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MACODESU 2015 Karadeniz Technical University, Turkey

Marine Coastal Development Sustainability 18-20 September

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MACODESU 2015 Karadeniz Technical University, Turkey
Marine Coastal Development Sustainability 18-20 September

Old Square of Trabzon City, fromFahri GÜMÜŞTEKİN's Archive

Trabzon, located on the coast of the EasternBlack Sea, in the beginning of the Caucasian and the Iran
Transit Roads. It has a strong business connection with other harbors that stretch whole shores of the
Black Sea. In the center of the Middle East, the Middle Asia and the Eastern Europe; an important trade
center that is one of the main doors to the world of Turkey. The city is a cultural and trade center since it
was founded in the ancient age. Since the ancient ages of the history Trabzon has sheltered the humanity
and hence has gained rich cultural heritage filled by the local stories and folk songs. The mystic town of
the east was praised with many compliments by many visiting scholars amongst whom Marco Polo and
Evliya Çelebi deserve a special attention. Kanuni Sultan Süleyman Khan who was named as "the
Magnificent" by the Westerners lived in Trabzon until he was 15. The city has a lot of popular buildings
where built at the age of Roman, Byzantine and Ottoman. We welcome everyone who would like to tour
the region, who would like to enjoy folk danges amongst the fusion of bules and greens, and everyone who
would like to enjoy the taste of delicious anchovies.

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1st International Conference, on Sea and Coastal Development in The Frame of Sustainability
MACODESU 2015 Karadeniz Technical University, Turkey
Marine Coastal Development Sustainability 18-20 September

MACODESU 2015
Marine Coastal Development Sustainability

1st International Conference


on Sea and Coastal Development in the Frame of Sustainability
September, 18-20, 2015, Trabzon, TURKEY

Karadeniz Technical University


Prof. Dr. Osman Turan Culture and Congress Center

EDITORS : Prof. Dr. Öner DEMİREL


Assoc. Prof. Dr. Banu Çiçek KURDOĞLU
Asst. Prof. Ertan DÜZGÜNEŞ
Asst. Prof. Elif BAYRAMOĞLU
Asst. Prof. Müberra PULATKAN
Res. Ass. Sara DEMIR
Res. Ass. Yasemin CINDIK AKINCI
Res. Ass. Sultan Sevinç KURT
Land. Arch. Kadir Tolga ÇELİK Msc

BOOK DESIGNER : Land. Arch. Kadir Tolga ÇELİK Msc

PRESS : Karadeniz Technical University Press Center, 2016

ISBN : 978-975-98008-0-2

Many Thanks to Our Conference Sponsors:

M. Suat (AC)SALİ(OĞLU President of Trabzon Chamber of Commerce and Industry)


Ş“kr“ G“ngör KÖLEOĞLU Trabzon Exchange Commodity
Çetin Oktay KALDIRIM (Secretary General of Eastern Black Sea Development Agency)
General Directorate of Turkish Airlines (THY)
General Directorate of Tea Enterprises (ÇAYKUR)
R“şt“ ÇAK)R Metro Tourism
Yusuf RİZELİ, Yusuf Rizeli Advertising and Digital Print Center
Ali KAYNAR (Saray Silver-Saray G“m“ş
Fahri GÜMÜŞTEKİN Vision )nformation Communication Products-World of Digital Stuff)
Ass.Prof.Dr. Mustafa Reşat SÜMERKAN (Foto Forum)
Yüksel ÖZTÜRK (Stone World)
Seyyare SUNGUR (Hazelnut Quarry)

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1st International Conference, on Sea and Coastal Development in The Frame of Sustainability
MACODESU 2015 Karadeniz Technical University, Turkey
Marine Coastal Development Sustainability 18-20 September

PREFACE

Dear Colleagues,

Welcome our guests to the MACODESU2015 International Conference


Welcome to Turkey and Welcome to Trabzon

)t is our pleasure to host the 1st International Conference on Sea and


Coastal Development in the frame of Sustainability’ endorsed by
Balkan Environmental Association in the Northeastern part of Turkey
in Anatolia, the gateway between Europe and Asia, where the culture
of living together in peace and love flourishes. This conference has
been organized by Karadeniz Technical University (Faculty of Marine
Science and Faculty of Forestry) and Trabzon Central Fisheries
Research Institute, in Trabzon, September 18-20, 2015.

As KTU Landscape Architecture Department we accepted with honor


and pleasure the request of the BENA (Balkan Environmental
Association) President, Prof. Dr. Fokion K.VOSNIAKOS and Turkey
BENA President, Prof. Dr. Ahmet C.YILDIZCI to organize this
international event. I am grateful to them for believing in our
department s ability to successfully organize the MACODESU
Conference.

The special theme of the 1st International Conference, consists of 4 interlocking concepts: MA (marine), CO
(coastal), DE (development), SU (sustainability) and thus been named MACODESU. The special theme is
motivated by current debates in Environmental Management and Sustainability, Marine Sciences and
Technology, Marine Governance, Fishery, Marine Ecology-Human Impacts and Conservation, Blue Society
Research, including but not restricted to the following:

 Water - Soil – Air – Noise Pollution


 Agro-environment / Agro-ecology / Agro-economy / Environmental Protection and Food Safety
 Maritime Monitoring and Surveillance / Blue Growth: marine and maritime / Smart Blue Business
 Integrated Coastal Zone Management / Smart cities
 Green Buildings / Green Planning / Green Energy (Offshore - Inshore RER)
 Climate Change and Environmental Dynamics
 Public Health / Environmental Medicine
 Life Cycle Analysis
 Tourism / Eco-tourism

In the context of the conference, the prominent concept emerging from the conference theme is
sustainability which is based on the three pillars:
 Environment-assurance of continued integrity of natural resources
 Society-assurance of continued human health and well being
 Economy-assurance of continued economic prosperity

The balance between these three pillars will provide us with both a sustainable present and future. In
order to emphasize this approach; Sea and Coastal Development in the frame of Sustainability was
selected as a subject for this conference.

The MACODESU2015 Book of Full-Text at hand brings together a variety of oral presentation, poster
presentation and full text abstracts concentrating on the issues outlined above, and much more. A total of
99 oral presentations, six plenary speeches by distinguished scholars in the field, 47 poster presentation
abstracts and 34 full text abstracts, 4 slide show, 1 drama activity and 6 invited speakers have been
included in the book. I am very grateful for the help of 104 Scientific Committee Members during the
evaluation process.
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1st International Conference, on Sea and Coastal Development in The Frame of Sustainability
MACODESU 2015 Karadeniz Technical University, Turkey
Marine Coastal Development Sustainability 18-20 September

With this conference, I, once more, realized the intricacy of hosting such an organization, whose success
depends also on sponsorship. I am very thankful to our Rector, Prof. Dr. Süleyman BAYKAL, our Dean,

Prof. Dr. Emin Zeki BAŞKENT, and Dean, Faculty of Marine Science, Prof. Dr. Kadir SEY(AN, for their moral
and financial support. Additionally, I am thankful to the Director of Trabzon Central Fisheries Research
)nstitute, Assoc. Prof. Dr. İlhan AYD)N. ) would like to extend my thanks to Governor of Trabzon, Abdil Celil
ÖZ, The Mayor of Trabzon Metropolitan, Dr. Orhan Fevzi GÜMRÜKÇÜOĞLU, The Mayor of Trabzon
Ortahisar, Metin GENÇ, for their support.

Last but not least, I would like to thank Mr. Çetin Oktay KALDIRIM (Secretary General of Eastern Black Sea
Development Agency , Mr. M. Suat (AC)SALİ(OĞLU President of Trabzon Chamber of Commerce and
)ndustry , Mr. Ş“kr“ G“ngör KÖLEOĞLU Trabzon Exchange Commodity , General Directorate of Turkish
Airlines (THY), General Directorate of Tea Enterprises ÇAYKUR , Mr. R“şt“ ÇAK)R Metro Tourism ,
Mr.Yusuf RİZELİ Yusuf Rizeli Advertising and Digital Print Center , Mr. Ali KAYNAR Saray Silver , Mr.
Fahri GÜMÜŞTEKİN Vision )nformation Communication Products-World of Digital Stuff), Ass. Prof. Dr.
Mustafa Reşat SÜMERKAN Foto Forum , Mr. Y“ksel ÖZTÜRK Stone World and Mrs. Seyyare SUNGUR
(azelnut Quarry , Mr. Aydın TOPCU, Mr. Eser ÖZYAMAN (arman Publishing , (azelnut Promotion
Group and Mr. (“seyin SALİ(OĞLU for sponsoring this event.

I also would like to thank the following organisation committee members: Ass. Prof. Dr. Elif Tokdemir
DEMİREL, Assoc.Prof. Dr. Banu Çiçek KURDOĞLU, Ass.Prof. Dr. Elif BAYRAMOĞLU and Ass. Prof. Dr. Oğuz
KURDOĞLU for their never ending support. My heartful thanks go to the Musical Performances of Lect.
Dilek DİNÇER, Assoc.Prof. Dr. M. Kayhan KURTULDU and Lect. Serdar OKUR. Special thanks go to Ass.Prof.
Dr. Engin ERŞEN who has organized a creative traditional folk dance performance with his students.

I am grateful to the faculty members and asistants of our department, especially to the conference
secretaries editor assistant Dr. Ertan DÜZGÜNEŞ, Res. Ass. Sara DEMIR, Res. Ass. Yasemin CINDIK AKINCI,
Res. Ass. SultanSevinç KURT, and Landscape Architect Kadir Tolga ÇELİK MSc who had to deal with
hundreds of e-mails each day and gather all information. I especially thank to the Scientific Committee,
Local Organization Committee, and Executive. Also, I extend my gratitude to the precious participants.
Osman Turan Congress and Culture Center, Koru and Sahil Facilities Staff and all the transport staff who
have showed great dedication in the organization also deserve many thanks.

I am aware of the challenge of pleasing everyone in these kinds of events. Therefore, I apologize to our
guests for the mistakes that have happened or may happen during the course of the event, and ask for
their understanding. I wish the participants a very fruitful and productive conference; I do hope you will
also take the time to enjoy the fascinating Trabzon with its friendly people, and natural and cultural
landscape.

Prof.Dr.Öner DEMİREL
MACODESU2015 Chairman

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1st International Conference, on Sea and Coastal Development in The Frame of Sustainability
MACODESU 2015 Karadeniz Technical University, Turkey
Marine Coastal Development Sustainability 18-20 September

PROGRAMME

HONORARY CHAIR OF CONFERENCE


PROF. DR. SÜLEYMAN BAYKAL
RECTOR OF KARADENIZ TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY

CHAIR OF CONFERENCE
PROF. DR. ÖNER DEMİREL
KARADENIZ TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY

PRESIDENT OF BALKAN ENVIRONMENTAL ASSOCIATION


PROF. DR. FOKION K. VOSNIAKOS
TECHNOLOGICAL EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTION OF THESSALONIKI

CONFERENCE ADVISORY BOARD


PROF. DR. PROF. DR. ASSOC. PROF. DR.
KADİR SEY(AN EMİN ZEKİ BAŞKENT İL(AN AYD)N
DEAN, FACULTY OF DEAN, FACULTY OF DIRECTOR, TRABZON
MARINE SCIENCE FORESTRY CENTRAL FISHERIES
RESEARCH INSTITUTE

ORGANIZING COMMITTEE
BANU ÇİÇEK KURDOĞLU – PRESIDENT
ELİF TOKDEMİR DEMİREL, TUNCER Y)LMAZ, VÜSAL ÇELEBİ, SEMİN KAZAZOĞLU, EMRA( YALÇ)NALP,
ELİF BAYRAMOĞLU, ZEYNEP PİRSELİMOĞLU BATMAN, BUKET ÖZDEMİR )Ş)K, ERTAN DÜZGÜNEŞ,
ÖZGÜL ÖZBAK DURMUŞ, YAŞAR SELÇUK ERBAŞ, SARA DEMİR, YASEMİN C)ND)K AK)NC), SULTAN SEVİNÇ
KURT, SİMA POUYA, GÜLAY KODAL, KADİR TOLGA ÇELİK, AYŞEGÜL DİKMEN

EXECUTIVE BOARD
ARZU KALIN - PRESIDENT
(ABİBE ACAR, UZAY KARA(ALİL, SEFA AKBULUT, SEMA MUMCU, TUĞBA DÜZENLİ, SERAP Y)LMAZ,
MÜBERRA PULATKAN, NİLGÜN GÜNEROĞLU, ASL) GÖZDE ÖMEROĞLU GEL, (İLAL KA(VECİ,
FİLİZ DOĞAN, ELİF MERVE AKYOL, DORUK GÖRKEM ÖZKAN, EMİNE TARAKÇ) EREN,
ABDULLA( ÇİĞDEM, ELİF KAYA, AYSEL YAVUZ, DUYGU AKYOL

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MACODESU 2015 Karadeniz Technical University, Turkey
Marine Coastal Development Sustainability 18-20 September

INTERNATIONAL SCIENTIFIC COMMITTEE

TURKEY MIRA VUKČEVİĆ


A(MET CENGİZ Y)LD)ZC), ÖNER DEMİREL,
CANER ZANBAK, YUSUF KURUCU, NORWAY
NİLGÜN C)L)Z, ÇİĞDEM YANG)N GÖMEÇ, PETER HAUGAN
KADİR SEY(AN, EMİN ZEKİ BAŞKENT, PORTUGAL
İL(AN AYD)N, ERTUĞ DÜZGÜNEŞ, M. DO SILVA, STEPHEN F. MARTIN
MUSTAFA REŞAT SÜMERKAN, OĞUZ KURDOĞLU, ROMANIA
ERCAN KÖSE, MUHAMMET BORAN, C. CONSTANTIN, I. CRETESCU, MARIANA
BAR)Ş BARLAS, BUR(AN SAD)KLAR, GOLUMBEANU, S. HALICHIDIS, I. IONEL, MARIUS
ALİ ÖZBİLEN, CENGİZ ACAR, MUSTAFA VAR, MOGA, MARIA POPA, LEONARD STOICA, EMIL
ZAFER CEMAL ÖZKAN, CANTÜRK GÜMÜŞ, VESPREMEANU
MUZAFFER YÜCEL, (ALİM PERÇİN, RUSSIAN FEDERATION
MÜKERREM ARSLAN, )LGAR K)RZ)OĞLU, A. N. MAKAEDOV
ENGİN NURLU, BA(AR TÜRKY)LMAZ TA(TA, SERBIA
TÜLÜ(AN Y)LMAZ, ATİLA GÜL, ILIJA D. BRČESKİ, PAVLE PAVLOV)C
ABDULLA( KELKİT, (ASAN Y)LMAZ, SPAIN
ŞÜKRAN ŞA(İN, EMİN BAR)Ş, ELMAS ERDOĞAN, JUAN CORNEJO
(AKAN DOYGUN, (AKAN ALT)NÇEKİÇ, SWITZERLAND (CERN)
MURAT ZENCİRK)RAN, OSMAN UZUN, DEMETRIOS E. TSESMELIS
(AYRİYE EŞBA(, ÇAĞATAY SEÇKİN, UKRAINE
MURAT ÖZYAVUZ, GÜLŞEN AYTAÇ, KATYA STEPANOVA
LATİF GÜRKAN KAYA, BÜLENT Y)LMAZ, USA
ZÖ(RE BULUT, ERSAN BAŞAR, THOMAS EHLINGER, ASHOK K. VASEASHTA,
OSMAN ÜÇÜNCÜ, BANU ÖZTÜRK KURTASLAN, ÜMİT Y)LMAZ
RECEP NİŞANC), KÜRŞAT DEMİREL, CENAP
SANCAR
ALBANIA
ADEM BEKTESHI, ILIRJAN MALOLLARI
ARMENIA
ARMEN SAGHATELYAN
AUSTRIA
ANTON AMANN
BULGARIA
STANISLAV IVANOV, DARIA IVANOVA,
VIOLIN S. RAYKOV
CROATIA
M)LAN MES)Ć, VLADO GUBERAC, S)N)SA OZ)MEC
FYR MACEDONIA
MIHAIL KOCUBOVSKI, DARKO DIMITROVSKI
GEORGIA
ZURAB KVIRIASHVILI
GERMANY
KLAUS KUHNKE
GREECE
S. AGGELOPOULOS, TRIANTAFYLLOS A ALBANIS,
ANTONIS K. KOKKINAKIS, E. PAPATHANASSIOU,
A. PAVLOUDI, D. SARIGIANNIS,
G. VASILIKIOTIS, FOKION K. VOSNIAKOS
ITALY
MASSIMILIANO FENICE, ALESSANDRO PICCOLO,
ANTONINO SCARELLI, MASSIMO ZUCCHETTI
IRAN
MOHAMMED REZA TAHERI
MOLDOVA
GHEORGHE DUCA, ANATOLIE SIDORENKO
MONTENEGRO
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1st International Conference, on Sea and Coastal Development in The Frame of Sustainability
MACODESU 2015 Karadeniz Technical University, Turkey
Marine Coastal Development Sustainability 18-20 September

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1st International Conference, on Sea and Coastal Development in The Frame of Sustainability
MACODESU 2015 Karadeniz Technical University, Turkey
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1st International Conference, on Sea and Coastal Development in The Frame of Sustainability
MACODESU 2015 Karadeniz Technical University, Turkey
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1st International Conference, on Sea and Coastal Development in The Frame of Sustainability
MACODESU 2015 Karadeniz Technical University, Turkey
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1st International Conference, on Sea and Coastal Development in The Frame of Sustainability
MACODESU 2015 Karadeniz Technical University, Turkey
Marine Coastal Development Sustainability 18-20 September

CONTENTS

PREFACE 4
PROGRAMME 6
CONTENTS 15
INVITED SPEAKERS 19
PROF. DR. FOKIONK. VOSNIAKOS 20
WATER ADDED VALUE TO ENVIROMENT AND LIFE 21
PROF. DR. CANER ZANBAK 22
SAFETY AND SECURITY CONCEPTSIN CHEMICALS MANAGEMENT 23
PROF. DR. GÜLFEM BAKAN 24
THE PAST, PRESENT AND FUTURE OF THE BLACK SEA ENVIRONMENT 25
PROF. DR. LEVENT BAT 26
HEAVY METAL POLLUTION IN THE BLACK SEA COAST OF TURKEY 27
PROF. DR. ŞÜKRAN ŞAHIN 28
LANDSCAPE CHARACTER ANALYSIS AND ASSESSMENT AS A GREEN PLANNING TOOL 29
PROF. DR. ALPER HÜSEYIN ÇOLAK 30
A REVIEW OF THE PEATLAND TYPES AND THEIR DISTRIBUTION, PLANNING AND CONSERVATION IN TURKEY 31
PRESENTATIONS 33
Assessment of Seasonal and Spatial Variations in Marine Water Quality at the Mid-Black Sea
off-share of Turkey 34
Littoral Resources in Bursa; Bays of Marmara Sea 41
The Evaluation of Ancient Cities and Their Immediate Surroundings in Bursa in Terms of
Landscape Architecture 47
Tamus Communis Which Has Importance of Ethnobotanic andEcological, Biological
Properties of This Taxa (Aydin-Trabzon) 57
Using Methods for the Determination of Landscape Change 63
Non-Wood Forest Products With Scots Pine In Importance As Some Vascular Plant Taxa
(Artvin-Ardahan) 68
Sustainable Exploitation of Aquatic Mollusks From the Romanian Black Sea Coastline 75
Evaluation of Plant Biodiversity in Wetlands: Lake Uluabat (Apolyont) Sample 84
Evaluation of Changiıng Character of Rural Landscape in Konuralp –Düzce 94
An Observational and Numerical Study of Precipitation Concentration and Erosivity Indices 103
)llegal, Unregulated And Unreported )uu Fısherıes )n The Black Sea 113
The Proposal Related In Mitigation Of Carbon Footprint In Isparta Residential Development Areas 117
An Alternative Plant in the Coastal Planting Design: Rhaphiolepis umbellate 126
Assessment of Scenic Road Potential near The Dam Lake in The Coruh Valley, Turkey 132
Consideration Regarding The Transition To Sustainable Manufacturing )n The Romanian Sme s 142
Evaluation of a Nursing Home Garden in context of Healing Gardens 150
Fire Risk Assessment Of Karaöz Region In Antalya 159
Occurrence of Acanthochitona crinita (Pennant, 1777) (Mollusca: Polyplacophora) from the
Black Sea Coast of Turkey 169
The Evaluation of the Landscape Performance of the Coastal Fill Areas as Urban Parks 174
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1st International Conference, on Sea and Coastal Development in The Frame of Sustainability
MACODESU 2015 Karadeniz Technical University, Turkey
Marine Coastal Development Sustainability 18-20 September

Assessment Of Partıcıpatory Ecotourısm Plannıng And Management Usıng By Dıfferent


Stages Of Basın Scale 182
Identification Of The Response Strategies For Contingency Oil Pollution Incidents And
The Protection Of The Sensitive Areas In The Black Sea Coasts 193
The Importance Of The Chilia Branch For Protecting And Conservation Of The
Anadromous Migratory Sturgeons 199
Determination of The Environmental Status of Akcakoca Coastal Areas Through Hierarchical Analysis 205
New Frontiers for Cleaning Up Nuclear Contamination: Phytoremediation 216
Ecovillages: The Place Where Ecotourism Turns Into Educational Tourism 226
Influence of The Hydrochemical Factors on The Sturgeon Behavior in The Lower Danube River 235
Determination of Recreational Potential of Ulugöl Nature Park 242
Traditional Uses of Some Wild Plants in Çarşamba District, Samsun, Turkey 252
Study of Atmospheric Stability in Ciuc-basin and of The Relationship Between PM10 and Co Pollutants 261
The Importance and Usage Possibilities of GAP Analysis as a Tool for Effective Conservation of
Biodiversity 270
The Relationships of Nature Conservation and Restoration Practises with Landscape Planning in Turkey 277
Rural Landscape Quality Assessment in Southern Dobruja 289
Accesible Design in Landscape Architecture 297
The Change of the Coastband of Trabzon Comlekci Neighboorhood in a Historical Process in Terms of
Spatial Sustainability 303
Evaluation of Pressure of the Urban Sprawl on Cultural Landscape 309
Evaluation of the Tourism Activities in Alanya District in the Context of Landscape Sustainability 319
Notıon of Coastal Zone Management as a Basis for Sustainable Waterfront Developments:
Framing an Agenda for Turkey 331
The Effects of Urban Sprawl on Apricot Gardens in Malatya, Turkey 343
Developing of Ecotourism Resources in Eastern Black Sea Region: Trabzon-Maçka Pilav
Mountain Example 353
Coastal Areas as a Place for Neoliberal Urbanization 361
Water Based Recreation and Ecotourism Opportunities in a Terrestrial Province; Ankara 371
Recreational Angling and Carrying Capacity in Protected Areas: Great Meander Delta, Turkey 384
The Effects of Mall Culture on Urban Landscape Design: The Case of Canakkale City Center 397
Implementation Of Ecotourism Opportunities Of Spectrum Method On The Evaluatıon Of
Ecotourısm Resources )n Samandağ Coastal Areas 403
Sustainable Land Use of Coastal Areas; Case Study of Samandağ Coastal Zone 411
A GIS Approach to Modeling Changes in the Visibility of Coastal Land Cover 419
Deriving Solar Energy Potential of Buildings in a 3D City Model 424
Reflection of Respect to Nature: Japanese Garden 430
An Ignored Contribution to Urban Ecology: Cracks between Pavements and Walls as Plant Habitats 436
Transformation of Urban Space In Historical Environment: A Case Study of Bartin City, Turkey 443
Importance of Visual Landscape Quality Assessment in Rural Areas 452
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1st International Conference, on Sea and Coastal Development in The Frame of Sustainability
MACODESU 2015 Karadeniz Technical University, Turkey
Marine Coastal Development Sustainability 18-20 September

Designing Geodatabase for Producing Environmental Pollution Risk Maps with GIS in the Stream
Valleys: Case Study of Trabzon Province, Turkey 456
Evaluation Of The Plants Material Used In Bingöl Open And Green Place 462
Relationship Between Phytoplankton And Physico-Chemical Characteristics of Riva Stream
(Istanbul-Turkey) 465
Evaluation Of Fitness Equipment In Parks: Case Of Antalya City 475
Silhouette Transformation Analysis Of A Coastal Landmark Ayasofya 481
Landscape Characterization And Landscape Diversity In Ahir Mountain, Turkey 491
Social, Environmental And Sustainable Development-Related Aspects Of Infrastructural Projects 497
Evaluation of Planning Decisions Effects on Urban Air Quality: The Case of Çiğli, İzmir 501
Drought And Management : The Case Study Of Kocaelı 510
)s Urban Landscape Turnıng To Open Green Or )s The Open-Green Turnıng To Buılt Envıronment
In Urban Landscape 521
Investigating The Effects Of Arranged Hospital Garden On The User's Perception And Behavior Process
In The Case Of A University Hospital 530
Evaluatıon of National and )nternatiıonal Policies in TheSustainability of Coastal Landscape 542
Evaluated Of Touristic And Recreational Potential Of Yason Cape's Landscape Assets Of Ordu, Persembe 549
Visual Effects Of Some Roadside Deciduous Trees On Road Users 557
The Relatıon Between Noıse And Park: Case Of Duzce Cıty 567
Growing City Center, Changing The Coastal Line, Differentiating User Behaviours: The Sample Of
Trabzon City 573
Mass Tourism versus Sustainable Tourism in Mediterranean Landscapes– One Site, Two Examples:
Kemer and Çıralı 583
Determınatıon Of Recreatıonal Landscape Potentıal )n Doğankent Town, Gıresun And )ts Close
Surroundıng For Tourısm Accordıng To Landscape Plannıng Prıncıples 592
The Historical Change of the relation between the solid and the voids in the center of Trabzon:
The Example of Ganita-Boztepe Axis 600
Determınatıon And )mprovement Of Vısual Qualıty At A Sample Of Akçakoca Coastline 607
The Effects Of Global Climate Change On Biodiversity And Ecosystems Resources 615
Development Of A Variable Volum Cold Store For Energy Saving 623
Environmental Noise Pollution In The City Of Edirne – Turkey 629
Old And New Coastal City Visibility: The Evaluation Of The Changing Coastal Silhouette Of The City
Of Trabzon 637
The Weather Conditions And The Exceeding Of The Maximum Allowable Pollutant Concentrations
For Specific Situations In Bucharest 644
Revıew Of The Plantsbused For Tradıtıonal Treatments )n The Countrysıde Of Pazar Dıstrıct Of
Rize Provınce 652
Spatial Analysis By Using Gis On Distributions Of Plant Species And Compositions In The Coastal
Urban Park: A Case Study Of Izmir 657
A New Methodology for the Classification of the Urban Parks: The Park Sophistication Index (SI) 663
Evaluation of Urban Life Quality in the Context of Sustainability: The Malatya Model 672

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1st International Conference, on Sea and Coastal Development in The Frame of Sustainability
MACODESU 2015 Karadeniz Technical University, Turkey
Marine Coastal Development Sustainability 18-20 September

The Importance of Urban Valleys in Green Infrastructure Planning in Turkey; A Case Study of 689
Trabzon City
Determining Ecotourism Strategies for Chal Cave and Its Surroundings 692

Evaluation of the Land Cover Changes with the Socio-Economic Conditions: Case of
Şebinkarahisar, Turkey 703

Renewal And Gentrıfıcatıon Share For Coastal Settlements Through Urban Projects: Galataport Project 713

The Expansion of Settlement and Agriculture Areas towards to Coastal Zone and High Lands between 720
1970 and 2009 in Yomra District

Determınatıon Of Noıse Levels )n Urban Parks: The Case Of Ordu Beach Park 731

Land Cover Dynamics in Akçaabat Planning Unit between 1984 and 2008 739

Landscape Based Agroecological Zoning and Assessment: Example of Malatya Province 748

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1st International Conference, on Sea and Coastal Development in The Frame of Sustainability
MACODESU 2015 Karadeniz Technical University, Turkey
Marine Coastal Development Sustainability 18-20 September

INVITED SPEAKERS

Trabzon Castle and Zağnos Valley, Trabzon, fromFahri GÜMÜŞTEKİN's Archive

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Prof. Dr. FokionK. VOSNIAKOS

Prof. Fokion Vosniakos is the President of Balkan Environmental


Association(B.EN.A.) and President of the Environmental
Committee ofAlexander Technological Educational
Institute of Thesaloniki. He served as Professor of Nuclear Physics at the
Dept. of Sciences of Alexander Technological Educational Institute of
Thessaloniki (Greece). His professional interests are on environmental
pollution (air, soil, water) and specifically on environmental radioactivity.
He is expert on Nuclear Accidents. The radioactivity transfer from soil to
plants and consequently to food chain has been examined immediately after
the Chernobyl accidents (26 April 1986) in Ukraine. More than 2,000 soil
samples from Greece and Bulgaria have been measured for anthropogenic
radioactivity due to the Chernobyl accident, in comparison to natural
radioactivity. Simulation experiments on radioactivity transfer from
contaminated milk to dairy products have been realized. Also, similar
experiments with fresh water fish has been done in order to identify the
radioactivity transfer from contaminated aquatic environment to its living
resources. Finally, the radioactivity transfer has been examined as a function
of climate changes in Balkan region. The work still it is on progress and
currently he is involved with the radioactivity from construction materials and metal scrap in indoor
environment. In addition, he is studying the impact of their emission to the public health.
Journals, books and research activities

He has more than 180 publications in international journals and more than 20 books in the field of Physics,
Nuclear Physics and Radioecology the latest one, is in : RAD)OACT)VE TRANSFER IN ENVIRONMENT
AND FOOD by SPR)NGER . He has coordinated and participating to more than 45 national and international
research projects.

Honor & Awards

 Scholarship of the University of Saskatchewan (Canada), 1974 - 1975


 Scholarship of the University of Manitoba (Canada), 1975 - 1977
 Visitor-Professor in EURATOM JRC Ispra, Italy, 1984 – 1986
 Professor Honoris Causa of the Faculty of Industrial Chemistry of the University Polytechnic of
Bucharest, Romania (Unanimously Decision of the Professors, May 2001)
 Doctor Honoris Causa of University of Belgrade, Yugoslavia, 2001
 Doctor of Philosophy of Agricultural University of Plovdiv, Bulgaria, 2002
 Doctor Honoris Causa of University st December of Alba )ulia, Romania,
 Co-Editor of FRESENIUS ENVIRONMENTAL BULLETIN (1990-today)
 Founder Editor in Chief of JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AND ECOLOGY (JEPE)
 Doctor Honoris Causa of Ovidius University of Constanta, Romania (05 Oct. 2012)
 President of Advisory Board of PERSEUS (FP7, 2012 – 2016).
 Honorary Professor of the Faculty of Natural Sciences of University of Shkhodra-Albania(2013).

***We would like to express out deep condolences for the tragic passing-away of Prof. Dr. Fokion VOSNİAKOS.

20
1st International Conference, on Sea and Coastal Development in The Frame of Sustainability
MACODESU 2015 Karadeniz Technical University, Turkey
Marine Coastal Development Sustainability 18-20 September

WATER ADDED VALUE TO ENV)ROMENT AND L)FE

Prof.Dr.Dr.Dr.h.c.Fokion.K.Vosniakos, Dr. Mariana Golumbeanu1

President of Environmental Committee of Alexander Technological Institute of Thessaloniki


And President of Balkan Environmental Association (BENA)
E-mail: bena@gen.theithe.gr
1 National Institute for Marine Research and Development "GrigoreAntipa"

Water is unique and limited source. )t is essential to people s health, hygiene, education and well – being and
is used in power generation, industry and for social and economic progress in general. However in western
world we have used water in an unlimited fashion since the beginning of the industrial era. Average water use
ranges from 200-300 liters a person a day in most countries in Europe to less than 10 liters in countries such
as Mozambique. It is imperative that we change this, as water is not only short supply, but also poorly
disturbed and improperly used. On July 28th 2010, the General Assembly of the United Nations explicitly
recognized the human right to water and sanitation, restarting the UN s position that clean drinking water
and sanitation are essential factors in ensuring all other human rights. Additionally, it is established that the
human right to water is guaranteed when this water is sufficient for personal and domestic use for one
person, safe, acceptable in terms of odor/color/taste and with adequate installations and services, accessible
in terms of distance and affordable in terms of price. The UN Millennium Development Objectives (2005 –
2015) proposed halving the number of people with access to water, a goal that has been accomplished earlier
than expected, although there are still 768 million people (11% of the world population) without such access.
The figures for problems with water and sanitation are still indicative of serious shortages, suffering and
inequalities. In the past 20 years, more than 1.8 billion people have gained access to improved sanitation,
although 2.5 billion people still have no such sanitation, according to the latest UN data. Water capture
impacts gender inequality. In Africa 90% of this work is done by women and girls, which prevents them from
undertaking other activities, such as going to school. Water shortages are a major cause of famines and food
crises worldwide. Guaranteeing sustainable food supplies is one of the future challenges to meet the growing
demand due to an increased world population. 1400 children under age 5 die every day from diarrheal
diseases. 391 million cases of diarrheal disease could be avoided each year worldwide by the presences of
adequate sanitation.

