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1.

A water molecule could move all the way through a plant from soil to root
to leaf to air and pass through a living cell only once. This living cell would
be a part of which structure?

the endodermis

the root epidermis

the Casparian strip

the root cortex

a guard cell

the endodermis

2. According to the pressure flow hypothesis of phloem transport,

the formation of starch from sugar in the sink increases the osmotic
concentration.

solute moves from a high concentration in the source to a lower concentration in


the sink.

the combination of a high turgor pressure in the source and transpiration water
loss from the sink moves solutes through phloem conduits.

water is actively transported into the source region of the phloem to create the
turgor pressure needed.

the pressure in the phloem of a root is normally greater than the pressure in the
phloem of a leaf

solute moves from a high concentration in the source to a lower concentration in


the sink

3. Movement of phloem sap from a source to a sink

occurs through the apoplast of sieve-tube elements.

depends on tension, or negative pressure potential.

results mainly from diffusion.

depends on pumping water into sieve tubes at the source.


depends ultimately on the activity of proton pumps
depends ultimately on the activity of proton pumps

4. Photosynthesis begins to decline when leaves wilt because

wilted leaves cannot absorb the red and blue wavelengths of light.

stomata close, restricting CO2 entry into the leaf.

there is insufficient water for photolysis during the light reactions.

CO2 accumulates in the leaves and inhibits the enzymes needed for
photosynthesis.

chloroplasts within wilted leaves are incapable of photosynthesis.


stomata close, restricting CO2 entry into the leaf

5. What drives the flow of water through the xylem?

active transport by sieve-tube elements

passive transport by the endodermis

active transport by tracheid and vessel elements

the number of companion cells in the phloem

the evaporation of water from the leavers


the evaporation of water from the leaves

6. Which of the following has the lowest (most negative) water potential?

leaf air spaces

leaf cell walls

trunk xylem

root xylem

root cortical cells


leaf air spaces
7. Transpiration pulls water up a plant because of two mechanisms: _____
describes water molecules sticking together and _____ describes water
molecules sticking to the walls of the xylem?

cohesion...gravity

adhesion...cohesion

adhesion...gravity

cohesion...adhesion

gravity...cohesion
cohesion...adhesion

8. Which of the following best describes transpiration?

another term for evaporation

another term for bulk flow movement of water in a plant

the loss of oxygen from a plant

produces a positive gradient for water flow

the loss of water from plant leaves through evaporation

the loss of water from plant leaves through evaporation

9. According to the pressure flow hypothesis of phloem transport,

the pressure in the phloem of a root is normally greater than the pressure in the
phloem of a leaf.

water is actively transported into the "source" region of the phloem to create the
turgor pressure needed.

solute moves from a high concentration in the "source" to a lower concentration


in the "sink."

the combination of a high turgor pressure in the "source" and transpiration water
loss from the "sink" moves solutes through phloem conduits.

the formation of starch from sugar in the "sink" increases the osmotic
concentration.
solute moves from a high concentration in the "source" to a lower concentration
in the "sink."

10. Arrange the following five events in an order that explains the mass flow of
materials in the phloem.
1. Water diffuses into the sieve tubes.
2. Leaf cells produce sugar by photosynthesis.
3. Solutes are actively transported into sieve tubes.
4. Sugar is transported from cell to cell in the leaf.
5. Sugar moves down the stem.

2, 4, 3, 1, 5

1, 2, 3, 4, 5

2, 4, 1, 3, 5

2, 1, 4, 3, 5

4, 2, 1, 3, 5
2, 4, 3, 1, 5

11. All of the following normally enter the plant through the roots except

potassium.

calcium.

nitrogen.

water.

carbon dioxide.
carbon dioxide.

12. Which of the following is a correct statement about sugar movement in


phloem?

Sugar transport does not require energy.

Sugar is translocated from sinks to sources.

Movement can occur both upward and downward in the plant.

Diffusion can account for the observed rates of transport.


