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Skalar

Analyses of inorganic parameters


by Flow Analyses

Water Workshop
University of Novi Sad
1 – 5 september 2008
Program

• Introduction of Skalar Analytical


• Skalar Continuous Flow Analyses
y
• Practical applications on CFA
• Nutrients
• Cyanide
C id
• Phenol
• Total Nitrogen
• Total Phosphate
• Dissolved Organic Carbon
²
Skalar Worldwide

Germany The Netherlands France

Belgium
g Austria

United Kingdom United States

India Serbia Czech Republic


Thousands of Skalar Analyzers operational
worldwide
9Commercial laboratories
Applications:
9Industrial laboratories Water
9Universities
9U i iti and
d Soil, Plant &Fertilizer
Research laboratories
Beer & Malt
9Process control Food & Beverage
Wine
Tobacco
Pharmaceutical
Detergents
Mi i &Metallurgical
Mining &M t ll i l
Petrochemical
According International standards
Skalar applications are according to international
directives such as
‰ ISO
‰ EPA
‰ ASTM
‰ CEN
‰ AFNOR
‰ AOAC
‰ DIN
‰ NEN
‰ ASBC
‰ EBC
‰ Mebak
‰ User’s methods
Skalar Product Lines
SAN++ Analyzer
Wet Chemistry automation

FormacsSERIES and PrimacsSERIES


TOC & TN Analyzers

Robotic Analyzers
y
BOD, COD, Titations, ISE etc

Fluo Imager
Oil in water, Chlorofyll

Toxtracer
Bio-assay for Toxicity
Program

• Introduction of Skalar Analytical


• Skalar Continuous Flow Analyses
y
• Practical applications on CFA
• Nutrients
• Cyanide
C id
• Phenol
• Total Nitrogen
• Total Phosphate
• Dissolved Organic Carbon
Skalar Products
Continuous Flow Analyzer

San++
Continuous Flow Analyzer
Advantages

• Fast, accurate, reliable and reproducible results


(standardization of methods and operation conditions)

• Hi h capacity
High i and
d sample
l throughput
h h
(up to several hundreds per day)

• Less chance on human errors


(No transcription or operator errors)

• money saving
money-saving
(saving on reagents and time)

• Automated Data-acquisition and data-management

• Avoiding this in your laboratory


Continuous Flow Analyzer
Typical Automated Environmental Applications
Ammonia Methylene Blue Active Substances
Al i
Aluminum (MBAS)
Boron Molybdenum
Bromide Nitrate + Nitrite
Calcium
Calc u Permanganate
g value (COD)
( ) Potassium
Chloride Total Amino Acids
Chemical Oxygen Demand Total Alkalinity
Chlorine Total Carbonates
Cholinesterase Inhibition Total Hardness
Chromium VI Total Nitrogen (UV and TKN)
Color Total Phosphate (UV)
Conductivityy Total Phenols
Cyanide (Total – Free – WAD) Dissolved Silicate
Organic Carbon Sodium
Fluoride Sulfate
Formaldehyde Sulfur Dioxide
Iron (Total – Free – Hydrolysable) Urea
Magnesium Volatile Acids
Manganese Zinc
Continuous Flow Analyzer
Principle of the San++

Full Instrument Control

Auto Sampler Chemistry Detection Computer


Section

Data Handling
From 1 to 16 channels and Report
i lt l
simultaneously Generation
Continuous Flow Analyzer
Modular Design

Full Instrument control

Auto Sampler Chemistry Section Data Acquisition


and Detection Data Reporting
and
Full Instrument Control
Continuous Flow Analyzer
Typical Advantages CFA compared to other techniques

‰ Implementation of complex analysis techniques like:


inline distillation, digestion, extraction, dialysis

‰ No blocking by dirty samples as of mini-bore coils

‰ Sub ppb level sensitivity (and expended range in ppm level)