Key-words: Water, Sanitation, Drinking Water, PublicHealth, Eater Pollution, Water Scarcity

21
1st International Conference, on Sea and Coastal Development in The Frame of Sustainability
MACODESU 2015 Karadeniz Technical University, Turkey
Marine Coastal Development Sustainability 18-20 September

Prof. Dr. Caner ZANBAK

Dr. Zanbak, is a graduate of Istanbul Technical University, has completed his


Ph.D. at the University of Illinois, USA. His academic experience includes
Istanbul Technical University until 1981, Kent State University, Ohio, South
Dakota School of Mines, Rapid City, South Dakota as an associate
professorand at Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago, Illinois as an
adjunct full professor until 1994.

Dr. Zanbak has worked as a consultant to the USEPA and numerous industry
facilities on hazardous waste management, remedial investigations,
feasibility studies and remedial design for Superfund projects during the
1984-1994 periods.

Dr. Zanbak is the principal author of (azardous Waste Management section


of the National Environmental Action Plan coordinated by the Turkish State
Planning Organization and the Report on Environmental Non-Tariff Trade
Barriers and an Action Plan for Turkey prepared for the Turkish
Businessman s Association TUS)AD . (e has taken an active role in
preparation of the Sustainable Development – Business Community and )ndustry , Johannesburg (Rio+10)
Conference Country Report for Turkey, prepared by the CEVKO Foundation. Currently, he serves on the
TUS)AD s EU Environmental Acquis (armonization Group.

Since 1994, Dr. Zanbak is the coordinator of the Responsible Care© Program of the Turkish Chemical
Manufacturers Association. He regularly interacts with the relevant government authorities on regulatory
issues and teaches graduate and undergraduate courses on Environmental Impact Assessment,
Environmental Studies and Hazardous Waste Management Courses at various universities in Turkey.

Currently, he is a standing member of the following organizations:

 Environmental Coordinator for the Turkish Miners Association


 Environmental Advisor for the Turkish Chemical Manufacturers Association Vice-Chairman,
 Environmental Affairs Commission of the Istanbul Chamber of Industry Environment Working Group
Member of the Turkish Businessman s Association TUS)AD
 Evaluator, Turkish Engineering Programs Accreditation Board (MUDEK),
 ABET Accreditation Advisory Panel Member of ITU Environmental Engineering Department and the
Faculty of Mines Advisory Panel Member on
 Environment of Turkish Scientific and Technological Research Council ofTurkey (TUBITAK-
MAM) Vice-President of the
 Balkan Environmental Association (B.EN.A.)

22
1st International Conference, on Sea and Coastal Development in The Frame of Sustainability
MACODESU 2015 Karadeniz Technical University, Turkey
Marine Coastal Development Sustainability 18-20 September

SAFETY AND SECURITY CONCEPTS IN CHEMICALS MANAGEMENT

Prof. Dr. Caner Zanbak

Environmental Advisor, Turkish Chemical Manufacturers Association, Istanbul, Turkey


E-mail: caner.zanbak@tksd.org.tr

Chemicals are integral matters of all components of environmental media, from air, soil and rocks and also
they are the necessities for human survival/sustainability of life and development. Chemicals are also present
in the nature, from gases in the atmosphere to water, inorganic and organic natural resources and plants and
living species. In addition to their use in natural forms, numerous kinds of chemicals are produced
synthetically for use in our daily lives.

On the other hand, in as much as they are vital for human life, chemicals do carry inherent risks for human life
and environment quality which require special safety management practices to minimize their risks to the
workers, users and environmental media.

From the industry point of view, chemicals are specialty commodities that require special management
administration to protect information on process know-how, trade secrets, assure safety in handling and
transportation/storage along with physical protection against theft and misuse/sabotage threats.

Safety is a term defining the measures to take precautions and measures to protect subjects from the negative
effects of potentially harmful events, while Security covers the physical measures to assure application of
safety measures from misconduct or willful intervention of others. Therefore, unsecured safety measures do
not necessarily serve the purpose.

In this presentation, distinction between Safety and Security concepts will be reviewed and importance of
Security concept to compliment Safety practices applicable to safer management of chemicals will be
discussed.

Key words: Safety, Security, Chemicals Management

23
1st International Conference, on Sea and Coastal Development in The Frame of Sustainability
MACODESU 2015 Karadeniz Technical University, Turkey
Marine Coastal Development Sustainability 18-20 September

Prof. Dr. Gülfem BAKAN

Dr. Gülfem BAKAN is a Professor of Environmental Engineering Department


of OndokuzMayıs University, Samsun, Turkey. She has received her B.S., M.S.
and Ph.D. degrees in Environmental Engineering from Middle East Technical
University, Ankara in 1985, 1987, and 1995 respectively.

Her research interests include Environmental Chemistry, environmental


sedimentology, water and sediment quality monitoring, assessment and
modelling especially at the Black Sea basin, pollution prevention and cleaner
production and Integrated Coastal Zone Management. She published 41
international papers and 62 national papers whereas she worked on 4
international and 22 nationalresearch projects. She has fellowships at IAWQ,
WEF, and SEDNET. She has advised at 10 Master and 4 Ph.D. students. She
has been an academic visitor at Birckbeck College Analytical Chemistry
Department of London University for one year in 1990. She has also been an
academic visitor in 2012 at University of Antwerpen- Ecosystem
Management Research Group.

24
1st International Conference, on Sea and Coastal Development in The Frame of Sustainability
MACODESU 2015 Karadeniz Technical University, Turkey
Marine Coastal Development Sustainability 18-20 September

THE PAST, PRESENT AND FUTURE OF THE BLACK SEA ENVIRONMENT

Prof. Dr. Gülfem BAKAN

OndokuzMayıs University, Engineering Faculty, Environmental Engineering Department, Atakum,


Samsun, Turkey
E-mail: gbakan@omu.edu.tr

The Black Sea s catchment area is large, with a total surface of around million sq km, five times the surface
of the Black Sea itself. The environmental vulnerability of the Black Sea region is well known, and the new
system will assist countries to make decisions on the region s future. The Black Sea is the world s most
isolated sea – connected to the oceans via the Mediterranean Sea through the Bosporus, Dardanelle and
Gibraltar straits, and linked with the Sea of Azov in the northeast through the Kerch Strait. The Black Sea also
suffers from severe environmental, social and economic problems.

As a result of eutrophication caused by increased nutrient input via major rivers during the last few decades,
the Black Sea ecosystem has been subject to extreme changes in recent years. These changes first became
evident in the 1980's, with abnormal phytoplankton blooms and an large increase in medusae (Aurelia aurita)
biomass. Then, the introduction of a new species (a lobate ctenophore, Mnemiopsis sp.) into the Black Sea
radically affected the whole ecosystem. This species competes with anchovy for the edible zooplankton as
well as possibly consuming anchovy eggs and larvae in the Black Sea. The mass occurrence
of Mnemiopsis appears to be one of the most important reasons for the sharp decrease of anchovy and other
pelagic fish stocks in the Black Sea. Although the future of the Black Sea ecosystem seems rather bleak, it is
suggested that in addition to reducing anthropogenic impact, systematic studies are essential if the Black Sea
Environment is to recover.

Money for end of pipe technology is only a small part of the problem of putting together an effective
programme for environmental protection. The Black Sea Transboundary Diagnostic Analysis, formulated in
1996, clearly shows the need for three other fields of action requiring initial investment and policy actions:
investment in protected areas; new environmentally-friendly business ventures; and basin wide initiatives
for controlling transboundary contamination from non-coastal countries.

If the Black Sea Action Plan is to be a success, everybody will have to be involved in implementing it. Of
course, some people have special responsibilities as specialists, scientists, business leaders, but there is a role
for everybody to play. Having so many people involved requires good coordination and this has to extend
across borders and work in a transparent and non-bureaucratic manner.

Key words: Black Sea, Environmental Pollution, Cleaner Technology, Sustainable Development

25
1st International Conference, on Sea and Coastal Development in The Frame of Sustainability
MACODESU 2015 Karadeniz Technical University, Turkey
Marine Coastal Development Sustainability 18-20 September

Prof. Dr. Levent BAT

Levent Bat received the B.Sc. degree from the Sinop Fisheries High School,
OndokuzMayis University (OMU) in Department of Fisheries Engineering
(1984-1988). He received the M.Sc.inEnstitute of Natural and Applied
Sciences, OndokuzMayis University (OMU) in Department of Marine Biology
(1990-1992) and Ph.D. degrees from the University of Aberdeen at
Department of Zoology, Aberdeen Scotland, United Kingdom (1993-1996).

He worked as a Research Assistant in University of OndokuzMayis between


1989 and 1997; as an Assistant of Prof. Dr. in University of OndokuzMayis,
Sinop Fisheries Faculty between 1997 and 1998; as an Assoc. Prof. Dr. in
University of OndokuzMayis, Sinop Fisheries Faculty between 1999 and 2004;
as a Prof. Dr. in University of OndokuzMayis, Sinop Fisheries Faculty between
2004 and 2007; as a Prof. Dr. in Sinop University, Fisheries Faculty since 2007.

Levent Bat carried out research for a PhD on the ecotoxicological effects of
metals on marine invertebrates. His work involves both ecological and chemistical procedures. Experience
regarding heavy metals in some organisms from Black Sea, toxicity of some heavy metals using invertebrates
from Black Sea, marine biology and ecology, pollution, ecotoxicology.The composition of phytoplankton,
zooplankton,ichtyoplankton, mesoplankton and fish of the Black Sea coast and its impact on the Black Sea
ecosystem and fisheries.Levent has been involved in many projects in many European countries related to
ICZM (Integrated Coastal Zone Management), MPA (Marine Protected Area) and MSFD Guiding Improvements
in the Black Sea Integrated Monitoring System. Among many other projects he provides all information on
habitat types of the Turkish Black Sea coasts, including the biology of the Black Sea. He has been involved in
many projects as project coordinator with many other countries supported by NATO Scientific Affairs Linkage
Grant, NATO Science for Peace and The Scientific and Technical Research Council of Turkey (TUBITAK) - The
National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine (NASU), for instance in quantification of the recent ctenophore
invader Beroe ovata impact in the Black Sea, bioindicators
for assessment of the Black Sea ecosystem recovery, comparative studies of meiobenthic community
structure off Crimea (Ukraine) and Sinop (Turkey) with respect to identification of Marine Protected Areas
(MPAs) in Turkish Black Sea, monitoring of anchovy and sprat nutritional condition in the Black Sea and
fishing stock distribution: response on nutritional condition and environmental forces. He is author of many
publications with Black Sea Commission (BSC) and Turkish Marine Research Foundation (TUDAV) on Black
Sea Fish Check-List, Black Sea Non-Native Fish List, Black Sea Fishes List IUCN STATUS and Red data list of
fishes from the Turkish Black Sea coasts, respectively.

His specialisation as below:

(i) Main field Marine Biology. Researches based on levels of heavy metals in marine fauna flora and sediment.
(ii) Current research interests Aquatic Toxicology & Marine pollution.
(iii) Other fieldsphyto, zoo, ichthyo, macroplankton and jellyfish of the Black Sea.

26
1st International Conference, on Sea and Coastal Development in The Frame of Sustainability
MACODESU 2015 Karadeniz Technical University, Turkey
Marine Coastal Development Sustainability 18-20 September

HEAVY METAL POLLUTION IN THE BLACK SEA COAST OF TURKEY

Levent BAT

University of Sinop Fisheries Faculty Department of HydrobiologyAkliman 57000 Sinop, Turkey


E-mail: leventbat@gmail.com

The European Parliament published in the field of Marine Environment Policy Marine Strategy Framework
Directive (MSFD), ecological quality and integrity in estuarine, the coastal and open ocean systems, has been
developed to protect and restore. MSFD is based on the principle of ecosystem-based management takes into
account all pressures of the seas and approaches to the sea regionally. The purpose of the directive in the EU
by 2020 is to ensure Good Environmental Status of the seas (GES). In particular Bulgaria and Romania after
they join the European Union countries, the Black Sea has become important for Europe. The health and well-
being of 162 million people are affected by the ecological degradation in the Black Sea. Therefore, adequate
prediction of the environmental variability in the Black Sea is needed to identify, analyse and determine the
cost of solutions for better marine environmental management and sustainable development of the resources.
The Black Sea is one of the unique in the world an inland sea connected to the small Sea of Marmara by the
narrow Bosporus Strait; Strait of Dardanelles further connects to the Aegean Sea. For this reason, there is
very little natural circulation is self-cleaning ability remains limited. Turkey poured into the Black Sea off the
coast of the Sakarya, Kızılırmak, Yeşilırmak, from the West, the Danube, from the North Dnieper and Dniester
Rivers with a million tons of organic waste into the Black Sea basin are carrying the item and other terrestrial
origin. As a result of pollution, the Black Sea ecosystem has been subject to extreme changes inrecent
years.One of the important pollutants due to heavy metals toxic property of natural concentrations of
negatively affecting the ecosystem when they take on the biological activities of the organisms that make up
the food chain, the balance between biota and the environment corruption and adversely affects the people at
the top of the food chain.

In this presentation, the pollutants, some of the most important of which are heavy metals and their effects on
marine biota in the Black Sea coast of Turkey and levels in sediment were briefly reviewed.

Key words: Marine Strategy Framework Directive, Uptake, Accumulation, Black Sea, Ecosystem, Indicator
Species

27
1st International Conference, on Sea and Coastal Development in The Frame of Sustainability
MACODESU 2015 Karadeniz Technical University, Turkey
Marine Coastal Development Sustainability 18-20 September

Prof. Dr. Ş“kran ŞA(İN

Dr. Şahin has years of experience as an academic staff at the


Department of Landscape Architecture, Ankara University. Her main areas
of interest are landscape ecology , river and coastal ecosystems ,
landscape planning , environmental management tools, EIA and SEA in
particular . Dr. Şahin carried out her PhD study on the subject of
development a strategic planning approach for river catchments. She
developed a methodology for landscape characterization and assessment
at regional and sub-regional scale by the name of several governmental
institutions, which was published as a national guideline.

Dr. Şahin has been in several countries USA, Spain, Switzerland, Poland,
Belgium, Italy, France, Marroc, Lebanon and Greece) for short or long
periods since 1992 to take courses, to make researches, to join meetings and to give lectures on above
mentioned areas of interest. She took place in the preparation different EIA works, particularly for dams,
highways, pipelines and tourism facilities.

In addition to the academic activities, Dr. Sahin is included to the BTC Crude Oil Pipeline Project between
2003-2005 as a third party ecological monitor within the framework of project EIA statements. She took
places in reviewing the reinstatement plan method statement with regard to ecological concerns. Also she
have monitored and advised in field for the ongoing ecological restoration activities of the project contractor
in accordance to the compliance of the project standards defined by EIA and regarding method statements.

28
1st International Conference, on Sea and Coastal Development in The Frame of Sustainability
MACODESU 2015 Karadeniz Technical University, Turkey
Marine Coastal Development Sustainability 18-20 September

LANDSCAPE CHARACTER ANALYSIS AND ASSESSMENT AS A GREEN PLANNING TOOL

Prof. Dr. Ş“kran Şahin

Ankara University Faculty of Agriculture Department of Landscape Architecture, Turkey


E-mail: sukran.sahin@ankara.edu.tr

In this presentation, the model called as PEYZAJ-44 developed as an official process for Landscape Character
Analysis and Assessment (LCAA) at regional and sub-regional scales in Turkey, is addressed as one of the
green planning tools. LCAA is described by PEYZAJ-44 as a character-function based landscape planning and
management process to protection, enhancement and management of landscapes. By European Landscape
Convention (2000), a landscape is defined as means an area, as perceived by people, whose character is the
result of the action and interaction of natural and/or human factors. Then it can be concluded that an LCAA
process requires identification of the landscapes at character-function base. Landscape character means the
distinctive and recognizable components and/or the pattern created by those components in the landscape
that makes it different from another. Ecological, cultural and visual processes are the landscape functions that
shape and sustain a landscape. Green planning is mainly focused on land use decisions based on ecosystem
service and structure within the boundary which is defined by mainly colonization patterns of organisms. On
the other hand, the natural environment cannot be dealt with separately from cultural setting since the
interrelationships between them sustain the conditions, and also geomorphological processes indicate new
boundaries in which they function. LCAA is a respond and a base for green planning to solve indicated
problems. In this presentation, this universal conclusion was sampled and expressed by the PEYZAJ- pilot
area of Malatya province in Turkey, as well as some other following implementations at different spatial
scales.

29
1st International Conference, on Sea and Coastal Development in The Frame of Sustainability
MACODESU 2015 Karadeniz Technical University, Turkey
Marine Coastal Development Sustainability 18-20 September

Prof. Dr. Alper Hüseyin ÇOLAK

Dr. Çolak is a Professor of Forest Engineering in the Department of


Silviculture in Faculty of Forestry, Istanbul University. He completed his
Ph.D. on Silvicultural Characteristics of Rhododendron ponticum L. at
Istanbul University in 1997. He has a long experience of international
cooperation with German speaking countries i.e. with Germany and Austria
as well as UK. First, he took the scholarship of Goethe Institute for scientific
excursions including German universities containing forestry departments
in 1993. Then he took the ÖAD (Austrian Agency for International
Cooperation in Education and Research) Scientific Research Scholarship
and continued his studies in Austria, Switzerland and Italy for a long
period. He has been mainly in UK, Austria, Ireland and Greece for many
international cooperation projects between the years 2000-2008. His
research is mainly focused on silviculture in high mountain forests, forest
restoration and rehabilitation, plant sociology, silvicultural planning, nature conservation, peatlands and
small habitats like deadwood and forest edges. Prof. Colak has been involved in two IUFRO (International
Union of Forest Research Organizations) World Series publication projects. One of them was on restoration
and rehabilitation of forest landscapes in West and Central Asia, while the other one was a dictionary of forest
management and silvicultural terms. He has also worked on peatlands, which are known as one of the most
important wetland ecosystems that play key roles in biodiversity conservation, carbon cycling, climate
modifying and maintenance of water. He was the editor of two books on peatlands, in which many experts
participated from countries like Germany, Austria, Estonia, Russia and UK. He attended a conference on
peatlands in UK in 2014. Prof.Colak has 16 books in Turkish, English and German languages as well as many
other international publications.

30
1st International Conference, on Sea and Coastal Development in The Frame of Sustainability
MACODESU 2015 Karadeniz Technical University, Turkey
Marine Coastal Development Sustainability 18-20 September

A Review Of The Peatland Types and Their Distribution, Planning and Conservation in Turkey

Alper H. Colak1, Simay Kirca2, Turhan Günay3, Ian D. Rotherham4

1Department
of Silviculture - Istanbul University,
2Department of Landscape Planning and Design - Istanbul University;
3Research Institute for Forest Soil and Ecology-Eskisehir;
4Dept. of Natural & Built Environment - Sheffield Hallam University

The Turkish word peat-torf refers to a material formed by the accumulation of plant remnants in a more or
less layered structure as a result of only partial decomposition of dead plant material in the absence of oxygen
under anaerobic, water-logged conditions. In the Ottoman period (1299- , the terms turbiyer or
turphavzasi were used to define land with a peat formation, while the peat obtained from peatlands was
called t“rb , turf , zurf and zurba , all meaning flammable soil . Likewise peat was depicted as flammable
soil in an Arabic book of travels from the th century. T“rab refers to the word soil in Arabic, which is
very similar to the Ottomanuse. The etymological roots of the modern Turkish words torf or turba go back
to the terms (i.e. türb, turf, türab) for fuel obtained from decomposed plant parts in peatlands .

Peatlands in Turkey are grouped into three types: 'bogs', 'fens', and 'transitional mires'. These three types of
peatlands can also be defined with a further classification as live peatlands (areas in which peat formation
continues and dead peatlands degraded or transformed areas in which no active peat formation can be
found . Some fens can also be classified as buried peatlands , which are composed of inter-mixed mineral soil
layers due to the accumulation of materials carried in by erosion from surrounding lands. Naturally, such a
coarse classification does not reflect the diversity of peatlands and the different climatic conditions prevailing
in Turkey that affect them. There is a need to define and classify peatlands according to their different
regional and altitudinal characteristics. Most of the Turkish peatlands are small areas and are widely
distributed across the country. In total 87 peatlands of various types were identified. Until the 1950s,
peatland and peat-like formations covered an area of c. ha. (owever, later many mires have been
deteriorated because of drainage and peat oxidation and are now degraded peatlands without peat formation
or even turned into mineralised soils rich in organic material. Consequently, the current mire area is only c. 3
000 ha. A substantial part of the former mire area, c. 60 000 ha, has been lost as a result of erosion, with
organic horizons lying beneath re-deposited mineral soils. Turkish peat landscapes might be considered as a
drop in the ocean, since they actually cover only . % of the country s total area. But still, they have a unique
place in the diverse landscape types in Turkey owing to their biological and cultural importance. Bogs are
mainly found on the high plateaux of the Central and Eastern Black sea region, an area characterised by high
precipitation. They cover between several to hundreds of hectares. Fens are mainly concentrated around
lakes found in suitable locations across the country. They cover extensive areas. The presence of inter-mixed
mineral soil layers due to erosion is typical for most Turkish fens. Fens may also be found alongside small or
larger lakes or in still water conditions. Also wet meadows and small, localised, wet conditions around springs
can provide suitable conditions for peat formation. Although total area of Turkish peatlands is small, they are
relative homogeneously scattered through the whole country, which provides a great opportunity for further
scientific research in order to gain knowledge about natural and cultural history of Turkey.

Traditional use of peat by local people in very tiny amount can still be found in Central Anatolia and Eastern
Black Sea regions today. In contrast, some of the large lowland peatlands were drained to eradicate malaria
and for conversion to agricultural land. In the last three decades, these peatlands have also attracted
commercial horticultural interest, while peat extraction reached up to 50 000 m³/year in Turkey. Although
there have been some attempts to protect some peatlands in Turkey, their importance has not been
appreciated enough until today, since many peatlands has suffered and still is suffering from peat extraction,
expansion of urban areas, industrial facilities and infrastructure as well as intensive agricultural use and
drainage. Awareness about these unique landscapes has now increased and some detailed reports have been
written, but the commercial use of many peatlands could not be prevented and none of them has been taken
into conservation management. There is no direct legal regulation for the protection of peatlands, and their
indirect protection within laws relating to the conservation of wetlands and coasts is not sufficient. The most
important legislation regarding the protection of wetlands in accordance with international conventions
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1st International Conference, on Sea and Coastal Development in The Frame of Sustainability
MACODESU 2015 Karadeniz Technical University, Turkey
Marine Coastal Development Sustainability 18-20 September

ratified by Turkey is the By-Law onWetlands Protection. The most important steps towards effective peatland
conservation in Turkey are: 1) Immediate stop of peat extraction, 2) Prevention of peatland drainage (for peat
extraction and water provision for surrounding areas), 3) Prevention of disturbance in peatland water supply
(such as groundwater and surface runoff), 4) Immediate legal protection of all mires and restored peatlands.

Therefore a dynamic planning approach should be adopted in order to be able to evaluate the similarities and
differences of peat landscapes considering their variable characteristics and develop target oriented planning
strategies. This can be realized in two major levels. In the first level, a country-wide peatland planning
strategy must be developed: (1) classifying peatlands according to their peatland characteristics,
phytogeographical regions, altitudinal zones and risks of extinction and (2) prioritizing some peatlands for
conservation and planning. After having a general overview and gathering required information about the
situation of Turkish peatlands, a seven-layered site-specific approach should be adapted to the planning
process as; (1) defining physical, biological and spatial characteristics, (2) assessing current/potential
benefits, (3) learning about the needs and expectations of stakeholders, (4) setting targets for each peatland
considering their characteristics (eg. conservation, eco-tourism, paludiculture, etc.), (5) developing possible
land-use scenarios, (6) decision-making, (7) implementation and monitoring. Peatlands have also been
known as archives of natural and cultural history. The proposed two-level landscape planning approach,
consisting of a series of country-wide and site specific implementations, has significant potential to change
decisions in nature s favour in Turkey. Peatlands should already be predetermined as conservation
landscapes before even starting any landscape planning attempt in Turkey. They should also be announced
as priority landscapes , since they host a diverse flora and fauna in spite of their limited extent and
distribution. )n Turkey we don t have the luxury to witness even one more peatland die . )nstead, the range
and importance of the diverse functions, services and resources provided by peatlands should be instantly
realized.

32
1st International Conference, on Sea and Coastal Development in The Frame of Sustainability
MACODESU 2015 Karadeniz Technical University, Turkey
Marine Coastal Development Sustainability 18-20 September

PRESENTATIONS

Atatürk Pavilion, Trabzon, fromFahri GÜMÜŞTEKİN's Archive

33
1st International Conference, on Sea and Coastal Development in The Frame of Sustainability
MACODESU 2015 Karadeniz Technical University, Turkey
Marine Coastal Development Sustainability 18-20 September

Assessment of Seasonal and Spatial Variations in Marine Water Quality at the Mid-Black Sea
off-share of Turkey

Akçam E., Üst“n S., Şent“rk İ., Geçer E., Bakan G*., Akbal F., B“y“kg“ngör (.

Ondokuz Mayıs University, Engineering Faculty, Environmental Engineering Department,


55139 Samsun, Turkey
gbakan@omu.edu.tr *

Abstract

During the last decades the Black Sea has experienced severe environmental degradation in terms of its
biodiversity, habitats, recreational value and water quality. The environmental crisis is a direct consequence of
the increasing human activities along the sea shores, since the Black Sea is a regional sea and it is of a great
economic importance for the countries situated around its coasts. Black Sea is experiencing severe
environmental problems such as eutrophication, chemical, oil and bacterial pollution, as well as biological
pollution through the accidental introduction of invasive species.
The main aim of this study was to investigate the marine water quality at the mid-Black Sea coast (Sinop,
Samsun, Ordu) of Turkey. In addition, the research was carried out in order to investigate the seasonal and
spatial variations in surface water quality at the mid-Black Sea coast of Turkey. Marine water samples were
collected from 13 stations at 3 miles and 20 miles distance from the coast during the winter, spring, autumn and
summer seasons between 2013 and 2014.
In this study, water quality data of several physical and chemical parameters for samples of shore stations along
the mid-Black sea coast of Turkey were analyzed. At each sampling station, water temperature, pH, temperature,
dissolved oxygen (DO), redox potential (Eh), total dissolved solids (TDS), electrical conductivity (EC) and salinity
were measured in the field using a field multiprobe (Consort C535). Phenol (Ph), methylene blue active
substances (MBAS) and ammonium (NH4+-N) concentrations of the samples were measured with proper
analytical kits using a PG-T70 UV/VIS spectrophotometer.
According the results of the measurements the mid-black sea part of Turkey are evaluated in terms of marine
water general quality criterias given in the water pollution control regulations of Turkey, it is seen that phenol
concentration exceed 0.001 mg/L limit value.

Key words: Black Sea; Environmental management ;Physicochemical parameters ; Water Pollution

INTRODUCTION

The Black Sea, a semi-enclosed sea, is situated between ° to ° N and ° to ° E. The Black
Sea is surrounded by six countries located in Europe and Asia: Bulgaria, Georgia, and Romania; Russia, Turkey
and Ukraine. In fact, the Black Sea is influenced by seventeen countries, thirteen capital cities and some 160
million people (1). The Black Sea is located between the European and Asian continents, and is connected to
the Mediterranean Sea through the Sea of Marmara (Fig.1).

Fig. 1. The Black Sea and its drainage basin (1)

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1st International Conference, on Sea and Coastal Development in The Frame of Sustainability
MACODESU 2015 Karadeniz Technical University, Turkey
Marine Coastal Development Sustainability 18-20 September

The Black Sea is an elliptical basin extending over 1,200 km in the East–West direction with a surface area of
413,000 km2, a volume of 547,000 km3 and a maximum depth of 2,212 m. The drainage basin of the Black Sea
measures about 2×106 km2 (2).

Pollution problems in the Black Sea are serious and often due to non-point sources. Main pollution sources
are industrial effluents and sewage waste (3). The Black Sea has suffered from extensive pollution over the
last few years due to unrestricted shipping, mineral exploitation, dumping of toxic wastes, discharge of
domestic wastes from coastal cities and pollutants carried by rivers (4).

For effective pollution control and water resource management, it is required to identify the pollution status,
pollution sources and their quantitative contributions. Multivariable statistic analysis provides an alternative
approach to understand the water quality of study region and identify the pollution source apportionments
(5).

The main aim of this study was to investigate the marine water quality at the mid-Black Sea coast (Sinop,
Samsun, Ordu) of Turkey. In addition, the research was carried out in order to investigate the seasonal and
spatial variations in surface water quality at the mid-Black Sea coast of Turkey. Marine water samples were
collected from 13 stations at 3 miles and 20 miles distance from the coast during the winter, spring, autumn
and summer seasons between 2013 and 2014. The user of the monitoring outcome is a decision maker, who
needs the information to protect human health, to make sure that there is no unacceptable impact either on
ecosystems or on marine resources and finally make decisions concerning disposal of pollutants in the marine
environment.
The main aim of this study was to investigate the surface water from the mid-Black Sea coast of Turkey. In
addition to this study was to investigate the seasonal and spatial variations in surface water quality at the
mid-Black Sea coast of Turkey.

MATERIALS AND METHODS


Marine offshore water samples were collected from 13 stations at 3 miles and 20 miles distance from the
coast during the winter, spring, autumn and summer seasons between 2013 and 2014 (Table 1). The area is
bound by the latitude ° N and ° N and longitude ° E and ° E Figure .

Figure.2. Offshore Water Samples Sampling Stations at Black Sea Coast of Turkey

Samples were collected in 5 L polyethylene bottles after rinsing several times with water from the point of
collection and were transferred to the laboratory in coolers containing ice to reducing the degradation of
samples before analysis.

In this study, water quality data of several physical and chemical parameters for samples of shore stations
along the mid-Black sea coast of Turkey were analyzed. At each sampling station, water temperature, pH,
temperature, dissolved oxygen (DO), redox potential (Eh), total dissolved solids (TDS), electrical conductivity
(EC) and salinity were measured in the field using a field multiprobe (Consort C535).

Phenol, methylene blue active substances (MBAS) and ammonium (NH 4+-N) concentrations of the samples
were measured with proper analytical kits using a PG-T70 UV/VIS spectrophotometer.

35
1st International Conference, on Sea and Coastal Development in The Frame of Sustainability
MACODESU 2015 Karadeniz Technical University, Turkey
Marine Coastal Development Sustainability 18-20 September

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

In this study, water quality data for 11 physical and chemical parameters collected near-shore and off-shore
stations along the mid-Black sea coast of Turkey were analyzed. It was found that nutrients (NO 3-N and NH4+-
N), dissolved salts (EC, TDS and, salinity), physical parameters (pH, Eh, DO and, temperature) were the most
important parameters in contribution to seawater quality variations.

pH and temperature values are usually convenient. The pH of all of the samples was within the optimum
range of 6.5-8.5. Temperature was in the range of 12-26.5 ºC. Higher temperature was recorded during
summer and lower during winter, indicating seasonal variation.

It can be seen from Table 2, that most of the sampling stations were polluted with phenol (Class III-IV) and
MBAS (Class III-IV) according to Turkish Water Pollution Control Regulation. In this study, the concentrations
of phenol and MBAS were found in the range of 0.00-1.39 and 0.15-1.82 mg/L, respectively.

