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UFBA - C´alculo C - 2017/1

Lista de Exerc´ıcios 10 - Transformada de Laplace

(1) Encontre a transformada de laplace da fun¸c˜ao f (t) = cos(at), t 0, sendo a uma constante diferente de zero.

(2) Encontre a transformada de Laplace da fun¸c˜ao dada, sendo a e b constantes ambas diferentes de

zero. Lembre-se que cosh(x) = e x + e x

2

e senh(x) = e x 2 e x

.

 (a) f (t) = cosh(bt). (f) (b) f (t) = senh(bt). (g) (c) f (t) = e at cosh(bt). (h) (d) f (t) = e at senh(bt). (i) (e) f (t) = te at . (j)

f

f

f (t) = t n e at , n inteiro positivo.

f (t) = t 2 sen(at).

f (t) = t 2 senh(at).

(t) = t sen(at). (t) = t cosh(at).

(3) Em cada caso, determine se a fun¸c˜ao f = f (t) ´e cont´ınua, seccionalmente cont´ınua ou nenhuma das duas op¸c˜oes, no intervalo [0, 3]. (Dica: fa¸ca o gr´aﬁco da fun¸c˜ao)

 (a) f (t) = (b) f (t) =

t 2 ,

0 t 1;

 2 + t, 1 < t ≤ 2; 6 − t, 2 < t ≤ 3.

t 2 ,

0 t 1;

(t 1) 1 ,

1,

1 < t 2;

2 < t 3.

(c)

(d)

f (t) =

f (t) =

t 2 ,

0 t 1;

1 < t 2;

1,

1,

t, 3 t,

3 t,

2 < t 3.

0 t 1; 1 < t 2; 2 < t 3.

(4) Encontre a transformada de Laplace inversa.

 (a) F (s) = (b) F (s) = (c) F (s) = (d) F (s) = (e) F (s) =

3

s 2

+

4

4 .

(s 1) 3 .

2

s 2

+ 3s 4 .

3s

s 2 s 6 . 2s + 2

s 2 + 2s + 5 .

(f)

(g)

(h)

(i)

(j)

 F (s) = 2s − 3 F (s) F (s) = = s 2 − 4 . 2s + 1 s 2 − 2s + 2 . 8s 2 − 4s + 12 F (s) = s(s 2 + 4) 1 − 2s . F (s) = s 2 + 4s + 5 . 2s − 3 s 2 + 2s + 10 .

(5) Encontre a solu¸c˜ao da EDO com condi¸c˜oes iniciais.

(a)

(b)

(c)

y 4y + 6y 4y + y = 0,

y(0) = 0,

y (0) = 1,

y (0) = 0,

y

y = 0,

y 4y = 0,

y(0) = 1, y(0) = 1,

y (0) = 0, y (0) = 0,

y (0) = 1, y (0) = 2,

y (0) = 0. y (0) = 0.

y (0) = 1.

(6) Esboce o gr´aﬁco da fun¸c˜ao dada no intervalo [0, ].

 (a) f (t) = u 1 (t) + 2u 3 (t) − 6u 4 (t). (b) f (t) = (t − 3)u 2 (t) − (t − 2)u 3 (t). (c) f (t) = (t − π) 2 u π (t). (d) f (t) = sen(t − 3)u 3 (t). (e) f (t) = 2(t − 1)u 2 (t). (f) f (t) = (t − 1)u 1 (t) − 2(t − 2)u 2 (t) + (t − 3)u 3 (t).

1

2

(7) Encontre a transformada de Laplace da fun¸c˜ao.

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

(e)

(f)

f (t) = 0,

t < 2

(t 2) 2 ,

t 2.

f (t) =

f (t) =

0,

t 2 2t + 2,

t < 1

t 1.

t < π π t < 2π t 2π.

0, t π,

0,

f (t) = u 1 (t) + 2u 3 (t) 6u 4 (t).

f (t) =

f (t) = t u 1 (t)(t 1).

(t 3)u 2 (t) (t 2)u 3 (t).

(8) Calcule a transformada de Laplace inversa da fun¸c˜ao.

(a)

(b)

(c)

F (s) =

3!

(s 2) 4 .

e

2s

F (s) =

s 2 + s 2 . F (s) = 2(s 1)e 2s

s 2 2s + 2 .

(d)

(e)

(f)

F (s) =

F (s) =

F (s) =

2e 2s

s 2 4 . (s 2)e s s 2 4s + 3 .

e s + e 2s e 3s e 4s

s

.

(9) Seja f = f (t), t 0, uma fun¸c˜ao e suponha que F (s) = L {f (t)} existe para s > a 0.

(a)

(b)

(c)

Mostre que, se c > 0 ´e uma constante, ent˜ao

L {f (ct)} = 1 c F s c , s > ca.

Mostre que, se k > 0 ´e uma constante, ent˜ao

L

1 {F (ks)} =

1

k f k .

t

Mostre que, se a e b s˜ao constantes com a > 0, ent˜ao

L 1 {F (as + b)} =

1

a

e bt/a f

t

a .