‰ Full end point color development (optimal chemistry

‰ No synchronization required to analyze data

‰ No degassing of reagents

( CFA = Continuous Flow Analysis )


Program

• Introduction of Skalar Analytical


• Skalar Continuous Flow Analyses
y
• Practical applications on CFA
• Nutrients
• Cyanide
C id
• Phenol
• Total Nitrogen
• Total Phosphate
• Dissolved Organic Carbon
²
Practical Applications on CFA
SKALAR METHODS
ANALYSIS: PHENOL INDEX
RANGE: 2 - 100 ppb C6H5OH
SAMPLE: WASTE WATER
Method Descriptions:
Catnr. I497-001 issue 112399/MH/99208370

PRINCIPLE
B. Distilled water

Required chemicals: Distilled water *


H2O
Hardcopy and Digital
The automated procedure for the determination of the Phenol Index is based on the following; the sample is
fed into a stream, mixed with phosphoric acid, and inline distilled at pH 1.4. The distillate, containing steam INTERFERENCES
C. 4-Aminoantipyrine solution II
volatile phenolic compounds, is the mixed with continuously flowing solutions of 4-aminoantipyrine and
potassium hexacyanoferrate(III). Phenolic compounds in the distillate are oxidised by hexacyanoferrate(III),
Required chemicals: 4-Amino antipyrine
and the resulting quinones react with 4-aminoantipyrine forming yellow condensation products, which are
................ Preparation: Dissolve the 1. Interferences
4-amino antipyrinecaused
in ± by
80 clogging of the distillation capillary may occur when the salt
content
Fill upoftothe sample exceeds 10 gr/litre. In these cases, dilute the sample with water.
measured spectrometrically at 505 nm. (Method according to ISO/DIS 14402) C11H13N3O ml distilled water. 100 ml with
2. With samples containing particulate matter. Turbid or coloured samples CATALOGUE
and samplesNUMBERS REQUIRED CHEMICALS
Distilled water *..................... distilled water, add the Brij 35 and mix.
H2O preserved by acidification will not interfere with the determination.
determination
Brij 35 (30%) ......................... Note: 3. solution
Prepare a fresh The interlaboratory
every day. trial has shown that detergents in waste water can strongly influence Product Supplier and catnr. Danger classification
LABORATORY FACILITIES the determination, because the foam produced in the flow system can disturb both the
steam distillation of volatile phenols and phase segmentation and phase separation
1. Maximum power consumption depending on the analyser configuration, 2000 VA. Check voltage at the Sulfuric acid (97%)
procedures. In general such interferences can easily be discovered in flow systems.
Merck 100100731 corrosive
back of the instrument before installation. D. Potassium ferricyanide solution Hydrochloric acid (32%) Merck 100317 corrosive
4. In the case of significant detergent content, this international standard is only applicable
2. Facilities for chemical wastes. Check environmental regulations for proper disposal of waste. for phenol mass concentration above 0.1 mg/litre. Phosphoric acid (85%) Merck 100573 corrosive
Required chemicals: Potassium ferri- Preparation: Dissolve the potassium ferricyanide, the 4-Aminoantipyrine Merck 107293 harmful
cyanide ................................... boric acid and the potassium chloride ± 80