Table.1. in- situ measurement result of Offshore Water Samples at Black Sea Coast of Turkey (3 miles)

Sampling pH Salinity Conductivity Temperature TDS Redox


stations (avarge) (%o) μS/cm) (oC) (g/l) potential
(avarge) (avarge) (avarge) (avarge) (mV)
(avarge)
Ordu 8,22 17,48 28,32 15,07 16,89 47,67
Fatsa 8,30 17,50 28,37 15,25 16,91 67,42
Ünye 8,18 17,73 28,7 17,05 17,15 44,67
Terme 8,24 17,71 28,62 17,11 17,13 71,27
Çarşamba 8,26 17,91 29 17,3 17,32 72,3
Tekkeköy 8,26 17,52 27,37 17,9 16,94 74,92
Samsun 8,24 18,04 29,17 17,25 17,46 71,17
harbour
Atakum 8,28 17,81 28,8 17,27 17,20 70,75
Kurupelit 8,3 18,11 29,32 17,47 17,53 69,97
Engiz 8,28 18,04 29,1 17,4 17,48 70,77
Bafra 8,27 17,85 28,9 17,35 17,29 67,95
Yakakent 8,2 17,66 28,55 17,2 17,09 7162
sinop 8,19 17,67 28,77 17,25 17,19 71,3

Table.2. in- situ Measurements result of Offshore Water Samples at Black Sea Coast of Turkey (20 miles)

Sampling pH Salinity Conductivity Temperature TDS Redox


stations (avarge) (%o) μS/cm (oC) (g/l) potential
(avarge) (avarge) (avarge) (avarge) (mV)
(avarge)
Ordu 8,25 17,72 28,65 15,37 17,12 71,82
Fatsa 8,22 17,39 28,2 15,25 16,81 49,82
Ünye 8,26 17,46 28,35 17,3 16,88 71,12
Terme 8,7 17,52 27,22 16,62 16,94 74
Çarşamba 8,27 17,0 28,45 17,5 16,89 75,52
Tekkeköy 8,28 17,91 28,95 17,45 17,32 73,47
Samsun 8,3 17,93 29,39 17,97 17,49 73,35
harbour
Atakum 8,29 17,93 29,2 18,22 17,36 73,02
Kurupelit 8,29 18,4 29,17 18,22 17,46 67,12
Engiz 8,14 18,12 29,05 17,45 17,53 72,1
Bafra 8,32 18,17 29,32 17,3 17,59 71,4
Yakakent 8,15 17,73 28,75 17,22 17,16 69,13
sinop 8,2 17,70 28,7 17,7 17,12 71,62

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1st International Conference, on Sea and Coastal Development in The Frame of Sustainability
MACODESU 2015 Karadeniz Technical University, Turkey
Marine Coastal Development Sustainability 18-20 September

Table.3. Laboratory Measurements Result Water Quality Parameters at the off Shore Stations at Black Sea
Coast of Turkey (3 miles)

Sampling SEASONS DO NH4-N NO3-N PHENOL MBAS


stations (mg/l) (mg/l) (mg/l) (mg/l) (mg/l)
Ordu winter 9.81 0.1 <0.2 <0.002 1.10
spring 9.06 0.1 <0.2 0.22 0.64
autumn 9.54 0.1 <0.2 0.02 0.52
summer 7.88 <0.01 <0.2 0.26 0.54
Fatsa winter 9.77 <0.01 0.2 <0.002 1.22
spring 9.07 0.1 <0.2 0.28 0.78
autumn 9.37 0.1 <0.2 <0.002 0.63
summer 8.11 0.1 <0.2 0.27 0.57
Ünye winter 9.97 0.1 <0.2 <0.002 1.26
spring 9.35 0.1 <0.2 0.60 0.48
autumn 9.40 <0.01 <0.2 <0.002 0.41
summer 8.46 0.2 <0.2 0.24 0.34
Terme winter 10.17 <0.01 <0.2 <0.002 1.17
spring 9.22 0.1 <0.2 0.66 0.94
autumn 9.43 <0.01 <0.2 <0.002 0.76
summer 8.31 0.2 <0.2 <0.002 0.79
Çarşamba winter 11.46 0.1 <0.2 0.14 1.32
spring 9.85 <0.01 <0.2 <0.002 0.25
autumn 9.18 <0.01 0.6 0.42 0.36
summer 8.47 0.1 <0.2 0.43 0.24
Tekkeköy winter 11.16 0.1 <0.2 0.39 1.20
spring 10.63 <0.01 <0.2 <0.002 0.30
autumn 9.19 <0.01 <0.2 <0.002 0.24
summer 8.37 <0.01 <0.2 <0.002 0.47
Samsun winter 11.05 <0.01 2.4 0.17 1.12
harbour spring 8.70 <0.01 <0.2 0.26 1.17
autumn 9.11 <0.01 <0.2 0.21 0.41
summer 8.39 <0.01 <0.2 0.29 0.91
Atakum winter 10.02 <0.01 <0.2 0.26 1.25
spring 10.58 <0.01 <0.2 <0.002 0.61
autumn 9.10 <0.01 <0.2 <0.002 0.49
summer 7.96 <0.01 <0.2 <0.002 0.72
Kurupelit winter 10.15 <0.01 <0.2 <0.002 1.25
spring 9.15 0.1 <0.2 0.61 1.17
autumn 8.98 <0.01 <0.2 <0.002 0.83
summer 7.88 <0.01 <0.2 <0.002 0.46
Engiz winter 10.08 <0.01 <0.2 <0.002 1.21
spring 8.73 <0.01 <0.2 0.07 1.75
autumn 9.34 <0.01 <0.2 <0.002 0.78
summer 7.66 <0.01 <0.2 <0.002 1.75
Bafra winter 9.96 <0.01 <0.2 0.15 1.19
spring 9.11 <0.01 <0.2 1.07 1.82
autumn 9.37 <0.01 <0.2 <0.002 0.43
summer 7.72 <0.01 <0.2 <0.002 1.82
Yakakent winter 9.23 <0.01 <0.2 <0.002 1.06
spring 8.66 <0.01 <0.2 0.17 0.92
autumn 9.23 <0.01 <0.2 0.34 0.77
summer 7.59 <0.01 <0.2 0.51 0.92
sinop winter 8.92 <0.01 <0.2 <0.002 1.22
spring 8.53 0.2 <0.2 0.89 0.84
autumn 9.30 <0.01 <0.2 0.03 0.56
summer 7.39 <0.01 <0.2 0.02 0.84
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1st International Conference, on Sea and Coastal Development in The Frame of Sustainability
MACODESU 2015 Karadeniz Technical University, Turkey
Marine Coastal Development Sustainability 18-20 September

Table 4. Laboratory Measurements Result Water Quality Parameters at the off Shore Stations at Black Sea
MBAS concentration results obtained for the spatial and depth variations of the studied sampling points were
shown in Fig 3.
Sampling SEASONS DO NH4-N NO3-N PHENOL MBAS
stations (mg/l) (mg/l) (mg/l) (mg/l) (mg/l)
Ordu winter 10.20 0.1 <0.2 <0.002 0.73
spring 9.09 0.1 <0.2 <0.002 0.92
autumn 9.57 0.1 <0.2 <0.002 0.75
summer 7.96 0.2 <0.2 <0.002 0.59
Fatsa winter 10.02 <0.01 1.0 <0.002 0.70
spring 9.04 <0.01 <0.2 0.15 0.47
autumn 9.44 <0.01 <0.2 <0.002 0.38
summer 8.05 0.2 0.2 0.08 0.68
Ünye winter 9.86 <0.01 <0.2 <0.002 1.18
spring 9.86 <0.01 <0.2 0.02 0.97
autumn 9.43 <0.01 <0.2 0.02 0.79
summer 8.33 0.2 0.3 0.16 0.66
Terme winter 10.07 <0.01 <0.2 <0.002 0.58
spring 9.44 <0.01 <0.2 0.06 0.96
autumn 9.39 <0.01 <0.2 0.09 0.78
summer 8.60 0.8 <0.2 0.09 0.77
Çarşamba winter 11.15 <0.01 0.9 0.24 1.20
spring 9.52 <0.01 <0.2 <0.002 0.22
autumn 9.46 <0.01 <0.2 0.47 0.28
summer 8.46 <0.01 <0.2 0.05 0.27
Tekkeköy winter 11.31 <0.01 <0.2 0.18 1.24
spring 8.80 <0.01 <0.2 0.01 0.15
autumn 9.34 <0.01 <0.2 0.01 0.21
summer 8.35 <0.01 <0.2 <0.002 0.29
Samsun winter 10.84 <0.01 <0.2 0.43 1.28
harbour spring 8.73 <0.01 0.2 <0.002 1.17
autumn 9.19 <0.01 0.4 <0.002 0.36
summer 8.35 1.0 <0.2 <0.002 0.78
Atakum winter 9.98 <0.01 <0.2 0.07 1.34
spring 10.51 0.2 <0.2 <0.002 1.82
autumn 9.15 0.1 <0.2 <0.002 0.43
summer 8.18 0.2 <0.2 <0.002 0.84
Kurupelit winter 10.08 <0.01 <0.2 0.21 1.32
spring 8.83 0.3 <0.2 <0.002 0.84
autumn 9.26 <0.01 <0.2 0.17 0.69
summer 8.10 0.2 <0.2 0.18 0.72
Engiz winter 9.91 <0.01 <0.2 <0.002 1.20
spring 9.08 0.3 <0.2 0.02 1.24
autumn 9.06 <0.01 <0.2 <0.002 0.75
summer 7.89 <0.01 <0.2 <0.002 1.24
Bafra winter 10.03 <0.01 <0.2 0.20 1.34
spring 8.66 <0.01 <0.2 <0.002 0.36
autumn 9.28 <0.01 <0.2 <0.002 0.30
summer 7.66 <0.01 <0.2 <0.002 0.36
Yakakent winter 9.07 0.1 <0.2 <0.002 1.14
spring 8.35 0.1 <0.2 0.23 0.72
autumn 9.05 <0.01 <0.2 0.25 0.68
summer 7.39 <0.01 <0.2 0.34 0.72
sinop winter 9.18 0.1 <0.2 <0.002 1.03
spring 7.99 <0.01 <0.2 0.11 0.95
autumn 9.27 <0.01 <0.2 0.02 0.73
summer 7.54 <0.01 <0.2 0.02 0.95

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1st International Conference, on Sea and Coastal Development in The Frame of Sustainability
MACODESU 2015 Karadeniz Technical University, Turkey
Marine Coastal Development Sustainability 18-20 September

Table.4. Laboratory Measurements Result Water Quality Parameters at the off Shore Stations at Black Sea
MBAS concentration results obtained for the spatial and depth variations of the studied sampling points were
shown in Fig 3.

1,6
1,4
1,2
1
0,8
0,6 3 miles
0,4
20 miles
0,2
0

Fig.3. Seasonal Variation of MBAS Concentration in Samples of The Mid-Black Sea Coast of Turkey

Phenol concentration results obtained for the spatial and depth variations of the studied sampling points
were shown in Fig 4.

0,35

0,3
Phe
0,25
nol
0,2
(mg
/l)
0,15
Sampling
3 miles stations
0,1
20 miles
0,05

Fig.4. Seasonal Variation of Phenol Concentration in Samples of the Mid-Black Sea Coast of Turkey

NO3--N concentration results obtained for the spatial and depth variations of the studied sampling points
were shown in Fig 5.

When the results are evaluated in terms of marine water general quality criteria s given in the water pollution
control regulations of Turkey, it is seen that phenol concentration exceed 0.001 mg/L limit value. Nutrients
(NH4+-N), physical parameters (temperature and DO), and organic parameters (phenol and MBAS) were
found to be the most important parameters for the seawater quality variations. Phenol concentrations in

39
1st International Conference, on Sea and Coastal Development in The Frame of Sustainability
MACODESU 2015 Karadeniz Technical University, Turkey
Marine Coastal Development Sustainability 18-20 September

collected marine water samples is exceeded standard value (0.002 mg/L) required to provide of the coastal
and marine waters used for recreational purposes.

NO
3- -
N
(m
g/
L)

Sampling stations

Fig.5. Seasonal Variation of NO3--N Concentration in Samples of The Mid-Black Sea Coast of Turkey

CONCLUSION

As a result of for effective pollution control and water resource management, it is required to identify the
pollution status, pollution sources and their quantitative contributions. Multivariable statistical analysis
provides an alternative approach to understand the water quality of study region and identify the pollution
source apportionments (6) (7).

In this study, main rivers water quality of from the mid-Black Sea coast of Turkey data for many physical and
chemical parameters (chl-a, conductivity, salinity, pH, reduction potential) collected from five stations along
the mid-black sea coast of Turkey during the years from 2013 to 2014 were analyzed.

Results obtained from analyses indicate that the parameters responsible for water quality variations are
mainly related to nutrients (agricultural runoff) and organic parameters (domestic and industrial sources).

To investigate the main rivers of from the mid-Black Sea coast of Turkey was the main research subject of the
work.

REFERENCES

1. G. Bakan and H. Buyukgungor, 2000. The Black Sea. Marine Pollution Bulletin 41, 24–43.
2. Teoderu, C. R., Friedl, G., Friedrich, J., Roehl, U., Sturm, M., & Wehrl, B. (2007). Spatial distribution and
recent changes in carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus accumulation in sediments of Black Sea. Marine
Chemistry, 105, 52–69.
3. 3.M. Karydis and D. Kitsiou, 2013. Marine water quality monitoring: A review. Marine Pollution Bulletin
77, 23-36.
4. G. Tuncer, T. Karakas¸ T.I. Balkas¸ C.F. Gokçay, S. Aygun, C. Yurter and G. Tuncel, 1998. Land-based Sources
of Pollution along the Black Sea Coast of Turkey: Concentrations and Annual Loads to the Black Sea.
Marine Pollution Bulletin 36, 409-423.
5. Wu B, Zhao D, Zhang Y, Zhang X, Cheng S (2009) Multivariate statistical study of organic pollutants in
Nanjing reach of Yangtze River. J Hazard Mater 169:1093–1098
6. Wu B, Zhao D, Zhang Y, Zhang X, Cheng S (2009) Multivariate statistical study of organic pollutants in
Nanjing reach of Yangtze River. J Hazard Mater 169:1093–1098
7. Akbal F., Bakan G., Büyükgüngör H et al., Water and sediment quality assessment in the mid-Black Sea
coast of Turkey using multivariate statistical techniques. Environ Earth Sci (2011) 64:1387–1395

40
1st International Conference, on Sea and Coastal Development in The Frame of Sustainability
MACODESU 2015 Karadeniz Technical University, Turkey
Marine Coastal Development Sustainability 18-20 September

Littoral Resources in Bursa; Bays of Marmara Sea

ENDER, Elvan 1* ; ZEYBEK, Osman1 ; ÇELİK, Aysun1 ; AKDENİZ, S. Nil“fer1 ;


ZENCİRK)RAN, Murat1

1 Uludag University Faculty of Agriculture Department of Landscape Architecture, Turkey


*elvanender@yahoo.com

Abstract

Coasts are areas that have a great significance to cities where they belong about their development. Not only for
their geographical features, but also their natural, cultural, social and economic potentials, coasts are places
which public characters gets diversified and accordingly where the user density hikes. Nowadays, it is obvious
that there are multi-purposed usages regardless of the protection-use balance in our coastal areas. Therefore,
minimizing the environmental pressures that exist on the coastal area and developing regarding the use of
balance-protection of these areas is of paramount importance in terms of sustainability.

In this study, the coasts of Bursa by Marmara Sea have been approached and landscape potentials of its coasts
have been evaluated. In this context, types of coastal usages in Bursa, their spread and density have been
examined, recommendations for the sustainable use of coastal areas due to land use issues raised by subtracting
have been developed.

Keywords: Littoral resources, Marmara Sea, Bursa, Bays

INTRODUCTION

Water element has been an important area of attraction for urban development since first formation of cities.
Coast is an invitation for water cities, a return to the water. İt would be correct to define water as a bond
representing core characteristic element for existence and development of cities which exist along with
water, despite old and new challenges. There are various views on coast-urban relationship from different
disciplines and this relationship has various appearances depending on their individual geographical
positions (Bruttomesso, 1993).

Our country is one of important countries in the world both for the length and natural, ecological and
touristical diversity of its coasts. However, it is not possible to say that this diversity can be used correctly or
reasonably due to faulty and unreasonable implementations arising from deficiencies and frequent
amendments in applicable legislation and insufficiencies both in terms of audit and sanctions.

Bursa has been facing the hazard of pollution although it is one of the provinces of our country which has a
significant potential in terms of its coastal areas. Necessary infrastructure must be developed to protect and
prevent pollution of water resources which can be potentially used in various activities including urban
development, tourism, recreation, potable water and irrigation. On the other hand, preventing increased
pollution in water resources particularly due to industry, urbanization and agriculture will also allow cleaning
the water flowing into the Marmara Sea and present an opportunity to improve the coastal tourism which is
currently limited due to pollution. Planning settlements on coastlines will be a determinant factor for Bursa to
be a water city again as in the past, and a key to ecological protection. Maintaining the identity of Bursa which
is associated with the green is dependent on especially protection of endangered coasts.

To mitigate environmental threats resulting from construction due to urban development, protection
approaches and structural transformation of economic activities must be considered together. Since such
constructions megatively affecting biological life obstruct airflow from the sea, they lower the cooling effect of
wind especially during summer months. Besides, since residential buildings constructed along the coastline
usually have a lateral structure, they hinder airflow from sea to inner areas and also connection between sea
and buildings is cut by roads built in parallel to buildings. Therefore, existing beaches are destroyed and
visual quality of beaches are impaired (Kurt, 2015).

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1st International Conference, on Sea and Coastal Development in The Frame of Sustainability
MACODESU 2015 Karadeniz Technical University, Turkey
Marine Coastal Development Sustainability 18-20 September

Being one of the coastal provinces of the Marmara Sea, geographical conditions of Bursa are highly convenient
for tourism and recreation. Investments in tourism increasing in parallel with tourism industry rapidly
developing in the province have led to a significant increase in population since 1990 (TUIK, 2014).
Therefore, this study is intended to indicate impacts on coasts of Bursa which has an important coastal length,
and provide suggestions to strengthen, improve and ensure sustainability of these coasts.

MATERIAL AND METHOD

The province of Bursa is located at the northwest of Turkey and the southeast of the Marmara Sea, and
surrounded by the Marmara Sea and Yalova in the north, Kocaeli and Sakarya in the northeast, Bilecik in the
east, and K“tahya and Balıkesir in the south.

Main material of the study consists of Marmara Sea coastal areas in Bursa and coasts of the districts of
Gemlik, Mudanya and Karacabey (Figure 1). Total length of these coasts is 145 km, with a length of 63,4 km,
35,3 km and 46,3 km by districts respectively.

Figure 1. Coasts of the Districts of Gemlik, Mudanya and Karacabey

The study methodology consists of data collection, analysis and assessment, literature regarding the said
areas (Figure 2,3,4) have been examined and current status and problems of the coasts of Bursa have been
identified and recommendations have been provided to ensure sustainable.

Figure 2. Karacabey (Url-1)

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1st International Conference, on Sea and Coastal Development in The Frame of Sustainability
MACODESU 2015 Karadeniz Technical University, Turkey
Marine Coastal Development Sustainability 18-20 September

Figure 3. Mudanya (Url-2)

Figure 4. Gemlik (Url-3)

FINDINGS

Results of the study have been provided under the titles of coast lenghts and population, use of space,
accessibility, focus points, and open green area system.

I. Coast lengths and population

As the result of evaluations made, it is seen in current literature that the coastal line of Bursa declared to have
a total coast length of 109 km under Coast Law no. 3261 is found to be 145 km according to the calculation
made by Arcgis program and of this length, 63.4 km is within the boundaries of Gemlik, 35.3 within Mudanya,
and 46.3 within Karacabey.

Regarding coastal areas of our country of 8333 km length, 11.20% of this length is on the Marmara Sea.
15.54% of the Marmara Sea is comprised by the coastal line of Bursa.

According to the address-based registration system, total population of the districts with a coastal area is
264.369 (Gemlik: 103.309, Mudanya: 80.385, Karacabey: 80.594) and 9.5% of Bursa population is determined
to live in coastal districts. The authorities state that this population density increases by 3-4 times during
summer in Gemlik and Karacabey, and especially Mudanya.

II. Use of Space

With the increasing population, a major part of agricultural and forest areas on the coastlines of Bursa has
been occupied with holiday-oriented and residential buildings. Considering the additional tourist population
during summer months, it is evident that there is a significant pressure on natural structure of the coasts of
the province. When occupancy-vacancy situation is evaluated in the study field, it is seen that buildings
intensively fill the streets mostly in the form of row housing. However, there are some open spaces forming as
the result of demolition of building blocks. Areas which are used as parking area have also emerged from such

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open spaces forming in building blocks. When such open areas are examined, it is seen that organized green
areas are very little if any.

III. Accessibility

Accessibility targeted for the coasts of Bursa is defined by city-wide public transport system and land and sea
connections. The area itself has many intermittent and limited pedestrian-privileged access facilities in
parallel to the coast and in many points in the center with one- or two-way loops vertically to the coast.

Density of traffic volume on the coastline and the consequent pollution have a negative effect on the coastal
residential areas. In the areas with intensive pedestrian and vehicle traffic, especially in Mudanya, it has been
observed that vehicle traffic and pedestrian flow is not seperated. Lack of organized parking areas in central
parts also gives harm to the environment by impairing the historical environmental integrity due to use of
unoccupied spaces as parking area.

IV. Focus Points

Main quality measure for urban locations is focus points seated on them. Focus points characterized by core
activities and usages keep pedestrian flow on the coastal axis continuous and alive and are also important for
memorability of wholistic form to be created by design. According to this approach, along the coasts of Bursa,
there are no focuses, each involving individual central functions and cascaded in themselves, apart from
navigation areas. In formation of focus points access systems must be one of the basic determinants as well as
elimination of existing transport problems.

V. Open-Green Space System

In the study field, open spaces witihn building blocks turn into non-functional vacant spaces, resulting in the
problem of neglected areas and unqualified constructions. Sustainability of green spaces is one of the basic
principles to ensure liveliness in the coasts of Bursa. In the upper scale, green spaces, forests, cultivated areas
and groves available in the city do not present integrity with the coastline. As can be seen in Figure 5, 6 and 7,
there is no continuous green space system along the coasts of Karacabey, Mudanya and Gemlik. In this
framework, open green area system must be included in physical development and transformation to occur in
the urban texture within the impact area of the coastline to be transformed and improved in spatial terms.

Figure 5. Open-Green Space System along the Coasts of Karacabey

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Figure 6. Open-Green Space System along the Coasts of Mudanya

Figure 7. Open-Green Space System along the Coasts of Gemlik

CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

The Marmara Sea coastal area of the province of Bursa has a big potential for sea and coastal tourism with its
climate and natural properties. However, residential buildings, touristic facilities, recreation areas and roads
built on its coasts have led to destruction of natural areas and also damage to forest and agricultural
economy. Since these pressures result in decrease in natural resources which cannot be recovered, they have
to be put under protection.

Planning, design and use of coasts are being implemented now in our country without examining potential
impacts on the environment or adopting ecological approaches. Frequent amendments in planning orders
and a design approach adopted without considering ecological concepts result in impairment of spatial
integrity and also gradual destruction of coastal areas.

And since granted rights cannot be limited or revoked, as in all settlements with a coast, rapid structuring on
the coasts of Bursa has been inevitable. Even though it is stipulated in applicable legislation that coasts are
considered public property, natural view of coasts are damaged due to the opposite developments in practice.
Coastal areas which need to be open to all public are left to a limited group with such structures and public
access to coasts is hindered. Therefore, it is required to design a construction plan suitable for coasts without
impairing natural view of coastal areas and criteria must be set for building such structures. Coastal planning
should not be made without discussing how coastal use balance should be for various environments and
situations, and laws and regulations prohibiting all kind of structuring giving harm to natural structure must
be re-issued so as to ensure public interest (Kurt, 2015).

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Recommendations to ensure reinforcement, improvement and sustainability of the coasts which are one of
the greatest assets of Bursa are listed below:
 Ensure continuity of green areas, and pay attention to create a landscape character compatible with
natural vegetation cover available in Bursa,
 Ensure irrigation of green areas by collecting rain water and finding an ecological solution for this
research area,
 Emphasize historical and cultural assets on the coasts,
 Ensure coasts are accesible and perceptible by all users from close and remote places and increase
environment-friendly transport facilities,
 Ensure physical/functional integration of the coasts with surrounding living spaces while improving
transport facilities,
 Decrease vehicle traffic density to facilitate pedestrian flow from areas around the coasts to the
coasts and eliminate environmental pollution,
 Identify design and development approach for physical development and transformation to ensure a
positive change on the coasts.

In conclusion, identifying an integrating urban design strategy which emphasizes ecological, functional and
urban identity of the study field will improve protection-usage balance of the coasts of Bursa, thus ensuring
their sustainability.

REFERENCES

Bruttomesso, R., 1993. Working on the Water s Edge , Waterfronts: A New Frontier for Cities on Water,
Venice
Kurt, S., 2015. Bursa Kıyılarında İkinci Konut Yapılaşmasının Kıyı Jeomorfolojisine Etkisi, International
Periodical For The Languages, Literature and History of Turkish, Volume 10/2 Winter 2015, p. 641-
662, Ankara.
TÜİK, . http://www.tuik.com.tr
Url-1, http://wowturkey.com/t.php?p=/tr429/m_ozsoy_phpzAcUFuPM1.jpg
Url-2, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mudanya
Url-3, www.haberlervegundem.com

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The Evaluation of Ancient Cities and Their Immediate Surroundings in Bursa in Terms of
Landscape Architecture

ENDER, Elvan 1* ; ZEYBEK, Osman1 ; ÇELİK, Aysun1 ; AKDENİZ, S. Nil“fer1 ;


ZENCİRK)RAN, Murat1

1 Uludag University Faculty of Agriculture Department of Landscape Architecture, Turkey


* elvanender@yahoo.com

Abstract

Ancient cities are the urban settlements where we can see the reflection of public lifestyle existed thousands
years ago. Conceptual and spatial traces, which were charmed away and harmed through not having protection
worry about planning and developing in our country, are crucial to examining urban communication and
protection of that city’s history. (istorical surrounding that accomplished a distinctive significance and a
privilege with their peculiar cultural features, rapidly lost and couldn’t replace with the same new ones gains
different meanings both according to different occupations and their angles. It is needed to evaluate historically
precious areas in terms of landscape architecture to protect historical surrounding and to pass on to future
generations.

This study is carried out to examine history, culture, social life and current situations of ancient cities in Bursa
province especially which couldn’t reach with most of their ruins through present-day.

Keywords: Ancient cities, landscape perception, Bursa

INTRODUCTION

To make cities environment- and histroy-friendly and esthetically rich, the concept of cultural landscape has
emerged, which examines how human beings form and attribute meaning to places where they live, as the
result of amendments and arrangements made on their environment.

The concept of physical environment which is one of the elements comprising cultural landscape is
considered in two categories including natural environment and formed environment. Natural environment
involves geographical properties while formed environment involves alterations made by people on the
environment. Their extent varies, containing different scales of environmental formations from country and
region scale to single structure scale, and from mountains and seas to plant types (Altman and Chemers
1989). Cultural landscape is important for involving past and current traditions of an area where local people
live in (UNESCO, 1998).

The concept of ancient city is, according to UNESCO, included in both clearly identifiable landscape areas
designed and created by people and sustainable cultural landscape which is a sub-group of cultural
landscape which evolves organically and changes continuously (Karaca, 2008). If those environments with a
past of thousands of years are destroyed, there will be no remedy to it. In this context, main purpose in
protection of ancient cities is to carry forward physical and cultural heritage to future generations.
Importance of landscape architecture has been increasing for purposes of minimizing threats to ancient cities
and protecting cultural landscape.

This study is intended to demonstrate impacts of human life and physical environment on cultural landscape.
This research aims to protect and maintain cultural continuity of the ancient cities in Bursa which contain
archeological and historical elements and could not majorly reach to the day because of not being protected,
and to show importance of landscape architecture to ensure this protection.

ANCIENT CITIES

There are seven ancient cities in Bursa and their positions in the province are given in Figure 1.

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Figure 1: Ancient cities in Bursa

Apollonia Gölyazı :
The quarter of Gölyazı is one of the richest ancient settlements in the district of Nil“fer. The quarter accessed
through a 7-kilometer road from the road junction on the 35th kilometer of Bursa-İzmir (ighway and seated
on a deep peninsula on the eastern edge of Lake Uluabat is rooted back to B.C. 6th century. It is thought that
the name of the city may be coming from Queen Apollonis who lived in the Kingdom of Pergamon. According
to another view, it is comming from the Temple of Apollo located around Kızadası which is also located in the
city. To distinguish it from other cities with a name containing Apollo in it, it was also called "Apollonia ad
Rhyndacus which means Apollonia over River Rhydacum Orhaneli Stream . The old temple in Kızadası was
turned into a monastery within the Byzantian Period. Stones from this temple were later used in construction
of the (aydarpaşa Port Url-1). The city of Apollonia had been a part of the Bithynia Kingdom in the
Hellenistic period and become rich thanks to its natural resources during the Roman Period. The city
maintaining its importance also during the Byzantian Period was an asylum for Christians fleeing from İznik
and Bursa due to the Ottoman raids. It was also one of the first locations conquered by the Ottoman (Url-2,
Url-3). The ancient ruins in the village which look like a fishing village today are as follows:
* Church of St. Penteleiman: It is one of the most important historical ruins. The church which was started to
be constructed by the Greek living in there in the 19th century but could not be completed due to the
population exchange also lost its roof in a fire caused by lightning stroke in subsequent years. The church has
been restored by the Municipality of Bursa Nil“fer and now serves as a Cultural Center Figure Oz, ;
Url-4).

Figure 2: Church of St. Penteleiman

* Temple of Apollo: It is believed that the Temple of Apollo which the city is called after is located on Kızadası
at about 500 m. north from the ancient city. The temple is highly destroyed today. In the temple where the
ruins of the temenos wall can still be seen, it is seen that architectural blocks of the upper structure are not in
place. )t is rumored that those blocks were used in construction of the foundations of the (aydarpaşa
Terminal and the Dolmabahçe Palace. Depictions of Apollo, who was the Protector God of the city can be seen
on the city coins (Figure 3) (Öz, 2005).

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Figure 3: Temple of Apollo

* Ancient Road and Necropolis: Ancient road to the city can be observed as of the necropolis called as
Deliktaş. There are tomb structures and sarcophaguses around the road which has a width of about 2.50 m.
Square-shaped (15x15 cm.) cavities placed in between the wheel marks is an interesting detail about the
ancient road. In the Necropolis Area where sarcophaguses and their covers cut from natural rocks can be seen
widespreadly, there were high mausoleums of 8.5 x 8.5 meter dimension by the ancient roads. The same
tombs can also be seen by the lake (Figure 4) (Öz, 2005; Url-5).

Figure 4: Ancient road and tomb

* Stadion: Stadion lying in the direction of east-west on the northeast slope of Zambaktepe is used as football
field of the quarter today. The ruins are too little if any. (Öz, 2005; Kemal, 2015).
* Ancient Theatre: The theatre on the southwest slope is behind the graveyard of the Gölyazı Village. No
excavation has taken place yet. It was formed with a natural slope. Ruins of a few foundation stones and the
right retaining wall of the building behind the stage are on the surface (Figure 5). Orchestra and stage
buildings could not be reached yet. The theatre which is believed to have a cavea diameter of 75 m. has an
audience capacity of about 4.000 people (Öz, 2005; Özgür, 2015).

Figure : Gölyazı ancient theatre Kemal,

* )nner fortress, outer fortress and city walls: Gölyazı village settlement is loctaed inside the ancient walls of
about 800 m length. These walls can be used both for defense purposes and as protection against lake floods.
These walls on which traditional house architecture can be seen have doors and towers in places. The most
important of these is Simitçikale in the north. It is seen that alterations with different have been made on
outer fortress surrounding the peninsula where the settlement is located and ruins of the inner fortress
surrounding the island materials over centuries. In places Roman, Byzantian and Ottoman styles can be seen
together. The outer fortress is called Taş Kapı by local people. The narrowest point of the peninsula was
constructed to have control. There is a square prism tower of 8.5 x 8.5 meter dimensions on the wall. This

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tower was constructed using stones from the open-air theatre in the city. Wall thickness can be up to 5 meters
in some places (Figure 6,7) (Öz, 2005; Url-1; Url-5).