Only xylem cells can perform sugar movement
Movement can occur both upward and downward in the plant.

13. What regulates the flow of water through the xylem?

the evaporation of water from the leaves

active transport by tracheid and vessel elements.

the number of companion cells in the phloem

passive transport by the endodermis

active transport by sieve-tube members


the evaporation of water from the leaves
Which of the following best describes the mechanism that causes stomata to open?

A hinged flap covering the stoma is triggered to open when the plant needs air.

Water accumulates below the opening and eventually forces the stoma open.

Two guard cells flanking each stoma control its opening by changing shape.

The internal pressure of xylem sap expands the leaf, stretching the stoma open.

A large bubble of oxygen accumulates below the stoma and eventually forces it open.
Two guard cells flanking each stoma control its opening by changing shape.
Which of the following mechanisms best explains how xylem sap moves up against the
downward pull of gravity?

rapid diffusion of glucose-transpiration

transpiration-cohesion-tension mechanism

glucose pumping-adhesion-tension mechanism

adhesion-tension-diffusion of oxygen

reverse osmosis-adhesion-transpiration
transpiration-cohesion-tension mechanism
Water potential is generally most negative in which of the following parts of a plant?

cells of the root cortex

mesophyll cells of the leaf


xylem vessels in roots

xylem vessels in leaves

root hairs
mesophyll cells of the leaf
Which of the following has the lowest (most negative) water potential?

soil

trunk xylem

root xylem

leaf air spaces

leaf cell walls


leaf air spaces
Plants do not have a circulatory system like that of some animals. If a given water
molecule did "circulate" (that is, go from one point in a plant to another and back), it
would require the activity of

only the xylem.

only the phloem.

only the endodermis.

both the xylem and the endodermis.

both the xylem and the phloem.


both the xylem and the phloem.
Transpiration in plants requires all of the following except

adhesion of water molecules to cellulose.

cohesion between water molecules.

transport through tracheids.

evaporation of water molecules.

active transport through xylem cells.


active transport through xylem cells.
An example of a sugar sink is a _____.

flower

stem

node

fruit

leaf
fruit
Which of the following weather conditions would cause transpiration to be most rapid?

hot, dry weather

windy, wet weather

cold, humid weather

hot, humid weather

rainy weather
hot, dry weather
Root hairs are most important to a plant because they

increase the surface area for absorption.

provide a habitat for nitrogen-fixing bacteria.

contain xylem tissue.

store starches.

anchor a plant in the soil.


increase the surface area for absorption.
What is the main force by which most of the water within xylem vessels moves toward
the top of a tree?

osmosis in the root

the force of root pressure

active transport of ions into the stele

atmospheric pressure on roots


evaporation of water through stoma
evaporation of water through stoma
Water flows into the source end of a sieve tube because

sucrose has been dumped from the sieve tube by active transport.

sucrose has diffused into the sieve tube, making it hypertonic.

water pressure outside the sieve tube forces in water.

the companion cell of a sieve tube actively pumps in water.

sucrose has been actively transported into the sieve tube, making it hypertonic.
sucrose has been actively transported into the sieve tube, making it hypertonic.
Which of the following describes sugar movement within the plant body?

sugar-flow mechanism

sink-to-source mechanism

pressure-flow mechanism

transpirational-pull mechanism

bulk-flow mechanism
pressure-flow mechanism
Water rises in plants primarily by the cohesion-tension model. Which of the following is
not true about this model?

The physical forces in the capillary-sized xylem cells make it easier to overcome gravity.

The water potential of the air is more negative than the xylem.

Cohesion represents the tendency for water molecules to stick together by hydrogen
bonds.

Water loss (transpiration) is the driving force for water movement.

The "tension" of this model represents the excitability of the xylem cells.
The "tension" of this model represents the excitability of the xylem cells.
Phloem transport of sucrose can be described as going from "source to sink." Which of
the following would not normally function as a sink?

storage organ in summer


mature leaf

growing leaf

shoot tip

growing root
mature leaf