Brij 35 (30%) Skalar SC13900
PROCEDURE SAMPLE PREPARATION K3[Fe(CN)6] ml distilled water. Adjust the pH to 10.3
SETTINGS
Boric acid ............................... with potassium hydroxide solution (1M). Potassium ferricyanide Merck 104973
H BO
Glass or polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) containers are suitable for sampling. Prior 3to use,
3 all containers and Fill up to 1001.mlThe
with distilled water. Boric acid Merck 100165
sensitivity of the highest standard 100 ppb C6H5OH is ± 96 A.U.
devices the sample may come into contact with, shall be rinsed with sulfuric acid Potassium chloride
of approximately pH.................
2. 2. Sample time: 80 sec., wash time: 80 sec, air: 1 sec.
Potassium chloride Merck 104936
KCl Note: p a fresh
Prepare 3 solution
3. everyy day.
The connection y
between Potassium
the sampler and the sample pump tube is made hydroxide
of 5141ytube.
tube Merck 105021 corrosive
- Analyse the samples immediately after their collection. Alternatively, adjust a Distilled water *.....................
pH of approximately 2 4. The stabilising time is of the system is approximately 45 minutes. Phenol Merck 100206 toxic
with sulfuric acid (H2SO4 97% or diluted solution) or hydrochloric acid (HCl Hw/w
2O 50% or diluted
solution), store in the dark at a temperature of 2 to 5°C, and analyse within 24 hours. REFERENCES
Note: If a pump tube catnr. SA 2002 or 2005 is in use, the pump tubes with catnr. SA 3020 up
In exceptional cases, after acidification and membrane (pressure) filtration
E. Rinsing of sampler
liquid the sample, a storage of up to to 3039 are
two weeks is possible. The applicability of this preservation method shall be checked for the individual case replaced by pump tubes with catnr. SA 5020 up to 5039.
1. Water Quality - Determination of the Phenol Index by Flow Analysis, ISO 14402.
of examination. The rinsing liquid sampler has to be the same as the sample matrix after sample pretreatment.
Filtration of the sample prior to measurement is necessary, if there is a risk of clogging the transport tubes. waste
FLOW DIAGRAM
CARTRIDGE CONSUMABLES
ml/min Flow cell 50 m
STANDARDS Filter 505 nm
REAGENTS If only a module is ordered with flow cell catnr. SA 6425 and filters catnr. SA 6534 and SA Cor. filter 720
waste
Stock solution 1000 ppm C6H5OH 6577, the following components are added to the module:
A. Distillation reagent
Potassium ferricyanide solution 5246
Required chemicals: Phenol..................................... Preparation: Dissolve the silicone
phenol intube
± 800 mlcatnr. SA 3150
distilled Air
Required chemicals: o-Phosphoric acid .................. Preparation: Dilute the phosphoric acid in ± 70 ml polythene tube catnr. SA 5141
H3PO4 (85%)
C6H5cooling.
distilled water while
OH (white crystals)
Fill up to
water. Fill up to 1 litre with distilled water
catnr. SA 5142
Distilled water *..................... Distilled
100 ml with distilled waterwater *.....................
and mix. and mix.
sleeves catnr. SA 5400 Resample waste 5216 5320 5320
H2O H2O catnr. SA 5401 5202
5207 5201
Note: Prepare a fresh solution every day. Note: Store the stock standard at 4°C.catnr.
Solution
SA 5406
4-Aminoantipyrine solution