(10) Use os resultados do exerc´ıcio anterior para calcular a transformada de Laplace inversa da fun¸c˜ao.

(a)

(b)

F (s) =

F (s) =

2 n+1

n!

.

2s + 1

4s 2 + 4s + 5 .

(c)

(d)

F (s) =

F (s) =

1

9s 2 12s + 3 .

e 2 e 4s

2s 1 .

(11) Encontre a solu¸c˜ao da EDO com condi¸c˜oes iniciais.

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

(e)

(f)

(g)

(h)

y + y = f (t);

y(0) = 0,

y (0) = 1;

f (t) =

1,

0,

0 t < π/2 t π/2.

y + 2y + 2y = h(t);

y(0) = 0,

y (0) = 1;

h(t) =

  0,

1,

0,

0 t < π π t < 2π

t 2π.

y

+ 4y

=

sen(t) u 2π (t) sen(t 2π);

y + 4y = sen(t) u π (t) sen(t π);

y(0) = 0; y(0) = 0;

y (0) = 0. y (0) = 0.

y + 3y + 2y = f (t);

y(0) = 0,

y (0) = 0;

y + 3y + 2y = u 2 (t);

y + y = u 3π (t);

y(0) = 0,

y (0) = 1.

y(0) = 1,

y (0) = 0.

5

y + y + 4 y = t u π/2 (t)(t π/2);

y(0) = 0,

f (t) =

1,

0,

y (0) = 0.

0 t < 10 t 10.

3

(i)

y + y = g(t);

y(0) = 0,

y (0) = 1;

g(t) = t/2,

3,

0 t < 6 t 6.

(j)

5

y + y + 4 y = g(t);

y(0) = 0,

y (0) = 0;

g(t) = sen(t),

0,

0 t < π

t π.

(k) y + 4y = u π (t) u 3π (t);

(l)

y iv

(m) y iv

y = u 1 (t) u 2 (t);

+ 5y + 4y = 1 u π (t);

y(0) = 0, y(0) = 0, y(0) = 0,

y (0) = 0. y (0) = 0,

y (0) = 0,

y (0) = 0,

y (0) = 0.

y (0) = 0,

y (0) = 0.

(12) Encontre a solu¸c˜ao da EDO com condi¸c˜oes iniciais.

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

y + 2y + 2y = δ(t π);

y(0) = 1,

y (0) = 0.

y

y

+ 4y = δ(t π) δ(t 2π); + 3y + 2y = δ(t 5) + u 10 (t);

y y = 20 δ(t 3);

y(0) = 1,

y(0) =

0,

y (0) = 0. y (0) = 1/2.

y(0) = 0, y (0) = 0.

(13) Encontre a transformada de Laplace da fun¸c˜ao.

(a)

(b)

f (t) = t (t u) 2 cos(2u) du.

0

f (t) = t e (tu) sen(u) du.

0

(c)

(d)

f (t) = t (t u)e u du.

0

f (t) = t sen(t u) cos(u) du.

0

(14) Encontre a transformada de Laplace inversa da fun¸c˜ao.

(a)

(b)

F (s) =

F (s) =

1

s 4 (s 2 + 1) . s

(s + 1)(s 2

+ 4) .

(c)

(d)

F (s) =

F (s) =

1

(s + 1) 2 (s 2 + 4) . G(s)

s 2 + 1 .

(15) Encontre a solu¸c˜ao da EDO com condi¸c˜oes iniciais.

 (a) y + ω 2 y = g(t); y(0) = 0, y (0) = 1, ω constante n˜ao nula. (b) 4y + 4y + 17y = g(t); y + 4y + 4y = g(t); y(0) = 0, y(0) = 2, y (0) = 0. (c) y (0) = −3. (d) y iv + 5y + 4y = g(t); y(0) = 1, y (0) = 0, y (0) = 0, y (0) = 0. Respostas

(1) L {cos(at)} =

s

s 2 + a 2 , s > 0

(2)

(a) L {cosh(bt)} =

(b)

L { senh(bt)} =

s

s 2 b 2 , s > |b|

b

s 2 b 2 , s > |b|

(c)

(d)

(e)

L {e at cosh(bt)} =

s a b 2 , s a > |b|

(s a) 2

L {e at senh(bt)} =

a) b 2 b 2 , s a >

(s

1

L {te at } = s a , s > a

|b|

(f)

(g)

(h)

(i)

(j)

L {t sen(at)} =

2as

(s 2 + a 2 ) 2

, s > 0

L {t cosh(at)} =

s 2 + a + a) 2 , s > |a|

2

(s a) 2 (s

L {t n e at } =

n!