Figure 6: Inner fortress and city walls

Figure 7: Outer fortress

The Church of Hagios Georgias constructed by the Greek minority who lived here in the 19th century and the
Monastry of (agios Konstantinos of which ruins can be seen on Manastır Adası )sland are the most
interesting historical ruins of the area. (Url-4).

In the area which is announced as protected area and taken under protection, there is a historical mosque of
which construction date is unknown and a 400-year old plane tree at the entrance of the bridge linking the
quarter to the peninsula, which is called crying plane today Figure (Url-4).

Figure 8: Crying Plane

Lopadion (Uluabat Village):


It is believed to be seated in Uluabat Village which is located at the west of Lake Apolyont (Lake Uluabat)
which is located at 4 km east from the district of Karacabey. Lopadion means pot or small pot in the
Hellenistic language. It is unknown when or by whom the city was established. Its name is also not available
in the historical literature. There is no piece surviving until today other than the ruins of a bridge from the
Byzantine Period and the ruins of a Medieval wall (Demirci, 2013; Url-1). Byzantine Emperor Alexios /
Komnenos had the Lopadion (Uluabat) Tower to control entries and exits from the lake, protect the Rynkados
Plain against the Seljuks, and close the entrance from the lake to Turkish boats. It is understood that Venetian
and Genoese merchants also came to Lake Uluabat (Apolyont) by the river from the Marmara Sea and
sometimes spent the winter by the lake. Those days the Lopadion Tower was a reliable fortress because of its
position and a strong military headquarter, a summer resort and a station leading to the temple as well as

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having a very important position which had control over the tradesmen who brought goods to Bursa (Figure
9 Yalazı, .

Figure 9: Lopadion (Demirci, 2013)

Cius / Prousias ad Mare (Gemlik):


Cius is the former name of today s district of Gemlik. The name Cius comes from the name of the river next to
the city. Foundation date of the ancient city which is believed to be found in B.C. 1930 on the Gulf Coast is
based on a well-known saga in the First Age Hellenistic mythology. According to a part of that saga, while the
young men in the ship called Argo who were sailing to acquire the skin of a gold-furry ram in the sacred forest
in the city of Kolkhis on the coast of the Eastern Blacksea were staying the night in the district, Herakles and
Polyphemos fell apart from their fellows and the ship departed without them. Polyphemos who therefore
stayed there founded the city of Cius afterwards. The city of Cius came under domination of Phrygia within
7th century B.C. first and then the Kingdoms of Lydia, and the Cymmerians in 652 B.C. Cius which was
incorporated again into the territory of Lydia by Kroisos in the midst of the 6th century B.C. was also a rich
port and commercial city. The city coming under domination of the Persians later was named after Bithynia
King I. Prousias in the 3th century B.C. Prousias is the name of two Bithynia kings. To distinguish the city from
other Prusa-named cities, it was also called Prusa ad Mare (Prusa by the sea). The city coming under
domination of the Romans in 75 B.C. became a rich olive cultivation and sericulture center during the
Byzantine Period. Since Cius is a city demolished and rebuilt all the time, there are no ruins surviving from the
ancient city until today although it had been a cradle for many civilizations for thousands of years (Demirci,
2013; Url-1).

Nicaea İznik :
The first city seated on İznik was founded in the early years of First Age and then destroyed in the th century
B.C. Nicea was refounded and developed by Commander-King Lymakhos who was one of the successors of
Alexander. The city was named after the wife of Lysimakhos. Nicaea was built within the Roman and
Byzantine Periods with city walls, waterways, theatres, churches and mausoleums reflecting the social,
cultural and religious characteristics of its age and witnessed historical events like I. And II. Consul meetings
held within the Roman and Byzantine Periods. The settlement found here before migration of Thracian people
in the V)). Century B.C. was called (elikare . The city affiliated to the Kingdom of Bithynia in B.C. was
ornated with significant architectural structures. Nicaea which had been the capital of the Bithynia Kingdom
for a while then maintained its existence as an important settlement of Rome. Nicaea was introduced to
Christianity with efforts of Petrus, an apostle of Bithynia, and prohibitions on Christianity were revoked
within the Emperor 1. Constantinus Period, and Nicaea witnessed a very important event for Christianity in
325. The First Consul gathered in the Senatus Palace. The 20-item text which is known as the Nicaean Laws on
ferial days in Christianity was adopted after this Consul. İznik became an art center during X)V, XV and XV).
Centuries and world-renowned tiles and ceramics were produced here. İznik maintains its historical city
texture in complete aliveness with the grid plan city settlement coming from the Hellenistic Period and with
monumental structures surviving from the Roman, Byzantine and Ottoman Periods (Demirci, 2013; Url-1).
Ruins of the ancient cities in İznik are as follows:
* City Walls: The walls surviving from the Roman Period and which was majorly repaired and renovated in
the Middle Age have a perimeter of . m. These walls had main İstanbul Kapı, Yenişehir Kapı, Göl Kapı
and Lefke Kapı Figure and secondary doors. Most of the walls and the doors have survived up to the
present. The walls have a height ranging from 10 to 13 meters. The walls have 114 round or square-shaped
towers. These doors were made in the Emperor II. Claudius Period (268- B.C. . Lefke Kapı the east door)
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and İstanbul Kapı the north door are three-staged and their construction was completed within the time of
Hadrianus. Ruins of the First Age structures in the city were used in renovation of the walls in the Middle Age.
Some written and embossed architectural pieces can be seen on the outer side of Lefke Kapı today. Göl Kapı
could not survive until today and is completely destroyed (Demirci, 2013; Url-6; Url-7).

Figure 10: İstanbul Kapı, Lefke Kapı, Yenişehir Kapı


* Ancient Theatre of İznik: The ancient theatre located between the lake side and Yenişehir Kapı, in the

southeast of the city, was built in 112 within the Emperor Traianus period. Bithynia Governor Plinius
mentions in a letter written to Emperor Traianus of this theatre and the gymnasium of which location is
known today. Stones of the theatre were removed to repair the city walls during attacks. Of its arches, ruins of
only 4 have survived until today (Figure 11) (Demirci, 2013; Url-7).

Figure 11: Ancient Theatre of İznik

* Church of Hagia Sophia: The most important church from the Byzantine in İznik is the Church of (agia
Sophia located on the spot where two main streets vertically intersect. The church renovated following the
earthquake in the XI. Century was turned into a mosque after İznik had been conquered by the Ottoman ın
1331 and named Orhan Gazi Mosque (Figure 12) (Demirci, 2013; Url-7).

Figure 12: Church of Hagia Sophia

* Church of Koimesis (Death of Mary): The structure which was built by Bishop Hyakinthos in VIII. Century
as a Monastry and named as the Church of Koimesis was destroyed in 1065 and then repaired. Mosaics and
icons in the church were renewed in 1807. There are some ruins surviving until today from the church.
Mosaics and patterned marbles found here have been put in İznik Museum Demirci, .

* Church of Ayios Trifanos: )t is near İstanbul Kapı and a ruin today. The church was built during the late
Middle Age (Demirci, 2013).
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* Ruins of the Senate Palace: The Senate Palace was located in a place by Lake İznik which is called İnciraltı
today. The Council held in 325 gathered here. Only some part of it, which is under water on the bank has
survived until today (Figure 13) (Demirci, 2013)

Figure 13: Ruins of the Senate Palace

* Basilica: This ruin located meter east in the area which is defined as the Senate Palace today and
which is about two meters under water belonged to a monumental basilica lying in the east-west direction.
Materials and measurements used in the basilica in the lake are believed to belong to one of the Early
Christian Period churches, which were commonly used within the territory of the Roman Empire.
Archeological studies to reveal the basilica have not been started yet Şahin et al, .

Figure 14: Ruins of Basilica (Keskin, 2014)

Myrleia / Apameia / Montaneia (Mudanya):


Myrleia roots back to about 700-550 B.C., the period of Hellenistic migrations to the coasts of the Marmara
Sea and the Blacksea. )t was hellenisized as a city of migrants coming from Kolophon Değirmendere near
İzmir in )onia in the West Anatolia. )n the (ellenistic Period, at the end of . century B.C., Macedonia King V.
Philippos seized Myrleia and devastated it. Then he presented the area to Bithynia King I. Prousias who was a
relative. The city which was rebuilt was named after Apameia who was the wife of Prousias. The Roman used
Myrleia, Apameia as an army base and named it Colonia Concordia Augusta Apameia as a small city of Rome.
This city was also invaded and named Montania. This name was given by the Latin in the Middle Age. It means
mountaineous . Mudanya is believed to be evolved from Montaneia. )t is understood that the city port has
remained under the area where Petrol Ofisi filling facilities are located today. Even though the drilling pit
opened by Bursa Museum Directorate in 2009 is still on the surface, basic ruins have almost been reached to
and many ceramic fragments and a sculpture from the Classical and Hellenistic Period were also found during
the drilling. The area has been partially announced as Archeological Site in 2010 but this protection area is
very limited. A part of the area which most likely contains ruins of the ancient port and the city was not been
put under protection as 1st Degree Archeological Site today and permission for a shopping mall construction
on it was given. The construction was suspended by the museum teams but at the end of two-month
investigations the decision was not changed and the area was left as 3rd Degree Protection Area and the
construction was completed. A very small part of the ancient city which revealed due to the destruction is put
in a glass frame and now being exhibited on the basement floor of the mall. Non-governmental organizations
and local people have been continuing their struggles for the ancient city (Figure 15) (Demirci, 2013; Url-1;
Url-8).

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Figure 15: Ruins of Myrleia

Daskyleion/ Dascilium:
There are two places with the same name within the boundaries of Bursa. One of them is on the coast of the
bay called Eşkel/Esence Port today where Nli“fer Stream which was called Rhyndakos in the ancient period
falls into the sea. Ruins within the sand can still be seen on the west coast of Eşkel Village. The place called
Kapanca between Tirilye Town at the west of Mudanya and Eşkel Village Daskyleion is known as the ancient
city port (Figure 16). The area was within the territory of Bythinia in the ancient age. It was used as an
important port from those times to the Roman, Byzantine and Ottoman times. It is located near a crescent-
shaped small gulf. The port, with its filled part, resembles the letter omega in the Greek Alphabet which looks
like a horseshoe. The settlement known as Caesarea Germenice in the ancient period is believed to be here
most likely. Some sources assert it was called Germanicopolis and Ruheplatz der Kuh . )t is also known that
coins were cut here in those times. One of the coins from the period illustrates the port and a cow lying on
ground. These figures suggest that cattle farming was common here those years and live animals could be
exported. Another coin has only Olympos Keşiş/Uludağ on it. The area containing the ruins is under a
thick soil layer today. Pot fragments, brick fragments and rectangular prism shaped long stones with a hole
near one of the ends were found around. Stones are believed to be used as bollard to anchor ships. Historical
Kapanca Port is told to be a connection point between İstanbul (Constantinopolis) and Kite (Ürünlü) and
Prusa (Bursa) from the first age to the early years of the republic. (Url-1; Genç, 2015).

Figure 16: Kapanca

There is a church ruin at about 300 meter distance from the center of Kapanca, which is known as Aya Yani by
local people and called as the Monastry of Ioannes Theologos Pelekete in literatüre (Figure 17). The position
of the monastry across Kalolimno İmralı )sland is not clearly specified in the Byzantine resources or in vitas
of priests. Contemporary researchers agree that the ruins of the structure in this area belong to the said
monastry. The monastry which was partially destroyed by the earthquake in 1855 was burnt in 1880 short
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after being repaired. The monastry is known to be repaired following the fire and affiliated to the Priest
School in Heybeliada. It is known that there were priest rooms around the church in the monastry area in the
19th century and an epigraph dated 1856 on the entrance door of the church. The information on the
epigraph which was put at the entrance of the church in 1856, that the church was demolished from its
foundations is partly true. Besides, it is known the name (agios İoannes Pelekete is referred to as one of the
three monastries in the area in a book published in Greek by Kleonymos and Papadopoulos in 1867. The
damage given to featured items by the illegal excavations made in and around the church has been
determined (Genç, 2015; Kaya, 2015).

Figure 17: Monastry of Ioannes Theologos Pelekete

Basilinopolis:
Basilinopolis which is a First Age city is located at the area where Çeltikçi Village is seated, which is at 5 km
distance from Orhangazi to Gemlik direction. According to the practice during the early years of the East
Rloman Empire, attempt of emperor or someone from emperor family was required to establish a new city.
First the land where the city would be built was purchased and only after that the city could be founded. Thus,
the city was named after emperor or dynasty member. The most interesting example in this meaning found in
literature is Basilinopolis. It is understood that it was given the city status by Basiline, mother of Emperor
Julianus in 365 A.C. It is understood that some people from Nicaia came or were brought to here to make this
old town a city in the territory of Nicaia İznik . There are no ruins or finds reaching to our day from this First
Age city other than a written sarcophagus part which is within the village today (Demirci, 2013; Url 1).

CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTIONS

Protection of historical environments is defined as ensuring continuity of their physical and social structure
shaped by socio-cultural and economical values of societies by preventing damage to them due to today s
needs. Main purpose of such protection is to carry physical and cultural heritage forward to future
generations. All protection actions to be taken must be aimed at reviving, renewing and bringing function to
unique structure of texture as well as conveying historical environments from past to future (Kuter 2007).

Ancient settlements are areas where philosophical and spatial foundations of public open areas which are one
of the important study fields of landscape architecture were laid. Therefore, many needs of cities which we
majorly damage today are also hidden in these cities (Kaçmaz, 2010).

Considering current situation of the ancient cities in Bursa, it is seen that most of them could not survive until
our day due to lack of interest in these areas. Suggestions regarding the ancient cities in the province are as
follows.
 To prevent damage to archeological areas,
 To create a protective band of green areas around archeological areas and thus adapt them to their
immediate surroundings and emphasize culture,
 To provide a transport network connecting the ancient cities of Apollania and Nicaia to each other and not
giving harm to cultural landscape,
 To use ancient cities as cultural and recreation areas by highlighting archeological data, and ensure they
are used more intensively.

Historical artifacts reaching our day as witnesses of the past ensure continuity between generations by
carrying forward historical information which is not available even in many written sources. Examining
historical cities provides information about architectural solutions and creativity of past artists. Even if there
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1st International Conference, on Sea and Coastal Development in The Frame of Sustainability
MACODESU 2015 Karadeniz Technical University, Turkey
Marine Coastal Development Sustainability 18-20 September

is no one alive among them, standing of those structures is of great importance as a living history for current
and future generations. These specific data enables understanging and reviving life styles which could not
reach our day and we have very little information about. In addition to all these properties, environmental
protection activities should always keep in mind that these thousands-year old environments cannot be
brought back once destroyed (Kuter 2007).

In conclusion, it is inevitable for landscape architectures to play role in recognizing importance of


archeological areas and keeping such areas alive. Relation of landscape architectures with archeological areas
is significant both for purposes of contributing to their spatial arrangements as well as conveying historical
process information to plans and designs in immediate vicinity to archeological areas.

REFERENCES

Altman, I., and Chemers, M., 1989. Culture and Environment. Cambridge University Press, Newyork.
Demirci, H,. 2013. antik kentler. http://antikdonem.com.
Genç, H., 2015. mudanya sahillerinde bir antik liman kenti: kapanca. yeşil bursa dergisi. sayı: .
Kaçmaz, G., İzmir-Selçuk Ayasuluk Kalesi ve Yakın Çevresinin Arkeolojik Özellikleri ile Peyzaj
Mimarlığı Açısından İrdelenmesi. Y“ksek Lisans Tezi, Bartın
Üniversitesi Fen Bilimleri Enstit“s“ Peyzaj Mimarlığı Anabilim Dalı, Bartın, s.
Karaca, (., . Çevre ve Kent Estetiği Kavramlarının Araştırılması ve Bir Kent Örneğinde İncelenmesi. Çevre
ve Kent Estetiği Dersi Bas ılmamış Ödev Notları.
Kaya, E., 2015. trigleia ıoannes theologos pelekete aya yani manastırı: tarihi, mevcut mimarisi ve geleceği.
zeitschrift für die welt der türken journal of world of turks. 7(1): 305-329.
Keskin, A. E., (2014) http://www.atlasdergisi.com/kesfet/arkeoloji/iznik-goldeki-bazilika.html.
Kuter, N., Çankırı Kenti Açık ve Yeşil Alan Varlığı İçinde Tarihi Kent Merkezinin
Kentsel Peyzaj Tasarımı Açısından Değerlendirilmesi. Doktora Tezi, Ankara
Üniversitesi Fen Bilimleri Enstit“s“ Peyzaj Mimarlığı Anabilim Dalı, Ankara, s.
Öz, A.K., 2005. apollonıa ad rhyndacum. http://kisi.deu.edu.tr/ali.oz/apollonia.html
Özgur, K., 2015. arkeoloji – tarih, arkeopolitik yazilar.
http://arkeokur.tumblr.com/post/59978804479/anadolunun-antik-tiyatroları-3-mysia-bölgesi
Şahin, M., Tok, E., Kılış, Ş., . iznik, göldeki bazilika. atlas dergisi. mart sayısı, sayı: .
UNESCO., 1998. Natural Sacred Sites. Cultural Diversity and Biological Diversity International Symposium, 22-
25 September 1998, Paris.
Url-1. http://www.bursadakultur.org/antikkent.htm.
Url-2. http://wikimapia.org/5803831/tr/g%c3%b6lyaz%c4%b1-apollonia.
Url-3. http://wowturkey.com/forum/viewtopic.php?t=6884.
Url-4.http://www.nilufer.gov.tr.
Url-5. http://onedio.com/haber/bursa-da-mutlaka-gezilip-gorulmesi-gereken-14-yer-2--298303.
Url-6. http://izlerveyanlar.blogspot.com.tr/2012/09/iznik-sarap-tanrs-dionysosun-kentinde.html.
Url-7. http://www.arkeoloji.biz/2011/12/iznik-tarihi-gezilecek-gorulecek.html.
Url-8. http://www.bursamimar.org.tr/index.php?p=haberler&s=basin&lid=1630.
Yalazı, Ş., . http://www.karacabeyblog.com/?p= .

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Marine Coastal Development Sustainability 18-20 September

Tamus Communis Which Has Importance of Ethnobotanic and Ecological, Biological


Properties of This Taxa (Aydin-Trabzon)

Benli, Esengül 1; Yılmaz, Murat 1; Usta, Ayhan1; Ergül Bozkurt, Arzu 1; Yeşilyurt, Emine Nur 1

1Karadeniz Technical University, Faculty of Forest, 61080 Trabzon, Turkey


esengulbenli@ktu.edu.tr,

Abstract

Tamus communis is very important taxa for ethnobotanical. For a very long time people has used this taxa
about; medicine, cure and edible. Nowadays the folk person of Aydın is using this taxa efficiently but the folk
people of Trabzon never used this taxa because of poisonous. Adult plant and fruit really poisonous but young
shouts is edible also very rich about vitamin C. The aim of this study discover Tamus communis market prize
(2014- and ethnobotanical usage in Aydın. The usage of this plant by local people to evaluate what purpose
it was introduced by a survey conducted. Owned large market stems from indigenous who are obtain the amount
of income between 300-450 ₺ per month in the spring. According to surveys, it has determined that indigenous
have no knowledge about plants rich in C vitamin and for the treatment of many diseases. Local people in Aydın
should be awareness in this regard. On the other hand, local people in Trabzon should be told that it may be daily
bread with feature edible young shoots of the plant. When ethnobotanical use and economic importance are
considered, it is arise evaluation of this plant in its natural habitat and the necessity to produce. Ecological
conditions of the plants must be known well for production can be done in a healthy way. For this purpose, by
taking soil samples from the environment naturally grown (Aydin-Trabzon) of Tamus communis are evaluated
together with elevation and climate data.

Keywords: Aydin, Trabzon, Ethnobotany, Tamus communis, Market.

INTRODUCTION

The ecology contains a large number of different scientific disciplines (living and non-living environmental
conditions), which helps us understand the life cycle in the nature. If disciplines that constitute the subject of
scientific studies are examined piece by piece, then combined together and evaluated through a holistic
approach, the effectiveness and quantity it would have will gain an unquestionable dimension. In this context,
the present study investigated the relationship between the plants and soil as well as climatic and elevation
characteristics of working sites (Trabzon-Aydın . )n addition, ethnobotany characteristics and medical
significance of plant taxonomy (Tamus Communis), which is the subject of the study, were questioned.

Young shoots of tamus communis taxon are used as nourishment in Turkey, yet medical significance of this
genus is not adequately known. This taxon has also antioxidant effects. Foreign publications (e.g., Algerian
and Spanish publications) have described characteristics of this genus in detail. Tamus communis is a herbal
species, widely distributed in the north of Algeria and used in folk medicine to lower inflammatory pain.
Rhizomes and berries have been reported to be used in folk medicine for example; rheumatism, and
dermatosis (Duke, 2002). Phytochemical analysis of this plant revealed the presence of some compounds with
cytotoxic activities Kovacs et al., , Boumerfeg et al. . Also this taxa s fruits are generally considered
toxicto humans (Carvalho, 2010), basically because of triterpene glucosidesand calcium oxalate crystals
(Castroviejo, 2001, Barreira et al. 2013).

Other parts of tamus communis taxon, except for young shoots, have toxic effects. Fresh parts of this taxa is
contain saponins, as well as some ribosome inactivating proteins, which are responsible for its toxicity
(Hadad et al., 2005; Hylands et al.,1982). The toxic principles are basically located in other organs of plant,
such as fruits and subterranean parts, rather than in shoots. For this reason, after a cooking process that is
supposed to destroy those toxic doctrines, (Lin et al., 2006; Biglino et al.1965) the shoots of this species,
conventionally consumed in the Mediterranean area, can be considered non-hazardous foods Garc´ıa-
Herrera et al. 2012).

It is revealed, as part of ethnobotany study performed in Bosnia-Herzegovina, that young shoots of this taxon
are mixed with honey and ingested for treatment of serious asthma and rheumatism Redžić, .
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Marine Coastal Development Sustainability 18-20 September

MATERIALS AND METHODS

In this study performed to present ecological and ethnobotany characteristics of taxonomy of tamus
communis, samples of plant and soil were collected from different regions where this taxon is naturally found.
Necessary soil analyses were performed with samples collected from topsoil on the land. In addition,
questionnaires a total of questionnaires: in Aydın and in Trabzon) were administrated on local
people according to snowball method in order to evaluate taxonomy of this plant in terms of ethnobotany.
Furthermore, this taxon appears to have a significant market as evident by the research on its marketing price
conducted in a local market of Aydın in -2015 March and April as well as by the average income of local
people calculated.

Research Area
The present study was performed with Turkey s different geographical areas from Aegean Region and
Eastern Black Sea Region (Figure 1). Taxon of tamus communis spreads over in Aydın located in Aegean
Region and in Trabzon located in Eastern Black Sea Region, and is grown at an elevation ranging 600 to 800 m
and thus in different climatic zones.

Figure 1: Position of research areas

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

The city of Aydın, one of the research areas, is located in Aegean Region, one of Turkey s geographical regions.
Aegean region is under the pressure of typical Mediterranean climate. Valleys' running towards the sea
enables the humid air masses carried by the winds coming from the sea to be efficient till the deeps in the
land. As long as it goes far from the sea and gets into the continental land, the sea effect gets weaker and the
continental climate of Central Anatolian becomes more efficient Çölaşan , Şahin . Table shows
the Thornthwaite climate analysis for Aydın.

Table : Climate analysis for Aydın according to Thornthwaite method


Climate Months Vegetation
index Ann
I II III IV V VI VII VIII IX X XI XII İçi Dışı ual
Tempera 11, 15, 20, 25, 28, 27, 23, 18, 12,
8,2 8,9 9,4 17,6
ture ° C 7 7 9 9 4 2 2 4 9
PET 12, 14, 29, 55, 105 159 188 165 108 65, 29, 15, 906 42, 949,
6 5 7 3 ,4 ,1 ,8 ,4 ,5 3 4 8 ,8 9 7
Precipita
98, 84, 72, 59, 37, 14, 10, 40, 89, 116 329 299 628,
tion 3,7 2,4
7 8 0 5 4 7 2 0 5 ,0 ,4 ,5 9
(mm)
Storage - - - - - - - - - - 60, 39,
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Marine Coastal Development Sustainability 18-20 September

Diff 68, 32, 1 9


0 0
Storage 100 100 100 100 32, 60, 100 100,
- - - - -
(AWC) ,0 ,0 ,0 ,0 0 1 ,0 0
Actual ET 12, 14, 29, 55, 105 46, 10, 40, 29, 15, 322 42, 365,
3,7 2,4
6 5 7 3 ,4 7 2 0 4 8 ,7 9 6
Water
112 185 163 98, 25, 584 584,
Deficienc - - - - - - - 0,0
,4 ,1 ,0 3 3 ,1 1
y
Surplus 86, 70, 42, 60, 46, 216 263,
4,2 - - - - - - -
water 1 3 3 3 6 ,7 3
Number
19, 29, 44, 16, 18, 18,
of dry 1,2 0,8 3,8 12,7
8 6 9 7 0 1
days
Drought 11, 15, 20, 25, 28, 27, 23, 18, 12,
8,2 8,9 9,4 17,6
index IM 7 7 9 9 4 2 2 4 9

For Aydın, data - from Aydın meteorological station was used to perform Thornthwaite climate
analysis Table . According Thornthwaite climate analysis for Aydın, the climate type of Aydın is
represented by symbols C1b'3sb'3" which means "semi-humid-semi-arid, medium temperature
(mesothermal), highly heavy water surplus in winter, oceanic-like climate". As seen in the table, the water
deficit is 584,1 mm in total between June and October (9 months) in vegetation period in Aydın, one of the
research areas. When considering the period starting from March and April and ending in May when tamus
communis taxon shoots forth, there is no water deficit observed in these months (Table 1). In addition, the
mean drought index for these months is 16,1 (Semi-arid comparing to Erinç).

Black Sea region has geographical parts that get the sea effect and that do not have sea effect. Due to the sea
effect, the winters are warm and summers are cool Çölaşan . Table 2 shows the Thornthwaite climate
analysis for Trabzon.

Table 2: Climate analysis for Trabzon according to Thornthwaite method


Climate Months Vegetation
index Ann
I II III IV V VI VII VIII IX X XI XII İçi Dışı ual
Tempera 12, 15, 20, 23, 23, 20, 16, 12,
7,4 7,0 8,3 9,2 14,6
ture ° C 0 8 2 1 2 1 2 3
PET 16, 15, 24, 45, 77, 113 139 131 92, 61, 35, 21, 695 77, 772,
4 1 2 5 2 ,1 ,4 ,2 3 5 0 9 ,2 7 9
Precipita
76, 64, 59, 59, 53, 54, 37, 51, 74, 119 95, 85, 544 286 831,
tion
8 8 0 6 0 5 1 5 1 ,3 7 9 ,8 ,5 3
(mm)
Storage - - -
57, 42,
Diff - - - - 24, 58, 17, - - -
8 2
2 6 2
Storage 100 100 100 100 75, 17, 57, 100 100 100,
- - -
(AWC) ,0 ,0 ,0 ,0 8 2 8 ,0 ,0 0
Actual ET 16, 15, 24, 45, 77, 113 54, 51, 74, 61, 35, 21, 512 77, 589,
4 1 2 5 2 ,1 3 5 1 5 0 9 ,2 7 9
Water
85, 79, 18, 183 183,
Deficienc - - - - - - - - - 0,0
1 7 2 ,0 0
y
Surplus 60, 49, 34, 14, 18, 64, 32, 208 241,
- - - - - -
water 4 7 8 1 5 0 6 ,8 4
Number
18, 18,
of dry 5,9 43,7
9 8
days

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Drought 34, 48, 57, 24, 23, 37, 36, 26,


24,1
index IM 3 8 7 8 1 2 9 1

For Trabzon, data (1970-2005) from Tarbzon meteorological station was used to perform Thornthwaite
climate analysis (Table 2). According Thornthwaite climate analysis for Trabzon, the climate type of Trabzon
is represented by symbols "C2b'2sb'4" which means "semi-humid, medium temperature (mesothermal),
medium water deficit in summer, oceanic-like climate". As seen in the table, the water deficit is 183,0 mm in
total between July and September (8 months) in vegetation period in Trabzon, one of the research areas.
When considering the period starting from March and April and ending in May when tamus communis taxon
shoots forth, there is no water deficit observed in these months (Table 2). In addition, the mean drought index
for these months is 41,5 (Humid according to Erinç).

In evaluation with climatic terms, Tamus communis taxon appears to grow in different climate regions with
sea effect, considering research areas selected Aydın, Trabzon .

Soil Properties
Table 3 shows analysis results for soil samples collected from habitat of tamus communis taxon. In
consideration of soil samples from both of the research areas Aydın, Trabzon , Tamus communis taxon is
found in almost any type of soils and acidic soils from clayey sand soil to heavy clay lump (Table 3).

Table 3: Several soil properties for research areas


pH
Dept Sil Cla Field Wiltin Electrical
Profil San Availabl (Pure
h t y Soil type Capacit g Point Conductivit
e No d% e water Water
(cm) % % y (%) (%) y µs/cm
% )
0-5 78 13 9 Sandy Loam 20,8 12,6 8,3 6,4 192,3
5-10 78 12 10 Sandy Loam 17,0 8,3 8,7 6,1 81,9
10-
A1 77 13 10 Sandy Loam 15,4 6,9 8,5 6,2 61,9
15
15-
77 13 10 Sandy Loam 14,6 6,8 7,8 5,9 49,8
20
0-5 87 7 6 Loamy Sand 24,0 18,9 5,1 6,3 165,7
5-10 79 15 6 Sandy Loam 27,5 18,0 9,6 5,9 156,1
10-
A2 78 12 10 Sandy Loam 26,9 16,2 10,7 5,7 128,4
15
15-
75 13 2 Sandy Loam 22,3 10,7 11,6 5,7 58,5
20
0-5 87 7 6 Loamy Sand 18,8 11,3 7,5 6,1 128,5
5-10 87 9 4 Loamy Sand 16,8 8,7 8,2 6,0 101,1
10-
A3 86 8 6 Loamy Sand 13,1 4,1 9,0 5,9 59,8
15
15-
86 8 6 Loamy Sand 14,0 4,8 9,2 6,0 61,9
20
Average 81 11 8 19,3 10,6 8,7 6,0 103,8
0-10 54 24 22 Clay Loam 31,4 17,5 13,9 4,8 42,8
T1 10-
52 22 26 Loamy Clay 30,1 16,1 14,0 5,1 24,1
20
0-10 50 20 30 Loamy Clay 33,9 19,7 14,2 4,8 87,6
T2 10-
51 17 32 Loamy Clay 29,1 14,9 14,3 5,1 32,2
20
0-5 46 21 33 Loamy Clay 36,6 21,9 14,8 5,4 86,0
5-10 45 18 37 Loamy Clay 32,5 20,0 12,5 5,3 34,5
T3
10-
46 21 33 Loamy Clay 32,5 20,0 12,5 5,3 21,7
20
Sandy Clay
0-5 60 17 23 31,4 18,9 12,5 5,0 52,7
Loam
T4
5-10 55 19 26 Sandy Clay 28,4 16,5 11,9 5,5 44,6
10- 55 17 28 Loamy Clay 28,7 16,6 12,1 5,1 31,7
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20
0-5 40 11 49 Heavy Clay 55,1 32,9 22,2 4,9 161,3
5-10 32 14 54 Heavy Clay 25,4 8,1 17,2 5,5 86,3
T5
10-
34 15 51 Heavy Clay 42,1 25,9 16,2 6,8 313,0
20
0-5 56 21 23 Clay Loam 39,0 22,2 16,8 5,3 60,4
5-10 53 15 32 Loamy Clay 38,2 22,3 15,9 5,3 38,3
T6
10-
53 16 31 Loamy Clay 38,1 22,1 16,0 5,6 44,1
20
0-5 47 29 24 Clay Loam 35,6 16,7 18,9 5,0 51,3
5-10 50 26 24 Clay Loam 30,4 13,9 16,5 4,9 32,2
T7
10-
50 28 22 Clay Loam 30,1 12,5 17,6 5,2 4,8
20
Average 49 20 31 34,1 18,9 15,3 5,3 65,8
A: Aydın, T: Trabzon

With this study, ethnobotanical significance of Tamus communis taxon was considered, and soil and climatic
conditions were investigated in Black Sea Region and Aegean Region (Trabzon-Aydın where this genus
grows naturally. So, different disciplines were combined to conduct an effective ecological-ethnobotanical
research.