is stable for 1pump


week.tubes as listed in the cartridge components
5304 * built up in glass
sleeved with acidflex
cooling 5268
Distilled water 5246
Stock solution 10 ppm C6H5OH waste 5201

5204 waste 5324


Dilute 1 ml stock solution 1000 ppm C6H5OH to 100 ml with distilled water.*
Nitrogen gas 70 - 80 units ** X
Note: Prepare
p the stock solution 10 pp
ppm C6H5OH fresh weekly.
y If this module is ordered as a single module, the following items are added
Air to the cartridge 1330
components; t-splitter catnr. SA 5260 (standard), 5263 (for digest and acid) and debubbler 5325
Sample 5216
catnr. SA 5210. Distillation reagent
5201 5521

bypass 155°C
bypass
debubbler

5141 sample waste


5260 5263
5141 5141 5210 Sampler

sample sample * distillation unit is situated


beside the module support holder
** always close the clamp after
shutting down the instrument
Practical Applications on CFA
Skalar SAN++ Example Configuration
Practical Applications on CFA
Nitrite: Colorization method
According ISO 13395

Sulfanylamide

Ø+ NO2 + H+
Diazonium compound

Øα-naphtylethylenediamine dihydrochloride
R d
Red-purple
l color
l measured
d att 540 nm

Identical to the manual method


Practical Applications on CFA
Nitrite: Colorization method
FLOW DIAGRAM Photometric detection
waste
ml/min
l/ i

Flow cell 10 mm
5323 Filter 540 nm
Color Reaction Cor. Filter 620 nm

Colour reagent 0.23 5246


Air
Distilled water + Brij 35 1 00
1.00 5245

Sample 0.23
5220 R
Reagent
t addition
dditi

0.80
waste
Sampler

Sampling
Practical Applications on CFA
Nitrate: Colorization method (NO2 + NO3)
According ISO 13395
NO3 Ö NO2 by reduction
Reductionmethods:
9Cd d ti
9Cd-reduction After reduction of
9 reduction with hydraziniumsulfate NO3 to NO2:
9enzymatic reduction Identical
measurement as
S lf
Sulfanylamide
l id NO2-application
application

Ø+ NO2 + H+
Ziazonium compound
Øα-naphtylethylenediamine dihydrochloride
Red- purple color measured at 540 nm
Practical Applications on CFA
Nitrate: Colorization method (NO2 + NO3)
FLOW DIAGRAM Photometric detection
waste
ml/min

Flow cell 10 mm
5323 Filter 540 nm
Color Reaction Cor. Filter 620 nm

Colour reagent 0.23 5246


5220
5246
Air
5220 Cd-reduction
0.42
waste
5357 + 5112 column
Cadmium column
Air 5210
5290
Buffer solution 1.40 5241
5272
Air *
5325
Buffer solution + EDTA 1.20 5245

Sample 0.10
waste
Dialyses

0.80
waste
Sampler

* standard membrane catnr. SA 5282


Sampling
Practical Applications on CFA
Total Cyanide, a complete Analysis Process
Different methods:
1. Photometric detection with UV-A destruction
Total determination of CN, including thiocyanates
According ISO 14403

2. Photometric detection with UV-B destruction


Total determination of CN
CN, excluding thiocyanates
According ISO 14403

3. Amperometric detection
with a silver working electrode and silver/silver chloride reference
electrode
According ISO 14403

4. Photometric detection of WAD (Weak and Dissociable cyanides)


According ISO 14403
Practical Applications on CFA
Total Cyanide: Photometric detection with UV
UV--B destruction
Total determination of CN, excluding thiocyanates, according ISO 14403

CN-complex

Ø+ UV-light ( + pH 3.8
HCN

ØSeparation by distillation at 125°C under vacuum


ØChloramine-T,
C anogene chloride
Cyanogene
Ø Colorisation with 4-pyridine carboxylic acid
Ø and 1,3-dimethylbarbituric acid
Red colour, measured at 600 nm
Practical Applications on CFA
Total Cyanide: Photometric detection with UV
FLOW DIAGRAM
UV--B destruction
Photometric detection waste
ml/min
/
Flow cell 50 mm
Colour reagent 5246 Filter 600 nm
Cor. filter 650 nm
Chloramine-T solution 5246
Air

Color Reaction
Buffer solution 5245
5220
5325
5220
5521/5300

(Re)sample 37°C

air built up
in glass
vacuum sleeved
## pump with
3142 9031 acidflex
condensor
5371
waste

5370

5142
waste
5142
5202 *
Sodium hydroxide solution (0.1M) 5246 5130 5304 cooling 5362
In-line distillation
waste
5304 cooling

Air
5590 # 5521
5326 5214 5328
Sample 5216
** 5201
Distillation reagent UV digestion 125°C

Distilled water 5246


Sodium hydroxide to all waste lines
solution (1M) in waste vessel cyanide
waste
Sampler