(s a) n+1 , s

> a

L {t 2 sen(at)} = 2a(3s 3 a 2 ) , s > 0

(s 2 + a 2 ) 3

L {t 2 senh(at)} = 2a(3s 2 + a 2 ) , s > |a|

(s 2 a 2 ) 3

4

(3)

(4)

(5)

(6)

(7)

(8)

(9)

(10)

(11)

(12)

(a) seccionalmente cont´ınua

(b) seccionalmente cont´ınua

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

f (t) = 3 sen(t)

2

f (t) = 2t 2 e t

f (t) = 2

5 e t 2 5 e 4t

f (t) = 9

5

e 3t + 6

5

e

2t

(e) f (t) = 2e t cos(2t)

(a)

y = te t t 2 e t + 2

3 t 3 e t

(a) F (s) =

(b)

F (s) =

e s /s 3

F (s) = e s (s 2 + 2)/s 3

e

πs

e

2πs

(c)

(1 + πs)

s

2

s

2

(a)

(b)

f (t) = t 3 e 2t

f (t) =

1 u 2 (t) e t2 e 2(t2)

3

(b) y = cosh(t)

(c) f (t) = 2u 2 (t)e t2 cos(t 2)

(c)

nenhuma das duas

(d) cont´ınua

(f)

(g)

(h)

(i)

(j)

f (t) = 2 cosh(2t) 3 senh(2t)

2

f (t) = 2e t cos(t) + 3et sen(t)

f (t) = 3 2 sen(2t) + 5 cos(2t)

f (t) = 2e 2t cos(t) + 5e 2t sen(t)

f (t) = 2e t cos(3t) 5 3 e t sen(3t)

(c) y = cos( 2t)

(d)

(e)

(f)

(d)

(e)

(f)

F (s) = 1 s (e s + 2e 3s 6e 4s )

F (s) =

F (s) = (1 e s )/s 2

s 2 (1 s) e 2s (1 + s)e 3s

f (t) = u 2 (t) senh[2(t 2)]

f (t) = u 1 (t)e 2(t1) cosh(t 1)

f (t) = u 1 (t) + u 2 (t) u 3 (t) u 4 (t)

(a) f (t) = 2(2t) n

(b)

f (t) = 1

2 e t/2 cos(t)

(c)

(d)

f (t) = 1 6 e t/3 (e 2t/3 1)

f (t) =

2 1 e t/2 u 2 (t/2)

(a) y = 1 cos(t) + sen(t) u π/2 (t)(1 sen(t))

(b)

y = e t sen(t) + 1 2 u π (t) 1 + e (tπ) cos(t) + e (tπ) sen(t) 2 u 2π(t) 1 + e (t2π) cos(t) e (t2π) sen(t)

y = 1 6 (1 u 2π (t))(2 sen(t) sen(2t))

y = 1 6 (2 sen(t) sen(2t))

y = 1 2 + 2 e t e t u 10 (t) 1 2 +

y = e t e 2t + u 2 (t)

y = cos(t) + u 3π (t) (1 cos(t 3π))

y = h(t) u π/2 (t)h(t π/2),

y = 1 2 sen(t) + 1 2 t

y = h(t) u π (t)h(t π),

y = u π (t)

y = u 1 (t)h(t 1) u 2 (t)h(t 2),

y = h(t) u π (t)h(t π),

1

(c)

(d)

(e)

(f)

(g)

(h)

(i)

(j)

(k)

(l)

(m)

6 1 u π (t)(2 sen(t) sen(2t))

1 e 2(t10) e (t10)
2

1 e 2(t2)

2

1

2 1 e (t2) +

h(t) =

25 4 4 + 5t + 4e t/2 cos(t) 3e t/2 sen(t)

6 1 u 6 (t) (t 6 sen(t 6))

h(t) =

17 4 4 cos(t) + sen(t) + 4e t/2 cos(t) + e t/2 sen(t)

1

4

1

4 cos(2t 6π)

1

4

1

4 cos(2t 2π) u 3π(t)

h(t) = 1 + (cos(t) + cosh(t))/2

h(t) = (3 4 cos(t) + cos(2t))/12

(a) y = e t cos(t) + e t sen(t) + u π (t)e (tπ) sen(t π)

(b)

y = 1 2 u π (t) sen(2(t π))

y =

2 1 u 2π(t) sen(2(t π))

(c)

1 e 2t +

2

2 1 e t + u 5 (t) e 2(t5) + e (t5) + u 10 (t)

2 1 + 1 2 e 2(t10) + e (t10)

5

(13)

(14)

(15)

(a) F (s) =

(b) F (s) =

2

s 2 (s 2 + 4)

1

(s + 1)(s 2 + 1)

(c)

(d)

F (s) =

F (s) =

1

s 2 (s 1) s

(s 2 + 1) 2

(a)

(b)

f (t) =

1

6 t

0

(t u) 3 sen(u) du

f (t) = t e (tu) cos(u) du

0

(c)

(d)

f (t) = 1 2 t (t u)e (tu) sen(2u) du

0

f (t) = t sen(t u)g(u) du

0

(a)

y =

(b) y =

1

ω t

1

0

ω sen(ωt) +

1

8 t

sen (ω(t u)) g(u)du

e (tu)/2 sen (2(t u)) g(u)du

0

(c)

(d)

y = 2e 2t + te 2t + t (t u)e 2(tu) g(u)du

0

y = 4 cos(t) 1

3

3 cos(2t) + 1 6 t [2 sen(t u) sen (2(t u))] g(u)du

0