ = − =
6 3 6 3 6 2 75. (0) : log|sinx| (1 + cosx) = 2 ⇒ 1 + cosx = |sin x|2
7π π 5π  ⇒ 1 + cosx = 1 – cos2x ⇒ cosx(1 + cosx) = 0

(B) λ = π − =− and µ = cos−1  − sin  But (1 + cosx) ≠ 0 ⇒ cos x = 0 ⇒ sinx = 1.
6 6  6 
But sinx = 1 is not possible because the base of log can
 1  2π  2π not be 1. Hence no solution.
= cos−1  −  = cos−1  cos  =
 2  3  3 50  (1 + r + r 2 ) − (1 − r + r 2 ) 
π 2π π
∴ λ+µ = − + = ,µ−λ=
2 π π 5π
+ =
76. (4) : S = ∑ tan−1  2 2 
6 3 2 3 6 6 r =1  1 + (1 + r + r )(1 − r + r ) 
50

(C) λ = sin −1  −
3   π 
= sin −1  sin  −   = −
π = ∑ [tan−1(1 + r + r 2 ) − tan−1(1 − r + r 2 )]
 2    3  3 r =1

  3  −1  π = {at r = 50 value of tan–1 (1 + r + r2)}


µ = sin −1  cos  sin −1   = sin  cos  – {at r = 1 value of tan–1 (1 – r + r2)}
  2  3
= tan (1 + 50 + 502) – tan–11
–1
1 π
= sin −1   =  1 + 50 + 502 − 1 
2 6 = tan −1   2550 
= tan −1 
 1 + 1 + 50 + 502   2552 
π π
∴ λ+µ = − and µ − λ =
6 2 2550 2550
∴ tan S = ∴ cot S = 4
2552 638
71. (3) : q = cot–17 + cot–18 + cot–118
1 1 1 7
= tan −1   + tan −1   + tan −1   1−
7 8  18  77. (6) : cosC = 9 =1
7 8
 1 1 1 1 1 1  1+
+ + − ⋅ ⋅ 9
 
= tan −1  7 8 18 7 8 18  1
1 1 1 1 1 1 ∴ c2 = 25 + 16 − 2 ⋅ 5 ⋅ 4 ⋅ = 36 ⇒ c = 6
 1 − ⋅ − ⋅ − ⋅  8
7 8 8 18 18 7
78. (4) : a2 = b2 + c2 – 2bc cosA
1
= tan −1   = cot −1 3 3
3 4 + c2 − ⋅ 4c − 5 = 0 ⇒ c 2 − 2 3 ⋅ c − 1 = 0
\ cotq = 3 2
Now, c1 + c2 = 2 3 ; c1c2 = −1
72. (6) : 2sinq = (r2 – 1)2 + 2
This is possible when sinq = 1, r2 = 1, r = ±1 2 2
(c1 – c2)2 = (c1 + c2 ) − 4c1c2 = (2 3 ) − 4(−1) = 16
π 5π 9 π
∴ θ= , , 79. (2) : 3a = b + c
2 2 2 ⇒ 4a = 2s ⇒ s = 2a
\ Number of values of the pair(r, q) is 6. B C s 2a
∴ cot cot = = =2
73. (4) 2 2 s − a 2a − a
74. (1) :  π − cos−1 x + π − cos−1 y = π A 2 A
2 2 ⇒ 4 = 20 sin2
80. (8) : r1 − r = 4 R sin
2 2
⇒ cos–1x + cos–1y = 0
1
A 1 2×
⇒ cos−1{ xy − (1 − x 2 ) (1 − y 2 } = 0 ⇒ sin = tan A = 2 = 4 ⇒ 6 tan A = 8
2 5 1 3
1−
⇒ xy − (1 − x 2 )(1 − y 2 ) = 1 4 

MATHEMATICS TODAY | JANUARY ‘18 45


PROBABILITY

1. Three ordinary and fair dice are rolled 3


6. If two events A and B are such that P ( A) = ,
simultaneously. The probability of the sum of outcomes 10
being atleast equal to 8, is equal to 2 1
P (B) = and P ( A ∩ B ) = , then P (B | A ∪ B ) is equal
(a) 81/108 (b) 27/216 to 5 2
(c) 81/216 (d) 181/216 (a) 1/2 (b) 1/3 (c) 1/4 (d) 2/3
2. A person takes a step forward with probability p 7. 3m fair dice are each rolled 2n times. The probability
and takes a step backward with probability q, where that the scores 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 each appear mn times, is
p + q = 1. The probability that after (2n + 1) steps the equal to
person is only one step away from his initial position, mn 6 mn
is equal to (6mn)! 1 (6mn)! 1
(a) . (b) .
6  6  6  6 
(a) 2n + 1Cn . pn + 1 . qn (b) 2n + 1Cn . pn . qn+1 6 !((mn)!) (6 !(mn)!)
(c) 2n + 1Cn . pn . qn (d) 2 . 2n + 1Cn . pn qn+1 mn 6 mn
(6mn)!  1  (6mn)!  1 
3. Three numbers are selected simultaneously from (c) .  (d) . 
((mn)!)6  6  ((mn)!)6  6 
the set {1, 2, 3, ...., 25}. The probability that the product
of selected numbers is divisible by 4, is equal to 8. Two persons are selected randomly from n persons
(a) 1/115 (b) 98/115 seated in a row (n 3). The probability that the selected
(c) 773/1150 (d) 963/1150 persons are not seated consecutively, is equal to
n−2 n −1 n+2 n−2
4. Two numbers n1 and n2 are chosen at random (a) (b) (c) (d)
(without replacement) from the set {1, 2, 3, ..........., 5n}, n n n+3 n −1
the probability that n14 − n24 is divisible by 5, is equal to 9. A real estate man has eight master keys to open
several new homes. Only one master key will open
n −1 4(4n − 1)
(a) (b) any given home. If 40% of these homes are usually left
5n − 1 5(5n − 1) unlocked, the probability that the real estate man can
17n − 5 8n get into a specific home, if it is given that he selected
(c) (d)
5(5n − 1) 5(5n − 1) 3 keys randomly before leaving his office, is equal to
5. ‘X’ follows a binomial distribution with parameters (a) 5/8 (b) 3/8 (c) 3/4 (d) 1/4
‘n’ and ‘p’. ‘Y’ follows a binomial distribution with 10. A man alternatively tosses a fair coin and rolls a fair
parameters ‘m’ and ‘p’. If X and Y are independent then ordinary dice. He starts with the coin. The probability
P(X = r|X + Y = r + s) is equal to that he gets a tail on the coin before getting 5 or 6 on the
n
n
Cr . mCs Cr . mCs dice, is equal to
(a) (b) (a) 3/4 (b) 1/2 (c) 1/3 (d) 2/3
m +n m +n
Cr Cr + s
m n m 11. For three events E1, E2 and E3. P(exactly one of the
Cs . Cr Cs . nCr events E1 or E2 occur) = P(exactly one of the event E2
(c) (d)
m +n m +n
Cs −1 Cr + s −1 or E3 occur) = P(exactly one of the events E3 or E1 occur)
Sanjay Singh Mathematics Classes, Chandigarh, Ph : 9888228231, 9216338231
46 MATHEMATICS TODAY | JANUARY ‘18
= p and P(all the three events occur simultaneously) (c) E3 and E1 are independent
 1 (d) E1, E2, E3 are independent
= p2 , where p ∈  0,  . The probability that atleast one
 2 17. A bag B1 has 3 white balls and 2 red balls. Another
of these events occur is bag B2 has 4 white and 6 red balls. A ball is drawn
3 p + 2 p2 p + 3 p2 randomly from bag B1 and without seeing it’s colour, is
(a) (b) being put in bag B2. Now a ball is drawn from bag B2.
2 2
3 p + p2 3 p + 2 p2 The probability of both the drawn balls, of being same
(c) (d) colour, is
2 4
(a) 41/55 (b) 31/55
12. A bag contains ‘W’ white balls and ‘R’ red balls.
(c) 29/55 (d) none of these
Two players P1 and P2 alternatively draw a ball from
the bag, replacing the ball each time after the draw, till 18. A natural number ‘n’ is selected at random from
one of them draws a white ball and wins the game. ‘P1’ the set of first 100 natural numbers. The probability that
begins the game. The probability of P2 being the winner, 100
n+ ≤ 50 is equal to
is equal to n
W2 R (a) 9/10 (b) 39/50
(a) (b) (c) 9/20 (d) none of these
(W + 2R)R (2W + R)
R2 R 1
(c) (d) 19. For two events A and B, P(A) = P(A | B) = and
(2W + R)W (W + 2R) 1 4
P(B | A) = , then which of the following is not correct?
13. A bag contains 4 tickets numbered 1, 2, 3, 4 and 2
another bag contains 6 tickets numbered 2, 4, 6, 7, 8, 9. 3 1
(a) P ( A′ | B) = (b) P (B ′ | A′) =
One bag is chosen and a ticket is drawn. The probability 4 2
that the ticket bears the number 4, is equal to 3 1
(a) 5/12 (b) 5/24 (c) 7/12 (d) 19/24 (c) P ( A ∪ B) = (d) P ( A ∩ B) =
4 8
n n
14. A number of the form 7 1 + 7 2 is formed, 20. If the probability of choosing an integer ‘n’ out
by selecting the numbers n1 and n2 from the set of 2m integers {1, 2, 3, .........., 2m – 1, 2m} is inversely
{1, 2, 3, ....., 99, 100} with replacement. The probability proportional to n4( 1 ≤ n ≤ 2m), then the probability of
of the formed number being divisible by 5, is equal to the chosen number being odd, is
(a) 1/8 (b) 1/4 (c) 1/16 (d) 1/2 1 1
(a) (b) <
15. ‘P1’ is the probability that a statement by A is true 2 2
and ‘P2’ has the similar meaning for B. A and B agree in 1
making a statement S. The probability that statement is (c) > (d) none of these
2
correct is
P1P2 21. In a bag there are 15 red and 5 white balls. Two
(a) balls are drawn in succession, without replacement. The
P1P2 + P1 (1 − P2 )(1 − P1 ) first drawn ball is found to be red. The probability that
P1P2 second ball is also red, is equal to
(b)
P1P2 + P2 (1 − P1 )(1 − P2 ) (a) 3/10 (b) 7/10 (c) 5/19 (d) 14/19
P1P2 P1P2 22. Two squares are chosen from squares of a ordinary
(c) (d)
P1 + P2 + 1 1 − P1 − P2 + 2P1P2 chess board. It is given that the selected squares do not
16. A bag contains four tickets marked with numbers belong to the same row or column. The probability that
112, 121, 211, 222. One ticket is drawn at random from the chosen squares are of same colour, is equal to
the bag. Let Ei(i = 1, 2, 3) denote the event that ith digit (a) 25/49 (b) 32/49 (c) 25/64 (d) 1/2
on the selected ticket is 2, then which of the following is 23. Two fair dice are rolled simultaneously. One of the
not correct? dice shows four. The probability of other dice showing
(a) E1 and E2 are independent six, is equal to
(b) E2 and E3 are independent (a) 2/11 (b) 1/18 (c) 1/6 (d) 1/36

MATHEMATICS TODAY | JANUARY ‘18 51


24. Four integers are selected randomly and are n n
multiplied. The probability of this product being 3 3
(a) 1 −   (b)  
divisible by 5 but not by 10, is equal to 4 4
175 369 3471 1 1 1
(a) (b) (c) (d) (c) (d)
4 4 4 n
10 10 10 32 2 3n
25. Two events A and B are such that P(A) > 0 and 32. Consider all functions that can be defined from the
P(B) ≠ 1. The expression P ( A | B ) is also equal to set A = {1, 2, 3} to the set B = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5}. A function
(a) 1 – P (A | B) (b) 1− P ( A | B) f(x) is selected at random from these functions. The
probability that, selected function satisfies f(i) ≤ f(j) for
1− P ( A ∪ B) 1− P ( A ∩ B) i < j, is equal to
(c) (d)
P (B ) P (B ) (a) 6/25 (b) 7/25 (c) 2/5 (d) 12/25
26. Consider the set of integers {10, 11, 12, ....., 98, 99}. 33. A fair coin is tossed ‘n’ number of times. The
By seeing the number a person A will laugh if the probability that head will turn up an even number of
product of the digits of the number is 12. He chooses times, is equal to
three numbers one at a time from this set of integers, n −1 1
randomly and with replacement. The probability that (a) (b)
2n 2
he will laugh atleast once, is equal to
n +1 n−1
(d) 2 − 1
3 3
 43  3 (c)
(a) 1 −   (b) 1 −   2n 2n
 45  5
3 34. Two numbers n1 and n2 are selected from the
4
(c) 1 −   (d) none of these set {1, 2, 3, ......, n} without replacement. The value of
 25  P(n1 ≤ r | n2 ≤ r) , where r ≤ n is equal to
27. The sum of two natural numbers n1 and n2 is r
known to be equal to 100. The probability that their (a) (b) r
n(n −1) n
product being greater than 1600, is equal to
(a) 20/33 (b) 58/99 (c) 13/33 (d) 59/99 r −1 r (r − 1)
(c) (d)
n −1 n(n − 1)
28. Let ‘head’ means one and ‘tail’ means two and the
coefficients of the equation ax2 + bx + c = 0 are chosen 35. A and B play a game where each is asked to select a
by tossing three fair coins. The probability that the roots number from 1 to 25. If the numbers selected by A and
of the equation are non-real, is equal to B match, both of them win a prize. The probability that
(a) 5/8 (b) 7/8 (c) 3/8 (d) 1/8 they win their third prize on 5th game is equal to
29. A committee consists of 9 experts taken from 6.(24)2 6.(21)2
(a) (b)
three institutions A, B and C, of which 2 are from A, 3 (25)5 (25)5
from B and 4 from C. If three experts resign from the
(24)2 (21)2
committee, then the probability of exactly two of the (c) (d)
resigned experts being from the same institution, is (25)2 (25)5
equal to 36. The probability that an archer hits the target when
(a) 4/7 (b) 25/84 (c) 55/84 (d) 37/84 it is windy is equal to 2/5, when it is not windy his
30. A person while dialing a telephone number, forgets probability of hitting the target is 7/10. On any shot the
the last three digits of the number but remembers that probability of gust of wind is 3 . The probability that
exactly two of them are same. He dials the number 10
randomly. The probability that he dialed the correct there is no gust of wind on the occasion when he missed
number, is equal to the target, is equal to
(a) 1/135 (b) 1/27 (c) 1/54 (d) 1/270 (a) 5/13 (b) 18/39 (c) 7/13 (d) 23/39
31. Two subsets A and B of a set S consisting of ‘n’ 37. A and B each throw a fair dice. The probability that
elements are constructed randomly. The probability A’s throw is not greater than B’s throw, is equal to
that A B = f and A B = S is equal to (a) 1/3 (b) 2/3 (c) 7/12 (d) 5/12

52 MATHEMATICS TODAY | JANUARY ‘18


38. A fair dice is rolled three times. Let E1 be the
4. (c) : n14 − n24 = (n12 + n22 )(n1 + n2 )(n1 − n2 )
event that even number comes up on the first roll, E2
be the event that even number appears on second and We can segregate the numbers as multiple of five 5l,
third roll and E3 be the event that all the roll result in 5l + 1, 5l + 2, 5l + 3, 5l + 4, as follows :
same number. Which of the following statements is not R1 → 1 6 .............5n – 4 → 5l + 1
correct? R2 → 2 7 .............5n – 3 → 5l + 2
(a) E1 and E2 are not independent R3 → 3 8 .............5n – 2 → 5l + 3
(b) E2 and E3 are independent R4 → 4 9 ............5n – 1 → 5l + 4
(c) E1 and E3 are independent R5 → 5 10 ............5n → 5l
(d) None of these We can select either both the number from R5, or any
1 two numbers from the first four rows. (As square of
39. A and B are two events such that P ( A) = ,
2 any number that is not a multiple of three will be in
2 the form of 5l' + 1 or 5l' – 1).
P (B) = . Then which of the following is not correct?
3 2 1 Thus, required probability
(a) P ( A ∪ B) ≥ (b) P ( A ∩ B ′) ≤ n
3 3 C2 + 4nC2 n(n − 1) + 4n(4n − 1) 17n − 5
1 = = =
(c) 0 ≤ P ( A ∩ B) ≤ (d) None of these 5n
C2 5n(5n − 1) 5(5n − 1)
2
40. Three numbers are selected from the set 5. (b) : P(X = r|X + Y = r + s)
{1, 2, 3, ......., 23, 24}, without replacement. The P ( X = r ∩ X + Y = r + s) P ( X = r ) . P (Y = s)
probability that the formed numbers form an A.P. is = =
P ( X + Y = r + s) P ( X + Y = r + s)
equal to
(a) 11/23 (b) 12/23 Now, P(X = r) = nCr pr . (1 – p)n – r,
(c) 3/46 (d) None of these P(Y = s) = mCs ps . (1 – p)m – s,
n
SOLUTIONS and, P ( X + Y = r + s) = ∑ P ( X = i)
1. (d) : Let the outcome on dice be n1, n2 and n3, we i =0
n
first try to find the number of ways in which sum of
P(Y = r + s – i) = ∑ n Ci pi (1 − p)n−i . mCr + s −i
outcomes is at the most equal to seven.
i =0
For this, n1 + n2 + n3 ≤ 7, where ni ∈ [1, 6] . pr + s – i. (1 – p)m – r – s + i
⇒ (n1 – 1) + (n2 – 1) + (n3 – 1) + y4 = 4 n
i.e., y1 + y2 + y3 + y4 = 4, = pr + s ⋅ (1 − p)m+n−r − s ∑ n Ci . mCr + s −i
where y1, y2, y3, y4 are non-negative integers. i =0
This can happen in 4 + 4 – 1C4 i.e., 7C4 ways. = pr + s . (1 – p)m + n – r – s . m + nC
r+s
7
C 181 n .m
C Cs
Thus, required probability = 1 − 4 = Thus, required probability = m+rn
3 216
6 Cr + s
2. (c) : Clearly, the person should take (n + 1) steps
in one direction and n steps in the another direction. 6. (c) : P (B | A ∪ B ) = P (B ∩ ( A ∪ B )) = P ( A ∩ B)
Thus, required probability P(A ∪ B) P(A ∪ B)
= 2n + 1Cn pn . qn + 1 + 2n + 1Cnqn . pn + 1
Now, P ( A ∩ B ) = P ( A) − P ( A ∩ B)
= 2n + 1Cn pn . qn(p + q)= 2n + 1Cnpn . qn 7 1 1
3. (c) : Product can’t be divisible by 4 in the following ⇒ P ( A ∩ B) = P ( A) − P ( A ∩ B ) = − =
10 2 5
mutually exclusive cases: Also, P ( A ∪ B ) = P ( A) + P (B ) − P ( A ∩ B )
(i) All the selected numbers are odd :
7 3 1 4 1
Corresponding number of ways = 13C3 = 286 = + − = ⇒ P (B | A ∪ B ) =
(ii) Two of the selected numbers are odd 10 5 2 5 4
and another is a multiple of 2 only. 7. (d) : Total number of ways of arranging 6mn objects
Corresponding number of ways = 13C2 . 6C1 = 468 to equal groups, consisting of mn objects in each groups
(286 + 468) 773 (6mn)!
Thus, required probability = 1 − = are numbered as 1, 2, ......., 6 =
25 1150
C3 (mn !)6