* distillation unit is situated at the back panel of the module support holder
** glass tubing SA 5359 (2.0mm I.D., 4.0mm O.D.) In-line UV digestion
#
Sampling air linlet via 50 cm 5133 tube with restrictor (3 cm 5142 tube)
## air restrictor (2CA14031)
Cyanide Total & Free: Method Amperometric
Cyanide,

PRINCIPLE (total cyanide)


The automated procedure for the determination of Total Cyanide is based on the
following reaction: Complex bound cyanide is decomposed by the radiation of UV
light, in a continuously flowing stream at pH 3.8. A UV-B lamp (± 312 nm) and a
coil of borosilicate glass is used to avoid UV light, with a wavelength of less than
290 nm, and thus preventing the conversion of thiocyanate into cyanide. The
Cyanide, decomposed at pH 3.8, is kept in solution by addition of a liquid to
increase the pH to > 10 and then pumped to the dialyser where the sample is
acidified to form hydrogen cyanide gas.
The hydrogen cyanide gas diffuses through the
hydrophobic Teflon membrane into the alkaline receptor stream.
The cyanide is measured amperometrically with a silver
working electrode and silver/silver chloride reference electrode. (the method is
according ISO 14403)
Practical Applications on CFA
Phenol Index: a complete Analysis Process
Total determination of phenols, according ISO 14402

phenol-complex

Ødistillation at pH 1.4
volatile phenolic compounds

Øpotassium hexacyanoferrate(III)
Quinones

Ø 4-aminoantipyrine
yellow condensation products, measured at 505 nm
Practical Applications on CFA
Phenol Index: a complete Analysis Process
Photometric detection
waste
FLOW DIAGRAM
ml/min Flow cell 50 mm
Filter 505 nm
Cor. filter 720 nm
waste

Potassium ferricyanide solutio 5246


Air

Color Reaction
Resample waste 5216 5320 5320
5207 5201 5202
4-Aminoantipyrine solution
5304 * p in glass
built up g
sleeved with acidflex
cooling 5268
Distilled water 5246
waste 5201

5204 waste 5324

Nitrogen gas 70 - 80 units ** X In-line


In line distillation
Air 1330
5325
Sample 5216
5201 5521
Distillation reagent

155°C

waste

Sampler

Sampling
* distillation unit is situated
beside the module support holder
** always close the clamp after
Practical Applications on CFA
Total Nitrogen
Different methods:
Element Legislation Description Skalar system Skalar
Method
Total Nitrogen ISO/CD 29441 Online measurement after San++ with online M475-424
M475 424
UV-destruction UV-destruction

Kjeldahl-N Offline destruction, followed San++ with prior M155-056


total phosphate by colorimetric detection of destruction on SA5640 M503-004
ammonium and phosphate
on CFA
Kjeldahl-N Offline destruction, followed San++ with prior M155-056
by colorimetric detection of destruction on SA5640
ammonium on CFA
Total Nitrogen EN 12260:2003 High Temperature FormacsTN
or combustion
EN-ISO 11905-
2:1997
Totaal Nitrogen EN-ISO 11905- Offline destruction, followed San++ with prior M461-032
1:1998 by colorimetric detection of destruction on SA5640
nitrate on CFA
Practical Applications on CFA
Total Nitrogen by in-
in-line UV-
UV-destruction

According ISO/CD 29441


N-compounds

Ø Oxidation reagent + UV-destruction


UV destruction

Organic carbon to Nitrate

Ø +T ( C)
Ammonium to nitrate

Ø +Cd
+Cd-reduction
reduction
Identical to nitrate
measurementt

Nitrate to nitrite
Ø +sulfanilamide ,
N-1-nafthyl-ethyleen-diamine-dihydrochloride
Red colored complex, measured at 540 nm
Practical Applications on CFA
Total Nitrogen by in-
in-line UV-
UV-destruction
Photometric detection
Color reaction

In-line dialysis

In-line UV digestion

Back
Sampling pressure
Regulation
Practical Applications on CFA
Total Nitrogen by in-
in-line UV-
UV-destruction