As a result of questionnaire conducted in Aydın, it is determined that a bunch of ivy, that is sold in bunches, is
around 5-6 Turkish Lira, and one can earn 70-90 Turkish Lira a month from sales of this plant, which
accounts for a monthly income of 300-450 Turkish Lira. Minimum approximate monthly income could be 250
Turkish Lira from sales of this plant even in minimum conditions. It is found that this plant, contributing to
living of rural people, is only used for cooking, and local people has no knowledge on medical use of this plant.
Furthermore, although local people states that they eat young shoots of the plant, they do not seem to know
that other parts of the plant are poisonous. Therefore, local people of Aydın should be explained that parts of
the plant other than young shoots are poisonous.

As a result of questionnaire conducted in Trabzon, it is determined that local people know this plant taxon to
be fully poisonous and do not use it for any purposes. This plant has a wide area of spread in this region, and
should be introduced to local people and turned into a source of income.

The literature review shows that this plant taxon has antioxidant effects, is highly rich in vitamin C, and that
parts of the plant other than young shoots are poisonous.

REFERENCES

Barreira et al., 2013. Bryonia dioica, Tamus communis and Lonicera periclymenum fruits:Characterization in
phenolic compounds and incorporation of theirextracts in hydrogel formulations for topical
application. Industrial Crops and Products 49 169– 176.
Biglino G and Nano GM, 1965. Partial synthesis of bryogenine. XII. Constituents of Bryonia dioica root.
Pharmacology 20:566–569.
Boumerfeg et al., 2008. Antioxidant Properties and Xanthine Oxidase Inhibitory Effects of Tamus communis L.
Root Extracts. Phytotherapy Research , Phytother. Res. 23, 283 –288 (2009). Published online 9 October
2008 in Wiley InterScience (www.interscience.wiley.com) DOI: 10.1002/ptr.2621
Carvalho, A.M., 2010. Plantas y sabiduría popular del Parque Natural de Montesinho.In: Un estudio
etnobotánico en Portugal. Biblioteca de Ciencias, vol. 35. ConsejoSuperior de Investigaciones
Científicas, Madrid.
Castroviejo, S., 2001. Flora Ibérica. Plantas vasculares de la Península Ibérica e IslasBaleares. Rosaceae, vol. VI.
Real Jardín Botánico CSIC, Madrid (coord).
Duke JA., 2002. CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs, 2nd edn. CRC Press: Boca Raton FL.
Garcia-Herrera et al., 2012. Carotenoid content of wild edible young shoots traditionally consumed in Spain
(Asparagus acutifolius L., Humulus lupulus L., Bryonia dioica Jacq. and Tamus communis L.). Research
Article, (wileyonlinelibrary.com) DOI 10.1002/jsfa.5952.
Hadad Chi GhR and Moradi Z, 2005. The amounts and distribution of diosgenin and saponin and their
carbohydrate moiety of Tamus communis L. J Agric Sci Technol 12:55–66.

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Marine Coastal Development Sustainability 18-20 September

Hylands P and Kosugi J, 1982. Bryonoside and bryoside: New triterpene glycosides from Bryonia dioica.
Phytochemistry 21:1379–1384.
Kovács A, Forgo P, Zupkó I et al., 2007. Phenanthrenes and dihydrophenanthrenes from Tamus communis and
their cytotoxic activity. Phytochemistry 68: 687–691.
Lin JT, Liu SC, Chen SL, Chen HY and Yang DJ, 2006. Effects of domestic processing on steroidal saponins in
Taiwanese yam cultivar (Dioscorea pseudojaponica Yamamoto). J Agric Food Chem 54:9948–9954.
Redžić, . The Ecological Aspect of Ethnobotany and Ethnopharmacology of Population in Bosnia and
Herzegovina. Coll. Antropol. 31, 3: 869–890.
URL 1. www.bilgizenginleri.org, 16.07.2015.
Çölaşan U.E. . T“rkiye İklimi. Ankara in Turkish .
Şahin S. . An aridity index defined by precipitation and specific humidity, Journal of (ydrology, -445,
199–208.

Acknowledgements

We would like to thank Birsen KARAKUŞ for her contribution to land surveys conducted on Aydın.

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Using Methods for the Determination of Landscape Change

EMECEN, Yeliz, AYAŞL)G)L, Yahya,

Istanbul University, Faculty of Forestry, Department of Landscape Architecture, Turkey


yeliz.emecen@istanbul.edu.tr

Abstract

Landscapes have dynamic structure. Due to human activities and natural processes that are constantly very
effective, landscape changes. These changes alter shape and size of landscape elements in the landscape mosaic,
sometimes completely destroy it or cause the formation of the new elements. Therefore fragmentation and
deterioration occur. As a result of these changes, habitats narrow and biological richness get lost. So fauna and
wildlife are affected directly. As a result of this, there have been a lot of studies in recent years.
Landscape change is one of the three landscape characteristics (the others are landscape structure and
landscape function) on which landscape ecology focus. In this study; firstly studies made in Turkey is reviewed
and methods which are used for determining landscape changes are researched. Then, differences between
methods are identified.

Key word: Landscape Change, Landscape Ecology, Fragmentation

INTODUCTION

Humans firstly interacted with nature in order to meet their requirements, such as shelter and nutritional
requirement etc. After sedentism and especially industrial revolution, pressures on nature have increased.
Problems associated with these negative effects, rapid urban development, population growth have caused
life quality to decrease, natural area to shrink, structure of this natural area to deteriorate, and effect on
biodiversity and wildlife negatively (Deniz et. al., 2006).

Universe is a mechanism consisted of components interacting with each other. It comprises a specific order,
or system. Every component of system undertakes a task. This system consisting of abiotic and biotic
organism is called Biosystem . )n order to understand easily abiotic and biotic factors, study stages are
formed in ecological science by considering biological hierarchy. These stages consist of eleven different
biosystem. Respectively; (cells, tissues, organs, organ systems, organism), population, community, ecosystem,
landscape, biome, ecosphere last stage (Odum and Barrett, 2005).

Ecology is described as a science ensuring future of humanity as a we science/ science of us . Therefore,


there is a strong relationship between life and future of human and organism. Influences of human changing
natural environment have led to be taken measure of deterioration and be focused on study about natural
protection (Çepel, 1992). Landscape planners study on assessing functions of landscape and natural factors
Ayaşlıgil, .

LANDSCAPE AND LANDSCAPE ECOLOGY

Landscape ecology is one of the youngest branches of ecology (Farina, 1998). The term landscape ecology was
introduced by the German biogeographer Carl Troll (1939). Landscape ecology is defined essentially
combination with spatial approach of the geographer with the functional approach of the ecologist by Forman
and Godron (1986), Naveh and Lieberman (1984) (Turner et al., 2001). Landscape is simply the ecology of
landscape (Forman, 1995). Naveh and Lieberman (1993) state that the roots of landscape ecology may be
said to begin in the middle nineteenth century with the introduction of landscape as a scientific term by the
explorer-geographer Alexander Von Humboldt (Cushman ve Huettmann, 2010).

Dickinson 1970 states that upper level of ecosystem, landscape is described as total character of a region by
Humboldt (Farina, 1998) and Humboldt viewed landscapes as exhibiting coherence in spatial distribution and
interconnectedness of phenomena, and was a pioneer in the study of spatial relationships between biological
and physical phenomena (Cushman and Huettmann, 2010). In addition Forman and Gordon (1986) describes

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landscape as a heterogeneous land area composed of a cluster of interacting ecosystems that is repeated in
similar form throughout (Farina, 1998).
Risser et. al (1984) state that when considered totality, landscape is understood to be part of heterogeneous
land. Different developments, changes and dynamics emerge depending on time and space because of a
heterogeneous structure of landscape (Odum and Barrett, 2005). Growth and formation of landscape is
caused by three mechanisms which are active in the landscape. Three mechanisms are Ayaşlıgil, ;
geomorphological events and formation which occur a very long time, 2) colonization of organism i.e.
settlements and invaded of organism, 3) degradation locally in every ecosystem.

Risser et. al (1984) state that dynamism and heterogeneous landscape structure effect different way on biotic
and abiotic entitles and process (Odum ve Barrett, 2005) and landscape focuses on clearly spatial pattern.
Specifically, landscape ecology considers the development and dynamics of spatial heterogeneity, spatial and
temporal interactions and exchanges across heterogeneous landscape, influences of spatial heterogeneity on
biotic and abiotic processes, and management of spatial heterogeneity (Turner et al., 2001). Forman and
Godron (1986) state that landscape ecology research three characteristics of landscape. These are landscape
structure, landscape function and landscape change Ayaşlıgil, .

LANDSCAPE STRUCTURE

Ecosystem components constructing landscape form landscape mosaics (Odum ve Barrett, 2005). Forman
1995; Turner et al. 2001 state that modern landscape ecology is based on the patch mosaic paradigm, in
which landscapes are conceptualized and analyzed as mosaics of discrete patches. Sometimes the patch
mosaic model is referred to as the patch-corridor- matrix model after Forman and Godron and
Forman (1995) in order to recognize the different major landscape elements that can be present in a patch
mosaic (McGarical et al.,2009). This model defines three large landscape elements.

Patch: a patch is a wide relatively homogeneous area that differs from its surrounding (Forman, 1995).
Patches are differentiated from each other in term of size, number and location, and analyzed to these factors.
Patches may be numerous in a landscape. In addition patches have dynamic structure and differ from each
other depending on time and space scale (Dramstad et al., 1996). Corridor: corridors are generally aquatic
and terrestrial areas linking two or more landscape pattern to each other. Corridors show different characters
from the matrix but show similarity to patches which corridors link (Odum and Barrett, 2005). Corridors
enable functionally organism to habitat, migration and spread, and sometimes prevent movements of
organism (Nurlu, 2011). Matrix: matrix is the name given vast field consisted of similar ecosystem and
vegetation type. Matrix forms main skeleton of landscape (Odum and Barrett, 2005).

LANDSCAPE FUNCTION

Landscape function use to describe interaction between spatial elements, e.g. flows of substance, energy and
species between ecosystem elements (Kor, 2011). Ecological objects (animals, plants, biomass, thermal
energy, water, nutrients) continuously replace and move between landscape elements. In order to reveal flow
and relationship between elements, landscape function must be understand Ayaşlıgil, . Also landscape
function includes the services provided in different categories by landscape (Kor, 2011).

LANDSCAPE CHANGE

Landscape change is described as structural and functional change of ecological mosaic in time Ayaşlıgil,
2002). Landscapes are changing continuously. Landscape change is a complex process, encompassing
ecological, socioeconomic as well as cultural factors (Bastian and Steinhardt, 2002). Landscape modification
takes place for numerous and often quite different reasons (Lindenmayer and Fischer, 2006). Natural
landscape changes can take place over a very long time, proceed very slowly but sometimes ıt can occur in the
short term depending on natural events (volcanic eruptions, floods, droughts, earthquakes, avalanches, etc.)
actualizing (Bastian and Steinhardt, 2002). Landscape changes are essentially influenced by the development
of human society rather than natural events. The most common ones are agricultural expansion stated by
Landsberg 1999; Daily 2001 and urbanization stated by Luck et al. 2004 (Lindenmayer and Fischer, 2006).

In general, landscape change has followed similar patterns in many different parts of the world. Forman
(1995) identified five main ways in which humans can alter landscapes spatially (fig.1): perforation,
dissection, fragmentation, shrinkage, and attrition. These changes result in different spatial patterning of
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landscapes and can alter ecological processes and the distributions of plants and animals. McIntyre and
Hobbs (1999) suggested that landscape change tended to have a temporal component, with landscape
modification often increasing through time (Lindenmayer ve Fischer, 2006).

Figure 1: Five ways in which landscapes can be modified by humans (Lindenmayer ve Fischer, 2006).

Perforation: Often, the first stage of habitat loss and fragmentation involves the perforation of natural habitat
through direct loss, usually resulting from conversion to other land uses. Perforation creates holes in
otherwise contiguous habitat. Dissection: The second stage of habitat loss and fragmentation involves the
dissection of natural habitat. Dissection results from linear landscape elements. Fragmentation/Subdivision:
During this phase, the landscape undergoes an important phase transition from a landscape characterized by
physically connected habitat to a landscape in which the habitat is broken up into disjunct fragments. The
habitat is physically disconnected and may disrupt movement patterns of the target organism(s) and cause
the subdivision of populations into separate units. Last phases are shrinkage and attrition. The final stage of
habitat loss and fragmentation involves the shrinkage and, in some cases, complete disappearance of the focal
habitat. Here, the landscape is in a critical state with respect to the viability of the target habitat. As habitat
patches are reduced in size and become more isolated from each other, the function of the landscape is
seriously jeopardized for organisms associated with the target habitat (Cushman and Huettmann, 2010).

Determination of landscape change is basic for making many prediction for the future. It important to
determine in which phase changing is and how long it has occurred. If these topics are detected, next stage of
change will be predicted. Thereupon, landscape planning, protection and management are made more
realistic way.

THE MAJOR METHODS FOR THE DETERMINATION OF LANDSCAPE CHANGES

The aim of this study are to determine which methods are used in study on landscape (or vegetation, land
cover, coastal line etc.) change in Turkey and to provide preliminary information for people wishing to make
a study on these subjects. In these scopes, firstly literature was done researches on concepts of landscape
change, land cover change, landscape fragmentation. Thirty-five studies made in Turkey were investigated
and determined which data are needed, and which methods are used.

If it is desired to determine landscape change, firstly we choose suitable images which are obtained from
various remote sensing methods and tools. These images should represent the study area in the best way.
Size of the area and aim of study is the biggest determinant in this section. Because aerial photographs and
satellite images which are produced from remote sensing tool are different from each other by both
resolution and variety of their features. These data are raster data format and have different pixel size. Image
quality effect by pixel size (see, Figure 2).

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Figure 2: Image quality effect by pixel size (ŞENOL, .

The studies examined are studies investigating the change in provincial or district level. Landsat MSS (30m),
Landsat TM (30m), Landsat ETM + (30m), Ikonos (1m) satellite images and / or aerial photographs was used
in these studies. Satellite imagery consists of bands. The aerial photograph has image format such as jpeg, tiff
etc. this difference Influence the election of software (Erdas, ArcGIS vb.) used to be classify images.
Considering some studies which were investigated, Landsat and Ikonos satellite images, consisting of bands,
was classified by using Erdas software. After image correction process, firstly satellite images was classified
unsupervised classification method, and then control points on study land were determined. In accordance
with control points, supervised classification was done. In unsupervised classification, the same pixel values
are gathered under one class depending on the reflectance values of each pixel in satellite imagery by Erdas
software. Areas having same pixel values but being in different class is assigned suitable/correct class by
using control points. For accuracy control, aerial photographs were used in some studies as well as the
control point. The aerial photography is used in some of studies about determination of change. The aerial
photography has high resolution. So it was classified as manual by using ArcGIS software in some of studies.
By using ArcG)S Edit Tool , each patch was drawn as a polygon, and then assigned a class.

While CORINE land caver categories produced by CORINE project was used in determining classification
category of these studies, forest management map or master development plan are used some of them.

Finally, change was determined in two ways by using the classified images in these studies. The first, area and
percentage calculation were made and then amount of change between different years was designated after
classification process. The second was performed using Fragstats software, landscape metrics. Landscape
metrics give information about landscape structure and mosaic. Thereby it is facilitated to understand
landscape characteristic. Landscape metrics provide numerical expression for landscape change and
fragmentation Benliay and Yıldırım, . Landscape metrics consist of three levels. These are patch, class
(patch type) and landscape. In order to realizing the purpose of measuring landscape pattern, there are
various metrics. These are area/edge, shape, core area, contrast, aggregation, subdivision, isolation at each
level and diversity metric only at landscape level.

When studies about fragmentation and change determination were investigated, commonly used metrics
were designated. These are class area (CA), number of patch (NP), Mean Patch Size (MPS), the largest patch
index (LPI). Furthermore, fragmentation analyze was done by using only effective mesh size, one of
aggregation metrics.

DISCUSSION

In this essay, thirty-five studies made in Turkey was examined and issues associated with landscape change,
land cover/ land use change, change in coastal area was researched. Although these studies are field of
studies in landscape architecture, different disciplines, such as geography, geomatics engineering, forest
engineering, surveying engineering and photogrammetry engineering etc., deal with. Studies associated with
nature protection have gained momentum in the 2000s.

Leser (1997) regards the landscape ecosystem as a spatial pattern of abiotic, biotic and anthropogenic
components which form a functional entity and serve as human s environment Bastian, .
Anthropogenic factors affect abiotic and biotic factors. Many studies were begun to perform in order to take
the necessary measures for protection when negative effects on nature done unconsciously by human were
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noticed. Firstly, landscape change tried to be detected by using GIS methods, including area/percentage
account. After that, various method have been developed such as landscape metrics. These studies aim to
determinate how landscape change effects habitat/biotope. Forman and Gordron state that Normally,
patch in a landscape are plant and animal communities, that is, assemblage of species Forman and Godron,
1986, p.83). Therefore vegetation and research of geobotanik is of great importance for performing landscape
planning, one of the most important branch of landscape architecture called as creative natural
conservation by (ackett . Thus landscape ecology and geobotanik should form the basis for studies
on landscape analysis, landscape changes, landscape development and landscape management especially as
the central European countries done. With the references to this idea, a holistic approach including CBS and
other methods for detecting change should run together with vegetation studies.

REFERANCES

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ed.), Chapter 4, Springer-Science+Business Media, B.Y., DOI 10.1007/978-94-017-1237-8, (169-180)
BENLİAY, A., Y)LD)R)M, E., , Peyzaj Planlama Çalışmalarında Peyzaj Metriklerinin Kullanımı, Türk Bilimsel
Derlemeler Dergisi 6 (1): 07-11, 2013,
CUSHMAN, S. A. and HUETTMANN, F., 2010, Landscape Ecology: Past, Present, and Future, Spatial Complexcity,
İnformatics And Wildlife Conservation, )N: CUS(MAN, S.A. ed. , EVANS, J.S. ed. , and MCGARİGAL, K.
ed.), Chapter 4, Springer, New York, DOI 10.1007/978-4-431-87771-4, 65-82
ÇEPEL, N., 1992, Doğa ve Çevre Ekolojisi ve İnsanlığın Ekolojik Sorunları, Altın Kitaplar Yayınevi, )SBN -
405-348-0
DENİZ, B., KÜÇÜKERBAŞ, E.V., EŞBA( TUNCAY, (., , Peyzaj Ekolojisine Genel Bakış, ADÜ Adnan
Menderes Üniversitesi) Ziraat Fakültesi Dergisi, 3(2):5-12.
DRAMSTAD, W. E., OLSON, J. D., FORMAN, R.T.T., 1996, Landscape Ecology Principles in Landscape Architecture
and Land-Use Planning, Island Press, USA
FARİNA, A., , Principles And Methods In Landscape Ecology: Toward A Science Of Landscape, Springer
Press, ISBN-10 1-4020-3328-1
FORMAN, R.T.T., 1995, Land Mosaics: The Ecology Of Landscape And Regions, Cambridge University Press,
İngiltere, )SBN: -0-521-47980-6, (3-40,43).
FORMAN, R.T.T., GODRON, M., 1986, Landscape Ecology, Wiley&Suns Press
GÖZCELİOĞLU, B., T“rkiye’nin Biyoçeşitliliği, Bilim Teknik dergisi, Tubitak
http://www.bilimteknik.tubitak.gov.tr/sites/default/files/posterler/biyocesitlilik.pdf. [Ziyaret Tarihi:
26.08.2015]
HACKETT, B., 1971, Landscape Planning: An Introduction to Theory and Practice, Oriel Press
KOR, A., 2011, Koruma Alanı Yanındaki (ızlı Kentleşmenin Peyzaj Ekolojisi Yaklaşımı İle İrdelenmesi, Yüksek
Lisans Tezi,İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi, Fen Bilimleri Enstit“s“, Peyzaj Mimarlığı Anabilim Dalı,
İstanbul, .
LİNDENMAYER D.B., and Fischer, J., , (abıtat Fragmentatıon And Landscape Change: An Ecologıca L And
Conservatıon Synthesıs, )sland PRESS, Washington • Covelo • London, (syf:15-24)
MCGARİCAL, K, TAGİL, Ş, and CUS(MAN, S.A., , Surface Metrics: An Alternative to Patch Metrics
For the Quantification of Landscape Structure, Landscape Ecol 24:433–450, DOI 10.1007/s10980-009-9327-y,
Springer.
NURLU, E., 2011, Peyzaj Planlama. Basılmamış Ders Notları . Ege Üniversitesi, Ziraat Fak“ltesi, Peyzaj
Mimarlığı Böl“m“, Bornova, İzmir.
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341-74-5, Ankara.
ŞENOL, S., Uzaktan Algılama Ve Coğrafi Bilgi Sistemlerinin T“rkiye Topraklarının (aritalanması Ve Veri
Tabanının Oluşturlmasında Kullanım Olanakları, Çukurova Üniversitesi, Ziraat Fakültesi, Toprak
Böl“m“ ADANA. Uzaktan Algılama UA , http://www.slideserve.com/varana/prof-dr-suat-enol-
ukurova-niversitesi-ziraat-fak-ltesi-toprak-b-l-m-adana [Ziyaret Tarihi: 20.08.2015].
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And Process, Springer-Verlag, New York, ISBN:0-387-95123-7

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Marine Coastal Development Sustainability 18-20 September

Non-Wood Forest Products With Scots Pine In Importance As Some Vascular Plant Taxa
(Artvin-Ardahan)

Ergül Bozkurt, Arzu 1; Yılmaz, Murat 1; Usta, Ayhan1; Kocamanoğlu, Yavuz Okunur1

1Karadeniz Technical University, Faculty of Forest, 61080 Trabzon, Turkey


arzu.ergulbozkurt@ktu.edu.tr.

Abstract

This study was carried out in some regions (Arhavi-Hopa (Arhavi), Ardahan-Yalnızçam that were classified in
terms of ecologically different growing environment where Scots Pine is naturally found. With this study,
whether our country’s natural vegetal sources can be used as natural source or not has been tried to be
indicated. The strategies related with benefit from 25 vascular plant taxa that were found at the end of the study
in the condition of in-use stability in their natural environment. In this context, by determining the ecological
requirements of the plant taxa soil, climate, altitude…etc. a data base about how to produce in the same
environment without time and economical decreasing has been tried to be formed. Only four of them through
these identified taxa can be found both areas without effecting different ecological situations. Ardahan is in the
East Anatolian region and Kars represents the growing area. Artvin (Hopa- Arhavi) is in the Black sea Region,
Rize-Kaçkar Mountains represent growing areas and Rize-Hopa represents sub-growing areas. The usage of
species which is grown in different ecological condition and species which is also grown in different condition
regardless of ecological condition has been studied to determine in this study. As did in this study, it is obligatory
that the using of interdisciplinary studies results which help to show their ecological requirements as well as the
natural source components in regards with natural stability and ecosystem continuity.

Key words: Natural, Scots Pine, Ecology, Artvin, Ardahan.

INTRODUCTION

Relation of humanity with nature dates back to as old as the history of existence. While nature could meet all
the needs of deed, fuel and food of human in the past, based on the technological developments synthetic and
hormonal products have taken the place of natural products due to being economic in the current living
conditions. However, health problems increasing day by day indicate that as humanity move away from
nature and do not use the natural products to meet their needs, a healthy life is out of the question. Therefore,
balance of nature-human is attempted to be re-established. Many current scientific studies are supporting this
condition. Ethnobotanical and medical importance of the herbal products obtained from nature is studied in
sciences of forestry, agriculture, medicine, pharmacy and chemistry.

It is attempted to present the conditions of some plant taxa we will utilize as food from nature in different
habitats using different scientific disciplines in the present study conducted. Moreover, in what way and for
what purpose this plant taxa would be used were examined within the scope of this study.

MATERIALS AND METHODS


Research Area

The study was conducted in Arhavi and (opa districts of Artvin and Sarıçam Scotch pine forest ecosystems
in Ardahan. Arhavi-Hopa research area depends on Arhavi Forestry Department of Artvin Regional Forest
Directorate while Ardahan-Yalnızçam research area depends on Göle Forestry Department of Erzurum
Regional Forest Directorate.

Arhavi-Hopa research area is located between the north latitude of 41 o 10' - 41o 30' and east longitude of 41o
10' - 41o 40'. Ardahan research area is located between the north latitude of 40 o 50' - 41o 10' and east
longitude of 42o 10' - 42o 40' (Figure 1).

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Figure 1: Location of the research areas

(abitat regions of the research areas were evaluated according to Kantarcı (2005), wherein Ardahan-
Yalnızçam is located in Kars (abitat Region of the Eastern Anatolia Region while Arhavi-Hopa research area is
located in Rize-Kaçkar Mountains Habitat Region in the Eastern Black Sea Section of the Black Sea Region,
Rize-Hopa Sub-Region. Bedrock of Ardahan-Yalnızçam research area is Andesite while it is in the form of
Dacitic breccia and tuffs in Arhavi-(opa Çepel, ; Keleş, ; Kopriviea, .

Thornthwaite climate analysis was conducted utilizing climate data of Hopa meteorological station for
Arhavi-Hopa research area (Table 1). According to Thornthwaite climate analysis, climate type of Hopa is
found as "the climate determined with the symbols "AB'2rb'4" which is very humid and mesothermal, has no
or little water deficit, and close to oceanic climate". As will be seen from the Table, there is no water deficit in
Hopa where research area is present. Average annual precipitation amount of Hopa is 2230 mm and
vegetation period is eight months. Average drought index is 44.5 in vegetation period, wherein it is Humid
compared to Erinç (1957-1984).

Table 1: Climate analysis of Hopa according to Thornthwaite method


Climate Months Vegetation
index I II III IV V VI VII VIII IX X XI XII In Out Ann
ual
Temperatur 12, 15, 19, 22, 22, 19, 15, 11,
7,2 6,9 8,2 9,1 14,2
e°C 2 7 8 5 5 3 4 8
PET 16, 15, 24, 48, 79, 11 13 12 88, 58, 33, 22, 679, 79, 759,
5 6 9 2 0 1,2 5,2 6,3 0 2 9 4 9 4 3
Precipitation 19 16 13 87, 93, 15 14 18 25 32 25 23 149 73 223
(mm) 9,9 6,7 8,0 2 0 5,4 2,8 3,5 1,5 2,8 6,3 2,9 2,5 7,5 0,0
Storage Diff - - - - - - - - - - - -
Storage 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 100,
(AWC) 0,0 0,0 0,0 0,0 0,0 0,0 0,0 0,0 0,0 0,0 0,0 0,0 0
Actual ET 16, 15, 24, 48, 79, 11 13 12 88, 58, 33, 22, 679, 79, 759,
5 6 9 2 0 1,2 5,2 6,3 0 2 9 4 9 4 3
Water
- - - - - - - - - - - - 0,0 0,0 0,0
Deficiency
Surplus 18 15 11 39, 14, 44, 57, 16 26 22 21 812, 65 147
7,6
water 3,4 1,1 3,1 0 0 2 2 3,5 4,6 2,4 0,5 6 8,1 0,7
Number of
0,0
dry days
Drought 33, 47, 55, 61, 56, 43, 33, 24,
29,7
index IM 4 4 4 5 7 4 9 6

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Thornthwaite climate analysis was conducted utilizing data of Ardahan meteorological station (URL 2.) for
Ardahan-Yalnızçam research area Table . According to Thornthwaite climate analysis, climate type of
Ardahan is found as "the climate determined with the symbols "C2C'2rb'2" which is sub-humid and
microthermal, has no or little water deficit, and close to continental climate". As will be seen from the Table,
there is 26.5 mm water deficit in Ardahan where research area is present in September. The fact that although
average annual precipitation amount of Ardahan is low (544.4 mm) vegetation period of the same lasts as
short as four months provides average drought index to be high (46.1-Humid compared to Erinç) in this
period.

Table 2: Climate analysis of Ardahan according to Thornthwaite method


Climate Months Vegetation
index Annu
I II III IV V VI VII VIII IX X XI XII In Out al
Temperat - -
12, 16, 16, 12, - -
ure ° C 11, 10, -4,0 4,6 9,2 6,4 3,7
7 3 3 2 0,2 7,9
4 2
PET 31, 65, 87, 110 103 69, 35, 371 132 504,
0,0 0,0 0,0 0,0 0,0
0 6 8 ,7 ,4 6 9 ,5 ,6 1
Precipitat 16, 22, 29, 52, 83, 89, 69, 54, 32, 39, 28, 24, 246 297 544,
ion (mm) 9 3 5 2 5 3 9 8 5 7 9 9 ,5 ,9 4
Storage - - -
16, 22, 28, 24,
Diff 3,2 - - - 40, 48, 10, 3,8
9 3 9 9
8 6 6
Storage 74, 96, 100 100 100 100 59, 10, 32, 57, 100,
- 3,8
(AWC) 5 8 ,0 ,0 ,0 ,0 2 6 7 6 0
Actual ET 31, 65, 87, 110 103 43, 35, 345 132 477,
- - - - -
0 6 8 ,7 ,4 1 9 ,0 ,6 5
Water
26, 26,
Deficienc - - - - - - - - - - - 0,0 26,5
5 5
y
Surplus 26, 21, 17, 65,
- - 1,5 - - - - - - 1,5 66,9
water 3 2 9 3
Number
11,
of dry 11,4
4
days
Drought 53, 55, 50, 24,
15,4
index IM 5 4 7 8

Methods
Within the scope of the study, 30 sample areas (Ardahan 15, Artvin 15) determined from the pure Scotch pine
stands in Ardahan and Artvin regions were periodically visited in March-November, 2012. While selecting the
sample areas, elevation steps were taken into account and homogeneous distributions thereof were
attempted to be made. Sample areas selected from Arhavi – Hopa region and Ardahan – Yalnızçam forests
were divided into three elevation steps as 0-200, 200-400 and 400-600 m and 1850-2000, 2000-2150, 2150-
2300 m, respectively; five sample area selections for each elevation step and 30 sample area selections in
total were performed. Some plant taxa evaluated by the locals ethnobotanically were identified. Plant
identifications were made according to Flora of Turkey (Davis, 1965).
Sampling was made in Scotch pine ecosystems where plant taxa are found naturally according to the soil
horizons. A total of 56 soil samples were taken from 13 soil profiles opened in Ardahan-Yalnızçam while
soil samples were taken from 14 soil profiles opened in Arhavi-Hopa. Soil properties such as mechanical
analysis G“lçur, , Kantarcı , moisture constants field capacity, wilting point, useful water capacity
(Gülçur 1974, Karaöz 1989a), pH (1/2.5 H2O), EC (µscm-1) and organic matter (%) (Gülçur, 1974; Karaöz,
1989b) were determined in soil samples.

One Way-Anova test was made in order to compare soil properties of the research areas statistically.

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RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

With the present study conducted, in what way some plant taxa having an ethnobotanical importance are
evaluated in their natural environments and the effect of the ecological factors on these plant taxa were
examined. In addition to the correct and efficient usage of the natural products, growing and producing these
products in similar areas socio-economic development will be at stake. New income possibilities will be
provided to the people in the countryside. However, when climate, elevation, soil properties were examined,
it was detected that some plant taxa would grow even under very different conditions without depending on
these factors. Besides, looking at the areas where plant taxa spread naturally, it is detected that many plant
taxa choose places depending on these ecological conditions but are not naturally available in areas with
different ecological conditions.