MATHEMATICS TODAY | JANUARY ‘18 53


Corresponding probability for each of these ways 12. (d) : Probability of drawing a white ball at any draw
1
mn mn mn 6mn W
=  .  1  1
........  
1
=  =
6 6 6 6 W +R
6 mn Now, P2 can be the winner in general on 2rth, r 1,
(6mn)! .  1  draw. That means in the first (2r – 1) draws no player
Thus, required probability =  
(mn !)6  6  draws a white ball and 2rth draw results in a white
8. (a) : Total ways of selecting two persons = nC2 ball for P2.
n(n − 1) If the corresponding probability is pr, then
= r r −1 2r
2  R   R   W   R  W
p = . . = .
Total ways of selecting two consecutively seated persons r  W + R   W + R   W + R   W + R  R
= n – 1C1 = (n – 1) ∞
W ∞ R 
2r
R
(n − 1) 2 n − 2 Hence, required probability = ∑ pr = ∑  =
Thus, required probability = 1 − = r =1
R r =1  W + R  (W + 2R)
n(n − 1) n ∞ ∞ 2r
W  R  R
9. (a) : E1 : Specific home is locked. = ∑ pr = ∑  =
r =1
R r =1  W + R  (W + 2R)
E2 : Specific home is unlocked.
A : Real estate man get into the home. 1
13. (b) : E1 : First bag is chosen, P(E1) =
2
40 2 3 1
P (E2 ) = = , P (E1 ) = E2 : Second bag is chosen, P(E2) =
100 5 5 2
P(A) = P(E1) P(A/E1) + P(E2) . P(A/E2)
. A : Drawn number is 4.
3 3 2 25 5 Now, P(A) = P(E1) . P(A/E1) + P(E2) . P(A/E2)
= . + .1 = = 1 1 1 1 5
5 8 5 40 8 = . + . =
2 4 2 6 24
10. (a) : Probability of getting 5 or 6 on a specific roll
2 1 14. (a) : We know that
of dice = = 74l ends with 1,
6 3
1 74l + 1 ends with 7,
and, probability of getting a tail =
2 74l + 2 ends with 9,
The desired outcome can happen, in general, on and 74l + 3 ends with 3.
(2r + 1)th trial. That means first 2r trials should result Now, 7l1 + 7l2 will be divisible by 5, if it ends with
neither in tail nor in 5 or 6 and (2r + 1)th trial must either 0 or 5. But it can never end with 5 and can end
result in tail. with zero in the two cases :
If the corresponding probability is p, then (i) n1 = 4l, n2 = 4l + 2
r r r (ii) n1 = 4l + 1, n2 = 4l + 3
1 2 1 1 1
pr =   .   . = .   Thus, total favourable ways of selecting n1 and n2.
2 3 2 2 3
= 25C1 . 25C1 + 25C1 . 25C1 = 2 . 25 . 25
Thus, required probability 2 . 25 . 25 1
∞ r Thus, required probability = =
1 ∞ 1 3 100 .100 8
= ∑ pr = ∑  =
r =0
2 r =0  3  4 15. (d) : Let E1 : Statement is true
E2 : Statement is false
11. (a) : Required probability
M : A and B agree
= P(Ei) – P(Ei Ej) + P(E1 E2 E3)
1
We have, P(E1) + P(E2) – 2P(E1 E2) = p P(E1) = P(E2) =
P(E2) + P(E3) – 2P(E2 E3) = p 2
P(E1) + P(E3) – 2P(E1 E3) = p P(M) = P(E1) . P(M/E1) + P(E2) . P(M/E2)
3p 1 . 1 .
⇒ ΣP (Ei ) − ΣP (Ei ∩ E j ) = = P1P 2 + (1 – P1) (1 – P2)
2 2 2
3p 3 p + 2 p2 P P + (1 − P1 )(1 − P2 )
Thus, required probability = + p2 = = 1 2
2 2 2

54 MATHEMATICS TODAY | JANUARY ‘18


P ( A ∩ E1 ) P (E1 ) . P ( A / E1 ) 20. (c) : Let’s denote the probability of choosing the
Now, P (E1 / M ) = = integer n by pn, then
P (M ) P (M )
λ
P1P2 P1P2 pn = 4 , n ∈[1, 2m]
= = n
P1P2 + (1 − P1 )(1 − P2 ) 1 − P1 − P2 + 2P1P2 2m 2m
1 1
2 1 2 1 2 1 Now, ∑ pn = λ ∑ = 1 ⇒ λ = 2m
16. (d) : P (E1 ) = = , P (E2 ) = = , P (E3 ) = = 4 1
n=1 n
4 2 4 2 4 2 n=1
∑ 4
1 Now, required probability n=1 n
P (E1 ∩ E2 ) = = P (E1 ) ⋅ P (E2 )
4 m
1
⇒ ‘E1’ and ‘E2’ are independent. m m
1
∑ (2n − 1)4
1 =∑p = λ. ∑ = n=12m
P (E1 ∩ E3 ) = = P (E1 ) ⋅ P (E3 ) 2n−1 4
4 n=1 (2n − 1) 1
⇒ ‘E1’ and ‘E3’ are independent.
n=1
∑ n4
n=1
1 2m m m m
P (E2 ∩ E3 ) = = P (E2 ) ⋅ P (E3 ) 1 1 1 1
4 Now, ∑ n4 = ∑ (2n)4 + ∑ (2n − 1)4 < 2 ∑ (2n − 1)4
⇒ ‘E2’ and ‘E3’ are independent. n=1 n=1 n=1 n=1
1 1
P (E1 ∩ E2 ∩ E3 ) = ≠ P (E1 ) ⋅ P (E2 ) ⋅ P (E3 ) Thus, required probability > .
4 2
⇒ E1, E2 and E3 are not independent.
21. (d) : Total number of ways of selecting the second
17. (c) : E1 : Ball drawn from B1 is white. ball = 19C1 = 19.
E2 : Ball drawn from B1 is red. Total number of ways of selecting the second ball red
A : Both the drawn balls are of same colour. = 14C1 = 14
P(A) = P(E1) . P(A/E1) + P(E2) . P(A/E2) 14
3 5 2 7 29 Thus, required probability =
= . + . = 19
5 11 5 11 55
100
18. (c) : n + ≤ 50 ⇒ n2 – 50n + 100 ≤ 0
n
⇒ 25 − 5 21 ≤ n ≤ 25 + 5 21
⇒ n = 3, 4, 5, .........., 47
Thus, favourable number of ways = 45.
45 9
Thus, required probability = =
100 20
1
19. (c) : P ( A) = P ( A / B) =
4
⇒ A and B are independent.
1
Hence, P (B / A) = P (B) =
2
Now, A′, B; A′, B′ will also independent.
3
Thus, P ( A ′ / B) = P ( A ′) = 1 − P ( A) =
4
1
P ( B ′ / A ′) = P ( B ′) = 1 − P ( B) =
2
P(A B) = P(A) + P(B) – P(A B)
1 1 1 1 5
= + − . =
4 2 4 2 8
1
P ( A ∩ B) = P ( A) ⋅ P (B) =
8

MATHEMATICS TODAY | JANUARY ‘18 55


22. (a) : Let the first chosen square is white. In this 28. (b) : Roots will be non real, if b2 < 4ac.
case total number of squares that don’t belong to the Now, if ‘b’ is one then 4ac is definitely greater than
row or column associated with the selected square is one (that is ‘a’ and ‘c’ can be chosen in 4 ways).
49. Out of these 25 are white and 24 are black. If b = 2 and b2 < 4ac, then ‘a’ and ‘c’ both at the same
1 25 times should not be equal to one.
Thus, corresponding probability = .
2 49 That is for b = 2, we must have
Similarly, if the first square is black, then the a = 1, c = 2 or a = 2, c = 1 or a = 2, c = 2
1 25 (i.e., ‘a’ and ‘c’ can be chosen in three ways)
corresponding probability = .
2 49 7
Thus, required probability = .
1  25 25  25 8
Thus, required probability =  +  =
2  49 49  49 29. (c) : There are three mutually exclusive cases :
23. (a) : Following equally likely outcomes may occur (i) 2 are from A and another is either from B or C.
when one of the dice show four {(4, 1), (1, 4), (4, 2), 2 . 3
C ( C + 4C1 ) 7
(2, 4), (4, 3), (3, 4), (4, 4), (4, 5), (5, 4), (4, 6), (6, 4)} Corresponding probability = 2 9 1 =
Out of these eleven outcomes exactly 2 outcomes favor C3 84
the cause of second dice showing a six. (ii) 2 are from B and another is either from A or C.
2 3 . 2
Thus, required probability = C ( C + 4C1 ) 18
11 Corresponding probability = 2 9 1 =
24. (b) : In the case end digit of the product should be 5. C3 84
Now, if end digit of each number is either 1, 3, 5, 7 or (iii) 2 are from C and another is either from A or B.
9 then product of these numbers will end with either Corresponding probability
1, 3, 5, 7 or 9. 4
On the other hand, end digit of the product will be 1, 3, C2 .(2 C1 + 3C1 ) 30
= =
7, or 9, if end digit of each integer is either 1, 3, 7 or 9. 9 84
C3
Thus, total ways in which the product ends with 5 is 7 + 18 + 30 55
Thus, required probability = =
54 – 44, also total ways of selecting the end digit of 84 84
the number are 10.
30. (d) : Total number of ways of dialing the last three
369
Thus, required probability = digits such that exactly 2 of them are same
104 3!
P ( A ∩ B ) 1 − P ( A ∪ B) = 10C2 ⋅ 2 ⋅ = 270
25. (c) : P ( A / B ) = = 2!
P (B ) P (B ) 1
Thus, required probability =
270
26. (a) : Person will laugh if the selected number is
(43, 34, 62, 26). 31. (c) : Let ‘A’ has ‘r’ elements, then ‘B’ have all the
Thus, probability that person will not laugh on seeing remaining (n – r) elements and none of the elements
86 43 that are already present in A.
the number = = n
90 45
 43 
3 Thus, total number of favourable ways = ∑ n Cr = 2n
Thus, required probability = 1 −  45  r =0
2n 1
Hence, required probability = n = n
27. (d) : Total number of ways in which n1 + n2 = 100 4 2
is equal to 99.
Now, n1 . n2 > 1600 ⇒ n1(100 – n1) > 1600
⇒ n12 – 100n1 + 1600 < 0 ⇒ (n1 – 80) (n1 – 20) < 0 MPP-9 CLASS XII ANSWER KEY
⇒ 20 < n1 < 80 ⇒ 21 ≤ n1 ≤ 79 1. (b) 2. (a) 3. (a) 4. (c) 5. (c)
Thus, number of favourable ways = 79 – 21 + 1 = 59 6. (c) 7. (c) 8. (a,c) 9. (a,c) 10. (a,d)
59
Hence, required probability = 11. (b,d) 12. (a, b) 13. (a,c,d) 14. (d) 15. (b)
99
16. (a) 17. (7) 18. (3) 19. (5) 20. (1)

56 MATHEMATICS TODAY | JANUARY ‘18


32. (b) : Total number of functions = 53 6
7−r 6 r 7
Now let us count the favourable number of functions. Thus, required probability = ∑ =∑ =
Let ‘1’ is assigned to r, where r = 1, 2, 3, 4, 5. r =1 36 r =1 36 12
3 1
Now ‘2’ can be assigned to r, r + 1, ...... 5. Let ‘2’ is 38. (a) : P (E1 ) = = ; P (E2 ) = . = 1 ;
3 3
assigned to j, where j = r, r + 1, .... 5. 6 2 6 6 4
Finally, ‘3’ can be assigned in (6 – j) ways. 6 1
P (E3 ) = =
Thus, total number of favourable ways 63 36
5  5  5 (6 − r )(7 − r ) Now, P(E1 E2) = Probability of getting even number
= ∑  ∑ (6 − j)  = ∑ 1 1 1 1

r =1  j =r
 r =1 2 on each throw = . . = = P(E1) . P(E2)
2 2 2 8
1 5 P(E1 E3) = Probability of getting even number on
= ∑ (42 − 13r + r2 ) = 35
2 r =1 1 1 1 1
35 7 each throw = . . = ≠ P (E1 ) ⋅ P (E3 )
Thus, required probability = 3 = 2 2 2 8
5 25 P(E2 E3) = Probability of getting even number on
33. (b) : Total outcomes = 2n 1 1 1 1
Total number of favourable outcomes each throw = . . = ≠ P (E2 ) ⋅ P (E3 )
2 2 2 8
= nC0 + nC2 + nC4 + ....... nCn/2 = 2n – 1 2
39. (d) : P(A B) maximum {P(A), P(B)} =
2n−1 1 3
Thus, required probability = = 1
2n 2 P(A B′) ≤ minimum {P(A), P(B′)} =
3
P (n1 ≤ r ∩ n2 ≤ r ) P(A B) 0
34. (c) : P (n1 ≤ r / n2 ≤ r ) =
P (n2 ≤ r ) 1
r n and P(A B) ≤ minimum {P(A), P(B)} =
C2 / C2 r − 1 2
= =
r /n n −1 Thus, all the statements are correct.
35. (a) : Probability of winning the prize in single game 40. (c) : Let the selected numbers be n1, n2 and n3.
We must have 2n2 = n1 + n3.
25 1
= = Thus, n1 + n3 must be even. That means n1 and n3 both
2 25
25 must have same nature (either odd or even).
In this case first 4 games, must result in exactly two
2 . 12C 3
prizes and 5th game must result in prize. Thus, required Thus, required probability = 24 2 =
probability C3 46
2 2 
 1   24  1 6.(24)2
= 4C2   .   . =
 25   25  25 (25)5
36. (c) : E1 : There is a gust of wind. HIMACHAL PRADESH at
E2 : There is no gust of wind. • Shiv Shankar Copy House - Bilaspur(Hp) Mob: 9816255326
A : Archer misses the target. • Dadhwal Book Depot - Dharamshala Ph: 01892-224867; Mob: 9418087897
• Aryan Enterprises - Hamirpur Ph: 01972-222180; Mob: 9817036236, 9817034100
P(A) = P(E1) . P(A/E1) + P(E2) . P(A/E2) • Bhagat Enterprises - Hamirpur Ph: 1972233121; Mob: 9817475121, 9817475121
3 3 7 3 39 • Gautam Brothers - Hamirpur Ph: 01972-222450; Mob: 9418016277
= . + . = • Rajesh General Store - Hamirpur Ph: 01972-223037; Mob: 9418024037
10 5 10 10 100 • Narendra Book Stall - Mandi Ph: 01905-225578; Mob: 9805471400
P (E2 ∩ A) • Raj Book Depot - Mandi Ph: 01905-230086; Mob: 9418926708
Now, required probability = P (E2 / A) =
P ( A) • Jain Bros. - Nahan Ph: 01702-224253; Mob: 9418265353
7.3 • Goel Book Depot - Palampur Ph: 01894-230853; Mob: 9816630751, 9816030751
P (E2 ) . P ( A / E2 ) 10 10 7 • Vickey General Store - Paonta Sahib Ph: 01704-225335; Mob: 9418088230
= = = • Kharbanda General Store - Sundarnagar Ph: 01907-262462; Mob: 9418000462
P ( A) 39 13
100
37. (c) : Let A’s throw is r, (r = 1, 2, 3, ......, 6), then
B’s outcome can be (r, r + 1, ......, 6)

MATHEMATICS TODAY | JANUARY ‘18 57


CLASS XII Series 9

CBSE
Linear Programming and Probability
ImportantFFormulae
IMPORTANT ORMULAE

LINEAR PROGRAMMING
TERMINOLOGIES RELATED TO L.P.P. Infeasible The region other than the feasible region
Region is called infeasible region of the L.P.P. and
Term Definition and the points which come under infeasible
Infeasible
The restrictions or linear inequalities Solution region are called infeasible solution.
or equations in the variables of an
Constraints L.P.P., which describe the conditions FORMULATION OF A L.P.P.
under which the optimisation is to be X The three steps in the mathematical formulation of

accomplished. an L.P.P. are as follows:


(i) Identify the objective function as a linear
The assumption that negative values
Non- combination of variables (x and y) and construct
of variables are not possible in the
negativity all constraints i.e.linear equations and inequations
solution. They are descr ibed as
Constraints involving these variables. Thus, an L.P.P. can be
x ≥ 0, y ≥ 0
stated mathematically as
The linear function which is to be Maximise (or minimise) z = ax + by
Objective
maximised or minimised under given Subject to the constraints:
Function
constraints. aix + biy ≤ (or or = or > or <) ci, where i = 1
The common region determined by all n, x 0, y 0 (non-negative constraints).
Feasible the constraints including non-negative (ii) Find the solutions (feasible region) of these equations
Region constraints of a L.P.P. is called the feasible and inequations by some mathematical method.
and
Feasible region or solution region. Feasible region (iii) Find an optimal solution i.e. select particular values
Solution is always a convex set. Feasible region of the variables x and y that give the desired value
may be bounded or unbounded. (maximum/minimum) of the objective function.

PROBABILITY
CONDITIONAL PROBABILITY and P(B) ≠ 0, is called the conditional probability.
X Let A and B be two events associated with a random P ( A ∩ B)
experiment. Then, the probability of occurrence of i.e., P(A/B) =
P ( B)
A under the condition that B has already occurred

58 MATHEMATICS TODAY | JANUARY ‘18


X If A and B are two events associated with a random P (Ei ) ⋅ P ( A / Ei )
experiment, then P(Ei/A) = , i = 1, 2, ...., n
n
P(A B) = P(A) ⋅ P(B/A), if P(A) ≠ 0 ∑ P(Ei ) ⋅ P(A / Ei )
P(A B) = P(B) ⋅ P(A/B), if P(B) ≠ 0 i =1
X A real valued function X, defined on a sample space
X Events are said to be independent, if the occurrence or
S, of a random experiment i.e., X : S → R is called
non-occurrence of one does not affect the probability
a random variable.
of the occurrence of the other.
X Binomial Distribution : The probability of 'r' success
i.e., P(A/B) = P(A), P(B) ≠ 0; P(B/A) = P(B), P(A) ≠ 0
in n trials is nCr ⋅ pr ⋅ qn–r, where p is the probability
X Two events A and B are independent events associated
of success and 'q' is the probability of failure in a
with a random experiment, if
single trial.
P(A B) = P(A) ⋅ P(B)
X Mean of Binomial Distribution = np
X If A1, A2, A3, .... An, are n independent events, then
P(A1 A2 ...... An) = 1 – P( A1) ⋅ P( A2 )......P( An ) Variance = npq, standard deviation = npq
X If A is any event which occurs with E1 or E2 ....or X Let X be a random variable whose possible values
En, then P(A) = P(E1) P(A/E1) + P(E2) P(A/E2) x1, x2, x3, ..., xn occur with probabilities p1, p2, p3,
+ .... + P(En) P(A/En) ..., pn respectively. Then we define expectation of
n

X Baye's theorem : If A is any event which occurs with X, denoted by E(X) and is given by E(X) = ∑ xi pi .
i =1
E1 or E2 .... or En, then X Var (X) = E(X2) – [E(X)]2

WORK IT OUT 8. If A and B are independent events, prove that


VERY SHORT ANSWER TYPE P(A B) · P(A′ B′) ≤ P(C), where C is an event
defined that exactly one of A and B occurs.
1. If a die is tossed, then the sample space S = {1, 2, 3, 4,
5, 6}. Let A = {1, 3, 5}, B = {2, 4, 6} and C = {2, 3, 5}. 9. Find the minimum value of z = 2x +y subject to :
Find : (i) P(A/C) (ii) P(C/B). x + 2y 3, 2x + y 6, x, y 0.