Calibrationcurve TN (UV) on Skalar CFA (method 475-427)


Conc: 0 – 20 mg N/l
Practical Applications on CFA
Total Nitrogen
Nitrogen:: Result comparison versus manual method

Sample Identity Result Skalar (TN) Result ref (TN)

10443292 7.5 7.5


22034434 32 9
32.9 33 7
33.7
10441790 292.2 294.0
22036038 59.8 60.6
22036040 78.8 79.3
22036043 53.2 53.1
22036149 50.5 51.8
88050901 20.9 20.6
88051101 33.0
33 0 33.4
33 4
88053301 28.9 30.3
88053501 61.1 61.9
88053601 49.3 50.6
88053602 3.8 3.7
88053701 56.8 58.0
88053801 113.4 111.0
Practical Applications on CFA
Total Phosphate by in-
in-line UV-
UV-destruction

Element Norm Omschrijving Skalar Systeem Skalar


Methode
Phosphate EN-ISO 15681- Off-line destruction San++ with in-line M503-004
ortho & total 2:2003 or in-line destruction UV-destruction or
off-line destruction
Kjeldahl-N Offline destruction, followed San++ with prior M155-056
total by colorimetric detection of destruction on SA5640 M503-004
phosphate ammonium and phosphate
on CFA
Practical Applications on CFA
Total Phosphate by in-
in-line UV-
UV-destruction
According ISO 15681-2
15681 2

P-compounds

Ø Oxidation reagent + UV-destruction


Organic phosphate to ortho-phosphate

Ø +T (°C)
Inorganic phosphate to ortho-phosphate
Ø +katalyst Identical to
o-phosphate
ammonium haptamolybdate measurement
phospho-molybdic acid complex, measured at 540 nm
Practical Applications on CFA
FLOW DIAGRAM
Total Phosphate by in-
in-line UV-
UV-destruction
ml/min Photometric detection waste

5522/5303 Flow cell 50 mm


Filter 880 nm
Color reaction 40°C
Cor. filter 1010 nm

L(+)Ascorbic acid solution

Ammonium molybdate solution 5223 **


10 turns
5217
waste
5247
Air
5325
Resample 5245 **
5 turns 5221
Sodium hydroxide solution

Back Pressure Unit #


(0.3-0.4 bar) glass
5217
5360
5323

Sulfuric acid + FFD6 solution

Air
5325 5580 5325 5523
Sample 5216
5201 107°C
Oxidation solution UV digestion
built up in glass
(sleeved with acidflex)

waste (from 5370)

Sampler
waste
UV + 107°C Digestion
** polyethylene tube catnr. SA 5141 # 3-way valve

*** * * air
silicone tube catnr. SA 5150 back pressure
2CA10095 regulator 0.3-0.4 bar

Back pressure waste

*
Regulation from 5217 5370

* 5133 tubing waste (2.50 ml/min.)


Practical Applications on CFA
Total Phosphate by in-
in-line UV-
UV-destruction

Calibrationcurve TP (UV) on Skalar CFA


Conc: 0 – 1 mg P/l
Practical Applications on CFA
Total Phosphate / Total Nitrogen
Graph Results (UV
(UV-Digestion
Digestion vv Manual)
Total Phosphate UV-P: Total Nitrogen UV-N:
Range: 1 – 500 μg P/l. Range 20 – 5000 μg N/l.
UV Nitrogen Skalar vv manual method
UV Phosphate Skalar vv maual method
4

500
3.5
450
400 3

350
2.5
y = 1.0003x - 0.0265
300 2
R = 0.9973
2
250
y = 0.9966x - 1.4635
200
R2 = 0.9994 1.5

150
1
100
50 0.5

0
0
0.0 100.0 200.0 300.0 400.0 500.0 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4

According to international standard regulations (ISO, DIN, etc.) accredited!


Practical Applications on CFA
Total Organic Carbon
H to
How t measure TOC?