Some plant taxa evaluated ethnobotanically in Ardahan-Yalnızçam and (opa-Arhavi regions are shown in
detail in Tables 3, 4 and 5. Plant taxa obtained from the study sites and found in both areas without
depending on habitat properties are Hypericum perforatum, Rubus idaeus subsp. idaeus, Rumex acetocella and
Vaccinium arctostaphylos (Table 5). When common plant taxa obtained from these two study sites were
examined in terms of phytogeographical region, phytogeographical region of only two plant taxa were
determined and these were Euro-Sib. and Eux. el..

Table 3: Some plant taxa having a non-wood importance in pure Scotch pine stands of Arhavi-Hopa region
(Davis, 1965-1985, Güner et. al, 2012a-2012b, Vural et. al., 1997, Deniz, et. al. 2010)
Local / Turkish Phytogeographic
Plant taxa Usage
Name Region
Cistus Defne yapraklı Its leaves are used in the treatment of
Medit. el.
laurifolius laden, Karağan diabetes in the form of infusion.
Its leaves are used in making food and salad.
Plantago major Damarlı ot, Damar
Moreover, its leaves are used in the treatment
subsp. major otu, Sinirotu
of rheumatic pains as decoction.
Rhododendron Zifin, Sarı çiçekli
Eux. el. Apiculture
luteum orman gülü
Rhododendron Komar, Mor çiçekli
Eux. el. Apiculture
ponticum orman gülü
Its fruits are used food. It has an antioxidant
Rubus hirtus Tüntürük Euro-Sib. el.
effect.
Trachystemon
Burğı, Kaldirik Eux. el. Its leaves are used as stuffed leaves and food.
orientalis
Its surface portion is used in making food.
Urtica dioica Cinçar, )sırgan Euro-Sib. el. Moreover, it is wrapped to the aching area for
the treatment of rheumatic pains.

Table 4: Some plant taxa having a non-wood importance in pure Scotch pine stands of Ardahan-Yalnızçam
(Davis, 1965-1985, Güner et. al, 2012a-2012b, Kocak, 2010)
Local /
Phytogeographic
Plant taxa Turkish Usage
Region
Name
Achillea millefolium
Civanperçemi Euro-Sib. el. It is used as tea.
subsp. millefolium
Beyaz Endemic, Ir.-Tur. It is used for the treatment of asthma
Achillea teretifolia
civanperçemi el. and bronchitis in the form of infusion.
Fragaria vesca Dağ çileği Euro-Sib. el. Its fruits are eaten.
Ribes (biebersteinii)
Kaya çeçemi Eux. el. Its fruits are eaten.
petraeum
Kuşburnu,
Rosa canina Its fruits are a rich source of Vitamin C.
Yabani gül
Rosa (montana subsp.
Has gül Its flowers are used in jam-making.
woronowii) boissieri
Rosa (pimpinellifolia)
Kara kuşburnu Euro-Sib. el. Its fruit is used in tea-making.
spinosissima

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Its fruits are used as tea and


Rosa villosa Sakız g“l“
marmalade.
Rubus saxatilis Köslek Its fruits are eaten.
Rumex patientia Efelek Its leaves are used in salad-making.
Tea is brewed from it. Its leaves are
Salvia staminea Erkek şalba Ir.-Tur. el.
used in making food.
Yabani
Salvia verticillata subsp.
adaçayı, Euro-Sib. el. Tea is brewed from it.
verticillata
Dadırak
Thymus leucotrichus Tea is brewed from it. It is used as
Dağ kekiği
subsp. leucotrichus spice.
Vaccinium myrtillus Ayı “z“m“ Euro-Sib. el. Its fruit is eaten. Marmalade is made.

Table 5: Some plant taxa having a non-wood importance common in pure Scotch pine stands in the research
areas Koçyiğit, 2006; Davis, 1965-1985, Güner et. al, 2012a-2012b).
Local / Turkish Phytogeographic
Plant taxa Usage
Name Region
Hypericum Its leaves are used in the treatment of
Kantaron
perforatum cardio-vascular diseases as decoction.
Rubus idaeus subsp.
Ahududu Euro-Sib. el. Its fruit is used as food.
idaeus
Its sour leaves are used for cooking. It
Rumex acetocella Kuzu Kulağı
is added into salads.
Vaccinium Trabzon çayı, Its fruit is used in marmalade-making
Eux. el.
arctostaphylos Likarba, and as food

Climate
In the study, studies were conducted in the habitats where different ecological conditions are dominant.
Average annual precipitation amount in Arhavi-Hopa research area receiving effect of the sea is 2230 mm
while it is 544.4 mm in Ardahan where continental climate is dominant. The fact that the elevations of the
research areas are different (Arhavi-Hopa 0 - 600 m, Ardahan 1850 - 2300 m) means that vegetation periods
of the two research areas will be different, as well. It is expected that this will affect the plant taxa positively
or negatively. However, it is observed that some taxa are in both research areas in the plant taxa studies
conducted. It is seen that of these plant taxa, Hypericum perforatum, Rubus idaeus subsp. idaeus, Rumex
acetocella and Vaccinium arctostaphylos accompany Scotch pine forest ecosystem in both research areas.
Evaluating the fact that these plant taxa are in both research areas ecologically suggests that they can grow in
different habitats as well. As also will be seen from Thornthwaite climate analyses, looking at the vegetation
periods of both research areas, vegetation period of Arhavi-Hopa research area is determined as eight months
while it is as four months in Ardahan. Looking at the average annual precipitation amount can be mistaken.
Therefore, the evaluations to be made based on the vegetation period affecting the growth of the plants will
be more appropriate. As will be seen from the climate analyses, average drought index of Arhavi-Hopa
research area in vegetation period was 44.5 (Humid compared to Erinç) while average drought index of
Ardahan was 46.1 (Humid compared to Erinç). This indicates that both research areas where these plant taxa
are present are "humid".

Soil Properties
Average and the other statistical results of the soil properties for the research areas are given in Table 6.

Table 6: Some statistical results of the research areas


95% Confidence Interval
Std. for Mean
Soil Properties Research Area N Mean
Deviation Upper
Lower Bound
Bound
Arhavi-Hopa 56 57,0 12,9 53,6 60,5
Sand%
Ardahan-Yalnızçam 53 50,3 13,9 46,4 54,1
Arhavi-Hopa 56 17,4 6,8 15,6 19,2
Silt%
Ardahan-Yalnızçam 53 19,9 6,9 18,1 21,8
Arhavi-Hopa 56 26,3 10,9 23,3 29,2
Clay%
Ardahan-Yalnızçam 53 29,8 12,0 26,5 33,1
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Field Capacity Arhavi-Hopa 56 30,5 3,8 29,5 31,5


% Ardahan-Yalnızçam 53 41,0 13,8 37,1 44,8
Arhavi-Hopa 56 18,8 4,2 17,7 19,9
Wilting Point %
Ardahan-Yalnızçam 53 26,9 12,6 23,4 30,4
Available Water Arhavi-Hopa 56 11,4 4,1 10,3 12,5
Capacity% Ardahan-Yalnızçam 53 13,7 6,2 12,0 15,4
Organic Matter Arhavi-Hopa 56 4,6 4,6 3,4 5,8
% Ardahan-Yalnızçam 53 6,8 5,9 5,1 8,4
Arhavi-Hopa 56 4,6 0,2 4,5 4,6
pH
Ardahan-Yalnızçam 53 5,6 0,4 5,5 5,8
E. Conductivity Arhavi-Hopa 56 72,9 211,5 16,2 129,5
µs/cm Ardahan-Yalnızçam 53 81,6 67,8 62,9 100,3

Significant differences were detected in ANOVA (One Way) test made for comparing the soil properties of the
research areas. Accordingly, soil properties such as sand (%), field capacity (%), wilting point (%), useful
water capacity (%), organic matter (%) and pH were statistically different in both research areas (Table 7).

Table 7: ANOVA-One Way analysis results of the research areas

Sum of Squares df Mean Square F Sig.


Sand% Between Groups 1241,629 1 1241,629 6,913 0,010
Within Groups 19218,683 107 179,614
Total 20460,312 108
Silt% Between Groups 177,134 1 177,134 3,778 0,055
Within Groups 5016,187 107 46,88
Total 5193,321 108
Clay% Between Groups 338,07 1 338,07 2,595 0,110
Within Groups 13941,783 107 130,297
Total 14279,853 108
Field Cap.% Between Groups 2966,941 1 2966,941 29,497 0,000
Within Groups 10762,394 107 100,583
Total 13729,334 108
Wilting Point% Between Groups 1784,022 1 1784,022 20,596 0,000
Within Groups 9268,368 107 86,62
Total 11052,39 108
Available Water Between Groups 146,093 1 146,093 5,343 0,023
Cap.% Within Groups 2925,599 107 27,342
Total 3071,692 108
OM% Between Groups 129,363 1 129,363 4,586 0,034
Within Groups 3018,038 107 28,206
Total 3147,401 108
pH Between Groups 30,76 1 30,76 287,086 0,000
Within Groups 11,465 107 0,107
Total 42,225 108
EC Between Groups 2064,387 1 2064,387 0,082 0,775
Within Groups 2699961,718 107 25233,287
Total 2702026,104 108

When minimum and maximum average values of the soil properties are taken into account at a confidence
level of 95%, sand rate varies between 53.6 - 60.5% in Arhavi-Hopa and between 46.4 - 54.1% in Ardahan-
Yalnızçam; useful water capacity varies between . - 12.5% in Arhavi-Hopa and between 12.0 - 15.4% in
Ardahan-Yalnızçam; organic matter amount varies between . - 5.8% in Arhavi-Hopa and between 5.1 -
8.4% in Ardahan-Yalnızçam; p( amount varies between . - 4.6 in Arhavi-Hopa and between 5.5 - 5.8 in
Ardahan-Yalnızçam (Table 6).

REFERENCES
73
1st International Conference, on Sea and Coastal Development in The Frame of Sustainability
MACODESU 2015 Karadeniz Technical University, Turkey
Marine Coastal Development Sustainability 18-20 September

Anonim, . Meteoroloji İşleri Genel M“d“rl“ğ“.


Çepel ve Ark., . T“rkiye nin Önemli Yetişme Bölgelerinde Saf Sarıçam Ormanlarının Gelişimiİle Bazı
Edafik ve Fizyografik Etkenler Arasındaki İlişkiler, T“rkiye Bilimsel ve Teknik Araştırma Kurumu,
Tarım ve Ormancılık Araştırma Grubu, Proje No: TOAG , TBTAK Yayınları No: , TOAG Seri No:
65, Ankara.
Davis, P.H., 1965-1985. Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean Islands. Volumes 1-9, Edinburgh University
Press, Edinburgh.
Deniz, et. Al., . Uşak Üniversitesi ve Yakın Çevresindeki Bazı Bitkilerin Mahalli Adları ve Etnobotanik
Özellikleri, AKÜ Fen Bilimleri Dergisi 2010-01, 57-72.
Erinç, S. . Tatbiki Klimatoloji ve T“rkiye nin İklim Şartları, İTÜ (idrojeoloji Enstit“s“, İstanbul.
Erinç, S., . Klimatoloji ve Metotları, İ.T.Ü. Deniz Bilimleri ve Coğrafya Enstit“s“, İstanbul.
G“lçur, F. . Toprağın Fiziksel ve Kimyasal Analiz Metodları, İstanbul Üniversitesi Orman Fak“ltesi
Yayınları, İ. Ü. Yayın No: , O. F. Yayın No: , Kutulmuş Matbaası, İstanbul.
Güner et al. 2012a A. Güner, S. Aslan, T. Ekim, M. Vural – M. T. Babaç, 2012.Türkiye Bitkileri Listesi Damarlı
Bitkiler . İstanbul.
Güner et al. 2012b A. G“ner, B. Akyıldırım, M. F. Alkayış, B. Çıngay, S. S. Kanoğlu, A. M. Özkan – M. Öztekin,
T“rkçe Bitki Adları . Eds. A. G“ner et al., T“rkiye Bitkileri Listesi Damarlı Bitkiler . İstanbul.
Kantarcı M.D., . T“rkiye nin Yetişme Ormanı Bölgesel Sınıflandırması ve Bu Birimlerdeki Orman Varlığı
ile Devamlılığının Önemi, İstanbul Üniversitesi Orman Fak“ltesi Yayınları, İ.Ü. ayın Nu: , O.F. Yayın
Nu , İstanbul.
Kantarcı, M. D. . Toprak İlmi, İstanbul Üniversitesi, Orman Fak“ltesi Yayınları, İ.Ü. Yayın No: , O.F.
Yayın No: , İstanbul.
Karaöz M.O., 198 b. Toprağın Bazı Kimyasal Özelliklerinin Analiz Metotları p(, Karbon, Tuzluluk, Organik
Madde, Toplam Azot, Kullanılabilir Azot , İ.Ü. Orman Fak“ltesi Yayınları, Seri B, Cilt , Sayı , –82,
İstanbul, T“rkiye.
Karaöz, M.O., a. Toprakların Su Ekonomisine İlişkin Bazı Fiziksel Özelliklerin Laboratuvarda Belirlenmesi
Yöntemleri, İ.Ü. Orman Fak“ltesi Dergisi, Seri B, Cilt , Sayı , Sayfa - , İstanbul, T“rkiye.
Keleş ve Ark., . Sarıçam Pinus Sylvestris L. Da Farklı Tohum Kaynaklarının Kozalak Özelliklerine Etkisi,
Doğu Akdeniz Ormancılık Araştırma M“d“rl“ğ“ Doa Dergisi Journal Of Doa , Sayfa . Tarsus.
Kocak, et. Al., 2010. Chemical Composition of Essential Oils of Achillea teretifolia Willd. and A. millefolium L.
subsp. millefolium Growing in Turkey. Asian Journal of Chemistry, Vol. 22, No. 5, 3653-3658.
Koçyiğit, M. and Özhatay, N., . Wild Plants Used As Medicinal Purpose in Yalova Northwest Turkey .
Turkish J. Pharm. Sci. 3 (2), 91-103.
Kopriviea, D,,1976. Hopa-Arhavi bölgesinin jeolojisi, yapısal özellikleri ile s“lfit ve manganez zuhurları: MTA
derg,, 87,1=20
URL . Ardahan'ın jeolojisi. http://www.mta.gov.tr. . . .
URL . T.C. Orman ve Su İşleri Bakanlığı Meteoroloji Genel M“d“rl“ğ“, http://www.mgm.gov.tr. 18.06.2015.

Acknowledgements

We would like to express our thanks to Ardahan Forestry Department and Arhavi Forestry Department for
their contributions especially to the realization of the land section of this study conducted.

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Sustainable Exploitation of Aquatic Mollusks


From the Romanian Black Sea Coastline

S)LV)US STANC)U*, FLOR)NA OANA VÎRLĂNUȚĂ*, DEN)Z ZUNGUN**

*Dunărea de Jos University of Galați, Domnească Street, Galati, Romania


**Celal Bayar Universyity, Manisa, Turkey
Email: sstanciu@ugal.ro

Abstract

Romania’s joining the EU has led to the implementation of the EU directive CE / – on designating shellfish
waters appropriate for molluscs growth and exploration. Reducing the quota for turbot in the EU and the
diminished catch of sea species have resulted in the urgent need for identifying new aquatic resources by local
fishermen. The example set by Turkey or Bulgaria that efficiently exploit the sea gastropods resources has been a
challenge for the Romanian fishing sector and, at the same time, an alternative of getting new additional
resources by marketing molluscs on external markets. The present paper aims at providing an economic analysis
of the opportunity of a sustainable fishery of gastropod species in the Romanian Black Sea coastline. The
research conducted in this paper has demonstrated that the available stocks of Mytilus galloprovineialis or
Rapana venosa enable an efficient economic exploitation that does not affect the ecological balance or the long-
term viability of these sea resources. In order to achieve a sustainable exploitation, the correlation between the
quantity of catch and the natural evolution of the analysed species is highly required as well as the
implementation of some environmentally friendly fishing methods. The analysis of Turkish fishery activities,
which have a long tradition in this field, has proven to be useful in assessing the economic efficiency of exploiting
these aquatic resources, new for the Romanian fishing sector.

Keywords: gastropods, fishing, economic efficiency, sustainable development

AIMS AND BACKGROUND

The present article proposes an assessment of the Romanian Black sea coast available sea molluscs and of the
economic impact on the local sector development. The EC recommendation regarding the 15% reduction of
the turbot fishing quota allotted to Romania within the fishing quota for the Black Sea fish stocks led to the
need for identifying new feasible fishery resources for the local fishermen 1.

According to Venkatesan s opinion 2, molluscs represent only one species out of the large phylum from

the animal kingdom, within which there are between 80,000 and 110,000 species of protostome
invertebrates. The group includes creatures with common features represented by approximately 50,000
gastropods, 15,000 bivalves, 500 polyplacophora, 400 cephalopods, 130 aplacophora and 5 monoplacophora,
out of which almost 50% are specific to the sea environment. From an economic point of view, marine
molluscs may represent a substantial income source for the fishing sector and for the riparian population of
seas and oceans. The edible molluscs represent an important feeding source, being used from ancient times in
human nutrition as a valuable source of nutrients (Colonesea et al, 2011) 3. The rapid pace of growth, the
diversity and the high degree of availability are arguments in favour of considering molluscs as a potential
solution for humanity s need for food. Oysters, clams, scallops, mussels, octopuses and squids are often
perceived as culinary delights. The research carried out by Lloret (2010)4 and Lordan et al. (2011)5
demonstrate that, by their complex chemical composition and by the beneficial effects on the human body,
some molluscs may be recommended as being helpful in treating some diseases, as they are complex
functional types of food. Some species of molluscs may represent valuable raw materials for the
pharmaceutical industry in view of obtaining some nutritional supplements, of separating some valuable
ingredients (Merdzhanova et al, 2014)6 or of making some new generations of medicines (Badiu et al, 2010) 7.
The use of molluscs in order to monitor environment conditions may be useful in order to identify heavy
metal contamination of the sea (Culha and Bat, 2010; Oros and Gomoiu, 2012) 8,9 or river waters (Blagojevica
et al, 2014)10. Other domains in which sea molluscs may be used are the jewellery or the clothing accessory
industries (Venkatesan, 2010)11 or the manufacture of building materials (Barrosa et al, 2009)12. If we take
into consideration the decrease in fishery resources, fishing and the Black Sea sea mollusc marketing may
represent attraction points for the riverside countries.
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Up to the present, 500 species of molluscs have been inventoried for the whole Black Sea (Bologa and Sava,
2010)13. Mussels are the most required mollusc by the peoples living by the Black Sea, and the mussel banks
are a rich source of larvae and spar for aquaculture. The Black Sea mollusc catch is represented by the
commercial value species: the mussel Mytilus galloprovineialis, the scallops Chamelea gallina, Tapes spp, or the
whelk Rapana venosa (European Parliament, 2010)14. At present, the Turkish fisheries usually collect
molluscs from the species Venus gallina, Rapana venosa, Ostrea edulis, Tapes decussatus, Mytilus
galloprovineialis, Modiolus barbatus, Venus verrucosa și Arca sp., in view of processing and marketing15. Mytilus
galloprovincialis și Rapana venosa are the most important molluscs caught for consumption and marketing on
the Bulgarian coast, the oyster species Ostrea sublamellosa and Ostrea taurica having a low economic
importance16. There are no recent data regarding Black Sea mollusc catch by Ukraine or by Georgia, and the
quantities caught before 1995 are insignificant.

EXPERIMENTAL

The information related to the Romanian mollusc production was collected from scientific articles, research
projects carried out by the specialised national institutes, official documents issued by the authorities or by
professional associations, statistical databases or other credible sources. The collected data were ordered and
processed by using statistical methods. The obtained results were discussed and interpreted, the conclusions
being compared to the results from the specialised literature.

Monitoring the marine mollusc population with a significant economic value


In Romania, mollusc fishing is less developed, the interest of the local fishermen for this domain being
relatively new. There isn t any tradition in mollusc consumption among the local population. Mollusc
consumption is sporadic, the great majority of production being intended for export to the Asian market.
Seafood is encountered only in the menus of some restaurants or in the specialised areas of some shops or
supermarkets. Joining the EU imposed the correlation of national legislation with the EU regulations,
including in the fishing domain. Thus, the directive 79/923/EEC, replaced by the 2006/113/EC Directive
(Shellfish Waters, 2006)17, urges the member states to designate some marine areas for raising and exploiting
molluscs and to monitor the physical and chemical parameters specific to marine waters; this directive was
implemented at a national level by correlating the national legislation with the EU legislation (HG 201/2002,
completed with HG 467/2006). According to the OM 1950/2007/38/2008, there have been delimited four
coastal marine areas in order to raise and exploit molluscs, with a surface of approximately 567 Mm 2 (table no
1), in which the Technical norms regarding water quality for molluscs are applied (figure 1). According to the
research carried out by Roșioru et al 18, Romania complies with the quality conditions imposed to the

Black Sea coastal waters, necessary for developing high quality molluscs, intended for human consumption.
The national trade mollusc monitoring programme focuses on two species which present an economic
interest: lamellibranchiates (the species Mytilus galloprovincialis) and gastropods (the species Rapana
venosa). In order to assess the quality of the molluscs that present an economic interest, the requests
specified by the Government of Romania (2014)19 are applied by means of the HG 201/2002 referring to
heavy metal, pesticide and microbial pathogen contamination, as well as to the status of habitats in the
interest areas, and to the physical and chemical parameters (temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen,
nutrients, total hydrocarbons, organochlorine substances, heavy metals, faecal coliforms).

Table. 1. Coastal maritime areas intended for mollusc raising and exploitation
Area Surface Molluscs that present an economic importance (according to the
(Mm2) Directive 78/923/CEE, HG 201/2002, HG 467/2007)
Sulina - Sfântu Gheorghe 142 Mytilus galoprovincialis Lamarck 1819 (the mussel)
Perișor - Chituc 215 Lentidium mediterraneum, O.G. Costa, 1829
Năvodari - Port 109 Mya arenaria Linnaeus,1758
Constanța Anadara inaequivalvis Bruguiere,1789
Agigea - Mangalia 101 Cerastoderma edule Linnaeus,1758
Total surface 567 Rapana venosa Valenciennes 1846
Source Own research, relying on the Directive 78/923/CEE and on the national legislation in force

The Basin Management Plan drawn up by DADL Dobrogea (2009) 20 does not mention a specific protection
legislation of the four areas, but they are included in the Natura 2000 Programme, in accordance with the
Section Natural and species habitat preservation from the (abitats Directive / /CEE. The species
Mytilus galoprovincialis, Lentidium mediterraneum, Cerastoderma edule și Mya arenaria are specific to the
Black Sea, being frequently mentioned in the specialised literature. The other mollusc species are invasive
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and they recently appeared in the Romanian maritime area. The competition with the native species led to the
appearance of an imbalance within the native mollusc and fish populations. At present, according to Preda et
al (2007)21, there are some attempts to acclimatize the Japanese oyster species Crassostrea gigas (Thunberg
1793), within some aquaculture programs unfolded in the areas 3 and 4.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

The main bent taxon in the Black Sea is the Mytilus galoprovincialis, a trophic resource for the malacofagous
species, with a considerable exploitation potential for human nutrition. The quantitative and size structure
analysis of the mussel populations from the Romanian coastal area, carried out by Roșioru et al 22,

reflects certain particularities referring to the abundance and share of the malacologic segment depending on
depth. The assessment of the available resources was carried out in areas which were economically suitable
for collection with the help of specialised divers, i.e. at the artificial hydro technical structures from the areas
Cap Midia, Constanța și Agigea.

Figure 1. Coastal maritime areas for Black Sea mollusc raising and exploitation
Source Roșioru et al 23

In general, in the mussel population structure, the small and medium size mussels are prevalent (under 20
and 40 mm. respectively), which represents between 48.9% and 99% out of the total number of mussels per
surface unit, due to the instability of the abiotic factors and to the pronounced hydro dynamism. The average
distribution of the mussel population on a vertical structure from 0 to 16 m. on a protection dam is presented
in Figure 2.

Figure 2. The mussel population distribution on the dam wall (mussels/sqm)


Source: Drawn up by the authors by relying on the GeoEco Mar data (2013) 24

The general characteristic of bivalve species is of a decrease in number as the water is deeper, ranging
between 10,000 and 20,000 samples/sqm. The samples which are bigger than 50 mm have an average share
of 6% out of the total number of mussels, the maximum abundance being recorded in the 2-10 m., the density
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being smaller as the water is deeper. The medium biomasses for the majority of depth levels are between 25
and 30 kg./sqm, with a maximum weight of 58 kg./sqm at a depth of 2 m. Although mussels with a size bigger
than 50 mm. are relatively few as compared to the other size classes, their share in the total assessed biomass
from the dam s wall is of approximately %, with a medium biomass of . kg./sqm figure no. .

Figure 3. The general structure of the mussel populations from the Romanian coastal area
Source drawn up by the authors by relying on the GeoEco Mar data (2013) 25

The mussel population density average value correlation in the assessed locations with the surface of the
dams leads to the determination of some available stocks of 11,375 tons, out of which the mussels bigger than
50 mm. are more than 6,718 tons. The values are estimated due to the difficulty in converting the hard layer
mussel coverage percentage and to the ruggedness of the hard artificial surfaces.

Table 2. Stocks available of Mytilus galoprovincialis associated with the hard artificial layer
Location The length of Maximum Total surface of The biomass Mussel
the sector (m) depth (m) hard layer (sqm) (kg/sqm) stocks (tons)
Cap Midia - the S-E 6,825 10 68,250 18.97 1,295
external side
The external defence dam 7,800 24 374,400 17.19 6,435
Constanța (arbour
The south external 5,550 23 127,660 28.56 3,648
defence dam Constanța
Sud Agigea Harbour
Total 20,175 383,100 11,375
Source drawn up by the authors by relying on the GeoEco Mar data (2013)26

In order to correctly assess the exploitable mussel stocks in the analysed sector, there are some ecological
factors that must be taken into consideration, which are specific to the surface of the water (the hydro
dynamics of the amounts of water, the big temperature differences between summer and winter, the frost and
long emersion) or to the depth of the water (the quantity of organic suspensions and of continuously re-
deposited minerals, which favour the warping of the colonies).

The predictive analysis of the mussel population associated to the areas with a natural hard layer from Agigea
-Eforie Nord, Tuzla and Costinești, carried out by relying on the ecological legislation and on the direct
observations made by the benthic communities from the respective aquatoriums, led to the identification of
stocks of approximately 180,000 tons up to the 20 m. isobar limit, out of which the number of mussels over
50 mm. is of over 128,000 tons. The total surface of hard layer used for making the prediction was of 50% of
the total surface (due to the mosaic character of the seabed morphology), and the average percentage of
coverage was considered to be of 0.35 – 0.65%, with a maximum of 0.80% in the analysed areas. The available
predicted quantities in these locations are presented in table 3.
The capitalization of a percentage of 5% of the natural resources of mussels available in the Black Sea
Romanian coastal area would not affect the biological balance of the existent populations, allowing Romania
to obtain an annual production of over 10,000 tons.

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Table 3. Stocks available of Mytilus galoprovincialis associated with the natural hard layer
Location The length of the Maximum The total surface of The biomass Mussel stocks
sector (m) depth (m) hard layer (sqm) (kg/sqm) (tons)
Agigea- Eforie 15.204 20.0 17.5 0.55 73,169
Nord
Tuzla 6.08 17.5 14.45 0.35 15,374
Costinești 17.48 19.0 16.78 0.65 95,338
Total 38.76 58.5 48.73 - 183,882
Source drawn up by the authors by relying on the GeoEco Mar data (2013)27

According to the official regulations, there isn t any prohibition period for mussel fishing, but the period
October-May is recommended. The statistics from the last three years emphasized the existence of
approximately 200 days which are favourable for fishing, period which must be taken into consideration
when drawing up a plan for the industrial capitalization of the mussel.

Rapana Venosa (Valenciennes, 1846), popularly called rapana, represents an invasive species, which comes
from the seas of the Far East, introduced in the Black Sea basin in the period 1930 – 1940. On the Romanian
seaside, rapana was first noticed in 1963, after which a rapid evolution took place, it invaded all the major
biocoenoses of the Black Sea basin Băncioiu et al., quoted by Skolka set al, 2007)28. Rapana is one of the most
active predators from the Black Sea, predominantly consuming the molluscs Mytilus galloprovincialis, Ostrea
sp., Mya arenaria, Venus gallina, Gouldia minima and Pitar rudis (Gomoiu, 2005)29. The large distribution and
the active reproduction in the Black Sea basin is favoured by its resilience to sudden variations in salinity (7-
32 ‰ (Man and Harding, 2003)30 and temperature (4-27 o C) (Mann et al, 2004)31, by its survival after long
periods without food, its capacity to develop at variable depths Teacă et al, 32. Due to its gastronomical

qualities and to the aesthetic characteristics of its shell, it became an object for large-scale exploitation for the
great majority of riverside countries, being largely capitalized in Turkey and Bulgaria. The study performed
by Teacă et al, 33 demonstrates that the biggest populations of rapana are recorded on a stony layer,

with a constant presence at a depth between 4 – 10 m. and a maximum density of population of 10 -12
samples/sqm at a depth of 8 – 10 m. The presence of the species in different areas is connected with the
favourite source of food – the mussel nests, numerous populations being recorded at Sfântu Gheorghe – Vadu,
Corbu, Portița and Periteasca. The evolution of the total number of rapana presents slight fluctuations mainly
due to the mussel population dynamics and to the marine water pollution (Figure 4).

Figure 4. The evolution of the Rapana venosa population


Source Drawn up by the authors by relying on data taken from Gomoiu (2005) 34 and Teacă et al, 35

The prediction of stocks must eliminate the potential errors due to the vital cycle of the species and must
follow the evolution of the population in a normal biocenotic environment. Thus, the highest abundance per
surface unit is recorded on a hard layer, towards the end of the summer (August – September), the adults
gathering in a very high number for reproduction and oviposition Teacă et al., 36.

The studies carried out regarding species biometry show that the length and the weight represent ecological
parameters which are correlated in a linear manner with the depth and the food resource availability. Thus,
the small rapanas, smaller or equal to 50 mm, are stationed up to the 4 – 6 m. isobaths, whereas the rapanas
which are bigger than 50 mm. are to be found at greater depths of 8 – 10 m. The size is dependent on the
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potential food of an aquatorium for a certain species, the rapanas with bigger sizes highlighting the existence
of some good feeding conditions (high stocks of molluscs – mussel), which favour a normal evolution of the
predator gastropod population. The rapana stocks from Agigea – Eforie Nord, Tuzla and Costinești were
predicted depending on the surface of the analysed sector, the average density of samples and the average
quantity of biomass per surface unit sqm . The biggest numbers were identified in Agigea and Costinești,
with an average value of 450 tons, the total available value in the analysed sectors being of approximately 980
tons. The rapanas having more than 60 – 70 mm. represent almost 35% of the existent stock value.

Table 4. The assessment of the available Rapana venosa stocks in accessible locations to capture
Location The surface of the Maximum Density Biomass Stock
sector (km2) depth (m) (samples/sqm) g/sqm (tons)
Agigea- Eforie Nord 15.204 20.0 0.3 30 456
Tuzla 6.08 17.5 0.15 15 91.2
Costinești 17.48 19.0 0.25 25 437
Total 38.76 58.5 - - 984.2
Source Drawn up by the authors by relying on the data provided by Teacă, et al . 37 and GeoEco Mar

(2013)38

There aren t any official restrictions prohibition period regarding rapana catch, taking into consideration
the non-specific character of the species for the Black Sea basin and the negative impact on the indigenous
species. The best collection period is June – November, the weather conditions allowing for the unfolding of
the activity approximately 100 days per year.

The mussel and rapana resource collection


The catching of the non-piscicultural Mytilus galloprovincialis and Rapana venosa resources may be done
differentially depending on the nature and surface of different types of layers on which the targeted resources
develop, on the thickness of the deposits, on the streams, on the characteristic biocenoses, on the available
technical facilities or on the main objectives of the collection campaign etc.

The use of the long-distance collecting techniques (dredging) represent an efficient process which involves
low costs and real working time. The negative ecological effects on the associated biota and the irreversible
destruction of ecosystems restrict dredging in the shallow-water coastal areas and limit collections only to
the high species abundance that can be capitalised. In Romania, the method is applied in the case of mollusc
species catch which form shoals on large surfaces, at depths which are greater than 30-40 m., on a
sedimentary layer (the depth mussels).