2. Find the maximum value of z = 4x + 3y subject to 10. The random variable X can take only the values
x + y ≤ 4, x, y 0. 0, 1, 2. Given that P(X = 0) = P(X = 1) = p and
E(X 2) = E(X), find the value of p.
3. If P(A) = 0.4, P(B) = 0.8, P(B/A) = 0.6. Find P(A/B) LONG ANSWER TYPE-I
and P(A B).
11. Find the maximum value of z = x + y subject to
4. If A and B are mutually exclusive events, find x + y ≤ 3, –2x + y ≤ 1, x ≤ 2, x, y 0.
P(A/B).
12. The ratio of the number of boys to the number of girls
5. X is taking up subjects-Mathematics, Physics and in a class is 1 : 2. It is known that the probabilities of
Chemistry in the examination. His probabilities of a girl and a boy getting a first division are 0.25 and
getting grade A in these subjects are 0.2, 0.3 and 0.5 0.28 respectively. Find the probability that student
respectively. Find the probability that he gets grade chosen at random will get first division.
A in all subjects. 13. A brick manufacturer has two depots A and B,
SHORT ANSWER TYPE with stocks of 30000 and 20000 bricks respectively.
He receives orders from three builders P, Q and
6. Consider z(x, y) = px + qy subject to 2x + y ≤ 0,
R for 15000, 20000 and 15000 bricks respectively.
x + 3y ≤ 15, x, y 0. If z is maximum at both the
The cost (in `) of transporting 1000 bricks to the
points (3, 4) and (0, 5), then find q in terms of p.
builders from the depots are as given in the table :
7. A bag contains 3 red and 7 black balls. Two balls To Transportation cost per 1000
are selected at random one-by-one without bricks (in `)
replacement. If the second selected ball happens to From P Q R
be red, what is the probability that the first selected A 40 20 20
ball is also red? B 20 60 40

MATHEMATICS TODAY | JANUARY ‘18 59


The manufacturer wishes to fulfil the order so that 20. Sixteen players P1, P2, ..., P16 play in a tournament.
transportation cost is minimum. Formulate the They are divided into eight pairs at random. From
LPP. each pair a winner is decided on the basis of a
14. There are 4 white and 3 black balls in a box. In game played between the two players of the pairs.
another box there are 3 white and 4 black balls. An Assuming that all the players are of equal strength,
unbiased dice is rolled. If it shows a number less find the probability that exactly one of the two
than or equal to 3, then a ball is drawn from the first players P1 and P2 is among the eight winners.
box but if it shows a number more than 3 then a SOLUTIONS
ball is drawn from the second box. If the ball drawn
is black, then find the probability that the ball was P ( A ∩ C ) P {3, 5} 2 2 2
1. (i) P(A/C) = = = ⋅ =
drawn from the first box. P (C ) 1/ 2 6 1 3
P (C ∩ B) P {2} 1 2 1
15. A bag X contains 3 white and 2 black balls; another (ii) P(C/B) = = = ⋅ =
P ( B) 1/ 2 6 1 3
bag Y contains 2 white and 4 black balls. A bag and
a ball out of it is picked at random. What is the 2. The corners of the feasible
probability that the ball is white? region are O(0, 0), A(4, 0),
LONG ANSWER TYPE-II B(0, 4).
 z = 4x + 3y
16. Kellogg is a new cereal formed of a mixture of bran
⇒ z(O) = 0, z(A) = 16
and rice that contains at least 88 grams of protein
z(B) = 12
and at least 36 milligrams of iron. Knowing that bran
\ Maximum value is z = 16 at A.
contains 80 grams of proteins and 40 milligrams of
iron per kilogram, and that rice contains 100 grams 3. P(A B) = P(A) · P(B/A) = (0.4)(0.6) = 0.24
of protein and 30 milligrams of iron per kilogram, P ( A ∩ B) 0.24
Now, P ( A / B) = = = 0. 3
find the minimum cost of producing this new cereal P ( B) 0. 8
if bran costs ` 5 per kilogram and rice costs ` 4 per P(A B) = P(A) + P(B) – P(A B)
kilogram. = 0.4 + 0.8 – 0.24 = 0.96
17. The sum of mean and variance of a binomial 4. Since A and B are mutually exclusive events,
distribution is 15 and the sum of their squares is \ A B = f.
117. Determine the distribution.
P ( A ∩ B) P (φ)
Hence, P ( A / B) = = =0
18. A can hit a target 4 times in 5 shots, B 3 times in P ( B) P ( B)
4 shots, and C 2 times in 3 shots. Calculate the
5. Let M, P ′ and C denote the events that X gets
probability that
grade A in Mathematics, Physics and Chemistry
(i) B, C may hit and A may not.
respectively.
(ii) Any two of A, B and C will hit the target
Given, P(M) = 0.2, P(P ′) = 0.3, P(C) = 0.5
(iii) none of them will hit the target
\ P(grade A in all subjects) = P(M P ′ C)
19. A manufacturer makes two products, A and B. = P(M) · P(P ′) · P(C) = 0.2 × 0.3 × 0.5 = 0.03
Product A sells at ` 200 per unit and takes 30 minutes
6. The feasible region is shown in the graph.
to make. Product B sells at ` 300 per unit and takes
1 hour to make. There is a permanent order of 14
units of product A and 16 units of product B. A
working week consists of 40 hours of production
and the weekly turnover must not be less than
` 10000. If the profit on each of product A is ` 20
and on product B is ` 30, then how many product A
and B respectively should be produced so that the
profit is maximum? Also, find the maximum profit. Since z = px + qy

60 MATHEMATICS TODAY | JANUARY ‘18


\ z(O) = 0, z(A) = 5p, z(E) = 3p + 4q, z(D) = 5q 12. Let E1 = event that a student selected at random is a girl
Also, z(E) = z(D) ⇒ 3p + 4q = 5q \ q = 3p. and E2 = event that a student selected at random is
7. Let A be the event of drawing a red ball in first draw a boy.
and B be the event of drawing a red ball in second draw. E = event that a student selected at random will get
3
C first division
3
\ P ( A) = 10 1 = Given, Number of boys : Number of girls = 1 : 2
C1 10 2 1
Now, P(B/A) = Probability of drawing a red ball in \ P (E1 ) = and P (E2 ) =
3 3
the second draw, when a red ball already has been By rule of total probability
2
C 2 P(E) = P(E1) · P(E/E1) + P(E2) · P(E/E2)
drawn in the first draw = 9 1 =
C1 9 2 1 0.78
= (0.25) + (0.28) = = 0.26
\ Required probability = P(A B) = P(A)⋅P(B/A) 3 3 3
3 2 1 13. The given information can be expressed as given in
= × =
10 9 15 the diagram.
8. L.H.S. = P(A B) ⋅ P(A′ B′) We assume that 1 unit = 1000 bricks
= P(A B) P(A ) P(B ) ≤ (P(A) + P(B)) P(A ) P(B )
= P(A) P(A ) P(B ) + P(B) P(A ) P(B )
≤ P(A)P(B ) + P(B) P(A ) [since P(A ) ≤ 1, P(B ) ≤ 1]
= P(A B ) + P(A B) = P(C) = R.H.S.
9. The feasible region is
unbounded.
\ z(A) = 2 × 3 = 6
z(C) = 6
\ Minimum value of z is 6
on the line 2x + y = 6.
Maximum value of z
Suppose that depot A supplies x units to P and y
does not exist.
units to Q, so that depot A supplies (30 – x – y)
10. Clearly, P(X = 0) + P(X = 1) + P(X = 2) = 1 units of bricks to builder R.
⇒ p + p + P(X = 2) = 1 ⇒ P(X = 2) = 1 – 2p. Now as P requires a total of 15000 bricks, it requires
So, the probability distribution of X is as given below : (15 – x) units from depot B.
xi 0 1 2 Similarly Q requires (20 – y) units from B and R
pi p p 1 – 2p requires 15 – (30 – x – y) = x + y – 15 units from B.
\ E(X) = (0 × p) + (1 × p) + 2 (1 – 2p) = 2 – 3p Total transportation cost,
and E(X2) = 02 × p + 12 × p + 22(1 – 2p) = 4 – 7p Z = 40x + 20y + 20(30 – x – y) + 20(15 – x)
1 + 60(20 – y) + 40(x + y – 15)
Now, E(X2) = E(X) ⇒ 4 – 7p = 2 – 3p ⇒ p = . = 40x – 20y + 1500
2
11. The corners points Obviously the constraints are that all quantities
of feasible region of bricks supplied from A and B to P, Q, R are
are O(0, 0), A(2, 0), non-negative.
2 7 \ x ≥ 0, y ≥ 0, 30 – x – y ≥ 0, 15 – x ≥ 0, 20 – y ≥ 0,
B(2, 1), C  ,  , x + y – 15 ≥ 0
3 3
D(0, 1). Since, 1500 is a constant, hence instead of minimizing
Now, z = x + y Z = 40x – 20y + 1500, we minimize Z = 40x – 20y.
⇒ z(A) = 2, Hence, mathematical formulation of the given LPP is
Minimize Z = 40x – 20y,
z(B) = 3, z(C) = 3, z(D) = 1, z(O) = 0
subject to the constraints : x + y ≥ 15, x + y ≤ 30,
\ Maximum z = 3 along line BC.
x ≤ 15, y ≤ 20, x ≥ 0, y ≥ 0

MATHEMATICS TODAY | JANUARY ‘18 61


14. Let E1 = Event of drawing a ball from the first box. Mathematical formulation of the LPP is :
E2 = Event of drawing a ball from the second box. Minimize z = 5x + 4y
B = Event of drawing a black ball. subject to constraints :
3 1 3 1 20x + 25y 22, 20x + 15y 18, x 0, y 0
\ P(E1) = = and P (E2 ) = =
6 2 6 2 The corner points of unbounded feasible region as
Clearly, E1 and E2 are mutually exclusive and exhaustive.
A(1.1, 0), E(0.6, 0.4) and D(0, 1.2)
B 3  B  4 At A(1.1, 0) : z = 5 × 1.1 + 4 × 0 = 5.5
Now, P   = and P  = .
 E1  7 E2  7 At E(0.6, 0.4) : z = 5 × 0.6 + 4 × 0.4 = 4.6
By Bayes' theorem, required probability At D(0, 1.2) : z = 5 × 0 + 4 × 1.2 = 4.8
B \ The minimum cost of producing this cereal is ` 4.6
P (E1 ) ⋅ P  
E   E1  17. Let n and p be the parameters of the distribution.
=P 1= \ Mean = np and Variance = npq.
B B B
P (E1 ) ⋅ P   + P (E2 ) ⋅ P   Given, np + npq = 15 and n2p2 + n2p2q2 = 117
1 3  E1   E2 
⋅ ⇒ np(1 + q) = 15 and n2p2(1 + q2) = 117
2 7 3 ⇒ n2p2(1 + q)2 = 225 and n2p2(1 + q2) = 117
= =
1 3 1 4 7
⋅ + . n2 p2 (1 + q)2 225 (1 + q)2 225
2 7 2 7 ⇒ 2 2 2
= ⇒ 2
=
n p (1 + q ) 117 (1 + q ) 117
15. Let E1 = the event of selecting bag X
1 + q2 + 2q 225 2q 225
E2 = the event of selecting bag Y ⇒ = ⇒ 1+ =
E = the event of drawing a white ball 1 + q2 117 1+ q 2 117
1 1 1 + q2 13 1 + q2 + 2q 13 + 12
\ P(E1) = , P(E2) = ⇒ = ⇒ =
2 2 2q 12 2
1 + q − 2q 13 − 12
Let A = E1 E and B = E2 E 2
\ Required probability, P(E) = P(A B) = P(A) + P(B) 1+ q 1+ q
⇒  = 25 ⇒ = 5 ⇒ 6q = 4
[Since events A and B are mutually exclusive]  1 − q  1− q
= P(E1 E) + P(E2 E) 2 2 1
= P(E1) · P(E/E1) + P(E2) · P(E/E2) ⇒ q= \ p = 1 – q = 1− =
3 3 3
1 3 1 2 7 1 2
= ⋅ + ⋅ = Putting p = , q = in np + npq = 15, we get
2 5 2 6 15 3 3
16. Let the cereal contain x kg of bran and y kg of rice. n 2n 5n
Let z be the cost of the new cereal. + = 15 ⇒ = 15 ⇒ n = 27
3 9 9
According to question, 1 2
80 100 88 Thus, n = 27, p = and q =
x× +y× ≥ or 20x + 25y ≥ 22 3 3
1000 1000 1000 Hence, the distribution is given by
40 30 36 r 27 −r
x× + y× ≥ or 20x + 15y ≥ 18 27  1  2
1000000 1000000 1000000 P(X = r) = Cr     , r = 0, 1, 2, ..., 27.
 3  3
x ≥ 0, y ≥ 0
18. Consider the following events :
E = A hits the target, F = B hits the target and
G = C hits the target
4 3 2
We have, P(E) = , P(F) = and P(G) =
5 4 3
(i) P(B, C may hit and A may not) = P(E F G)
= P(E) P(F) P (G)
[ E, F, G are independent events]
 4 3 2 1
= 1 −  × × =
 5  4 3 10

62 MATHEMATICS TODAY | JANUARY ‘18


MATHEMATICS TODAY | JANUARY ‘18 63
(ii) P (Any two of A, B and C will hit the target) Since P1 can be paired with any of the remaining
= P(E F G) (E F G) (E F G)) 15 players.
= P(E F G) + P(E F G) + P (E F G)) 1
We have, P(E1) =
= P(E) P(F) P(G) + P(E) P(F) P(G) 15
+ P(E) P(F) P(G) 1 14
and P(E2) = 1 – P(E1) = 1 − = .
15 15
 4 3 1   1 3 2   4 1 2  13
=  × ×  + × ×  + × ×  = In case E1 occurs, it is certain that one of P1 and
 5 4 3   5 4 3   5 4 3  30
P2 will be among the winners. Let C and D be the
(iii) P(None of A, B and C will hit the target) events that P1 and P2 wins respectively. In case E2
1 1 1 1 occurs, the probability that exactly one of P1 and P2
= P(E F G) = × × = is among the winners is
5 4 3 60
19. Let x be the number of units of the product A and y P{(C D) (C D)} = P(C) P(D) + P(C) P(D)
be the number of units of the product B produced. 1 1  11 1 1 1
=   1 −  + 1 −    = + =
Let z be the total profit. 2 2  22 4 4 2
\ z = 20x + 30y i.e., P (A/E1) = 1 and P (A/E2) = 1
2
x and y must satisfy the following conditions By the total probability rule,
200x + 300y ≥ 10000 or 2x + 3y ≥ 100    
1 P(A) = P (E1) · P  A  + P( E2 )·P  A 
x + 1⋅y ≤ 40 or x + 2y ≤ 80  E1   E2 
2 1 14  1  8
x ≥ 14, y ≥ 16, x ≥ 0, y ≥ 0 = (1) + =
15 15  2  15
The mathematical formulation of the LPP will be 
Maximize z = 20x + 30y
subject to constraints :
2x + 3y ≥ 100, x + 2y ≤ 80, x ≥ 14, y ≥ 16, x ≥ 0, y ≥ 0 DELHI at
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winners.

64 MATHEMATICS TODAY | JANUARY ‘18


Class XII

T his specially designed column enables students to self analyse their


extent of understanding of specified chapters. Give yourself four
marks for correct answer and deduct one mark for wrong answer.
Self check table given at the end will help you to check your
readiness.

Vector Algebra and Three Dimensional Geometry


Total Marks : 80 Time Taken : 60 Min.
Only One Option Correct Type One or More Than One Option(s) Correct Type
1. A unit tangent vector at t = 2 on the curve 7. Let A1, A2,..., An (n > 2) be the vertices of a regular
x = t2 + 2, y = 4t – 5, z = 2t2 – 6t is polygon of n sides with its centre at the origin.

1 ˆ ˆ ˆ Let ak be the position vector of the point Ak,
(a) (i + j + k ) (b) 1 (2iˆ + 2 jˆ + kˆ )
3 3 n−1
  n−1
 
1 ˆ ˆ ˆ k = 1, 2,..., n. If ∑ (ak × ak+1 ) = ∑ (ak ⋅ ak+1 ) , then
(c) (2i + j + k ) (d) none of these k =1 k =1
6 the minimum value of n is
2. The projection of a line segment on the coordinates (a) 1 (b) 2 (c) 8 (d) 9
axes are 2, 3, 6. Then, the length of the line segment 8. Let P1 denote the equation of the plane to which the
is
vector (jˆ + iˆ ) is normal and which contains the line
(a) 7 (b) 5 (c) 1 (d) 11 
L whose equation is r = i + j + k + λ(i − j − k ). Let
3. The angle between a line with direction ratios
P2 denote the equation of the plane containing the
proportional to 2, 2, 1 and a line joining (3, 1, 4) to
(7, 2, 12), is line L and a point with position vectors j . Which
of the following holds goods?
−1  2  −1  2 
(a) cos   (b) cos  −  (a) Equation of P1 is x + y = 2
3 3
(b) Equation of P2 is r ⋅ (i − 2 j + k ) = 2.

2
(c) tan −1   (d) none of these (c) The acute angle between P1 and P2 is
3
cot −1 ( 3 ) .
4. Let a , b , c be three non-coplanar vectors and d (d) The angle between the plane P2 and the line L is
be a non-zero vector which is perpendicular to
tan −1 3 .
a + b + c . If d = x b × c + y c × a + z a × b , then
(a) xy + yz + zx = 0 (b) x = y = z 9. If a = iˆ + jˆ + kˆ and b = iˆ − jˆ , then the vectors
(c) x3 + y3 + z3 = 3xyz (d) x + y + z = 1 (a ⋅ iˆ )iˆ + (a ⋅ jˆ )jˆ + (a ⋅ kˆ )kˆ , (b ⋅ iˆ )iˆ + (b ⋅ jˆ )jˆ + (b ⋅ kˆ )kˆ ,
5. The line through the points (5, 1, a) and (3, b, 1) and iˆ + jˆ − 2kˆ
17 −13 
(a)are mutually perpendicular

crosses yz plane at the point  0, , . Then (b)are coplanar
 2 2 
(c)form a parallelopiped of volume 6 units
(a) a = 2, b = 8 (b) a = 4, b = 6
(d)form a parallelopiped of volume 3 units
(c) a = 6, b = 4 (d) a = 8, b = 2
 x −1 y +1 z − 3
 2  2  10. The projection of the line = = on
6. If (a × b ) + (a ⋅ b ) = 144 and | a | = 4, then | b | is 2 −1 4
equal to the plane x+ 2y + z = 9 is the line of intersection of
(a) 16 (b) 8 (c) 3 (d) 12 which of the following planes?