• UV-promoted
UV promoted persulfate oxidation
(TOC)
On CFA using A TOC module,
followed by IR-detection
IR detection

• High
g temperature
e pe a u e ca
catalytic
a y c co
combustion
bus o
(TOC & TN)
On FormacsSERIES TOC Analyzer
Practical Applications on CFA
What is Total Organic Carbon?

TC
Total Carbon

TIC TOC
Total Inorganic Carbon Total Organic Carbon

Particulate Dissolved Particulate Dissolved


(Carbonates) (CO2, HCO3-, CO3 2-) (Carbonates) (CO2, HCO3-, CO32-)

POC NPOC
Purgable Organic Non Purgable
Carbon Organic Carbon
Practical Applications on CFA
Total Organic Carbon – UV promoted on CFA

Sample
Øacidified + sparged
p g ((N2)
liberates and disperses any inorganic or volatile organic carbon
Organic carbon rests in sample
Ø persulfate / tetra borate reagent
+ UV digestion coil
All organic
g carbon oxidised to CO2
Ø acidification and sparging
to release CO2 from solution
IR-measurement of CO2
Practical Applications on CFA
Total Organic Carbon – UV promoted on CFA

Inorganic C

UV Digestion
g
TOC / TN Analyses
FormacsHT TOC Analyzer
New model High Temperature Combustion Analyzer

Optional
O ti l TOC Analyzer
A l Data
D t aquisition
i iti &
Sampler instrument cotrol
TOC / TN Analyses
FormacsHT: Schematics of TOC Analyzer
New model High Temperature Combustion Analyzer
TOC / TN Analyses
Formacs TN: Schematics of ND20 TN Detector

Combusted
sample gas

Detector ((PMT))
Air/O gen in
Air/Oxygen Scrubber

Ozonator

NO + O3 Æ NO2* + O2 Æ NO2 + O2 + hv
TOC / TN Analyses
Formacs TN: With TKN reactor
Skalar offers a true Kjeldahl Alternative

TKN = TN - NN

NN application offers fast and economical


alternative for classical Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen
a a ys s
analysis
NN Reactor can also be used for IC analysis
Low maintenance
TOC / TN Analyses
Formacs TN: With TKN reactor
Case Study
Italian National Research Council
Section of Hydrobiology and Ecology of Inland Waters, Verbania - Italy
For many years the water quality of the Italian lakes has been monitored on nutrients to
obtain long-term trends for evaluation. Results
NaNO3 Std 2.00
2 00 mg/l TN 2 00
2.00 Recovery
NaNO3 Std 4.00 mg/l TN 4.00 %
Nitrogen concentrations is an important KNO3 2 mg/l N TN 2.04 102
parameter for the ecosystem functioning
NaNO2 2mg/l N TN 2.08 104
and needs to be monitored accurately
accurately.
NH4Cl 2 mg/l N TN 2.02 101
NH4Cl 4 mg/l N TN 4.2 105
Typical specifications NH4Acetate 2mg/l N TN 2.1 105
Range : 0.05
0 05 – 5.00
5 00 mg/l Glycine 2 mg/l N TN 2.07 104
N Creatinine 2 mg/l N TN 2.11 106
CV : < 1 % F.S. Creatinine 4 mg/l N TN 4.27 107
MDL : 10 µg/l N
TOC / TN Analyses
Formacs TN Vs Traditional TKN

Much faster than the Kjeldahl method ; 3 minutes


per measurement to 1-2 hours for TKN
p
Combustion technique handles more difficult
matrices (Particulate & Brines)
No toxic chemicals.
Many samples are measured automatically
Better precision
Wide dynamic range
Elimination of operator error

Conclusion: Cost reduction for working hours,


hours
chemical waste disposal and laboratory space.
Thank you for your attention.
W hope
We h tto see you att th
the H
Hands
Hands-
d -on demonstration.
d t ti