Direct collection by autonomous divers or by air which is directly pumped to divers (by means of a hookah
system) is an accessible working method recommended for stony seabeds, which are rugged. The main
disadvantages are represented by the short working time of the diver, physical exhaustion or the
physiological complications in the case of the air pumped from the surface. The working methodology used in
the Romanian coastal area in order to exploit the natural stone mussel stocks consists in the scraping of the
malacological material in hand bags that are lifted to the surface and decanted in the boat.

In the case of the rapana, the collection methodology presupposes the identification of the rapanas that can be
sold and their manual collection.

The ecological limitations of the direct collection method impose the avoidance of the abusive catching of the
exploited species, by the scraping of the whole material from the layer and by forbidding collection in the area
which have mostly young rapanas or mussels.

The collected samples are sorted and industrially processed (the elimination of the epibiota, sand trapping,
and packaging in view of marketing). The remained epibiota and the by-products are capitalised separately,
by complying with the conditions imposed by the pollution of the environment.

Business development in the marine mollusc resource capitalisation domain in Romania


According to official statistics, the quantities of mussels or rapana caught in Romania, reported by the
authorised economic agents to practise commercial fishing are insignificant as compared to the potential
existent at the level of natural resources. Thus, in the period 2008 – 2011, there have been collected small
quantities of mussels, between 0.3 and 1 ton.
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Figure 5. Romanian mussels and rapana catch


Source Drawn up by the authors by relying on the MARD, 201539

The year 2011 holds a record of 218 tons of rapana, due mainly to the company SC Patrician Trading SRL
Bucharest, which reports catches of approximately 200 tons. The share of this resource is significant in the
total of the local catches made in the Black Sea, representing over 40 % of the total recorded production of
537.2 tons.

CONCLUSIONS

The analysis of the available locations for the exploitation of the natural stocks of mussels from the artificial
hydrotechnical structures from Cap Midia, Constanța and Agigea highlighted the existence of some potential
stocks of about 11,000 tons, out of which the samples bigger than 50 mm. represent over 6,700 tons. The
value of the total mussel stocks associated with the natural hard layer areas from Agigea-Eforie Nord, Tuzla
and Costinești is of about , tons, out of which the samples that could be capitalised, being bigger than
50 mm, represent over 128,000 tons. Marine mollusc capitalization is only at the beginning in Romania, the
local fishing sector ignoring the existent opportunities from the Community and international market. Thus,
the national mussel production could identify an export niche on the Community market, taking into account
the fact that the annual average imports made by the European Union are of more than 320,000 tons (MERYS,
2013) 40 In the last few years, Romania has made progress in exploiting the Rapana venosa resources and
there has been a substantial increase in catches from 2 tons to approximately 240 tons, but which are mainly
made and capitalised by a single economic agent.

The interest of the local economic agents to develop the non-piscicultural marine product business is low, the
national fishing sector ignoring the natural opportunities that Romania has as a Black Sea riverside state.

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. A. TEACĂ, T. BEGUN, M.T. GOMO)U: The ecological status of Rapana Venosa populations from the
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Acknowledgements

This paper was co-financed from the European Social Fund through Sectorial Operational Programme Human
Resources Development 2007-2013, project POSDRU number /159/1.5/S/138907 "Excellence in scientific
interdisciplinary research, doctoral and postdoctoral school, in the economic, social and medical fields-
EXCELIS", coordinator The Bucharest University of Economic Studies.

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Evaluation of Plant Biodiversity in Wetlands: Lake Uluabat (Apolyont) Sample

Nilufer SEYIDOGLU AKDENIZ*, Aysun CELIK, Murat ZENCIRKIRAN,


Elvan ENDER, Osman ZEYBEK

Uludag University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Landscape Architecture,


16059, Gorukle, Bursa, Turkey
e-mail: nilsem@yahoo.com

Abstract

The Lake Uluabat (Apolyont), which is located in the south of Marmara Sea within the borders of Bursa County,
is on the migratory route of the birds in the north-western direction. It is one of our rare wetlands which is able
to preserve its natural water regime. It was put under protection in 1998 within the scope of Ramsar Convention
(formally, the Convention on Wetlands of International Importance, especially as Waterfowl Habitat) and it
bears the international title of Living Lake . Uluabat is a very rich ecosystem in terms of biodiversity due to both
its convenient climate conditions and having open water surfaces with large reed beds. However, recently it
comes up with the thread against its ecological structure because of highway projects, overfishing, constructions,
industrial and domestic waste. Ensuring its sustainability will be possible with the protection and improvement
of lake’s ecological reserve. )n this study, the plant biodiversity, which is among the ecological reserve sources, of
the Lake Uluabat has been embraced, vegetation existing in the lake ecosystem has been analysed and species
that can be utilised in design projects have been studied through various parameters.

Key Word: Bursa/Turkey, Wetlands, Uluabat (Apolyont) Lake, Plant Diversity, Landscape Design

INTRODUCTION

All waters, marsh areas, reed fields and peatlands, and of those, areas under water ecologically as of their
short edge line are defined as wetlands if they have a maximum depth of 6 meters at the withdrawal stage of
tide movements, and are important as a habitat for the living, especially for water birds, regardless of being
natural or artificial, permanent or temporary, continuous or seasonal, still or flowing, and fresh, hard or salty.
Cırık, ; Tırıl, ; Url-6). Wetlands are one of the most important ecosystems both biologically and
culturally. Many human activities from recreation to transport, habitation to economical activities, and
agriculture to fishery are based on wetlands and also have a determinant role in spatial choices of human
beings. They have many ecological and hydrological functions including providing habitat and food to many
plant and animal species, balancing groundwater, cleaning water, creating positive effects on climatic
elements, stabilizing coastlines, and controlling erosions. (Banner and MacKenzie; ; Tırıl, ; Greb
et.al.. 2006; Url-6)

Wetlands suffer damage from many anthropogenic factors including agriculture, urbanization, mining,
tourism, industry, pollution, and excessive and unplanned use, and must be protected. It is important to
identify whether negative effects of such damages on wetlands are temporary or permanent in terms of
recovery. Attempts to protect wetlands were initiated in s to protect water birds and turned into an
international collaboration upon signing of the Ramsar Convention in 1971. The Ramsar Convention has had
importance in protection and management of wetlands in many countries since 1975 when it entered into
force. The Ramsar Convention involves 147 countries and 129.5 million hectare area is under protection in
1525 Ramsar Areas. Under the Ramsar Convention, there are 14 Ramsar Areas in Turkey including
Sultansazlığı in Kayseri, Lake Manyas in Balıkesir, Lake Seyfe in Kırşehir, the Göksu Delta in Mersin, Lake
Burdur in Burdur and Isparta, the Kızılırmak Delta in Samsun, Lake Uluabat in Bursa, the Gediz Delta in İzmir,
the Akyatan Lagoon in Adana, the Yumurtalık Lagoons in Adana, the Meke Maar and the Kızören Pothole in
Konya, Lake Kuyucuk in Kars, and the Nemrut Kaldera in Bitlis. Tırıl, ; Elmacı et. al ; Url-6)

Lakes included in the Ramsar Areas are important fresh water ecosystems. Unlike stream ecosystems, lakes
vary in terms of their formation, size, and physical and chemical properties. Shallow lakes are usually more
productive than deep ones Tırıl . Lake Uluabat Apolyont being subject matter of our research; which
is on the migration route of birds coming from the northwest and one of our most important lakes; has a high
level of biological productivity and is rich in nutrients and has been announced a Ramsar Area with a Ramsar
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Agreement on 15.04.1998 and included in the Living Lakes network consisting of 19 world-renowned lakes as
of 2001. Lake Uluabat is under the threat of intensive pollution caused by excessive hunting, road projects,
and land improvements made during coastal developments as well as agricultural, industrial and domestic
waste although it has a wetland management plan established with effective participation due to its
biodiversity level. Cınar, ; Unver, ; Url- 7, Url-8). Lake Uluabat and its surroundings have unique
plant species due to their ecological properties. It is one of the richest wetlands of our country especially in
terms of aquatic plants. Almost all sides of the lake are covered by wide reeds while its shallow parts covered
by in-water plants. It is seen that the species Scirpus holoschoenes ( L.) Sayek, Typha latifolia L., Butomus
umbellatus L., and Nymphae alba L. are more common in the lake and its surroundings. The lake has the
widest water lily beds in Turkey. Nymphae alba L. covers a very wide area across the north and the northeast
banks of the lake and at the area where the Mustafa Kemalpaşa Stream enters the lake. There are
Ceratophyllum demersum L., Potamogeton crispus L., Potamogeton perfoliatus L. and Schoenoplectus lacustris
(L.) subsp. lacustris Palla species across the areas covered by water lilies. Cınar,

In this study, botanical biodiversity of Lake Uluabat which has a high level of landscape and biological
diversity and is one of our important wetlands has been evaluated and analyzed, and certain plant species
with a high landscape value available in the lake s ecosystem have been identified, and their esthetical
properties and areas of use have been defined and suggestions have been made to use them in design.

MATERIAL AND METHODS

Lake Uluabat, being the research material, is located between the east coordinates 28° 35' at the west of the
province of Bursa, with a 34 km distance from the city center and with an altitude of 9 m. Having an area of
13.50 ha, the lake is fed by the Mustafakemalpaşa Stream and also combines with the Uluabat Run and the
Susurluk River. Its deepest point is about 4 meters while it has a depth of 1-2 meters in general. Lake Uluabat
and its surroundings are dominated by the Marmara climate and it is hot and receives little rain in summer
while winters are cold and rainy, with an average annual rain of 650 mm. The northern banks of the lake have
a highly indented structure. There are 11 islands within the lake, with their sizes varying from 0.25 ha (Island
(eybeli to ha )sland (alilbey . Figure . At the location where the Mustafakemalpaşa Stream flows
into the lake, a delta has formed which has the richest natural diversity within the lake. There are reeds, sand
plains, seasonal marshy lands and wet meadows in the delta as well as wide willow groves and agricultural
areas. The hills facing to the north of the lake are dominated by maquis shrubland while those facing to the
south dominated by a habitat containing mixed wild olive groves and maquis. Çınar, ; Url-5; Url-6)

Figure 1.Map of Turkey Lake and Lake Uluabat

This study consists of the stages of data collecting, synthesis and assessment. The related literature has been
scanned and herbaceous plant species included in the biodiversity of the lake and the islands have been
identified. Endemics and classification of rare plants by danger category have been made according to the
Red Book for Plants in Turkey and )UCN Red List Categories. Davis, 1965- ; Ekim ve ark. ; Cınar,
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2005; Kaynak et. al. 2005). Species, genus and cultivar distribution of identified plant taxons by their families,
endemism rate, and their distribution by danger categories have been analyzed using the frequency
distribution involved in the SPSS Packaged Software. of the plant taxons, those with a high landscape value
have been selected, and some parameters including their design properties (plant length, height, form,
blooming type and flower color), their light demands, and their areas of use in landscaping have been
identified, and their usability in design has been assessed. (Davis, 1965- ; Cınar, ; Kaynak et. al.
2005; Atik et.al. 2013; Babaç et. al. 2011; Hilty 2015 ; Url-1, Url-2; Url-3; Url-4)

FINDINGS

Distribution of herbaceous plant taxons in the surroundings of Lake Uluabat and the islands
When the surroundings of Lake Uluabat and the islands are evaluated in biodiversity terms, they have a
highly rich biodiversity with 304 genus, 415 species and 166 sub-species and varieties from 67 families. Of
plants available in Lake Uluabat and its surroundings, 21 species are endemic and endemism rate is 36.14%.
The family with the biggest number of species and genus is the Asteraceae family with 14.80% and 13.01%,
respectively while the family with the highest number of sub-species and varieties is the Fabaceae family with
a rate of 18.67%. Some of the families which have only one species and one genus include Araceae,
Aspıdıaceae, Butomaceae Ceratophyllaceae Equısetaceae Plumbagınaceae Portulacaceae with a rate of . %.
It is also found that certain families such as Butomaceae Ceratophyllaceae Cucurbıtaceae Amaranthaceae
Arıstolochıaceae do not have any sub-species or varieties (Table 1).

Table1. Genus, species, subspecies and varieties distribution according to families


Familyalar N Cins dağılımı N T“r dağılımı N Alt tür ve varyete
(%) (%) dağılımı %
Apocynaceae 1 0,33 0 0,00 1 0,60
Araceae 1 0,33 1 0,24 0 0,00
Aspıdıaceae 1 0,33 1 0,24 0 0,00
Butomaceae 1 0,33 1 0,24 0 0,00
Ceratophyllaceae 1 0,33 1 0,24 0 0,00
Cucurbıtaceae 1 0,33 1 0,24 0 0,00
Dıoscoreaceae 1 0,33 0 0,00 1 0,60
Equısetaceae 1 0,33 1 0,24 0 0,00
Gentıanaceae 1 0,33 0 0,00 1 0,60
(aloragıdaceae 1 0,33 1 0,24 0 0,00
Nymphaeaceae 1 0,33 1 0,24 0 0,00
Orchıdaceae 1 0,33 1 0,24 0 0,00
Paeonıaceae 1 0,33 1 0,24 0 0,00
Plumbagınaceae 1 0,33 1 0,24 0 0,00
Polygalaceae 1 0,33 1 0,24 0 0,00
Polypodıaceae 1 0,33 0 0,00 1 0,60
Portulacaceae 1 0,33 1 0,24 0 0,00
Rafflesıaceae 1 0,33 0 0,00 1 0,60
Resedaceae 1 0,33 0 0,00 1 0,60
Sparganıaceae 1 0,33 0 0,00 1 0,60
Zygophyllaceae 1 0,33 1 0,24 0 0,00
Amaranthaceae 1 0,33 4 0,96 0 0,00
Arıstolochıaceae 1 0,33 3 0,72 0 0,00
Asplenıaceae 1 0,33 1 0,24 2 1,20
Chenopodıaceae 1 0,33 2 0,48 1 0,60
Juncaceae 1 0,33 4 0,96 1 0,60
Lınaceae 1 0,33 1 0,24 2 1,20

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Lythraceae 1 0,33 2 0,48 0 0,00


Onagracea 1 0,33 2 0,48 0 0,00
Orabanchaceae 1 0,33 5 1,20 0 0,00
Plantagınaceae 1 0,33 3 0,72 1 0,60
Potamagetonaceae 1 0,33 2 0,48 0 0,00
Prımulaceae 1 0,33 0 0,00 2 1,20
Typhaceae 1 0,33 2 0,48 0 0,00
Vıolaceae 1 0,33 2 0,48 0 0,00
Alısmataceae 2 0,66 2 0,48 0 0,00
Asclepıadaceae 2 0,66 1 0,24 1 0,60
Campanulaceae 2 0,66 0 0,00 2 1,20
Convolvulaceae 2 0,66 2 0,48 1 0,60
Crassulaceae 2 0,66 4 0,96 0 0,00
Euphorbıaceae 2 0,66 10 2,41 1 0,60
Geranıaceae 2 0,66 9 2,17 2 1,20
Polygonaceae 2 0,66 9 2,17 3 1,81
Rutaceae 2 0,66 2 0,48 0 0,00
Solanaceae 2 0,66 3 0,72 1 0,60
Urtıcaceae 2 0,66 4 0,96 0 0,00
Valerıanaceae 2 0,66 2 0,48 0 0,00
Amaryllıdaceae 3 0,99 3 0,72 0 0,00
)rıdaceae 3 0,99 3 0,72 4 2,41
Verbanaceae 2 0,66 3 0,72 0 0,00
Cyperaceae 5 1,64 4 0,96 3 1,81
Papaveraceae 5 1,64 9 2,17 0 0,00
Rosaceae 5 1,64 6 1,45 1 0,60
Rubıaceae 5 1,64 9 2,17 4 2,41
Malvaceae 6 1,97 9 2,17 0 0,00
Dıpsacaceae 6 1,97 6 1,45 3 1,81
Ranunculaceae 7 2,30 17 4,10 4 2,41
Lılıaceae 8 2,63 18 4,34 2 1,20
Scrophularıaceae 10 3,29 16 3,86 8 4,82
Boragınaceae 10 3,29 13 3,13 6 3,61
Caryophyllaceae 11 3,62 11 2,65 8 4,82
Fabaceae 19 6,25 42 10,12 31 18,67
Lamıaceae 20 6,58 25 6,02 22 13,25
Apıaceae 20 6,58 23 5,54 4 2,41
Crucıferaea 23 7,57 22 5,30 6 3,61
Poaceae 32 10,53 27 6,51 14 8,43
Asteraceae 45 14,80 54 13,01 19 11,45
TOPLAM 304 100,00 415 100,00 166 100,00

Lifetime of herbaceous plant taxons


When lifetime of herbaceous plant taxons existing in Lake Uluabat and its surroundings is evaluated, it has
been found that 48,85% of taxons is perennial, 42,46 % annual and 8,69 % biannual (Figure 2).

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Figure 2. Lifetime of herbaceous plant taxons

Evaluation of herbaceous plant taxons by danger categories


As the result of the classification made by danger categories, it has been identified that the biggest category of
plant taxons is LR (Lc) (Least concern) with a rate of 61.90% while 14.29% is LR (nt) (Near threatened), and
9.52% is VU (Vulnerable), and there are no species in the EN (Endangered) category (Figure 3).

Figure 3. Danger categories of herbaceous plant taxons

Landscape value of plant taxons in Lake Uluabat and its surroundings


Of existing plant species in Lake Uluabat and its surroundings, 45 plant types have been selected and their
areas of use and design properties have been identified and given in Table 2. Plant samples which are located
around the Lake Uluabat is given Figure 4.

Agrostemma githago L. Adonis annua L. Anemone blanda Agrimonia eupatoria L.


Schott&Kotschy

Butomus umbellatus L. Dianthus anatolicus Iris pseudacorus L. Lagurus ovatus L.


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Boiss.

Lythrum salicaria L. Mysoton aquaticum (L.) Polygonium persicaria L. Nymphaea alba L.


Moench.

Phlomis russeliana Stachys byzantina Calendula arvensis L. Echinops microcephalus


(Sims.) Bentham. C. Koch. Sm

Veronica persica Poiret Typha latifolia L. Geranium robertianum L. Verbascum


bombyciferum Boiss.
Figure 4. Plant samples which are located around the Lake Uluabat.

Of the specifies selected, those including Typha latifolia, Mentha aquatica, Juncus acutua, Iris pseudocarus,
Juncus acutus, Lythrum salicaria, Nymphaea alba are suitable for use in water gardens and waterfronts, and it
has been found that the said plants can create an esthetical and relaxing effect. It has been identified that the
species Allium neopolitanum, Cymbalaria longipes, Geranium robertianum, Dianthus anatolicus, Phlomis
russeliana, and Sedum album. are suitable for rock gardens while Agrimonia eupotaria, Carex pendula, Nepeta
italica, and Phyla nodiflora are among the species that can be used in half-shadowed environments. The
Phalaris arundinaceae and Arundo donax species that can be used in sloping areas can be preferred for use on
slopes and hillsides for purposes of erosion control. Species which are effective in terms of their form and
flower color including Adonis annua, Alcea setosa, Calendula arvensis, Euphorbia myrsinites, Myosoton
aquaticum, Stachys byzantina, Althaea officinalis, Valeriana dioscoridis, and Leucojum aestrivum can be used in
flower pits and borders. The species Leucojum aestivum, Crocus biflorus Miller. subsp. pulchricolor, and
Butomus umbellatus can be used to create a natural garden feeling while Veronica persica and Psoralea
butiminosa can be used in design as ground covering species.In addition, species such as Echinops
microcephalus, Salvia viridis, Butomus umbellatus and Nigella.

Table 2. Design properties and areas of use of certain plant taxons in Lake Uluabat and its surroundings
Plant Species Plant Plant Flowerin Flower Light Landscape
Form Height g time color request uses
Adonis annua L. Upright 10-50 cm April-June Red, Yellow, Full sun 8-9-11
Columnar White
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Agrimonia eupatoria Tall Up to 100 June- Yellow Full sun- 4-8-9-14


L. Upright cm Septembe Partial
r shade
Agrostemma githago Erect 45-90 cm March- Deep pink- Full sun- 4-6-7-8
L. October Purple Partial
shade
Alcea setosa (Boiss) Erect 150-200 April-June Pink Full sun 8-14-17
Alef. cm
Allium neopolitanum Upright 2-30 cm March- White Full sun 2-3-8-11
Cyr. May
Althaea officinalis L. Erect 0.91- June- Lilac pink Full sun- 8-14
1,22m August Partial
shade
Anemone blanda Upright 15-30 cm March- Violet blue Partial 3-5-6-8-13
Schott&Kotschy Columnar April shade
Arundo donax L. Tall 4-8 m October Purplish Full sun 10-11-14-
Erect 16
Butomus umbellatus L. Upright 1-2 m May- Pink Full sun 5-8-11
Septembe
r
Calendula arvensis L. Upright 15-30 cm January Bright Full sun 4-8-14
June yellow

Carex pendula Upright 1.5-1.8m May-June Yellow Full sun- 8-10-11


Hudson. Partial
shade
Consolida orientalis Upright 45-60 cm May- Dark blue, Full sun 4-8
(Gay) Schröd. August Blue violet
Crocus biflorus Miller. Upright 3-6 cm February- Dark blue, Full sun- 2-3-11-19
subsp. pulchricolor June Violet Partial
shade
Cymbalaria longipes Spreading 10-30 cm March- Violet Full sun- 2-3
(Boiss & Heldr.) May veined Partial
Cheval. palate shade
yellow
Dianthus anatolicus Densely 15-25 cm June-July Pale pink- Full sun 2-3
Boiss. White
Echinops Upright 1-2 m July- Blue violet Partial 4-8-15
microcephalus Sm. Septembe shade
r
Euphorbia myrsinites Upright 35 cm April- Yellow- Full sun 3-8
L. August green
Geranium Erect 50 cm April-June Pink Full sun- 2-3-8-12
robertianum Spreading Partial
shade
Iris pseudacorus L. Erect 100-150 April-May Bright Full sun- 8-10
cm yellow Partial
shade
Juncus acutus L. Upright 150 cm March- Yellowish Partial 10-12
May brown shade
Lagurus ovatus L. Upright 30-50 cm April-June Creamy Full sun 7-8
Tufted white
Lathyrus undulatus Upright 1-2,5 cm June-July Dark Pink Full sun- 2-19
Boiss Creeping Partial
shade
Leucojum aestivum L. Upright 15-20 cm February- White Full sun 2-3-8-11
March
Lythrum salicaria L. Upright 50-100 June- Pale pink Full sun 8-9-10-14
cm August
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Lycopus europaeus L. Upright 15-90 cm June- White Full sun- 10-14


October Near white Partial
shade
Mentha aquatica L: Upright 60-90 cm August Purple Full sun- 4-10
Densely Partial
shade
Mysoton aquaticum Erect- 1-5 cm May-July White Full sun- 1-8
(L.) Moench. Spreading Partial
shade
Nepeta italica L. Upright 15-45 cm June-July Blue, Purple Full sun- 8-10-12
Partial
shade
Nigella orientalis L. Upright 45-65 cm April-May Bright Sun 8-15
yellow
Nymphaea alba L. Erect 30-150 May- White Full sun- 10
cm Septembe Partial
r shade
Ornithogalum Upright 10-20 cm March- White Full sun 1-3-8
montanum Cyr. May
Phalaris arundinacea Upright 60-150 May- Red Sun 2-8-10-16
L. cm Septembe purplish
r
Phlomis russeliana Upright 60-90 cm May- Pale yellow Full sun 3-4-8-13-19
(Sims.) Bentham. compact Septembe
r
Phyla nodiflora (L.) Spreading 3-10 cm April- Light pink Full sun- 2-4-8
Greene August White Partial
sun
Polygonium persicaria Upright 20-100 August- Pink Sun 8-14
L. spreading cm December
Psoralea butiminosa L. Upright 25-100 May- Violet blue Full sun- 2-8-14
cm August Partial
shade
Salvia viridis L. Upright 30-45 cm March- Pink, violet, Full sun 4-7-8-15
July white
Scilla bifolia L. Upright- 10-15 cm March- Blue, Purple Full sun- 3-8-13
Thin June Partial
shade
Sedum album L. Densely 5-10 cm June- White- Sun 2-3-4-6-9
Septembe Pinkish
r
Stachys byzantina C. Upright 10-50 cm June- Purple, Full sun 2-3-6-8
Koch. Septembe pink, violet
r
Typha latifolia L. Upright 80 cm June- Yellow , Full sun- 6-10-15-18
October Green , Partial
Brown shade
Valeriana dioscoridis Tall 80-120 February- White with Sun 3-8-14
Sm. cm May shade of
pink
Verbascum Upright 45-60 cm May-June Bright Full sun 1-3-4-6-7-
bombyciferum Boiss. yellow 8-18
Veronica persica Spreading 5-30 cm January-Full sun- Sky blue 2-3-8-12-14
Poiret DecemberPartial
shade
1. Group planting, 2. Groundcover, 3. Rock garden, 4. Attractive to birds and insects, 5. Informal garden, 6.
Conteyner, 7. Cut flower, 8. Beds and borders, 9. Lawn area, 10. Water garden and ponds 11. Woodland
garden, 12. Damp and wet areas, 13. Underplanting of trees and shrubs, 14. Medicinal uses, 15. Dried flower,
16. Erosion control, 17. Highway 18. Accent plants. 19. Open spaces
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CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTIONS

Lake Uluabat is a wetland of international significance which needs to be protected with its natural beauties,
effective views and diversity of vegetation. This study analyses the plant biodiversity of the lake s ecosystem
and shows the biodiversity of herbaceous plant taxons. Herbaceous plant taxons existing in the lake and its
surroundings have a great diversity of species, sub-species and varieties. It has been found that the greatest
number of species is in the Asteracea and Fabaceae families while the greatest number of sub-species and
varieties are in the Fabaceae and Lamiaceae families. There are also species from the following genus: Bıdens,
Xanthıum, Pallenıs, )nula, Pulıcarıa, Evax, Solıdago, Crınıtarıa, Conyza, Bellıs, Doronıcum, Senecıo, Tussılago,
Calendula, Anthemıs, Chrysanthemum, Matrıcarıa, Arctıum, Onopordum, Sılybum, Cırsıum, Pıcnomon,
Ptılostemon, Notobasıs, Carduus, Jurınea, Centaurea, Crupına, Carthamus, Cardopatıum, Carlına, Echınops,
Scolymus, Cıchorıum, Scorzonera, Tragopogon, Leontodon, Pıcrıs, (elmınthotheca, Urospermum, Rhagadıolus,
Sonchus, Lactuca, Lapsana, Taraxacum, and Crepıs. The Fabaceae family involves species from the genus
Gonocytısus, Lupınus, Bıserrula, Astragalus, Glycyrrhıza, Psoralea, Vıcıa, Lathyrus, Pısum, Ononıs, Trıfolıum,
Melılotus, Trıgonella, Medıcago, Dorycnıum, Lotus, (ymenocarpus, (ıppocrepıs, Scorpıurus, and Onobrychıs.

Along with that, Lake Uluabat has also a high rate of endemism (36.14%). According to Ekim et al. (2000), of
the herbaceous endemic taxons existing in the lake, the Lamium purpureum var. anzavourii species falls in the
category of CR (Critically endangered), Verbascum bombyciferum in LR (Cd – Conservation dependent), and
Lathyrus umdulatus and Crocus flavus subsp. Dissectus in the category of VU (Vulnerable), and the growth
areas of these species must be put under protection.

It has been identified that certain plant taxons existing in Lake Uluabat and its surroundings have a high
landscape value esthetically and functionally and can be used in a wide range of areas in urban locations.
They can be used as ground covers in landscape design and implementations in addition to many other areas
including water gardens and ponds, grass areas, pits and borders, roads, natural gardens, and wet and humid
areas etc. Using the said species in landscaping of urban locations will allow re-creation of biological balance
in city. Besides, forms and flower colors of these plants will provide effective views and thereby improve
visual quality, giving diversity to plant design.

Awareness must be raised in protection of herbaceous plant taxons in Lake Uluabat and its surroundings, and
management plans must be applied. It should not be ignored that, among herbaceous taxons available in the
vegetation of the lake s natural ecosystem, there are plant species that can be preferred for use in
landscaping. For this reason, taking such natural species into the culture is of great importance.

REFERENCES

Atik, M., Karagüzel, O. and Durak, A. 2013. Bitkisel Tasarımda Doğal Bitki T“rleri ve Antalya Örneğinde
Kullanım Potansiyeli . V. Süs Bitkileri Kongresi, 6- Mayıs Yalova. -126
Babaç, M.T., Uslu, E. and Bakış, Y. . http://www.tubives.com. Accessed Date: June
Banner, A. and Mac Kenzie, W. 2000. The ecology of wetland ecosystems. https://www.for.gov.bc.ca/
hfd/pubs/docs/en/en45.pdf.
Cirik, S. 1993. Sulak alanlar. Ekoloji. Nisan-Mayıs-(azitan Sayı: . S: -52.
https://www.ekoloji.com.tr/resimler/7-13.pdf.
Çınar, R. . Uluabat göl“ kıyı ve adalar florası. U.Ü. Fen Bilimleri Enstit“s“ Y“ksek Lisans Tezi.
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Davis P.H (1965-1985). Flora of Turkey and East Aegean Islands. Vol: I-IX. University Pres. (Edinburg).
Ekim, T., Koyuncu, M., Vural, M., Duman, (., Aytaç, Z. and Adıg“zel, N. . T“rkiye bitkileri kırmızı kitabı
Eğrelti ve tohumlu bitkiler, Ankara. ..
Elmacı, A. Topaç, F.O., Teksoy, A. Özengin, N. and Başkaya, H.S. 2010 Uluabat gölü fizikokimyasal özelliklerinin
yönetmelikler çerçevesinde değerlendirilmesi. Uludağ Üniversitesi M“hendislik-Mimarlık Fak“ltesi
Dergisi, 15(1): 149-157.
Greb, S.F., DiMichele, W.A. and Gastaldo, R.A. 2006. Evolution and importance of wetlands in earth history.
Geological Society of America. Special Paper. 399. p. 1-37.
Hilty, J. 2015. Weedy Wildflowers of Illinois. http://www.illinoiswildflowers.info/weeds/plants. (Accessed
Date: 20 June 2015)
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Kaynak, G., Daşkın, R. and Yılmaz Ö. . Bursa Bitkileri. Uludağ Üniversitesi Kent tarihi ve araştırma
merkezi. Yayın No: , Bursa, .
Tırıl, A. . Sulak Alanlar. Peyzaj mimarları odası yayınları: / . .
Unver,E. . Uluabat Göl“ Projeleri Kaygı Uyandırıyor. http://www.wwf.org.tr/?1351. (Accessed Date: 20
June 2015)
Url-1. http://www.turkiyebitkileri.com. (Accessed Date: 20 June 2015)
Url-2. http://davesgarden.com. (Accessed Date: 22 July 2015)
Url-3. https://plants.ces.ncsu.edu/plants. (Accessed Date: 12 June 2015)
Url-4. https://www.rhs.org.uk. (Accessed Date: 20 June 2015)
Url-5. https://tr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Uluabat_Golu (Accessed Date: 22 July 2015)
Url-6. http://www.turkiyesulakalanlari.com. (Accessed Date: 12 June 2015)
Url-7. Uluabat Lake – Turkey. http://www.globalnature.org/35459/Living-Lakes/Asia/Uluabat-
Lake/resindex.aspx?addhilite=uluabat. (Accessed Date: 22 July 2015)
Url-8. http://www.dogader.org/index.php/bilgi/28-uluabat-apolyont-golu. (Accessed Date: 22 July 2015)

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Evaluation of Changiıng Character of Rural Landscape in Konuralp –Düzce

DEMİR Zeki*, KAYA TANR)VERDİ Ayşeg“l**

*Duzce University Faculty of Forestry, Department of Landscape Architecture-Duzce-Turkey


zekidemir@duzce.edu.tr
** Duzce University Faculty of Forestry, Department of Landscape Architecture, Duzce-Turkey

aysegulkaya@duzce.edu.tr

Abstract

Urbanization is proceeding at an unprecedented scale in the history of humankind and that throughout the
world which is driving socio-economic change and growth, rapid and uncontrolled urbanization, however, may
frequently result in social and spatial fragmentation and in a drastic changes of the surrounding urban rural
landscapes. Landscapes change because they are the expression of the dynamic interaction between natural and
cultural forces in the environment. Cultural landscapes are the result of consecutive reorganization of the land in
order to adopt ıts use and spatial structure according to the changing social demands. The combined effect of the
driving forces such as accessibility, urbanization, landuse politics have been different in each periods and
effected the nature and the pace of the changes.
A series of spatial data layers were used to describe and map the transformation of rural landscape areas and to
assess the vulnerability of rural landscapes under the socio-economic pressures. Topographical maps, satellite
views from different periods we used to define rural landscape character, which were mapped as polygons and
polylines in a GIS. In time-depth evaluation of modifications in land-use, circulation networks and settlement
pattern. The grain was determined by the minimal mapable units of the landscape types. Then landscape metrics
were used to describe the density , distribution and composition of the rural landscape area.
The principle of sustainable development provides for the preservation of existing resources, the active
protection of heritage and its sustainable management is a necessity for healty urban fabric.