MATHEMATICS TODAY | JANUARY ‘18 65


(a) x + 2y + z – 9 = 0 (b) 9x + 2y + 3z – 4 = 0 Matrix Match Type
(c) x – 2y + z + 3 = 0 (d) 9x – 2y – 5z + 4 = 0
16. Match the following.
11. The volume of a right triangular A1
prism ABCA1B1C1 is equal to 3. B1 C1 Column I Column II
Find the co-ordinates of the vertex The number of independent
A1, if the co-ordinates of the base A
P. constants in the equation of a 1. 2
vertices of the prism are A(1, 0, 1), B
C straight line in 3 dimensions is
B(2, 0, 0) and C(0, 1, 0).
(a) (–2, 0, 2) (b) (0, –2, 0) A plane passes through (1, –2, 1)
(c) (0, 2, 0) (d) (2, 2, 2) and is perpendicular to two
12. The equations of two lines through the origin which Q. planes 2x – 2y + z = 0, x – y + 2z = 4. 2. 9
x −3 y −3 z If the distance of (1, 2, 2) from it,
intersect the line = = at an angle 60° is
2 1 1 is k 2 units. Then k equals
x y z x y z
(a) = = (b) = = x − 1 y +1 z − 1
1 2 −1 1 −1 2 If the lines = =
x y z 2 3 4
x y z x−3 y−k z
(c) = = (d) = = R. 3. 4
2 1 −1 2 −1 1 and = =
1 2 1
13. The line of intersection of the planes are coplanar, then 2k is
 
r ⋅ (i + 2 j + 3k ) = 0 and r ⋅ (3i + 2 j + k ) = 0 is
(a) equally inclined to i and kˆ P Q R
(b) equally inclined to i and jˆ (a) 3 1 2
(b) 3 2 1
2
(c) inclined at an angle cos −1 with ĵ (c) 1 2 3
3
(d) 2 1 3
 −1 
(d) inclined at an angle cos −1  with î
 6  Integer Answer Type

Comprehension Type 17. The distance of the point iˆ + 2 jˆ + 3kˆ from the
If a , b and c be any three non-coplanar vectors. plane r ⋅ (iˆ + jˆ + kˆ ) = 5 measured parallel to the
T h e n t h e s y s t e m a ′, b ′ and c ′ w h i c h s a t i s f i e s vectors 2iˆ + 3 jˆ − 6kˆ must be
a ⋅ a′ = b ⋅ b ′ = c ⋅ c ′ = 1 18. The distance of the point (3, 0, 5) from the line
and a ⋅ b ′ = a ⋅ c ′ = b ⋅ a ′ = b ⋅ c ′ = c ⋅ a ′ = c ⋅ b ′ = 0 x – 2y + 2z – 4 = 0 = x + 3z – 11 is
is called the reciprocal system to the vectors a , b and c . 19. If the lines x – y + z = –1 = 3x – y + az + 1 and
x + 4y – z – 1 = 0 = x + 2y + bz + 1 are perpendicular,
14. The value of (a × a ′) + (b × b ′) + (c × c ′)
then 3ab + a – b + c = 0, where c is
(a) = a + b + c (b) = a ′ + b ′ + c ′   
(c) ≠ 0 (d) = 0 20. Let p = 2i − j + k , q = i + 2 j − k and r = i + j − 2k .
4
15. The value of [a ′ b ′ c ′]−1 If V = p + λq and projection of V on r is , then
6
(a) < [a b c ] (b) = [a b c ] value of l is equal to
(c) > [a b c ] (d) = 0 
Keys are published in this issue. Search now!
Check your score! If your score is
> 90% EXCELLENT WORK ! You are well prepared to take the challenge of final exam.

No. of questions attempted …… 90-75% GOOD WORK ! You can score good in the final exam.

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Marks scored in percentage …… < 60% NOT SATISFACTORY! Revise thoroughly and strengthen your concepts.

66 MATHEMATICS TODAY | JANUARY ‘18


Vectors and 3D Geometry
PROBLEMS 6. If the four faces of a tetrahedron are represented
^ ^ ^ ^
Single Correct Answer Type by the equations r ⋅ (β i + γ j ) = 0, r ⋅ ( γ j + α k ) = 0,
^ ^ ^ ^ ^
1. The ratio in which the plane r ⋅ (i^ − 2 j^+ 3 k^) = 17 r ⋅(α k + β i ) = 0 and r ⋅ (β i + γ j + α k) = λ, then value
^ ^ ^ of tetrahedron (in cubic units) (if b, y, a, l
divides the line joining the points −2 i + 4 j + 7 k each > 0) is
^ ^ ^
and 3 i − 5 j + 8 k is 1 λ3 λ3
(a) 3 : 5 (b) 1 : 5 (c) 2 : 7 (d) 3 : 10 (a) (b)
6 (αβy )3 αβy
2. The length of the perpendicular from origin to the
λ3 λ3
plane passing through a point c and containing (c) (d)
3αβy 6αβγ
the line r = b + µa is
[a b c ] [c b a] x − 2 y −1 z + 2
7. Let the line = = lie in the plane
(a) (b) 3 −5 2
|b × c + c × a | |b × a + a × c | x + 3y – az + b = 0, then (a, b) equals
[a b c ] [a b c ] (a) (–6, 7) (b) (–5, 5) (c) (6, –7) (d) (–6, –7)
(c) (d)
|a × b + b × c | |a ×b +b ×c + c ×a | 8.
The distance of the point (1, –2, 3) from the plane
3. The position vector of foot of the perpendicular x – y + z – 5 = 0 measured parallel to the line
^ ^ ^ ^ x^= y ^= z is
of the point P(1, 2, 3) on the line (6 i + 7 j + 7 k ) + λ(3 i + 2 j − 2 k)
^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^
2 3 −6
(6 i + 7 j + 7 k ) + λ(3 i + 2 j − 2 k) is (a) 4 (b) 3 (c) 2 (d) 1
^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^
(a) 3 i − 5 j + 9 k (b) 3 i + 5 j − 9 k 9. The equation of the plane passing through the
^ ^ ^ point (1, –1, 2) and (2, –2, 2) and is perpendicular
(c) 3 i + 5 j + 9 k (d) none of these
to the plane 6x – 2y + 2z = 9 is
4. A parallelopiped is formed by planes drawn (a) x + y + 2z + 4 = 0 (b) x + y + 2z – 4 = 0
parallel to the co-ordinate axes through the points (c) x + y – 2z + 4 = 0 (d) none of these
A = (2, 3, 4) and B = (11, 9, 8). Then, the volume of More than One Correct Answer Type
the parallelepiped is equal to (in cubic units)
(a) 108 (b) 36 (c) 72 (d) 216 10. If a , b , c are three non-zero vectors, then which of
the following statement(s) is/are true?
5. A line passes through P(2, 3, 4) and having (a) a × (b × c ) + b × (c × a ) + c (a × b ) = 0
direction ratios (4, 5, 6) meet the plane x + 2y – 3z
(b) If a + b + c = 0 then a ⋅ b + b ⋅ c + c ⋅ a < 0
+ 16 = 0 at Q then length of PQ is equal to
(c × a ) ⋅ (b × c )
(a) 936 units (b) 693 units (c) = 1 if a + b + c = 0
(b × c ) ⋅ (a × b )
(c) 963 units (d) 369 units (d) none of these
By : R. K. Tyagi, Retd. Principal, HOD Maths, Samarth Shiksha Samiti, New Delhi

MATHEMATICS TODAY | JANUARY ‘18 67


11. If a and b are any two unit vectors then which (b) r ⋅ (4 ^j − 3 k^) + 1 = 0 is plane through the line (i)
of the following statement(s) in the range of ^ ^
and r ⋅ (5 j − 4 k ) + 1 = 0 is plane through the
5 line (ii)
| a + b | + 6 | a − b | is/ are true?
2 (c) Lines (i) and (ii) are coplanar
(a) The maximum integer of the range is 13
(d) Lines (i) and (ii) intersecting
(b) The minimum integer of the range is 5
(c) The most middle integer of the range is 9 Comprehension Type
(d) The average value of the maximum and Paragraph for Q. No. 17-19
minimum integer of the range is 9 Let a plane P1 passes through the point (2, 3, 4) and is
12. A vector of magnitude 6 along the bisector of the parallel to the plane P2 whose equation is
^ ^ ^ ^4x +^ 4y –^ 2z – 6 = 0.
angle between the two vectors 4 i − 4 j + 2 k and 2 i + 4 j − 4 k is
^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ 17. The distance of the point (1, –1, 3) from the plane
4 i − 4 j + 2 k and 2 i + 4 j − 4 k is
3 ^ ^ ^ 6 ^ ^ P1 in units is
(a) (i − 4 j − 3 k) (b) (3 i − k ) (a) 5 (b) 4 (c) 3 (d) 2
26 10
6 ^ ^ ^ 6 ^ ^ 18. The coordinates of the foot of the perpendicular
(c) (i − 4 j + 3 k) (d) ( i − 3 j) drawn from the point (4, 5, 6) to the plane P2 are
26 5
(a) (–2, 3 7) (b) (2, 3, 7)
13. Let A(1, –2, 3), B (1, 1, 1), C(1, 2, –3), D(–1, –1, 1)
(c) (2, –3, 7) (d) (2, 3, –7)
be four points and 3x – y + 4z – 5 = 0 be the
equation of plane then which of the following line 19. The distance between the planes P1 and P2 is
segments are intersected by the plane? (a) 1 units (b) 2 units
(a) AC (b) BC (c) BD (d) AD (c) 3 units (d) 4 units
^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^
14. Let r = 2 i − 2 j + 3 k + λ( i − j + 4 k) be a line and Paragraph for Q.No. 20-23
^ ^ ^ Three vectors are a , b , c forming a right handed system
equation of plane is r .( i + 5 j + k ) = 5. Then,
(a) line is parallel to the plane and a × b = c , b × c = d , c × a = b .
10
(b) the distance between line and plane 20. The value of 3a ⋅ (b × c ) + 4b ⋅ (c × a ) + 5c ⋅ (a × b )
3 3
equals
10
(c) the ⊥ distance between line and plane is (a) 12 (b) 50
units 3 3 (c) 50 (d) none of these
(d) the point (2, –2, 3) lies on the plane
21. If the vectors 3a − 4b + 3c , a + 2b − c , 2c − yb + 2c
15. Let A(2, 3, 2), B(1, 1, 1), C(3, –2, 1), D(7, 1, 4). Then,
are coplanar then value of y equals.
(a) Points A, B, C, D are non coplanar
3 8
21 (a) (b)
(b) Area of DBCD is sq. units 8 3
2
(c) 0 (d) none of these
(c) Equation of the plane BCD is 3x + 2y – 6z + 1 = 0
1 22. If x = a − 2b + c , y = −a + 3b + c , z = 2a − b + 3c the
(d) Volume of tetrahedron ABCD is cubic units
2 unit vector normal to the vector xx++ yy andand xx++zz isisis
16. Consider the equations 1
^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ (a) (10a − 6b − 3c )
r = ( i + 2 j + 3 k ) + λ(2 i + 3 j + 4 k) ...(i) 145
^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^
r = (2 i + 3 j + 4 k) + µ(3 i + 4 j + 5 k ) ...(ii) 1
(b) (−10a + 6b − 3c )
then which of the following statement(s) is/are true? 145
^ ^
(a) r ⋅ (4 i − 3 j) + 1 = 0 is the plane through the 1
^ ^ (c) (10a + 6b − 3c )
line (ii) and r ⋅ (2 i − k ) + 1 = 0 and is plane 145
through the line (i) (d) none of these

68 MATHEMATICS TODAY | JANUARY ‘18


^ ^ ^
23. Let x = 2a + b and y = a − 2b then the point of Let a = 3 i + 2 j + 2 k and
intersection of the straight lines r × x = y × x and
andr × y = x ×C.y is ^ ^ ^ r. 8, 8, 0
b = i + 2 j + 2 k then d.r.’s of
r × x = y × x and r × y = x × y is
(a + b ) × (a − b ) are
(a) a + b (b) a − b
A line passes through A(–3, –2, 4)
(c) 3a + 2b (d) 3a − b
D. and B(5, 6, 4) then d.r. of the s. 2, 5, 3
Matrix Match Type line AB are
24. Match the following. Integer Type
Column-I Column-II 26. If a , b and c are unit vectors perpendicular to
A(0, 3, 5) B(3, 6, 5) C(a, 4, b) each other and | b | = 3, | c |= 4 and a × b = c then,
are vertices of triangle ABC the least value of 3| a − b | is
such that the median through
A. p. 5 27. Let a is vector whose magnitude is unity
B is equally inclined to the
co-ordinate axes then the and coplanar with the vectors b and c , where
^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^
value of (9a + b) is b = i − j + 3 k and c = 3 i − j + k such that a is
^ ^ ^ perpendicular to b . If l is the projection of a
Let a = i + 2 j − k
^ ^ ^ 11 2 λ
and b = i − j + 2 k along c then the value of is
B. ^ ^ ^ q. 21 4
and c = i + (x − 3) j − 2 x k . If 28. Let A(1, 2, 3), B(–1, –2, –1), C(2, 3, 2) are three
the vector c lies in the plane vertices of a parallelogram ABCD if coordinates of
of a and b then x2 equals x+y+z
D(x, y, z) then is
17
Vectors a , b , c satisfies the 29. The value of the tetrahedron which is included
condition a + b + c = 0 such between the 4x – 5y + 6z = 120 and the co-ordinate
C. that | a |= 1, | b |= 4, | c |= 2 and r. 16 planes is 600 l where l is
30. Let A(1, 2, –3) and B(3, –4, 2) then the moment
= a ⋅ b + b ⋅ c + c ⋅ a then |2 |
about the point C(–2, 4, –6) of the force represented
equals
 341
in magnitude and position by AB is . Then
If a , b , c be three vectors such λ
value of l is
that | a |= 3, | b |= 4 ,| c |= 5 and
each vector is perpendicular SOLUTIONS
D. s. 9 ^ ^ ^
to the sum of the other two 1. (d) : Let the plane r ⋅ ( i − 2 j + 3 k ) = 17 divides the
a +b +c ^ ^ ^
vectors then the line joining the points −2 i^ + 4 ^j + 7 k^ and 3 i − 5 j + 8 k
equals 2 in the ratio l : 1
R(x, y, z)
25. Match the following. (–2, 4, 7) (3, –5, 8)
l:1
Column-I Column-II  3λ − 2 −5λ + 4 8 λ + 7 
∴ R(x , y , z ) =  , ,
If the co-ordinates of the  λ +1 λ +1 λ + 1 
points A (3, 4, 6) and B(8, 6, 9) Using R(x, y, z) in the equation of the plane, we get
A. p. 0, 8, –8  3λ − 2 ^ 4 − 5λ ^ 8 λ + 7 ^  ^ ^ ^
then projections of the line
AB to the co-ordinate axis are  λ + 1 i + λ + 1 j + λ + 1 k  ⋅ ( i − 2 j + 3 k) = 17
 
The equation of a line is ⇒ (3l – 2)(1) + (4 – 5l)(–2) + (8l + 7)(3) – 17(l + 1) = 0
^ ^ ^
B. r = 3 ^i + 4 ^j + 5 k^ + λ(2 i + 5 j + k) q. 5, 2, 3 3
⇒ 20l = 6 ⇒ λ =
then d.r.’s of the line are 10
\ Required ratio is 3 : 10

MATHEMATICS TODAY | JANUARY ‘18 69



2. (b) : As the given plane passes through c and is λ 
   the plane (iv) cuts the plane (ii) at  , 0, 0  and
parallel to the vector b − c and a so it is normal to β 
  
(b − c ) × a . Hence its equation is given as  λ 
     the plane (iv) cuts the plane (iii) at  0, , 0 
(r − c ) ⋅[(b − c ) × a ] = 0 ...(i)
 γ 
\ Length of perpendicular from origin O(0, 0, 0) to thus the planes (i) , (ii) and (iii) are coordinate planes
(i) is given by intersecting at origin (0, 0, 0). Therefore the lengths of the
      
| 0 ⋅ (b × a + a × c ) − [c b a ]| 1  λ λ λ
    =     [c b a ] coterminous edges of the tetrahedron are  , , 
|b × a + a × c | |b × a + a × c | β γ α
3. (c) : Equation of line is given by 1λ λ λ λ3
 ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ \ Volume of tetrahedron =  ⋅ ⋅  =
r = 6 i + 7 j + 7 k + λ(3 i + 2 j − 2 k ) 6  β γ α  6αβγ
x −6 y −7 z −7 x − 2 y −1 z + 2
⇒ = = = λ (say ) 7. (a) : Equation of line is = = and
3 2 −2 3 −5 2
\ Coordinates of M are plane is x + 3y – az + b = 0.
(3l + 6, 2l + 7, –2l + 7) The d.r.’s of the line are (3, –5, 2)
\ d.r.’s of PM are As the line lies in the plane, so every point of line
(3l + 5, 2l + 5, –2l + 4) satisfies the equation on plane and normal to plane
and d.r.’s of AB are (3, 2, –2) must be ⊥ to the line
Now, PM ⊥ AB \ 3(1) + (–5)(3) + 2(–a) = 0 ⇒ a = –6
⇒ 3(3l + 5) + 2(2l + 5) – 2(–2l + 4) = 0 and 2 + 3(1) + 2a + b = 0
⇒ 17l = –17 ⇒ l = –1 ⇒ 2 + 3 + 2(–6) + b = 0 \ b = 7
\ Foot of the perpendiculars, M (3, 5, 9) Thus (a, b) = (–6, 7)
^ ^ ^
\ Position vector of M is 3 i + 5 j + 9 k 8. (d)
4. (d) : Translating the axes through A(2, 3, 4) then, 9. (c) : Equation of the plane through (1, –1, 2) will be
new position of A is (0, 0, 0) and B is (9, 6, 4) a(x – 1) + b(y + 1) + c(z – 2) = 0 which passes through
\ Coterminous edges are of lengths 9, 6, 4 respectively (2, –2, 2)
\ Volume of parallelepiped = 9 × 6 × 4 = 216 cu. units \ a(2 – 1) + b(–2 + 1) + c(2 – 2) = 0
5. (b) : As the line passes through P(2, 3, 4) and has a–b=0 ⇒ a=b
d.r.’s (4, 5, 6) Also, the plane a(x – 1) + b(y + 1) + c(z – 2) = 0 is ⊥ to
^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ 6x – 2y + 2z = 9
\ r =of
Equation a+ λb = (2 i + 3 j + 4 k) + λ(4 i + 5 j + 6 k)
line
\ 6a – 2b + 2c = 0 ⇒ 3a – b + c = 0
\ Any point on the line is
⇒ c = –2a ( a = b)
(2 + 4l, 3 + 5l, 4 + 6l), l ∈ R
\ a(x – 1) + a(y + 1) –2a(z – 2) = 0
As the line meet the plane therefore any point that lie on
⇒ x – 1 + y + 1 – 2(z – 2) = 0 ⇒ x + y – 2z + 4 = 0
the line satisfies the equation of the plane
\ (2 + 4l) + 2(3 + 5l) – 3(4 + 6l) + 16 = 0 10. (a,b,c) : (a) We know that
⇒ –4l = –12 \ l = 3 a × (b × c ) = (a ⋅ c )b − (a ⋅ b )c ...(i)
\ Coordinates of Q = (14, 18, 22) b × (c × a ) = (b ⋅ a )c − (b ⋅ c )a ...(ii)
\ PQ = (14 − 2)2 + (18 − 3)2 + (22 − 4)2 c × (a × b ) = (c ⋅ b )a − (c ⋅ a )b ...(iii)
Adding (i), (ii) and (iii) we get
= 144 + 225 + 324 = 693 units
a × (b × c ) + b × (c × a ) + c × (a × b ) = 0
6. (d) : Cartesian equations of the planes are      2
(b) ∵ a + b + c = 0 ⇒ (a + b + c ) = 0
⇒ bx + gy = 0 ...(i); gy + az = 0 ...(ii); 2 2 2
⇒ a + b + c + 2(a ⋅ b + b ⋅ c + c ⋅ a ) =
az + bx = 0 ...(iii) and bx + gy + az = l ...(iv) 2 2 2
 λ ⇒ a + b + c = −2(a ⋅ b + b ⋅ c + c ⋅ a )
Now, plane (iv) cuts the plane (i) at  0, 0,  ⇒ a ⋅ b + b ⋅ c + c ⋅ a < 0 ( L.H.S. is a positive quantity)
 α

70 MATHEMATICS TODAY | JANUARY ‘18


   \ Required vectors are
(c) ∵ a + b + c = 0
^ 1 ^  ^
⇒ (a + b ) = −c ⇒ c × (a + b ) = 0 ⇒ c × a = b × c i 4^ ^
i− 3 k − j+ k
...(i)   3 3
6 ,6
Again , (a + b ) = −c ⇒ b × (a + b ) = −b × c 10 2
 1   −4 
2
2
⇒ a ×b =b ×c ...(ii) 9   +   + 1
3 3
(c × a ) ⋅ (b × c )  ^ ^  ^ ^ ^ 
By (i) and (ii) we get =1 3 i − k   i − 4 j+ 3 k 
(b × c ) ⋅ (a × b) = 6  , 6⋅
   10   26 

11. (a,b,c,d) : ∵ a , b are unit vectors
6 ^ ^ 6 ^ ^ ^
∴ | a |=| b |= 1, let q be the angle between vectors a and b . or (3 i − k ), (i − 4 j + 3 k)
10 26
2 2 2 θ
Now a + b = a + b + 2a ⋅ b ⇒ | a + b |= 2 cos 13. (a, b, c, d) : For point A(1, –2, 3) and the plane
2
2 2 2 θ 3x – y + 4z – 5 = 0 we have 3(1) + 2 + 4(3) – 5 > 0
and a − b = a + b − 2a ⋅ b ⇒ | a − b |= 2 sin
2 For point B(1, 1, 1) 3x – y + 4z – 5 = 3 – 1 + 4 – 5 > 0
5 θ  θ For point C(1, 2, –3),
Let f (θ) =  2 cos  + 6  2 sin  , θ ∈[0, π]
2 2  2 3x – y + 4z – 5 = 3 – 2 – 12 – 5 < 0
−5 θ θ For point D(–1, –1, 1),
∴ f ′(θ) = sin + 6 cos 3x – y + 4z – 5 = –3 + 1 + 4 – 5 < 0
2 2 2
θ 12 \ Points A, B are on one side of the plane and C, D on
f ′(θ) = 0 ⇒ tan = the other side of the plane.
2 5 A B
θ 12 θ 5
∴ sin = , cos =
2 13 2 13
C D
\ f(0)=5(1) + 12(0) = 5
\ The line segments AC, AD, BC, BD intersect the plane.
  12   5(5)  12 
f  θ = 2 tan−1    = + 12   = 13 14. (a,c)
  
5  13  13 
15. (a, b, c, d) : Equation of the plane through the points
and f(q = p) = 5(0) + 12(1) = 12 \ Range = [5, 13] A, B, C is
\ Maximum integral value of range = 13
x −2 y −3 z −2
Minimum integral value of range = 5
Most middle integral value of range 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, (a) −1 −2 −1 = 0
12, 13 is 9. 1 −5 −1
Average of minimum integral value and maxima ⇒ (x – 2) (–3) – (y – 3)(2) + (z – 2)(7) = 0 ...(i)
5 + 13 Using D(7, 1, 4) in (i), we have
integral value of the range is =9
2 (7 – 2) (–3) – (1 – 3)(2) + (4 – 2)(7) ≠ 0
^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ \ Points A, B, C, D are non-coplanar .
12. (b,d) : Let a = 4 i − 4 j + 2 k , b = 2 i + 4 j − 4 k
(b) Area of DBCD : B(1, 1, 1), C(3, –2, 1), D(7, 1, 4)
∴ | a |=| b |= 6
= B(x1, y1, z1), C(x2, y2, z2), D(x3, y3, z3)
\ Vectors along bisectors is
a b 1 ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ \ Area of ∆BCD = ∆ = ∆2x + ∆2y + ∆2z
± = [(4 i − 4 j + 2 k) ± (2 i + 4 j − 4 k )]
|a | |b | 6 y1 y2 y3
\ Vectors along bisectors are 1
where ∆ x = z1 z2 z3 and so on
1 ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ 2
= [(4 i − 4 j + 2 k + 2 i + 4 j − 4 k), (4 i − 4 j + 2 k 1 1 1
6 ^ ^ ^
−2 i − 4 j + 4 k)] 1 −2 1 1 3 7 1 3 7
1 1 1
 ^  \ ∆ x = 1 1 4 , ∆ y = 1 1 4 , ∆ z = 1 −2 1
1 ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ 1^ i 4^ ^ 2 2 2
= [(6 i − 2 k ),(2 i − 8 j + 6 k)] =  i − k, − j + k  1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
6  3 3 3 

MATHEMATICS TODAY | JANUARY ‘18 71


9 ^ ^ ^
\ ∆ x = , ∆ y = 3, ∆ z = 9 i j k
2 ^ ^ ^
81 21 Now, b1 × b2 = 2 3 4 = − i + 2 j − k
\ Area of ∆BCD = ∆ = + 9 + 81 = sq. units
4 2 3 4 5
(c) Equation of the plane B(1, 1, 1), C(3, –2, 1), D(7, 1, 4) is ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^
\ (a2 − a1 ) ⋅ (b1 × b2 ) = ( i + j + k ) ⋅ (− i + 2 j − k) = 0
x −1 y −1 z −1 \ d = 0.
2 −3 0 =0 17. (c) : Equation of the plane P1 passing through the
6 0 3 point (2, 3, 4) and parallel to plane 4x + 4y – 2z – 6 = 0
⇒ (x – 1)(–9) – (y – 1)(6) + (z – 1)(18) = 0 is given by 4(x – 2) + 4(y – 3) – 2(z – 4) = 0
⇒ 3x + 2y – 6z + 1 = 0 ⇒ 4x + 4y – 2z – 12 = 0 ...(i)
(d) Volume of tetrahedron ABCD \ Distance from (1, –1, 3) to the plane (i)
4(1) + 4(−1) − 2(3) − 12 18
1 = = = 3 units
= × area of DBCD 6
3 42 + 42 + (−2)2
× ⊥ distance from A to the plane of BCD
1 21 1 1 18. (b) : Equation of the line AB having
= × × = cubic units d.r.’s (4, 4, –2) through the point
3 2 7 2
^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ (4, 5, 6) is
16. (a,b,c,d) : As r = ( i + 2 j + 3 k ) + λ(2 i + 3 j + 4 k) x −4 y −5 z −6
x −1 y − 2 z − 3 = = = λ (say )
⇒ = = =λ ...(i) 4 4 −2
2 3 4 ⇒ x – 4 = 4l, y – 5 = 4l, z – 6 = –2l
^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^
and r = (2 i + 3 j + 4 k ) + µ(3 i + 4 j + 5 k) ⇒ x = 4l + 4, y = 4l + 5, z = –2l + 6
x −2 y −3 z −4 ...(ii) Using this point on the plane P2, we have
⇒ = =
3 4 5 4(4l + 4) + 4(4l + 5) – 2(–2l + 6) – 6 = 0
\ Equation of the planes through (i) are ⇒ 16l + 16l + 4l = –16 – 20 + 12 + 6
x −1 y − 2 y − 2 z − 3 x −1 z − 3 −1
= , = and = ⇒ 36 λ = −18 ⇒ λ =
2 3 3 4 2 4 2
and foot of the ⊥ are
⇒ 3x – 2y + 1 = 0, 4y – 3z + 1 = 0 and 2x – z + 1 = 0 x = 4(–1/2) + 4,
^ ^ ^ ^
⇒ r ⋅ (3 i − 2 j) + 1 = 0, r ⋅ (4 j − 3 k) + 1 = 0 y = 4(–1/2) + 5,
^ ^ z = –2(–1/2) + 6
and r ⋅ (2 i − k ) + 1 = 0
x = 2, y = 3, z = 7 \ (x, y, z) = (2, 3, 7)
Again, equation of planes through line (ii) are
19. (a) : Given P1 : 4x + 4y – 2z – 12 = 0
x −2 y −3 y −3 z −4 x −2 z −4
= , = and = P2 : 4x + 4y – 2z – 6 = 0
3 4 4 5 3 5
Let (x1, y1, z1) be any point on P2
⇒ 4x – 3y + 1 = 0, 5y – 4z + 1 = 0 and 5x – 3z + 2 = 0
^ ^ ^ ^ \ 4x1 + 4y1 – 2z1 – 6 = 0 ...(*)
⇒ r ⋅ (4 i − 3 j) + 1 = 0, r ⋅ (5 j − 4 k) + 1 = 0 Now distance from, (x1, y1, z1) to plane P1
^ ^
and r ⋅ (5 i − 3 k) + 2 = 0 \ Required distance
Again any point on the line (1) is P(2l + 1, 3l + 2, | 4 x1 + 4 y1 − 2z − 6 − 6 | 6
= = = 1 unit
4l + 3) and 4x – 3y + 1 = 0, 5x – 3z + 2 = 0, 5y – 4z + 1 = 0 42 + 42 + (−2)2 6
or 5(2l + 1) – 3(4l + 3) + 2 = 0 each gives the same   
value of l = –1. So the lines (i) and (ii)are coplanar. 20. (a) : ∵ a , b , c forming a right handed system
Also, the lines are coplanar therefor they will intersect ∴ a ⋅ (b × c ) = b ⋅ (c × a ) = c ⋅ (a × b ) = [a b c ]
and it can be verified by using the formula, and a × b = c ⇒ c ⋅ (a × b ) = c ⋅ c ⇒ [a b c ] = 1
(a2 − a1 ) ⋅ (b1 × b2 ) = (3 + 4 + 5) a ⋅ (b × c ) = 12[a b c ] = 12
d = Shortest distance =      
b1 × b2 21. (b) : ∵ 3a − 4b + 3c , a + 2b − c ,
^ ^ ^
where a2 − a1 = i + j + k 2a − yb + 2c are coplanar

72 MATHEMATICS TODAY | JANUARY ‘18


3 −4 3 β+5 −5
and −5 = ⇒ β=0
∴ 1 2 −1 = 0 2 2
\ 9a + b = 9(1) + 0 = 9
2 −y 2
B. As vectors a , b , c are coplanar
⇒ 3(4 – y) + 4(4) + 3(–y – 4) = 0
1 2 −1
8
⇒ −6 y = −16 ⇒ y = ∴ 1 −1 2 =0
3
22. (c) : x = a − 2b + c , y = −a + 3b + c , z = 2a − b + 3c 1 x − 3 −2 x
z = 2a − b + 3c ⇒ 1(2x – 2x + 6) – 2(–2x – 2) –1(x – 2) = 0
So, x + y = b + 2c , x + z = 3a − 3b + 4c ⇒ x = –4 \ x2 = 16
a b c C. Given a + b + c = 0 and µ = a ⋅ b + b ⋅ c + c ⋅ a
∴ (a + b + c ) ⋅ (a + b + c ) = 0
∴ (x + y ) × x + z ) = 0 1 2
⇒ a2 + b2 + c2 + 2 = 0 ⇒ 2 = –21 \ |2 | = 21
3 −3 4
D.  Each vector is ⊥ to the sum of other two vector
∴ a(10) + 6b + c (−3) = 10a + 6b − 3c ∴ a ⋅ (b + c ) = 0, b ⋅ (a + c ) = 0, c ⋅ (a + b ) = 0 ...(*)
\ Unit vector in the direction of Now, | a + b + c |2 = (a + b + c )(a + b + c )
10a + 6b − 3c
(x + y ) × (x + z ) = = a ⋅ a + b ⋅ b + c ⋅ c = a2 + b2 + c2 = 50
145 a +b +c
∴ | a + b + c |= 5 2 ⇒ =5
23. (d) : Given x = 2a + b , y = a − 2b 2
Now, r × x = y × x = (r − y ) × x = 0
25. A → q, B → s, C → p, D → r
⇒ r − y || x
A. Given A(3, 4, 6) and B (8, 6, 9) \ x2 – x1 = 5,
⇒ r − y = λx ⇒ r = y + λx ...(i)
y2 – y1 = 2, z2 – z1 = 3 and d.c.’s of x, y, z axes are
and r × y = x × y ⇒ (r − x ) × y = 0 ⇒ r − x || y (1, 0, 0), (0, 1, 0) and (0, 0, 1) respectively.
⇒ r − x = µ y ⇒ r = x + µy ...(ii) Also the projection of a line segment having d.r.’s
From (i) and (ii) we have x2 – x1, y2 – y1, z2 – z1 on a line whose d.c.’s are l, m, n is
y + λx = x + µy given by (x2 – x1) l + (y2 – y1) m + (z2 – z1)n
⇒ (a − 2b ) + λ(2a + b ) = (2a + b ) + µ(a − 2b ) \ The projections of the line AB on the co-ordinate x
⇒ a(1 + 2 λ) + b (−2 + λ) = a(2 + µ) + b (1 − 2µ) axis are
⇒ 1 + 2l = 2 + and –2 + l = 1 – 2 ⇒ l = = 1 (x2 – x1)l + (y2 – y1)m + (z2 – z1)n = 5(1) + 2(0) + 3(0) = 5
Similarly projection of y and z axes are 2, 3 respectively
\ Point of intersection from (i) and (ii) is 3a − b .
\ Projection of line AB on axis are 5, 2, 3
24. A → s, B → r, C → q, D → p ^ ^ ^ ^
B. We have, r = (3 i + 4 j + 5 k ) + λ(2 i + 5 j + 3 k )
^ ^
α 7 β +5
A. Let M is mid point of AC = , ,  ^ ^ ^
2 2  2  ⇒ b = 2 i + 5 j + 3 k ∴ d.r. ’s = 2, 5, 3
^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^
α 7 β+5 
d.r.’s of the median BM are  − 3, − 6, − 5 C. As a = 3 i + 2 j + 2 k , b = i + 2 j + 2 k
2 2 2  ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^
∴ a + b = 4 i + 4 j + 4 k and a − b = 2 i + 0 j + 0 k
^ ^ ^
i j k
∴ (a + b ) × (a − b ) = 4 4 4
2 0 0
^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^
= i (0) − j(−8) + k(−8) = 0 i + 8 j − 8 k
But the median is equally inclined to the axes ∴ d.r.’s of (a + b ) × (a − b ) are (0, 8, −8)
\ Its d.c.’s are equal D. We have, A(–3, –2, 4) , B(5, 6, 4)
α 7 α 7 \ d.r.’s of AB = x2 – x1, y2 – y1, z2 – z1
∴ −3= −6 ⇒ = −3 ⇒ α =1
2 2 2 2 = 5 – (–3), 6 – (–2), 4 –4 = 8, 8, 0

MATHEMATICS TODAY | JANUARY ‘18 73


  
26. (4) : Given | b |= 3, | c |= 4 ∵ a × b = c 7  −26 ^ 4 ^ 10 ^  ^ ^ ^
 i + j + k  ⋅ (3 i − j + k)
⇒ | a × b |=| c | ⇒ | a || b |sin α =| c | 6 22  7 7 7  72
= =
4 11 6 × 11 2
⇒ | a |= cos ecα ...(*)
3
11 2 λ
Now | a − b |2 =| a |2 + | b |2 −2a ⋅ b ∴ = 3.
4
=| a |2 +9 − 2 | a || b | cos α 28. (1) :  ABCD is a
16 parallelogram diagonals
= cos ec2 α + 9 − 2 ⋅ 4 cos ecα ⋅ cos α (using (*))
9 AC and BD bisect each
16 other i.e., the mid point
= (1 + cot2 α) + 9 − 8 cot α of the segment AC is
9
16  16 2 same as the mid point

= +  cot α − 8 cot α + 9  of the segment BD
9 9 
2  2 +1 2 + 3 3 + 2   x −1 y − 2 z −1
16  4  16 ⇒ M , , = , ,
= +  cot α − 3  ≥  2 2 2   2 2 2 
9 3  9
⇒ x – 1 = 3, y – 2 = 5, z – 1 = 5
16 44 x = 4, y = 7, z = 6
∴ | a − b |2 ≥ ⇒
⇒ | |aa−−bb| |≥≥ ⇒ 3 | a − b | ≥ 4
9 33 \ x + y + z = 4 + 7 + 6 = 17
⇒ least value of 3 | a − b |= 4 29. (4) : Given equation of plane is 4x – 5y + 6z = 120
^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ which meet the coordinate axes at P(30, 0, 0),
27. (3) : Given b = i − j + 3 k , c = 3 i − j + k Q(0, –24, 0) and R(0, 0, 20) and the coordinate of the
⇒ | b |=| c |= 11 origin are (0, 0, 0)
\ Volume of tetrahedron
Let a = xb + yc where x and y ∈ R and| a | = 1 ...(*)
^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ 30 0 0
∴ a = x( i − j + 3 k ) + y(3 i − j + k ) 1 1  20 × 24 × 30 
= 0 −24 0 =  
^ ^ ^
a = i (x + 3 y ) + j(− x − y ) + k(3x + y ) 6 6 −1
0 0 20
Now a ⊥ b ∴ a ⋅ b = 0 = 2400 cubic units
^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^  ^ ^ ^
⇒ [ i (x + 3 y ) + j(− x − y ) + k(3x + y )] ⋅[ i − j + 3 k] = 0 30. (1) : If 'O' is the origin then OA = i + 2 j − 3 k and
⇒ x + 3y + x + y + 3(3x + y) = 0  ^ ^ ^  ^ ^ ^
−11 OB = 3 i − 4 j + 2 k and OC = −2 i + 4 j − 6 k
⇒ 11x + 7 y = 0 ⇒ y = x    ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^
7 ∴ AB = OB − OA = (3 i − 4 j + 2 k) − ( i + 2 j − 3 k)
^ 3(−11x )  ^  11  ^  11  ^ ^ ^
∴ a = i x +  + j  − x + x  + k  3x − x  = 2 i − 6 j+ 5 k
 7   7   7     ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^
^  −26  ^  4 x  ^  10 x  ∴ CA = OA − OC = ( i + 2 j − 3 k ) − (−2 i + 4 j − 6 k )
=i x +j +k
 7   7   7  ^ ^
= 3 i − 2 j+ 3 k
^

 (26)2 42 102  2 ^ ^ ^
⇒ | a |= 1 ⇒  + +  x =1 i j k
 
 49 49 49 
∴ Required moment = CA × AB = 3 −2 3
49 7 7
⇒ x2 = ∴ x=± or ± 2 −6 5
792 792 6 22 ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^
= i (−10 + 18) − j(15 − 6) + k(−18 + 4) = 8 i − 9 j − 14 k
7  26 ^ 4 ^ 10 ^   
∴ a=±  − i + 7 j+ 7 k  ^ ^ ^
6 22  7  ∴ | CA × AB | = | 8 i − 9 j − 14 k |
|a ⋅c |
Now projection of a along c = λ = = 82 + (−9)2 + (−14)2 = 341
|c | 

74 MATHEMATICS TODAY | JANUARY ‘18


M aths Musing was started in January 2003 issue of Mathematics Today. The aim of Maths Musing is to augment the chances of bright
students seeking admission into IITs with additional study material.
During the last 10 years there have been several changes in JEE pattern. To suit these changes Maths Musing also adopted the new
pattern by changing the style of problems. Some of the Maths Musing problems have been adapted in JEE benefitting thousand of our
readers. It is heartening that we receive solutions of Maths Musing problems from all over India.
Maths Musing has been receiving tremendous response from candidates preparing for JEE and teachers coaching them. We do hope
that students will continue to use Maths Musing to boost up their ranks in JEE Main and Advanced.

Set 181
JEE MAIN 8. The value of
1/n
n–1  π  2π   3π   nπ  
1. If 1, , 2, ..., are, nth roots of unity, the value lim tan   tan   tan   ... tan    is
of (9 – ) (9 – ) ... (9 – n–1) will be
2 n→∞   2n   2n   2n   2n  
(a) 1 (b) 2
9n − 1 9n + 1 (c) 3 (d) not defined
(a) n (b) 0 (c) (d)
8 8 INTEGER TYPE
2 sin 2x – 1 4 – 2 sin 2x
2. The numbers 3 , 14, 3 form first sin(sin x) − sin x 1
three terms of an A.P., its fifth term is equal to 9. If lim 3 5
= − , then find the
(a) –25 (b) –12 (c) 40 (d) 53 x →0 ax + bx + c 12
n n value of a.
3. The value of ∑ ∑ nC j jCi , i ≤ j is MATRIX MATCH
i =0 j =1 10. Match the following.
(a) 3n – 1 (b) 0 List-I List-II
(c) 2n (d) none of these
–1 3
t 2 + 3t t − 1 t − 3 P. y = sin (3x – 4x ), 3  1 1 
, x ∈ − ,
dy 1. 
4 3 2
4. If At + Bt + Ct + Dt + E = t + 1 2 − t t − 3 , then is 1+ x 2  3 3
dx
then E equals t − 3 t + 4 3t –1 3
Q. y = cos (4x – 3x), −8 32
(a) 33 (b) –39 (c) 27 (d) 24 dy 2. +
then 2 is ln 2 π2 + 16
 −1 2 5  dx
5. The rank of the matrix 2 −4 a − 4   3x − x 3 
1 6
(where a = –6) is  −2 a + 1  y = tan–1  , 3. − ,
R.  1 − 3x 2  1 − x2
(a) 1 (b) 2 (c) 3 (d) 4
dy  1 1 
JEE ADVANCED then is x ∈  −1, −  ∪  , 1
dx  2 2 
6. Let f : R → R, g : R → R, be two given functions such If f (x)
that f is injective and g is surjective, then which of 3  1 1
S. = (logcos x sin x) 4. , x ∈ − , 
the following is injective? × (logsin x cos x)–1 1− x 2 2 2
(a) gof (b) fog (c) gog (d) fof  2x 
+ sin −1  ,
COMPREHENSION  1 + x 2 
Let f(x) be a continuous function defined on the closed  π
interval [a, b], then then f ′   =
n −1  4
1 r  1
lim ∑ f   = ∫ f (x)dx P Q R S
n→∞ r =0 n  n  0
(a) 4 3 1 2
 
1 n2 n2 1 (b) 1 3 2 4
7. The value of lim  + + + ... +  is
(c) 1 4 2 3
n→∞ n
 (n + 1)3 (n + 2)3 8n 
 (d) 2 3 1 4
(a) 5/4 (b) 3/4 (c) 5/8 (d) 3/8
See Solution Set of Maths Musing 180 on page no 88

MATHEMATICS TODAY | JANUARY ‘18 75


Exam Dates
OFFLINE : 8th April
ONLINE : 15th & 16th April

Series-7
Time: 1 hr 15 min.

The entire syllabus of Mathematics of JEE MAIN is being divided into eight units, on each unit there will be a Mock
Test Paper (MTP) which will be published in the subsequent issues. The syllabus for module break-up is given below:
Unit
Topic Syllabus In Detail
No.7
Co-ordinate Direction ratios and direction cosines. Angle between two intersecting lines.
Geometry-3D Skew lines, the shortest distance between them and its equation. Equation
of a line and a plane in different forms, intersection of a line and a plane,
coplanar lines.
Differential Rolle’s and Lagrange’s Mean value theorems, Applications of derivatives:
Calculus Rate of change of quantities, monotonic-increasing and decreasing functions,
Maxima and minima of functions of one variable, tangents and normals.
Integral Integral as an anti-derivative. Fundamental integrals involving algebraic,
Calculus trigonometric, exponential and logarithmic functions. Integration by substitution,
by parts and by partial fractions. Integration using trigonometric identities.
Evaluation of simple integrals of type:
dx dx dx dx dx dx (px + q )dx
∫ 2 2
,∫ ,∫ 2 2
,∫ , ∫ 2
,∫ ,∫
x ±a 2
x ±a 2 a −x 2
a −x 2 ax + bx + c 2
ax + bx + c ax 2 + bx + c

  ^ ^ ^
1. If r is equally inclined to the co-ordinate axis and 3. The distance between the planes r ⋅ (2 i − 3 j + 6 k ) = 5
 
magnitude of r is 6, then r equals  ^ ^ ^
^ ^ ^ and r ⋅ (6 i − 9 j + 18 k) + 20 = 0 is
^ ^ 2( i + j + k)
(a) 3 (1 + i + j ) (b) (a) 2/3 (b) 4/3 (c) 5/3 (d) 7/3
3 
^ ^ ^ 4. Let n be a vector of magnitude 2 3 such that it
(i + j + k) ^ ^ ^
(c) (d) ± 2 3( i + j + k ) makes acute equal angles with the co-ordinate
3 axes, the vector form of equation of plane passing

2. The equation of the plane bisecting the acute through (1, –1, 2) and normal to n is
angle between the planes x – 2y + 2z + 3 = 0 and  ^ ^ ^
(a) r ⋅ ( i + 2 j + 3 k ) = 2
3x – 6y – 2z + 2 = 0 is  ^ ^ ^
(a) 2(8 x − 16 y + 4 z ) + 27 = 0 (b) r ⋅ (2 i − 3 j + k ) = 2
(b) 8 x − 16 y + 4 z + 27 = 0  ^ ^ ^
(c) r ⋅ (2 i + j + k) = 2
(c) 16 x − 32 y + 8z − 27 = 0  ^ ^ ^
(d) 16 x + 32 y + 8z + 27 = 0 (d) r ⋅ ( i + j + k ) = 2
By : Sankar Ghosh, S.G.M.C, Mob : 09831244397.

76 MATHEMATICS TODAY | JANUARY ‘18


5. The S.D. between the lines 13. If f(x) and g(x) are differentiable functions in [0, 1]
 ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ such that f(0) = 2, f(1) = 6, g(0) = 0, g(1) = 2, then
r = (5 i + 7 j + 3 k) + λ(5 i − 16 j + 7 k) and
 ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ there exists 0 < c < 1 such that
r = (9 i + 13 j + 15 k) + λ(3 i − 8 j − 5 k ) is
(a) f ′(c) = g′(c) (b) f ′(c) = –g′(c)
(a) 8 units (b) 5 units
(c) f ′(c) = 2g′(c) (d) 2f ′(c) = g′(c)
(c) 10 units (d) none of these
x3 dt
6. The distance of the point (1, –2, 3) from the plane
x y z 14. If f (x ) = ∫ , x > 0 , then
x – y + z = 5 measured parallel to the line = = x2
log t
2 3 −6
is (a) f(x) is maximum at x = 1
(a) 5 (b) 3 (b) f (x) is an increasing function x ∈ R+ only
(c) 1 (d) none of these (c) f(x) is minimum at x = 1
^ ^ ^ (d) f (x) is neither maximum nor minimum at
7. The distance from the point − i + 2 j + 6 k to the
x=1
straight line passing through the point with position
^ ^ ^ x
vector 2 i + 3 j − 4 k and parallel to the vectors 2
15. If y = f (x ) = ∫ 2 − t dt . Then
^ ^ ^ 1
6i +3j − 4k
(a) 10 (b) 7 (c) 5 (d) 3 (a) f(x) increases if | x | < 2
(b) f(x) decreases if |x| < 2
8. The equation of the plane through the line
 ^ ^ ^ (c) f(x) increases if |x| > 2
of intersection of r ⋅ ( i − 2 j + 2 k ) = 1 and (d) none of these
 ^ ^
r ⋅ (2 i − j ) + 2 = 0 and perpendicular to 16. A cone is inscribed in a sphere of radius r. The
 ^ ^ ^
r ⋅ ( i + j + 2 k ) + 9 = 0 is height of the cone when its volume is maximum is
 ^ ^ ^ 3r 2r 4r
(a) r ⋅ (−5 i + j + 2 k ) = 7 (a) 2r (b) (c) (d)
 ^ ^ ^ 2 3 3
(b) r ⋅ (5 i + j + 2 k ) = 7
 ^ ^ ^ 17. Three normals are drawn from the point (c, 0) to the
(c) r ⋅ (5 i − j − 2 k ) = 7 curve y2 = x. If two of the normals are perpendicular
(d) none of these to each other, then c =
9. The reflection of the plane 2 x − 3 y + 4 z − 3 = 0 in (a) 1/4 (b) 1/2
the plane x – y + z – 3 = 0 is the plane (c) 3/4 (d) 1
(a) 4x – 3y + 2z – 15 = 0
(b) x – 3y + 2z – 15 = 0 18. The curve y = ax3 + bx2 + cx + 5 touches the x-axis
(c) 4x + 3y – 2z + 15 = 0 at P(–2, 0) and cut the y-axis at a point Q where its
(d) none of these gradient is 3. Then, a + b + c =
(a) 9/4 (b) 7/4
10. If P(x, y, z) is a point on the line segment joining
 (c) 5/4 (d) 3/4
A(2, 2, 4) and B(3, 5, 6) such that projection of OP
19. The slope of the straight line which is both tangent
13 19 26
on axes are , , respectively, then P divides and normal to the curve 4x3 = 27y2 is
5 5 5
1 1
AB in the ratio (a) ±1 (b) ± (c) ± (d) ± 2
(a) 3 : 2 (b) 2 : 3 (c) 1 : 2 (d) 1 : 3 2 2
11. If f(x) = xa lnx and f(0) = 0 then the value of a for 20. A spherical iron ball 10 cm in radius is coated with a
which Rolle's theorem can be applied in [0, 1] is layer of ice of uniform thickness that melts at a rate
(a) –2 (b) –1 (c) 0 (d) 1/2 of 50 cm3/min. When the thickness of ice is 5 cm,
12. For all x in [0, 1], let the second derivative f ′′(x) of then the rate at which the thickness of ice decreases, is
a function exist and satisfy |f ′′(x)| ≤ 1. If f(0) = f(1), 1 1
(a) cm/min. (b) cm/min.
then in (0, 1) 18π 36π
(a) |f(x)| > 1 (b) |f(x)| < 1 5 1
(c) cm/min. (d) cm/min.
(c) |f ′(x)| > 1 (d) |f ′(x)| < 1 6π 54π
MATHEMATICS TODAY | JANUARY ‘18 77
dx dx
21. ∫ = 26. The integral ∫ represents the function
2 2 3
sin x + tan x x + x2
1 1  tan x 
(a) − cot x − tan−1  +c (a) 6  3 x2 − 3 x + log 1 + 3 x  +c
2 2 2  2   
1 1  x  (b) 33 x − 6 6 x + 6 log 1 + 6 x +c
(b) cot x − tan−1  +c
2 2 2  2
(c) 33 x + 6 6 x + 6 log 1 + 6 x + c
1 1
(c) cot x − tan x + c
2 2 (d) 6 3 x2 − 33 x + 6 log 1 + 3 x + c
−1  tan x  (x + 1)
(d) − cot x + tan  +c 27. ∫ dx = log 1 − f (x ) + f (x ) + c, then f(x)
 2  x(1 + xe x )2
dx 1 1
22. ∫ = (a) (b)
(4 + 3 x 2 ) 3 − 4 x 2 x +e x 1+ xe x
1 −1 2x 1 1
(a) tan +c (c) x 2 (d)
5 2 (1 + xe ) (x + e x )2
3 − 4x

1  5x  cos3 x + cos5 x
tan−1  28. ∫ dx is
(b) +c sin2 x + sin4 x
10  2 3 − 4 x2 
(a) sin x − 6 tan−1 (sin x ) + c
1 −1 5x 2
(c) tan +c (b) sin x − − 6 tan−1 (sin x ) + c
5 2 3 − 4 x2 sin x
2
1  5x  (c) sin x − + 5 tan−1 (sin x ) + c
(d) tan−1  +c sin x
10  3 − 4 x2  2
(d) sin x + + 6 tan−1 (sin x ) + c
sin x
−1  tan x − 1 
23. If ∫ tan x dx = a tan 
 2 tan x 
cos x − cos3 x
29. If ∫ dx = f ( x ) + c, then f ( x ) =
 tan x + 1 + 2 tan x  1 − cos3 x
+ b ln   + c, then a + b =
1
 tan x + 1 − 2 tan x 
1 1 1
(a)
3 −1
2
(
sin cos3/2 x + k )
(a) (b) (c) (d)
2 2 2 2 4 2
(
(b) cos−1 cos3/2 x + k
3
)
  π
 π   π  
24. ∫ cosec  x −  cosec  x −  dx = a ln 
sin  x −  
 6
 + b,
2
3
(
(c) sin−1 cos3/2 x + k )
 6  3  sin  x − π  
  (d) none of these
3  
then a is equal to 1
3 30. If ∫ f (x )sin x cos x dx = log( f (x )) + c,
2 2(b − a2 )
2
(a) (b) − (c) 2 (d) –2
3 2
then ∫ f (x ) dx =
4n−1
r
25. If Sr = ∫ sin xd(i x ) where (i = −1), then ∑ Sr , is  a tan x 
1 −1  a tan x 
r =1 (a) tan−1   (b) ab tan 
(n ∈ N) ab  b   b 
− cos x
(a) +c (b) cos2x + c 1  b tan x  1   bx  
i 4n (c) tan−1   (d) tan−1  tan   
(c) 0 (d) none of these ab  a  ab   a 

78 MATHEMATICS TODAY | JANUARY ‘18


SOLUTIONS  ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^
 ^ ^ ^  r ⋅ (2 i + 2 j + 2 k) = ( i − j + 2 k)(2 i + 2 j + 2 k)
1. (d) : Let r = x i + y j + z k and r makes equal angle  ^ ^ ^
q to each of the axes. ⇒ r ⋅ (i + j + k) = 2
\ Direction cosines are l = cosq, m = cosq and 5. (d) : The given lines are
n = cosq  ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^
r = (5 i + 7 j + 3 k ) + λ(5 i − 16 j + 7 k )
Now, cos2q + cos2q + cos2q = 1  ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^
1 and r = (9 i + 13 j + 15 k ) + λ(3 i − 8 j − 5 k )
⇒ 3cos2q = 1 ⇒ cos θ = ±
3  ^ ^ ^  ^ ^ ^
   Here a1 = 5 i + 7 j + 3 k , a2 = 9 i + 13 j + 15 k
We know, x = l | r |, y = m | r | and z = n | r |  ^ ^ ^  ^ ^ ^
1  and b1 = 5 i − 16 j + 7 k, b2 = 3 i − 8 j − 5 k
∴ x=± ×6= ±2 3 [∵ | r | = 6]
3 ^ ^ ^
i j k
1  
y=± × 6 = ± 2 3 and z = ± 2 3 Now, b1 × b2 = 5 −16 7 = 136 ^i + 46 ^j + 8 k^
3
3 −8 −5
So, r = x i^ + y ^j + z k^ = ± 2 3 ( i^ + ^j + k^)
  ^ ^ ^
2. (a) : The given equation of the planes are and (a2 − a1 ) = 4 i + 6 j + 12 k
x – 2y + 2z + 3 = 0 \ (a1, b1, c1) = (1, –2, 2)    
(b1 × b2 ) ⋅ (a2 − a1 ) 916
and 3x – 6y – 2z + 2 = 0 \ (a2, b2, c2) = (3, –6, –2) ∴ S.D. =   = = 6.37
Now, a1a2 + b1b2 + c1c2 = 3 + 12 – 4 = 11 > 0 | b1 × b2 | 143.8
\ Equation of acute angle bisector is 6. (c) : The equation of the line passing through the
x − 2 y + 2z + 3 (3x − 6 y − 2z + 2) x y z
=− point (1, –2, 3) and parallel to the line = = is
3 7 2 3 −6
⇒ 16x – 32y + 8z + 27 = 0 x −1 y + 2 z − 3
= = = λ (say) ...(i)
3. (c) : The given equation of planes are 2 3 −6
 ^ ^ ^  ^ ^ ^ \ x = 2l + 1, y = 3l – 2 and z = –6l + 3
r ⋅ (2 i − 3 j + 6 k ) = 5 and r ⋅ (6 i − 9 j + 18 k) + 20 = 0
Now point of intersection of the line (i) and
Now changing to cartesian form of the above plane we get, plane x – y + z = 5 ...(ii)
2x – 3y + 6z – 5 = 0 and 6x – 9y + 18z + 20 = 0 can be obtained by putting (2l + 1, 3l – 2, –6l + 3)
respectively. in (ii), which gives
Now distance of the plane 6x – 9y + 18z + 20 = 0 (2l + 1) – (3l – 2) + (–6l + 3) = 5
from a point (x 1 , y 1 , z 1 ) which lies on the plane 1
⇒ − 7 λ = −1 ⇒ λ =
2x – 3y + 6z – 5 = 0 is 7
| 6 x1 − 9 y1 + 18z1 + 20 | and hence the required point of intersection of line
and plane is
62 + (−9)2 + 182  9 −11 15 
(x , y , z ) ≡  , , 
| 3(2 x1 − 3 y1 + 6z1 − 5) + 15 + 20 | 0 + 15 + 20 7 7 7
= =
21 21 7. (b) : Let C is a point with position vector
35 5 ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^
= = units − i + 2 j + 6 k and D with position vector 2 i + 3 j − 4 k
21 3 ^ ^ ^
∴ CD = 3 i + j − 10 k
4. (d) : Given that a = b = g ⇒ cosa = cosb = cosg
1
i.e. l = m = n ∴ l = ( l2 + m2 + n2 = 1)
3
 ^ ^ ^
 i + j +k   ^
∴ n = 2 3  ^ ^
 [∵ r = | r |(l i + m j + nk )]
 3
Thus the required vector equation of plane is

MATHEMATICS TODAY | JANUARY ‘18 79


CN = Projection of CD on CN Let x be any point in [0, 1] other then c
= l(x2 – x1) + m(y2 – y1) + n(z2 – z1) By Lagranges theorem
6 3 −4 f ′(x) – f ′(c) = (x – c) |f ′′(c1)|, x < c
where l, m and n are , , |f ′(x)| = |x – c| |f ′′(c1)| < 1
61 61
61
Since |x – c| < 1, |f ′′(c1)| ≤ 1
3 3 (−10)(−4)
=6× + ×1+ = 61 13. (c) : Let F(x) = f(x) – 2g(x)
61 61 61
F(0) = f(0) – 2g(0) = 2
∴ DN = (CD)2 − (CN )2 = 32 + 12 + (−10)2 − 61 = 7 F(1) = f(1) – 2g(1) = 2
F(x) satisfies the condition for Rolle's theorem. So,
8. (a) : The equation of plane through the line of
 ^ ^ ^  ^ ^ there exist c, such that F′(c) = 0
intersection of r ⋅ ( i − 2 j + 2 k) = 1 and r ⋅ (2 i − j ) + 2 = 0 is or f ′(c) – 2g′(c) = 0 for 0 < c < 1.
 ^ ^ ^  ^ ^
[r ⋅ ( i − 2 j + 2 k ) − 1] + λ [r ⋅ (2 i − j ) + 2] = 0 x3 1
 ^ ^ ^ 14. (d) : Here f (x ) = ∫ dt
⇒ r ⋅[(1 + 2 λ) i + (−2 − λ) j + 2 k] = 1 − 2 λ ...(i) log t
x2
 ^ ^ ^
Since (i) is perpendicular to r ⋅ ( i + j + 2 k) + 9 = 0
3x2 2x
\ 1(1 + 2l) + (–2 – l)1 + 2 · 2 = 0 ⇒ l = –3 ∴ f ′(x ) = −
 ^ ^ ^ 3 log x 2 log x
Required equation of plane is r ⋅ (−5 i + j + 2 k ) = 7
x2 − x x(x − 1)
9. (a) : As we know that reflection of a′x + b′y + c′z ⇒ f ′( x ) = =
+ d′ = 0 in the plane ax + by + cz + d = 0 is given by log x log x
2(aa′ + bb′ + cc′)(ax + by + cz + d) For extremum, we put f ′(x) = 0.
= (a2 + b2 + c2)(a′x + b′y + c′z + d′) Now, f ′(x) = 0 gives x(x – 1) = 0
\ 2(2 + 3 + 4)(x – y + z – 3) = 3(2x – 3y + 4z – 3) \ Critical points are x = 0 and x = 1
⇒ 6(x – y + z – 3) = 2x – 3y + 4z – 3 Let us consider x = 1 as x > 0
⇒ 4x – 3y + 2z – 15 = 0 is the required equation of Now for x < 1, f ′(x) = (–ve)(–ve) = (+)ve > 0
the plane. and for x > 1, f ′(x) = (+ve)(+ve) = (+)ve > 0
 \ f ′(x) does not change its sign in the immediate
10. (a) : Projection of OP on coordinate axis are
neighbourhood of x = 1. So x = 1 is neither the point
13 19 26
, , of maxima nor minima.
5 5 5 x
 13 19 26 15. (a) : f (x ) = ∫ 2 − t 2 dt
So OP = i^ + ^j + k^ 1
5 5 5
Let P divides AB in the ratio l : 1 d
f ′( x ) = 2 − x 2
(x ) = 2 − x2
 3λ + 2 5λ + 2 6 λ + 4  dx
∴ P , ,  For an increasing function
 λ +1 λ +1 λ +1 
3λ + 2 13 3 f ′(x) > 0 ⇒ 2 − x2 > 0 ⇒ 2 − x2 > 0
∴ = ⇒ 2λ = 3 ⇒ λ =
λ +1 5 2 ⇒ ( 2 + x )( 2 − x ) > 0
\ Required ratio is l : 1 i.e. 3 : 2
⇒ (x − 2 )(x + 2 ) < 0 ⇒ | x | < 2
11. (d) : Here f(0) = f(1) = 0 and f(x) is differentiable
in [0, 1]. 16. (d) : Let x be the radius of the base and y the height
f ′(x) = xa – 1(1 + a lnx) of the cone. A
2 2 2
x = r – (y – r) = 2ry – y 2
f (x) is continuous in [0, 1]
Now, f ′(x) = 0, only if a > 0, x → 0+. 4 4 r
V = πx2 y = π(2ry2 − y3 )
3 3
12. (d) : f(0) = f(1) y–r r
c1 dV 4 r
⇒ f ′(c) = 0, 0 < c < 1 = 0 ⇒ 4ry = 3 y2 ⇒ y = B x C
By Rolle's theorem
0
x c
1 dy 3

80 MATHEMATICS TODAY | JANUARY ‘18


dy 1  dv 
17. (c) : x = t 2 , y = t , = 3
dx 2t  dt = 50 cm / min 
 
Equation of normal is 10
1 1
( y − t ) + x − t2 = 0 = cm / min.
2t 18π 10 + y
1
It passes through (c, 0) ⇒ t 2 + − c = 0
2 dx sec2 xdx
t1 , t2 are roots ⇒ t1t2 = − c,
1 21. (a) : Let I = ∫ sin2 x + tan2 x =∫
tan2 x(2 + tan2 x )
2 Put tanx = t
1 1
Slopes m1 = ,m = dt 1 1 1 
2t1 2 2t2 ∫ t 2 (2 + t 2 ) = 2 ∫  t 2 − 2 + t 2  dt
1 3
m1m2 = −1 ⇒ = −1 = 2 − 4c ⇒ c = 1 1 t
4t1t2 4 =− − tan−1 +c
2t 2 2 2
18. (b) : y = f(x) \ f(–2) = f ′(–2) = 0, f ′(0) = 3 1 1  1 
f(0) = 5 = − cot x − tan−1  tan x  + c
2 2 2  2 
 5
f (x ) = (x + 2)2  ax +  dx
 4 22. (b) : Let I = ∫
 5 (4 + 3 x 2 ) 3 − 4 x 2
f ′(x ) = 2(x + 2)  ax +  + (x + 2)2 a
 4 dθ  3 
1 = 2∫  Putting x = sin θ
f ′(0) = 3 ⇒ 5 + 4a = 3 ⇒ a = − 9 sin2 θ + 16  2 
2 2 2
sec θdθ sec θdθ
 x 5 = 2∫ = 2∫
f (x ) = (x + 2)2  − +  2
9 tan θ + 16 sec θ 2
16 + 25 tan2 θ
 2 4
27 7 d ( tan θ) 1 1 5 
∴ a + b + c + 5 = f (1) = ⇒ a +b+c = = 2∫
2 2
= 2 × × tan−1  tan θ  + c
4 4 (4) + (5 tan θ) 5 4 4 
19. (d) : The given equation of the curve is 4x3 = 27y2  
1 5  1 5x
⇒ x = 3t2; y = 2t3 = tan−1  tan θ  + c = tan−1  +c
10 4  10  2 3 − 4 x2 
dy
∴ =t
dx 23. (c) : Let I = ∫ tan x dx
The tangent at t, y – 2t3 = t(x – 3t2)
⇒ tx – y = t3 ....(i) Put tan x = t2
The normal at t1, t 2dt t2 + 1 + t2 − 1
...(ii) I = 2∫ 4 =∫ dt
t y + x = 2t 4 + 3t 2
1 1 1 t +1 t4 +1
As (i) and (ii) are identical 1 1  1  1
1+ 1− d t −  d t + 
2 2  t  t
t 1 t3 =∫ t dt + ∫ t dt = ∫ +∫
∴ =− = 2 1 2 1 2 2
1 t1 2t14 + 3t12 t + t +  1  1
t2 t2  t − t  + 2  t + t  − 2
1
⇒ t1 = − and − t 3 = 2t 31+3t1
t  1  1 
t− t+ − 2
Eliminating t1, we get t6 = 2 + 3t2 1 −1  t  1  t 
= tan  + ln  +c
⇒ t 2 = 2, t = ± 2 2 2 2 2 1
  t + + 2 
   t 
The lines are y = ± 2 (x − 2).
1  tan x − 1  1  tan x + 1 + 2 tan x 
4
20. (a) : v = π( y + 10)3 where y is thickness of ice = tan−1  − ln  +c
2  2 tan x  2 2  tan x + 1 − 2 tan x 

3
\ dv dy  dy  50 1 1 1
= 4 π(10 + y )2 ⇒  ∴ a +b = − =
dt dt  dt  t = 5 4 π (15 )2 2 2 2 2 2

MATHEMATICS TODAY | JANUARY ‘18 81


 π  π cos3 x + cos5 x
24. (c) : Let I = ∫ cos ec  x −  cos ec  x −  dx 28. (b) : Let I =
 6   3 ∫ sin2 x + sin4 x dx
π
2 sin cos x{(1 − sin2 x ) + (1 − sin2 x )2 }
6 =∫ dx
=∫ dx sin2 x + sin4 x
 π  π
sin  x −  sin  x −  Put sin x =t
 6  3
 π  π  (1 − t 2 ) + (1 − t 2 )2 2 + t 4 − 3t 2
sin   x −  −  x −   I =∫ dt = ∫ dt
 6  3  t2 + t 4 t2 + t 4
= 2∫  dx
 π  π (t 2 − 1)(t 2 − 2)
sin  x −  sin  x −  =∫ dt
 6  3 t2 + t 4
  π  π   2 6 
= 2 ∫ cot  x −  − cot  x −   dx = ∫ 1 + − dt (using Partial fractions)
  3  6   t 1 + t 2 
2
  π 2 2
 sin  x − 3   = t − − 6 tan−1 t + c = sin x − − 6 tan−1 (sin x ) + c
t sin x
= 2 ln  +b
 sin  x − π   cos x(1 − cos2 x )
  6   29. (b) : Let I = ∫ dx
1 − cos3 x
25. (d)
cos1/2 x sin x
dx =∫ dx
26. (b) : Let I = ∫ [put x = t 6 ] 1 − (cos3/2 x )2
x + 3 x2
Put t = cos3/2 x
5 2
6t dt t dt  1  2 1 2
= ∫ 3 4 = 6∫ = 6∫ t − 1 +  dt I=− ∫ dt = − sin−1(cos3/2 x ) + c
t +t t + 1  t + 1 3 1 − t2 3
= 3t2 – 6t + 6log|t + 1| + c 2π  2
= −  − cos−1 cos3/2 x  + c = cos−1 (cos3/2 x ) + k
= 33 x − 6 6 x + 6 log | 6 x + 1 | +c 32  3
(x + 1) 30. (a) : Let I = ∫ f ( x ) sin x cos x dx
27. (b) : Let I = ∫ x(1 + xex )2 dx 1
= log f ( x ) + c
Put xe x = t ⇒ e x (1 + x )dx = dt 2(b − a2 )
2

dt 1  f ′( x ) 
\ I=∫ ∴ f (x )sin x cos x = +c
2 2 2  f (x ) 
t (1 + t ) 2(b − a )  
f ′( x )
1 A B C ⇒ 2(b2 − a2 )sin x cos x =
Now, let = + + (( f (x ))2
2 t 1 + t (1 + t )2
t (1 + t )
−1
⇒ 1 = A(1 + t)2 + Bt(1 + t) + Ct ⇒ 2 ∫ (b2 − a2 ) sin x cos x dx =
Put t = 0, then, 1 = A f (x )
1
Put t = –1, then C = –1 ⇒ b2 ∫ 2 sin x cos xdx − a2 ∫ 2 sin x cos x dx = −
Equating the coefficients of t2, we get f (x )
0 = A + B ⇒ B = –A = –1 1
⇒ − b2 cos2 x − a2 sin2 x = −
1 dt dt f (x )
\ I = ∫ dt − ∫ −∫
t 1+ t (1 + t )2 1 sec2 x
⇒ f (x ) = =
1 a2 sin2 x + b2 cos2 x b2 + a2 tan2 x
= log | t | − log | 1 + t | + +c
1+ t sec2 x 1  a tan x 
∴ ∫ f (x )dx = ∫ dx = tan−1 
= log
t
+
1 
+ c = log 1 −
1 
+
1
+c
2 2
b + a tan x2 ab  b 
 

1+ t 1+ t 1+ t 1+ t 

82 MATHEMATICS TODAY | JANUARY ‘18


TWO DIMENSIONAL GEOMETRY

PAPER-I

ONE OF MORE THAN ONE OPTION(S) n(n + 1)(n + 2)


CORRECT TYPE (a) (b) Sn2
This section contains 10 multiple choice questions. Each 6
question has four choices (a), (b), (c) and (d) out of which
(c) nC3 (d) n+2C
3
ONE or MORE may be correct. [Correct ans. 3 marks & wrong 6. If A and B are two matrices such that AB = BA, then
ans., no negative mark] "n∈N
1. A curve that passing through (2, 4) and having (a) AnB = BAn (b) (AB)n = AnBn
subnormal of constant length of 8 units can be (c) (A + B)n = nC0An + nC1An – 1B + nC2An–2B2
(a) y2 = 16x – 16 (b) y2 = –16x + 48 + ... + nCn Bn
2n 2n n n
(d) A – B = (A – B )(A + B ) n n
(c) x2 = 16y – 60 (d) x2 = –16y + 68
2. If the conjugate of (x + iy) (1 – 2i) be 1 + i, then 7. If the graph of the function f (x) is symmetrical
1 1 about two lines x = a and x = b then f (x) must be
(a) x = (b) x + iy = (3 + i) periodic with period
5 5
1 1− i b−a
(c) x − iy = (3 + i) (d) x + iy = (a) (b) b – a
5 1 − 2i 2
(c) 2(b – a) (d) none of these
3. If a + b + c = 0, then the roots of the equation
(b + c – a)x2 + (c + a – b)x + (a + b – c) = 0 can be  | x − 3| , x ≥1
(a) imaginary (b) real and equal 
8. The function f (x ) =  x2 3x 13 is
(c) real and unequal (d) none of these  − + , x <1
4 2 4
2 (a) continuous at x = 1
 dy  dy
4. The solution of   + 2 y cot x = y2 is (b) differentiable at x = 1
 dx  dx
c (c) continuous at x = 3
c
(a) y − = 0 (b) y = (d) differentiable at x = 3
1 + cos x 1 − cos x
9. Let f(x) = sin(px) – 4x(1 – x), then
(c) x = 2 sin −1  c 
 2 y  (d) none of these (a)
sin(πx )
> 4 ∀ x ∈(0, 1)
  x(1 − x )
n i j
5 3
5. ∑ ∑ ∑ 1 is equal to (b) f ′   + f ′   = 0
i =1 j =1 k =1 8 8
By : Vidyalankar Institute, Pearl Centre, Senapati Bapat Marg, Dadar (W), Mumbai - 28. Tel.: (022) 24306367

MATHEMATICS TODAY | JANUARY ‘18 83


(c) f ′′(x) = 0 has no solution in (0, 1) 3
x x +1
(d) Rolle's theorem cannot be applied to f ′(x) in  2 28t  2
∫  8t + + 4  dt = is
 1  1 −1  3  log x +1 x + 1
α, 2  for some α ∈  0,  15. In a DABC, if a is the arithmetic mean and b, c are
  2
two geometric means between any two positive
x 2 sin3 B + sin3 C
10. Let ∫ dx = g ( f (x )) + c. Then numbers. Then is equal to
3 3
1− x sin A sin B sin C
1 − x3 16. Let m denotes the number of ways in which 4
−1
(a) g (x ) = cot (x ) and f (x ) = different balls of green colour and 4 different balls
x3
of red colour can be distributed equally among 4
1 − x3 persons if each person has balls of the same colour
(b) g (x ) = tan−1 (x ) and f (x ) = and n be corresponding figure when all the four
x3
(m + n)
persons have balls of different colour. Find .
x3 132
(c) g (x ) = cot−1 (x ) and f (x ) = 17. Let f(x) = [3 + 4 sin x] (where [ ] denotes the greatest
1 − x3
integer function). If sum of all the values of x in
x3 kπ
−1 [p, 2p] where f(x) fails to be differentiable, is ,
(d) g (x ) = tan (x ) and f (x ) = 2
1 − x3 k
then the value of is
INTEGER ANSWER TYPE 8
This section contains 10 questions. Each question, when
18. The polynomial p(x) = 1 – x + x2 – x3 + ... + x16 – x17
worked out will result in one integer from 0 to 9 (both can be written as a polynomial in y where y = x + 1,
inclusive). [Correct ans. 3 marks & wrong ans., no negative  k 
then let coefficient of y2 be k then   (where [.]
mark]  400 
11. If a, b, g are the roots of the equation x3 – denote greatest integer function) is ____
9x2 + 14x + 24 = 0, then find the value of 19. Let A be the centre of the circle x2 + y2 – 2x – 4y – 20
|a + b + g + ab + bg + ga + abg|. = 0. The tangents at the points B(1, 7) and C(4, –2)
12. The least degree of a polynomial with integer on the circle meet at the point D. If D denotes the
coefficient whose one of the roots may be cos12° is ∆
area of the quadrilateral ABDC, then is equal to
13. If sin–1x + sin–1y = p and, if x = ly, then the value of 3
20. Find the integer n for which
392l + 5l – 1525 must be
(cos x − 1)(cos x − e x )
lim is a finite nonzero number.
14. The number of solutions of the equation x →0 xn
PAPER-II

ONLY ONE OPTION CORRECT TYPE 2. Four persons are selected at random out of 3 men,
This section contains 10 multiple choice questions. Each 2 women and 4 children. What is the chance that
question has four choices (a), (b), (c) and (d) for its answer, exactly 2 of them are children?
out of which ONLY ONE is correct. [Correct ans. 3 marks and
9 10 11 10
wrong ans. –1] (a) (b) (c) (d)
21 23 24 21
1. If x and y are positive real number and m, n are any
xn y m 3. For the equation x2 – (k + 1) x + (k2 + k – 8) = 0 if
positive integers and E = then one root is greater than 2 and other is less than 2,
(1 + x2n )(1 + y2m )
then k can take any value between
1 1 1
(a) E > 1 (b) E > (c) E ≤ (d) E < (a) (–2, 3)
 11 
(b)  − , 3 
4 2 4 8  3 

84 MATHEMATICS TODAY | JANUARY ‘18


11 say, then draw the graphs of y = f(x) and y = g(x). If
(c)  − , −2  (d) (0, 5) graphs of y = f(x) and y = g(x) cuts at one, two, three,
 3 
…, no points, then number of solutions are one, two,
4. If z is a complex number satisfying |z + 1 – i| ≤ 1, three, …, zero respectively.
then the maximum value of |z| is
(a) 2 (b) 2 − 1 |x|
11. The number of solutions of sin x = is
(c) 2 + 1 (d) 1 10
e37 (a) 4 (b) 6 (c) 8 (d) 10
5. The value of π sin(π ln x )
∫ x
dx is 12. Total number of solutions of the equation
1 5π
(a) 1 (b) –1 (c) 2 (d) 4 3x + 2 tan x = in x ∈[0, 2p] is equal to
2
6. For a parabola having focus at S, vertex at A such (a) 1 (b) 2 (c) 3 (d) 4
that SA = l1 units and focal chord PQ of length
l2 units is given, then ar(D APQ) is Paragraph for Q. No. 13 and 14
l3 A and B are two matrices of same order 3 × 3, where
(a) l1l2 (b) l1 l1l2 (c) l2 l1l2 (d) 2
2l1 1 2 3  3 2 5
1 A = 2 3 4 and B = 2 3 8 
  
7. If cos4 θ sec2 α, and sin4q cosec2a are in A.P.,    
2  5 6 8   7 2 9 
1
then cos8 θ sec6α, and sin8qcosec6a are in 13. The value of adj (adj A) is equal to
2
(a) 2A
(a) A.P. (b) G.P. (c) H.P. (d) A.G.P.
(b) 4A
8. The point of intersection of the plane (c) 8A
^ ^ ^
r ⋅ 3 i − 5 j + 2 k = 6 with the straight line passing (d) none of these
through the origin and perpendicular to the plane
adj(adj B)
2x – y – z = 4 is 14. The value of is equal to
(a) (1, –1, –1) (b) (–1, –1, 2) (24)4
 4 −2 −2  (a) 9 (b) 16
(c) (4, 2, 2) (d)  , , 
3 3 3  (c) 25 (d) 1
2x Paragraph for Q. No. 15 and 16
9. The function f (x ) = loge (1 + x ) − is increasing
on 2 +x n
(a) (–1, ) (b) (– , 0) Consider two functions f (x ) = lim  cos x  and
n→∞ 
 
(c) ( – , ) (d) none of these n
2
10. If lim f (x ) = a (a finite number), then which of g(x) = –x4b, where b = lim ( x2 + x + 1 − x2 + 1 . )
x →∞ x →∞
the following is/are true? 15. The function f(x) is
2 2 2 2
(a) lim x f ′(x ) = 0 (b) lim x f ′(x ) = 2a x2 x2
x →∞ x →∞ 2 − 2
(a) e− x (b) e 2 (c) e x (d) e2
(c) lim x 4 f ′′(x2 ) = 0 (d) Both (a) and (c)
x →∞
COMPREHENSION TYPE 16. Number of solutions of f(x) + g(x) = 0 is
This section contains 3 paragraph. Based upon each of the (a) 0 (b) 1 (c) 2 (d) 4
paragraphs 2 multiple choice questions have to be answered
Each of these questions has four choices (a), (b), (c) and (d) MATRIX MATCH TYPE
out of which ONLY ONE is correct. [Correct ans. 3 marks & This section contains 4 questions, each having two matching
wrong ans. –1] columns. Choices for the correct combination of elements
from column-I and column-II are given as options (a), (b), (c)
Paragraph for Q. No. 11 and 12
and (d), out of which one is correct. [Correct ans. 3 marks
Suppose equation is f(x) – g(x) = 0 or f(x) = g(x) = y & wrong ans. –1]

MATHEMATICS TODAY | JANUARY ‘18 85


17. Match the following. (Q) Exact value of 2. –1/3
Column-I Column-II cos40°(1 – 2 sin10°) is
(P) The value of sin(sin–11) is 1. –1
∞ π
(Q) The points (k, 2 – 2k), 2. 1 (R) The value of ∑ sink   is 3. 1/4
(–k + 1, 2k) and (–4 – k, 6 – 2k) k =3  6
are collinear if k is equal to (S) The value of l for which the 4. 5/4
(R) The value of 3. 1/2 lines are concurrent
1  4 π 3
  π 5
 π 7
 π  x +y+1=0;
 cos   + cos4   + cos4   + cos4    3x + 2ly + 4 = 0;
3 8  8   8   8 
x + y – 3l = 0 is/are
1  4 π  3π   5π   7π 
 cos   + cos4   + cos4   + cos4    is Codes :
3 8  8   8   8 
P Q R S P Q R S
(S) If a, b, c are all different from 4. (a) 4 3 1 2 (b) 3 4 1 2
2 ±1
zero, and (c) 1 3 2 4 (d) 4 1 3 2
1+ a 1 1
20. Match the following.
∆ = 1 1+ b 1 = 0
1 1 1+ c Column-I Column-II
then the value of (P) Let a function f is defined as 1. 9
a–1 + b–1 + c–1 is f : {1, 2, 3, 4} → {1, 2, 3, 4}.
Codes : If f satisfy f(f(x)) = f(x),
P Q R S P Q R S x ∈ {1, 2, 3, 4} then number
(a) 4 1, 4 2 3 (b) 2 1 2, 4 3 of such functions is
(c) 1, 3 3 2 4 (d) 2 1, 3 3 1 (Q) If m and M are the least and 2. 10
18. Match the following. greatest value of
Column-I Column-II f(x) = (cos–1x) 2 + (sin–1x) 2,
(P) L et f(x) = [x – 1] + 1. continuous t he n M / m has t he v a lu e
[1 – x], [x] is the greatest at x = a equal to
integer function, a is an (R) L e t x an d y b e t wo re a l 3. 41
integer, then numbers such that
(Q) Let f be as in (P) but a is 2. lim f (x ) 2sinx siny + 3 cosy
x →0
not an integer, then + 6cosx siny = 7.
does not exist
The value of tan2x + 2tan2y is
(R) Let f(x) = cotx, then 3. f(a) = 0 Codes :
cot x cos x lim f (x ) P Q R P Q R
a −a
(S) If f ( x ) = , 4. x → π / 2 (a) 3 2 1 (b) 2 1 3
cot x − cos x = log a
then (c) 2 3 1 (d) 3 1 2
Codes : ANSWER KEYS
P Q R S P Q R S Paper-I
(a) 4 1 2 3 (b) 2 1 4 3 1. (a,b) 2. (b,d) 3. (b,c) 4. (a,b,c) 5. (a,d)
(c) 1 3 2 4 (d) 3 1 2 4 6. (a,b,c,d) 7. (c) 8. (a,b,c) 9. (b) 10. (a,d)
19. Match the following. 11. (1) 12. (4) 13. (1) 14. (1) 15. (2)
Column-I Column-II 16. (6) 17. (3) 18. (2) 19. (5) 20. (3)
(P) The value of the expression 1. 1/2 Paper-II
 π 1. (c) 2. (d) 3. (a) 4. (c) 5. (c)
f (x ) = sin2 x + sin2  x + 
 3 6. (b) 7. (a) 8. (d) 9. (a) 10. (d)
 π  11. (b) 12. (c) 13. (d) 14. (d) 15. (b)
+ cos x ⋅ cos  x +  , x ∈ R 16. (c) 17. (d) 18. (d) 19. (d) 20. (a)
 3
is equal to 

86 MATHEMATICS TODAY | JANUARY ‘18


51% BTech seats vacant, 153 colleges
face closure, 770 shut IT branch
NUMBER OF ENGINEERING placement. According to AICTE data, • Of the nearly 370 technical colleges Early warning ignored
campus placements has been under that are on AICTE’s radar for low Alarm bells first went off about 15
INSTITUTES (OFFERING B.TECH)
50 per cent for the last five years. admissions — 30 per cent or less years ago, in the shape of the U R Rao
THAT HAVE CLOSED AND NEW This mismatch that underlines the admissions in the last five years — and Committee report of 2003. Rao, former
ONE THAT HAVE OPENED reality of unfilled seats has got AICTE which run the risk of being closed next chairman of the Indian Space Research
to consider asking technical education year, 153 are engineering colleges. Most Organisation, had been tasked by the
Institutes closed inlast 5 years 128
institutes which have had 70 per cent or of these are in Maharashtra (26), Andhra NDA-1 government to review AICTE’s
New Insitutes 276 more vacant seats for the last five years Pradesh (19), Haryana (17), Odisha performance.
120 to wind up and leave. (17), Telangana (16) and Uttar Pradesh The report had observed that the pace
As part of a three-month-long (11). Last year, a record 49 engineering of expansion of technical education was
100 colleges went bust and shut down.
investigation to find out why engineering unsustainable and that the explosion in
110 54 seats were going unfilled and what this • At least half the 153 institutes with
80 the number of private institutions was
signifies, The Indian Express analysed low admissions were set up in the last
48 fuelled more by speculative rather than
60 49 AICTE enrollment data for the last five decade.
39 real demand.
years (from 2012-13 to 2016-17), visited • Information Technology (IT) has
40
emerged as the least popular branch, with To alleviate this “serious situation”,
16
15 10 colleges across three states that are the committee suggested a five-
9 770 institutes discontinuing the discipline
20 among those on the AICTE’s radar for year moratorium on all approvals for
34 30 between 2012-13 and 2016-17.
low admissions and spoke to principals,
0 That’s followed by Electricals and undergraduate technical institutions
students, academics and experts.
2012-13

2013-14

2014-15

2015-16

2016-17

Electronics (635 colleges have stopped in states where the student intake
The picture that emerged is of glaring
the branch), Computer Science (234), exceeded the then national average of
gaps in regulation, including alleged
Mechanical Engineering (185) and 150 seats per million population. This
corruption; a vicious circle of poor
TOP FIVE UNPOPULAR infrastructure, labs and faculty; non- Civil Engineering (139). The maximum figure was 1,047 for the southern states,
number of institutes that discontinued 486 in the west, 131 in the east and
ENGINEERING BRANCHES existent linkages with industry; the
IT were in Telangana (157), followed by 102 in the north. (Currently, the national
Institutes that have discontinued absence of a technical ecosystem that
can nurture the classroom — all this Andhra Pradesh (128) and Tamil Nadu average of BE/BTech intake, alone, is
programmes over last 5 years
accounting for low employability of (104). 1,286 seats per million population.)
(2012-13 to 2016-17)*
Those on their last legs are now taking However, Rao’s recommendation was
graduates and, therefore, an abysmal
desperate measures — from offering never acted upon. Indeed, the reverse
record of job placement.
fee concessions to diluting admission happened. According to AICTE data,
The glaring gaps criteria; from paying middlemen to bring 2008-09 witnessed an increase of
Consider these: in students to hiring underqualified almost 30 per cent in engineering intake
• Close to 30 lakh students in the science faculty; and, as the Bhagwan Parashuram over the previous year — the highest in a
stream cleared their Class 12 Board exam college in Sonepat has done, letting out single year since 2001 — with over 700
in 2015-16. Even if all of them were to part of the campus or even converting new institutes being approved. Many
aim for an engineering seat, at 15.5 lakh the colleges into schools.
770 635 undergraduate engineering seats across What led to this?
point out that it coincided with a period
when AICTE was rocked by allegations of
Information Electrical and
the country, there is roughly one seat for Several factors, say experts, but most rampant corruption. That year, the CBI
Technology Electronics
every two students. A case of too few of them point to what they call the caught then AICTE member-secretary
people chasing too many seats. MBBS
234 Computer Science and dentistry, on the other hand, has less
engineering boom that started in 1995 K Narayan Rao accepting a bribe from
and peaked in the 2000s, fuelled by the owner of an engineering college in
185 Mechanical than a lakh seats nationwide. the IT phenomemon and the Y2K bug. Andhra Pradesh. The incident eventually
• From 87,059 BTech and MTech seats in Speaking to The Indian Express, AICTE
139 Civil 1990-91, the number has risen to 16.62 chairman Anil Sahasrabuddhe says: “A
led to the suspension of then AICTE
chairman R A Yadav. The CBI registered
Max number of engineering institutes that lakh in 2017-18, a staggering 18 times large number of people were required for
discontinued IT programme were from three cases against him, but did not
in less than three decades. coding then. Your engineering branch did
Telangana (157), Tamil Nadu (104) & chargesheet him.
Andhra Pradesh (128)
• Ten states — Tamil Nadu, Andhra not matter. There was always a job for an The effects of this indiscriminate
*Approximate figures
Pradesh, Maharashtra, UP, Telangana, engineer in an IT company.
expansion in the sector were probably
Karnataka, MP, Gujarat, Kerala, and As a result, several private institutes came
first felt after the global economic crisis
Haryana — together account for 80 per up to feed the industry’s appetite for
Of the 15.5 lakh BE/BTech seats in cent of the total seats in the country. of 2008, when growth slowed in the
engineers. “When there was a demand
3,291 engineering colleges across They also account for 80 per cent of the US and Europe, the main markets for IT
for engineers, the private sector stepped
the country, over half — 51 per total vacant seats in the country. in. A large number of government companies.
cent — were vacant in 2016-17, • Enrollment data of these 10 states colleges did not immediately get into “The economy is in a bit of a stationary
according to data obtained by The Indian show the crisis is at its worst in Haryana. modern branches of engineering such mode. Industries are not making any
Express from the All India Council for At 74 per cent, the state has the highest as IT and computer science. Our entire IT investments and so there aren’t enough
Technical Education (AICTE), the apex proportion of vacant BTech seats in industry would have collapsed had it not engineering jobs in the market at
body for technical education in the 2016-17. Uttar Pradesh is second with been for these private institutes,” says present,” says former IIT-Kanpur director
country. retired IISc professor D K Subramaniam, Sanjay Dhande.
64 per cent unfilled seats. Tamil Nadu,
Last year, roughly eight lakh BE/BTech who is on TCS’s Research Advisory Board. An engineering degree in this climate
which has the highest number of
students graduated, but only about The boom, however, ended in a problem offers little return on investment. 
engineering seats — 2.79 lakh — has
40 per cent got jobs through campus of plenty.
48 per cent unoccupied seats. Courtesy : Indian Express

MATHEMATICS TODAY | JANUARY ‘18 87


m2 = − tan

8
= − 2 +1 ( )
2 −1
m1
( )
2
SOLUTION SET-180 ∴ = = 2 −1 = 3 − 2 2
m2 2 +1
1. (a) : The sum of all two-digit numbers 7. (b) : Let r be the radius of the circle and q be the
90 angle subtended by the chord AF at the centre.
= 10 + 11 + 12 + ... + 99 = (10 + 99) = 4905. There are
2 θ 5θ
5 × 5 = 25 numbers with two odd digits. The sum of these 4 = 2r sin , 11 = 2r sin
2 2
numbers = 5(1 + 3 + 5 + 7 + 9) × 11 = 55 × 25 = 1375

Likewise, the sum of numbers with two even digits
11 sin 2 sin 3θ + sin 2θ
= 5(0 + 2 + 4 + 6 + 8) × 11 – (0 + 2 + 4 + 6 + 8) = 54 × 20 = 1080 \ = = = 3 − 4 sin2 θ + 2 cos θ
4 θ sin θ
\ S = 4905 – 1375 – 1080 = 2450 = 2 . 52 . 72 sin
         2
2. (a) : OA = a , OB = b , OC = c , a = 3, b − c = 2 15
⇒ 4 cos2 θ + 2 cos θ =
The shortest distance between OA and 4
BC is 2. 3 7 θ 1
        ∴ cos θ = , sin θ = , sin =
∴ (b − a ) ⋅ a × (b − c ) = 2 a × (b − c ) 4 4 2 2 2
 1
⇒ [a b c ] = 2 ⋅ 3 ⋅ 2 ⋅ sin 30°
4 = 2r ⋅ ⇒ r=4 2
1  2 2
∴ Volume = [a b c ] = 1
6 7
2 2 AE = 2r sinθ = 8 2 ⋅ = 2 14
3. (d) : f(x) = 2(log 8 3)cos x
+ 3(log 8 2)sin x 4
2
x 2
x 3θ
= 2(log 8 3)cos + 2(log 8 3)sin 8. (a) : AD = 2r sin = 10
2 2
2
⇒ f(x) ≥ 21 (2(log 8 3)cos x
⋅ 2(log 8 3)sin x ) 9. (5) : (1 + x)5 = C0 + C1x + C2x2 + C3x3 + C4 x4 + C5x5
(using A.M. ≥ G.M.) Differentiating
5(1 + x)4 = C1 + 2C2x + 3C3x2+ 4C4x3 + 5C5x4
= 2 (2log8 3 )
1/2
= 21+ log8 3 4
 1 C 3C 4C 5C
z0 + i  z 0 + 1 ∴ 5  1 +  = C1 + 2 2 + 23 + 34 + 45
4. (a) : z1 = f | z0 | = , z2 = i   , z3 = z0  x x x x x
z0 − i  z 0 − 1
Multiplying the above two series and considering the
1 5
z0 + i 5 + i + i coefficient of x is ∑ (r − 1)r ⋅ Cr −1Cr = coefficient of x in
∴ z2011 = z1 = = = 1 + 10i r=2
z0 − i 1
+i −i (1 + x )8  8  8
5 25 = 25   = 25   = 1400
5. (d) : Let ∠ADC = q. By cosine rule, 4
x  5   3
AB2 = m2 = n2 + 92 + 2 . 9 . n cosq 10. (a) : (P) → (1), (Q) → (2), (R) → (4), (S) → (3)
AC2 = m2 = n2 + (21)2 – 2 . 21 . n cosq (P) We have, 12x + 12x+1 = 3x + 3x+1 + 3x+2
Eliminating cosq, we get m2 – n2 = 189 ⇒ 12x(13) = 3x(13) ⇒ 3x(4x – 1) = 0
\ m – n = 1, m + n = 189, m = 95 ⇒ 3x = 0 (not possible)
m – n = 3, m + n = 63, m = 33 So, 4x – 1 = 0 ⇒ 4x = 1 ⇒ x =0
m – n = 7, m + n = 27, m = 17 x
dt π π π π
(Q) ∫ = ⇒ sec −1 x − = or sec −1 x = , x = 2
6. (c) : The angles are invariant under translation. 2
2 t t −1
12 4 12 3
We can take the vertices of the triangle as O(0, 0),
(R) 5(2cos2q – 1) + 1 + cosq + 1 = 0
A(1, 0), B(0, 1). 1 3
AD and BE are the bisectors of ⇒ 10cos2q + cosq – 3 = 0 ⇒ cos θ = , −
∠A and ∠B. One values of q in (0, p/2). 2 5
π 3π (S) 32n + 2 – 8n – 9 = (1 + 8)n + 1 – 8n – 9
∠OAD = , ∠OEB =
8 8  n + 1 2
π =  2  8 + ...,
m1 = − tan = − ( 2 − 1)  
8 which is divisible by 82 = 26 ⇒ m = 6.

88 MATHEMATICS TODAY | JANUARY ‘18
SRM University AP - Amaravati announces the setting up of
School of Liberal Arts and Basic Sciences (SLABS)
B.A., B.B.A, B.Com. & B.Sc. courses will be offered from 2018 in 12 subjects

P resident of SRM University, Dr. P. Sathyanarayanan, announced the


setting up of School of Liberal Arts and Basic Sciences (SLABS)
at its University in Amaravati in the presence of the Honorary
Pro Chancellor of SRM University, AP - Amaravati, Prof. Nicholas
Dirks (Chancellor Emeritus, University of California, Berkley), and
Dr. D Narayana Rao, Pro Vice Chancellor of SRM University, AP – Amaravati.
SLABS will be SRM Amaravati’s home for fundamental research,
where free, open, and critical inquiry is pursued across disciplines,
finding answers and solutions to world’s most challenging problems
and daunting issues. SLABS will have its first intake of students in
2018 and will offer B.A., B.B.A., B.Com and B.Sc. programs across
12 departments –Economics, English, History, Journalism, Psychology,
Business Studies, Commerce, Physics, Chemistry, Mathematics, Biology
and Computer Science.
“Today, we face increasingly complex issues and challenges, and
tackling these, calls for multi-dimensional thought processes
and problem solving skills. Education needs to focus on this
and much more. We aim to help students develop such skills unique learning experience in their chosen field of scholarship that
through the liberal arts and basic sciences education offered at would best serve the society. The focus is on developing into an
SRM SLABS. For this, we are looking at hands-on guidance from inter-disciplinary institution combining academic rigour, excitement of
Prof. Nicholas Dirks, given his background as a renowned discovery, creativity and entrepreneurship that delivers cutting-edge
anthropologist, and his rich experience in Liberal Arts. SRM SLABS research based education, creating new knowledge and innovations.
also has a strong faculty base of international caliber who will The School of Engineering and Applied Sciences is already functional
bring a global perspective to liberal arts education.” They will with the first batch of engineering students having commenced their
assist in creating a holistic approach to education, which will courses in August 2017.
become, we hope, the calling card for SRM Amarvati’s SLABS”, says For more information, please visit: www.srmap.edu.in
Dr. P Sathyanarayanan, President SRM Amaravati.
FACT SHEET:
“I am very pleased to be involved with SRM Amaravati as it establishes
its School of Liberal Arts and Basic Sciences. In our program, students School of Liberal Arts and Basic Sciences (SLABS), at SRM University,
will learn the skills of critical thinking and knowledge creation in AP-Amaravati
a range of fields in the humanities, social sciences, and sciences. Beginning from 2018 session
They will have an innovative multi-disciplinary education, in close Courses Offered B.A., BBA, B. Com., B. Sc.
proximity as well to breaking new teaching and research in areas Program Duration 3 years + 1 Additional year (Optional) resulting in a
ranging from machine learning and data science to public policy and Diploma / Certificate
social analysis”, says Prof. Nicholas Dirks, Honorary Pro Chancellor, Disciplines Physical and Natural Sciences, Arts, Humanities, Social
SRM Amaravati. Sciences, Business Studies, Commerce
“SRM is committed to offering a distinctive form of learning Subjects Economics, English, History, Journalism, Psychology,
empowering young students and thinkers with historical and cultural Business Studies, Commerce, Physics, Chemistry,
Mathematics, Biology and Computer Science.
perspectives, as well as language, critical thinking, and communication
skills— ideal traits to survive the modern world. The multi-disciplinary Admission Criterion Merit, based on Std. XII Exam Results
focus of SLABS will ensure that the students would have both breadth Faculty Profile Top in the category from India and Abroad.
100% PhDs
as well as depth of knowledge about a wide range of subjects”, says
75% have international Exposure in Research/Teaching
Dr. D Narayana Rao, Pro. Vice Chancellor, SRM Amaravati. 15% Foreign nationals
About SRM University, AP-Amaravati Visiting faculty comprising of local and global experts/
academics
SRM University, AP – Amaravati, is envisaged to be a multi-disciplinary
SLABS Approach Multi-disciplinary.
institution starting off with programs in engineering, followed by liberal
No restriction on courses across disciplines
arts and later on in fields of management, law, medical sciences, and In class discussions, Field Trips
pure sciences. SRM envisions to emerge as a world-class university Presentations / Movies / Hands on Assignments
in creating and disseminating knowledge and providing students a 

MATHEMATICS TODAY | JANUARY ‘18 89


90 MATHEMATICS TODAY | JANUARY ‘18
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