Keywords: Rural landscape, Cultural landscape, Landcape metrics, Landscape character, GIS.

INTRODUCTION

For a common understanding of the meaning of the word landscape we use the definition of the European
Landscape Convention:Landscape is: ….. an area, as perceived by people, whose character is the result of
the action and interaction of natural and / or human factors Anon, . Our landscapes are extremely
important to us, they are part of our cultural heritage. Landscape reflects the relationship between people and
place, and It is a product of the interaction of the natural and cultural components of our environment.
Landscape Character Assessment not only helps us to understand our landscapes, it also conveys in informing
judgements and decisions concerning the management of change(Banderin,2012).

Landscapes have evolved over time and they will continue to evolve – change is invariable but outcomes
vary Tudor, . A cultural landscape is the product of past human cultural actions and of present-day
creation by our own cultural and social attitudes(Jackson,1984; Rapoport, 1992) . Sauer(1969), asserted that
the cultural landscape is fashioned out of the natural landscape by a cultural group. Culture is the agent, the
natural area is the medium, the cultural landscape the result. UNESCO World Heritage's operational
guidelines provides the following definition: "The term cultural landscape embraces a diversity of
manifestations of the interaction between humankind and its natural environment."(Anon,2000; Rapoport,
1992). Robert Melnick, in the report Cultural Landscapes: Rural Historic Districts In the National Park Service,
provides the following perspective: "In a cultural landscape, the factor is culture, as it interacts, over time
with the medium of the natural landscape finally resulting in the landscape we see and experience." (Melnick
1984). The term "cultural landscape" encompasses a variety of landscape types, including rural agricultural,
small towns, and national parks Buckle, . Robert Melnick s , identifies twelve characteristics that
are useful in landscape inventory. Melnick's characteristics were designed for ordinary landscapes, especially
for rural settings. These characteristics provide a list of elements to be considered in inventorying
landscapes,(Table:1)
Table: Melnick s characteristics for describing rural landscapes(Melnick,1984).

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Characteristics
1. Patterns of Spatial Organization 7. Vegetation
2. Land Use and Activities 8. Structural Types
3. Response to Natural Features 9. Ouster Arrangement
4. Cultural Traditions 10. Archaeological Sites
5 Circulation Networks 11. Small-Scale Elements
6. Boundaries 12. Perceptual Qualities

The landscapes of today have been shaped by powerful. Ever-present forces are seen in space and time by
anthropogenic activities. Landscapes are not static. Landscapes are impressed by Climate changes, land-use
changes and human activities. It can be changed mosaic structure, shape and size of patches in a landscape. All
these changes could be seen different spatial sizes and frequencies (Farina 2000). Five main compelling
forces are effective in the landscape change. These are: Socio-economic forces: Urbanization, industry,
industrial activities. ;Political forces; Technological forces: Car roads, infrastructure facilities; Natural forces:
Avalanche, landslide, flood, ;Cultural forces: Accessibility, human intervention, fire. Accessibility is most
important within the forces. Whenever people arrived in a property , they quickly start to change this
property (Antrop 2005; Eetvelde,Antrop, 2009).

The management of change is essential to ensure that we achieve sustainable outcomes – social,
environmental and economic. The process of Landscape Character Assessment has an important role to play
in managing and guiding change. A Landscape Character Assessment can describe a landscape with reference
to the characteristics that combine to make a place distinctive , give spatial reference or evidence via mapped
landscape character areas or types can be used to inform: policy development; local, neighbourhood,
community plans, and place-making; green infrastructure plans and strategies(Tudor, 2014).

Landscape metric tools were used in landscape ecology as supporting Landscape planning and landscape
management decisions. Landscape metrics were used to measure the landscape structure (Farina 2000;
Letiao and Ahern 2002; Wu 2004). To put forward the development of the landscape, - to assess fragility,
emerging over time. - It was required for determining the relations among structural features, landscape
function and landscape change. Landscape metrics help to calculation composition and configuration (Mc
Garical et al. 2002) (Gökyer2013). Landscape metrics are used in conjunction with geographic information
systems (GIS). GIS has made a major contribution to the study of the landscape metrics (Johnston 1998). GIS
and related technologies are used for a long time in studies related to the landscape assessments. It offers a
lot of possibilities to the users. To use landscape metrics and digital data adapted with GIS have been made
contributes to the landscape planning studies Karadeniz and Gökyer Atabeyoğlu etal., .

MATERIAL

Düzce is a 2.593 km2 city which is located between - North latitude and -
east latitude in the West Black sea Region. Ş. Kemal )şıldak, Ş. (“seyin Kıl, Ş. Bayram Gökmen settlements and
Yörükler Village are neighborhood units of Düzce which are the main research materials. Research areas have
11, 67 km square. Even though these research areas were in Konuralp, a district in Düzce, legal entity of this
district has been disincorporated with the municipal law no. 5393, article 11 in 2014 local elections. These 4
research areas are the rural districts under social pressure in terms of urbanization. The aim of this research
is to find out the changes of rural landscape characteristics of 4 research areas between 1982 and 2015. As
seen in figure1 these research areas have alluvial ground and first class topsoil. Tabak stream, Yaka stream,
Melen and Kurtsuyu streams pass through from research areas and there are also irrigation channels made in
1950 by General Directorate of State Hydraulic Works in order to enable the irrigated farming.

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Figure:1 Classification of Soil Map

METHOD

Detection and change of landscape characteristics of the village located within the boundaries of urban area
and 3 research areas between 1982 and 2015 are examined that based on the material list which can be seen
in table 2. Distribution rate and change of settlement, land usage, green areas, and roads are determined by
digitizing them and using Arc Gıs . software. The patch seen as the smallest unit which can be mapped has
been regarded as the key element. Research areas with the same characteristics are digitized with the help of
polygons. The polygon which represents the smallest unit is defined as a patch. Distribution rate of the
characters and changes of the ratio within years have been examined by using patches, which represents the
character type. Numerical values are shown in the table 3 below.

Table: 2 Dataset (Purchased by *SRP 2014.02.01.280 Project).


Scale Year Material Quality Layout

1/25 000 1982 Photometric Map G26a1-2,


1/25 000 1997 Photometric Map G26a1-2
* 2003.01.15 Quickbird Orthoready. resolution 50 cm 3 band , 8 G26a1-2
bit and 4 band bundle archive view.
* 2013.04.05 GE1: Orthoready. resolution 50 cm, 3 band, 8 bit G26a1-2
and 4 band bundle archive view
* 2014.05.27 PL –PNP: Pleiades. Solubility 50 cm, 3 banded, 8 G26a1-2
bit and 4 band bundle archive view
Changes in landscape characters of the research area between 1982 and 2015 are represented in maps based
on the study of Eetvelde and Antrop (2005). Settlements, land usage, roads and green areas are mapped
thematically by using the software Arc GIS 10.3. The features shown in table 3 are examined for each
historical period.

Table: 3 Landscape metrics as expected indicators of landscape character (Eetvelde; Antrop, 2009).
Acronym Landscape Metrics Indicator for landscape character
P LCT Proportion of landscape Dominance of character types, diversity, types that become
character type (%) exceptional.
NP Number of patches Degree of spatial fragmentation of character type or landscape;
complexity.
AREA MN Mean patch area Geometric complexity, variation, landscape scale.
D Patch density Landscape scale, size of landscape elements.
CPA Mean shape index : Spatial complexity; artificial geometric forms versus irregular
0.282 P/A0,5 natural forms.

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RESULTS

Ş. (“seyin Kıl neighborhood had % green area landscape character type ın . As seen in table , green
areas were consist of 9 patches and they were approximately 0,67 km2 and. Settlements had %1.07
landscape character type and settlement mean patch area was 0.004 km2. The neighborhood had 7.66 km
road in 1982. Furthermore, there were industrial facilities in the neighborhood. These facilities were %10 of
the land settlement patches in 1997 and the mean patch area was 0.006 km 2.

Table:4 Rates of landscape character types of (“seyin Kıl neighborhood between -2015
Neighborhood Number of Area of Patch Proportion of Mean Shape Length Increase
Patches Neighborhood Density Landscape Patch Index Km of The
% Character Area Km2 Length %
Type %

Ş.Hüseyin Kıl 1982


Settlement 20 6,53 3,6 1,07 0,004 1
Industry 2 6,53 10 0,47 0,001 1
Green Areas 9 6,53 1,38 93 0,67 1
Transportation Lines 7,66
Ş.Hüseyin Kıl 1997
Settlement 23 6,53 3,52 1,83 0,005 1
Farm 1 6,53 4,34 0,045 0,003 1
Industry 5 6,53 22 0,45 0,006 1
Green Areas 8 6,53 1,23 92 0,75 1
Transportation Lines 10,6 28
Ş.Hüseyin Kıl 2003
Settlement 102 6,53 15,62 2,3 0,002 1
Industry 4 6,53 4 0,46 0,008 1
Chicken Farm 5 6,53 5 0,26 0,003 1
Green Areas 21 6,53 3,21 89 0,3 1
Transportation Lines 13,00 18
Ş.Hüseyin Kıl 2015
Settlement 115 6,53 17,6 4,6 0,003 1
Industry 6 6,53 5 1,7 0,02 1
Chicken Farm 11 6,53 10 0,08 0,0005 1
Business 1 6,53 0,86 0,06 0,004 1
Green Areas 29 6,53 5 88 0,2 1
Openness(Green Areas) 108 6,53 53 47 0,003
Transportation Lines 15,55 16

The rate of landscape character type as land usage is %0.47 of the land settlement. There were also chicken
farms in the neighborhood. These chicken farms which were smaller than industrial patches were
approximately 0.003 km2. The number of the patches of green areas decreased between 1982 and 1997.
While the rate of the green areas were %93 at first, they were %92 by the end of 1997. However the weight of
settlement areas as character types reached to %1.83 from %1.07. As seen in table 4, the number of the roads
increased at the rate of %28 between 1982 and 1997. The number of settlement patches were 102 in 2003
and the mean patch area was 0,002 km2. The rate of landscape character type of settlements had reached to
%2.3. While the number of the green areas has increased, the size of their patches has decreased from 0.75
km2 to 0.3 km2. With the increment of the green areas and land settlements, the number of fragmented
patches has also increased but the size of them has decreased. The rate of the landscape character type of land
settlements were %4.6 in 2015. %1.7 of the land settlements consists of industry, %0.008 the chicken farms
and %0.006 non-domestic urban research areas. While %93 of the area consisted of green areas in 1982, this
rate withdrew to %88 in 2015. As seen in table 4 the length of the roads has reached to 15.66 km from 7.66
km. The dominant landscape character type is still green areas in the neighborhood.
Yörükler village had %3.30 settlement landscape character type and %86 of it consisted of green areas with
13 patches in 1982. There were cattle range and chicken farm which their rate of landscape character type
was %0.18 and their mean patch area were 0.004 km2 in the village. The length of the road was 4.98 km in the
village in 1982. There were not any changes in the land settlement between 1982 and 1997 but the length of
the road reached to %15.The number of the land settlement patches reached to 45 and the rate of the
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settlement landscape character type increased from %3.33 to %4.44 in 2003. Green areas were %85 of the
area and the size of an average patch was 0.1 km2. There was a chicken farm with %0.17 rate of landscape
character type in the village. There were not any cattle ranges anymore. According to the table 5, the rate of
land settlement has reached to %5.8 but the number of the green areas has decreased at the rate of %84.
There is a student dormitory which is regarded as a trade and non-domestic urban research area in Yörükler
village. The rate of the landscape character type is %0.13 and the size of the patch 0.003 km 2. As seen in the
table 5 the length of the road is 8.74 km in 2015 and it reached to %32 between 2003 and 2015.

Table: 5 Rates of landscape character types of Yörükler village between 1982-2015


Neighborhood Number Area of Patch Proportion of Mean Shape Length Increase
of Neighborhood Density % Landscape Patch Area Index Km of The
Patches Character Type Km2 Length %
Yörükler 1982
Settlement 14 2,25 6,22 3,30 0,005 1
Chicken Farm 1 2,25 0,44 0,18 0,004 1
Farm 1 2,25 0,44 0,18 0,004 1
Green Areas 13 2,25 5,8 86,00 0,14 1
Transportation Lines - 4,98
Yörükler 1997
Settlement 14 2,25 6,22 3,3 0,005 1
Green Areas 13 2,25 5,8 86 0,14 1
Farm 1 2,25 0,44 0,17 0,004 1
Transportation Lines - 5,88 15
Yörükler 2003
Settlement 45 2,25 20 4,44 0,002 1
Govermental 1 2,25 2,2 1,47 0,033 1
Chicken Farm 1 2,25 2,22 0,17 0,004 1
Green Areas 19 2,25 8,4 85,00 0,1 1
Transportation Lines - 5,98 1,7
Yörükler 2015
Settlement 48 2,25 21,3 5,8 0,003 1
Business 1 2,25 2 0,13 0,003 1
Govermental 1 2,25 2 1,33 0,033 1
Chicken Farm 1 2,25 2 0,20 0,005 1
Green Areas 17 2,25 7,55 84 0,1 1
Openness(Green Areas 6 2,25 45 37 0,14 -
Transportation Lines 8,74 32

There were land settlement patches in Ş. Kemal )şıldak neighborhood and the rate of the settlement
landscape character type is %5.9 in 1982. The mean patch area was 0.004 km 2. Green areas were 14 patches
and landscape character type was %86 in these areas. The mean patch area in these green areas was 0.120
km2. The rate of the settlement landscape character type reached to %10.7 in 1997. Osmanca transformer
station is located in this neighborhood. The rate of the landscape character type of the facility, which was
examined within the boundaries of land settlements with the help of energy classification, was %4.27 in 1997
and the size of the patch was 0.04. Furthermore, the landscape character type of the industrial group which
was also examined within the boundaries of the land settlement was %1.069 in 1997. As shown in table 6, the
length of the road which was 3,5 km in 1982, reached to 5,02 km in 1997 with %29 increment .There was not
any increment in land settlements in Ş. Kemal )şıldak neighborhood between and and there were
17 patches and %24 landscape character type at those times. Green areas consist of 4 patches which those
mean patch area were 0.34 km2. The rate of landscape character type of these green areas were %73.3. %27
of this rate is open farms which have wide field of view. As seen in the table 6, the length of the roads %10
increased between 2003 and 2015.The length of the road in this neighborhood is 8.02 km in 2015.

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Table: Rates of landscape character types of Kemal )şıldak neighborhood between -2015

Ş. Bayram Gökmen neighborhood had patches and % . landscape character type in the land settlements
in 1982. %0.686 of the land settlements consists of industrial facilities. These facilities were located in 2
patches and the mean patch area was 0.004 km2. . Green areas had 10 patches with %88 landscape character
type. The rate of the land settlements reached to %4 in 1997. %0.19 of this rate is trade facilities and %0.88 is
industrial ones. The rate of landscape character type of green areas were %82.4. In 2003 landscape character
type of land settlements were % 7 but it reached to %17 in 2015. Land settlements had 54 patches in 2003
and the mean patch area was 0.001 km2. However in 2015, the number of the patches are 21 and the mean
patch area is 0.08 km2. Land settlements, which consist of small scattered patches in recent years, have
formed bigger patches by expanding. There are 6 patches and the rate of the landscape character type is %78
in green areas in 2015. In land settlements, trade has 2.94 of landscape character type and for industry this
rate is 1,7. As shown in the table 7, the length of the roads reached up to 8.05 km while it was 5.69 km before.

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Table: 7 Rates of landscape character types of Bayram Gökmen neighborhood between 1982-2015

CONCLUSION

Once, a part of Konuralp; 3 neighborhoods and 1 urban village have become the part of Düzce with the
legislative change. This research has examined the land use and function of the neighborhoods with the help
of geographical information systems by using digital maps created for detecting landscape characters of these
neighborhoods and the village. The information has been obtained from the maps which were formed by
using GIS with the chart and data input. Land settlement maps are formed and under this title; maps of land
use (trade, industry, chicken farm), roads, green areas (hazelnut groves, farms, poplar wood, paddy fields,
woodlands) are created by showing the data obtained in the tables. According to tables, the number of green
area patches has increased because they were fragmented. However the mean patch area has been smaller
and the rate of land settlement has increased. Industrial area use in land settlements has been increasing
steadily. In parallel with this increment, the length of the roads has also increased %100. %88 of the
landscape character type in the neighborhood is still green areas in 2015.The rate of landscape character type
of green areas in Ş. Kemal )şıldak neighborhood has withdrew to % . and the rate of the land settlement
has also decreased after the 1999 earthquake in Düzce. As seen in the figures 2-3 and numeric data in the
tables; energy, trade and industry area use is densified around the roadside and the number of them has
increased within years thanks to the improvement of the quality and capacity of Akçakoca-Zonguldak line.
New patches were formed and the number of present land settlements increased in Ş. Bayram Gökmen
neighborhood between 1982 and 2015. The use of trade and industry areas has also increased. Especially the
use of roadside trade area has increased; while it was 0 in 1982, this rate reached to %2,94 with 7 patches in
2015. There has not been any increment in the use of industry area since 1982 but the number of the present
patches has increased. The mean patch area used for industry reached to 0.009 km 2 from 0,004 km2.
However green areas has % 78 landscape character type while they had %88 before. The length of the roads
%42 increased between 1982 and 2015. The rate of the landscape character type in land settlements was
%3,30 in Yörükler village between 1982-1997. %86 of the village consist of green areas consisted with 13
patches. After 2000, the earthquake in Düzce, land settlement areas with 45 patches were built and the
average patch area was decreased in 2003. Settlement area consists of small scattered patches. The mean
patch area withdrew from 0,005 km2 to 0,002 km2 between 1982 and 2003.

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Figure 2: Konuralp Landuse Map 1982

Figure 3: Konuralp Landuse Map 2015

The number of the patches reached to 48 due to its vicinity to the University of Düzce and the size of them
reached to 0,003 km2 in 2015. New patches were also added in addition to the growth of the size of the
patches. The effects of the University of Düzce and configuration after earthquake can be seen in Yörükler
village which is a rural settlement area. The rate of the landscape character type in green areas withdrew to
%84 while this rate reached to %5,8 in land settlements in 2015. The rates of changing landscape character
type of the 4 neighborhood studied between 1982-2015 enables to test the effects of some social, political and
natural events like the foundation of the university, the earthquake disaster, construction of Akçakoca-
Zonguldak main road on the rural area. Furthermore, it is useful not also in detecting the sensitive areas and
direction of change in the area but also in examining the area in terms of historical change. Consequently;
even if the soil in these 4 neighborhoods which have the features of rural area has a very good quality, there
has been an increment in non-agricultural land usage since 1982. The integrity of the rural areas was ruined
due to small patches and fragmentation. The increment in industrial, trade and residential buildings leading
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to the increasement of the road length resulted in the decrease of the number of the patches. As the rates of
the landscape character suggest, these 4 neighborhoods still have the features of rural area. However,
industrial and trade area usage is the dominant configuration type especially in the neighborhoods located on
the Akçakoca roadside. Yörükler village has been a popular settlement area as it is close to the university
campus since 2003.The rate of the landscape character type in green areas is dominant. Even though this rate
is decreasing steadily, it still has the widest rate. It shows that the neighborhood has the features of rural area
and green areas have a role in identifying the character and image of the city.

REFERENCES

Anonim 2000, European Landscape Convention, 20.X.2000,


http://www.heritagecouncil.ie/fileadmin/user_upload/Publications/Landscape/European_Landscape.
pdf.
Antrop M., 2005. Why Landscapes of the past are important for the future , Landscape and Urban Planning
2005, vol 70-ıssues -2 , p21-34.
Atabeyoğlu Ö ., Bulut Y., . Character Analysis of Urban Landscape of Ordu City , Academic Agriculture
Journal 2(1): 1-12 (2013).
Banderin F., Oers V.R. The Historic Urban Landscape-managing heritage in an urban century, Wiley-Blackwell,
2012.
Buckle R. 2002.Managing Cultural Landscapes A Case Study of Stirling, Alberta, Master Degree, The University
of Calgary Faculty of Environmental Design Calgary, Alberta .
Eetvelde V.V., Antrop M., 2009. Indicators for assessing changing landscape character of cultural landscape in
Flanders (Belgium), Land Use Policy, 26(2009)901-910.
Gökyer E., 2013. Understanding landscape structure using landscape metrics; Ed. Murat Özyavuz, Advances
in Landscape Architecture, july 2013, Intech, ISBN 978-958-51-1167-2.
Melnick R.Z., Cultural landscapes: Rural Historic Districts in the National Park System, 1984, USA.
Jackson, B.J., Discovering the Vernacular Architecture, Yale University Press,1984.
Rapoport A., On cultural landscapes, Traditional Dwellings and Settlements Review, IASTE, Berkeley ,
University of California, vol III, 1992, 33-47,
Sauer C.O., Land and life ,A selection from the writings of Carl Ortwin Sauer ed. John Leighly, University of
California Press, 1969, Berkeley.
Tudor C.,2014. An Approach to Landscape Character Assessment , Natural England
https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/396192/landscape
-character-assessment.pdf

Acknowledgement

This research is supported by Duzce University Scientific Research Project (DU BAP), under the project title
The Role of the Cultural Landscape on Urban )dentity: Case of Konuralp . Project Number: . .01.280.

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An Observational and Numerical Study of Precipitation Concentration and Erosivity Indices

Zafer Aslan , Z. Nevin Çağlar , Bahar Oğuzhan and Nail Yeniçeri


1* 2 2 2

1)stanbul Aydın University, Faculty of Engineering and Architecture, Florya, , )stanbul, Turkey.
2)stanbul Boğaziçi University, Kandilli Observatory and Earthquake Research )nstitute, )stanbul, Turkey.
zaferaslan@aydin.edu.tr

Abstract

Erosivity risk due to precipitation was studied by using observations and numerical model estimates. Four case
studies were performed using observed precipitation data recorded between 1975 and 2013 at Isparta, Kandilli,
Sakarya and Eskişehir surface stations. Precipitation, its trend, and associated erosivity risk from current
conditions to future projections were studied using Precipitation Concentration Index (PCI), Modified Fournier
Index (MFI), and Bagnouls–Gaussen Aridity Index (BGI). Spatio–temporal variations of Erosivity Index (EI) were
studied using the CORINE method.

Keywords: Rainfall Intensity, Precipitation Concentration Index, Modified Fournier Index, Climate Change.

INTRODUCTION
Ramos and Duran evaluated rainfall erosivity and its spatial and temporal variabilities. 1 . Rainfall erosivity is
based on characteristics of storms (duration, maximum intensity, depth and frequency). The changes in event
erosivity were not uniform. A change in rainfall erosivity within the year was observed, with an increase in
spring rainfall erosivity despite a decrease in total rainfall in autumn. The number of erosive events
decreased in September, but the individual event erosivity increased reaching very high values.
In order to develop a new formula for assessing interril erosion rates by incorporating the soil aggregate
instability index, erosion plots at seven sites in central Greece were used to measure interril erosion rates
under natural rainfall conditions 1. There is sufficient evidence of the relation between predicted interril
erosion and the independent data set.

Erosivity, the potential of rainfall to detach soil particles, is a parameter used in several models to link rainfall
and soil losses 2 . Erosivity is usually calculated from high temporal resolution rainfall during a long period of
data. For Cape Verde, where data are limited, researchers have calculated erosivity using seven year
precipitation data at 15 minute time intervals and rainfall kinetic energy-intensity relationships. Given the
strong relationships between rainfall and elevation, high erosivity in Santiago Island occurs on higher
elevations, coinciding with steep slopes and shallow soils, which make these areas susceptible to erosion.

The observed surface temperature analyzed over the last hundred years shows an average increase of about
0.90C globally, and the future estimates obtained from various climate change models suggest additional
increases between 1.5 and 2.00C 3 . Since the warming will not be evenly distributed, it is not known exactly
how much the temperature would increase in an area and how it will affect other atmospheric conditions. For
example, the temperature increase could result in a decrease in vegetative cover and its type, as well as an
increase or decrease in the amount of precipitation in an area. Hence, it would be beneficial to estimate future
precipitation distribution and soil erosion risks in an area especially for agricultural purposes.

The risk of erosion in the Mediterranean Iberian Peninsula was studied by Luis et al 4 using the total annual
precipitation, precipitation concentration index (PCI), and Modified Fournier Index (MFI) trends. Their
results showed a spatial variability and complex temporal trends. Most recently 5 . further studied annual and
seasonal changes as well as wet and dry periods of PCI in conterminous Spain for the periods 1946-1975 and
1976-2005. Changing properties of PCI in China were also analyzed by Zhang et al 6 . They studied the
precipitation concentrations across the Pearl River basin and the associated spatial patterns using daily
precipitation data collected from 42 rain gauging stations during the period 1960–2005. A significant increase
in PCI after 1990 was detected in the West River, lower North River, and upper Beipan River. These changes
of PCI in the Pearl River basin are likely to be associated with the consequences of the well-evidenced global
warming.

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Deniz and Akgul 7 studied the risk of soil erosion in Turkey using the CORINE method 8 by applying various
indices step by step including MFI and Bagnouls–Gaussen Aridity Index (BGI). Recently, Aslan et al 9 also
calculated the Erosivity Index (EI) using ground and remote sensing data collected in Turkey. They generated
a detailed actual water and wind erosivity risk map of Turkey.
Analyses of the standardized precipitation index (SPI) and modified SPI for shaping the drought probabilities
over Turkey were evaluated by T“rkeş and Tatlı 10 . The report presented by Kurnaz 11 , underlined the
drought risk in recent years. The author discussed the role of drought and the combined effect on irrigation,
water deficit and hydraulic energy sources.

Precipitation trends were assessed over the period of 1954–2003 using parametric ordinary least square fits
and non-parametric Mann–Kendall technique 12. A decreasing trend in the spring and during the monsoon
rainfall season and an increasing trend in the autumn and winter were observed. Temporal variability of
precipitation over 96 years was also studied by the application of the wavelet transform to five precipitation
series in northern California 13. The increasing precipitation trend seen in northern California can be
interpreted as the coupled effect of the extremely long-period component and multi-decadal period
component.

Gabriels 14 showed that the impact of raindrops on erosivity may be evaluated by considering the energy of a
rainstorm. Rainfall erosivity losses were predicted by using Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE). The coupled
moisture flux was proved to be capable of capturing continuous properties of a climate system and providing
extra information to determine rainfall probability and rainfall amount 15. The application was made to
simultaneously downscale daily precipitation at multiple sites within the Rhine River basin. The results show
that the model can reproduce statistical properties of daily precipitation time series.

This study analyzes the changes in observed precipitation and examines its effect on soil erosion in Turkey.
The changes in PCI, MFI, BGI, and EI were analyzed to study the effect of climate change on precipitation using
the observed data collected between 1975 and 2013 at four surface stations.

STUDY AREA, OBSERVATIONS AND METHODOLOGY

Precipitation data was recorded at Kandilli, )sparta, Sakarya and Eskişehir stations between January 1975 and
October 2013. Their geographical coordinates and heights above mean sea level are given in Table 1. The
rainfall rate was measured by electronic pluviograph at 10 minute intervals and continuous precipitation was
measured by Hellmann Precipitation Recorder

Table 1. The geographical information of the stations used in case studies.


Station Name Longitude Latitude
(deg) (deg) Height above sea level (m)
Kandilli (Istanbul)(Marmara Region) 41.06°N 29.06°E 114.5
Sakarya 40.77oN 30.42oE 31
(Marmara Region)
Isparta 37.77°N 30.55°E 1050
(Mediterranean Region)
Eskişehir 39.82°N 30.52°E 787
(Central Anatolia)

PCI 16, MFI 17and BGI 18 were calculated on an annual basis for each study region using:

PCI = 100 *  pi2 / P2 ( 2.1)


MFI =  pi2 / P ( 2.2)
BG) = Σ ti - pi) ki ( 2.3)

Here, pi is total monthly (mm), P total annual precipitation (mm), t i is the mean monthly temperature (oC),
and ki is the proportion of the month during which 2ti-pi > 0. Erosivity Index (EI) is then defined using MFI
and BGI values:

EI =[MFI Class No]*[BGI Class No] ( 2.4)


PCI, MFI, BGI, and EI classes and their descriptions are given in Tables 2 through 5, respectively.

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Table 2. PCI Classes and Description Table 3. MFI Classes and Description

BGI (range) Description Class


<50 Very low 1 EI (range) Description Class
50-75 Low 2 <4 Low 1
75-100 Moderate 3 4-8 Moderate 2
100-125 High 4 >8 High 3
>125 Very high 5

Table 4. BGI Classes and Description Table 5. EI Classes and Description


PCI Temporal Rainfall
Class MFI
(range) Distribution (PCI) Description Class
(range)
< 10 Uniform 1
<60 Very low 1
11 – 15 Moderate Concentrated 2
(Moderate Seasonal) 60-90 Low 2
16 – 20 Concentrated (Seasonal) 3 90-120 Moderate 3
21 – 50 Strong Concentrated 4 120-160 High 4
(Strong Seasonal) >160 Very high 5
> 50 Isolated (Irregular) 5

Figure 1. Algorithm of CORINE soil erosion assessment methodology 19.

The CORINE Soil Erosion Assessment Methodology 8 is described in Figure 1. In this scheme, soil texture, soil
depth, stoniness, MFI, BGI, soil erodibility (K), EI, slope angles, land cover (V), Potential Soil Erosion Risk (E p),
and Actual Soil Erosion Risk (EA) have been taken into account to compare actual and potential erosivity risk
maps in the study areas.
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ANALYSES OF THE OBSERVED AND SIMULATED PRECIPITATION

Station based analyses of PCI given in Figures 2a-d show an increasing trend throughout the analysis period,
particularly after the year 2000 at all four stations. The distribution at Kandilli station was mostly uniform or
moderate seasonal (PCI < 20) before the year 2000. Although PCI values point out an increasing trend in the
last part of study period at three stations (except Isparta), the type of distribution changes from uniform to
moderate concentration (moderate seasonal). There is sufficient evidence of this type of relation at Sakarya
(Figure 2c) with =0.10 and at other locations with 0.25 significance levels. PCI values at Isparta are
influenced by strong concentrated (strong seasonal) conditions (PCI>21), beginning in 2010 but a slightly
decreasing trend has been observed in the last decade, (Figure 2b, and Table 2). Slightly higher increasing
trend is recorded in Eskişehir, Sakarya and Kandilli, respectively.

Figure 2a-d. PC) values in a Kandilli, b )sparta, c Sakarya and d Eskişehir -2013)

Figure 2a-d. PCI and Maximum MFI values in (a) Kandilli, (b) Isparta

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ANALYSES OF MODIFIED FOURNIER INDEX

Exponential relations between monthly maximum precipitation and water erosivity risk values based on
observations in Sakarya are presented in Figure 3 (a), (b) and (c) for 2007-2008 and 2009. There is sufficient
evidence of this empiric relation between monthly MFI and maximum precipitation values with the
confidence level; α= . .

Figure 3 a-b-c. Relation between maximum precipitation and monthly MFI values in Sakarya, (a) in 2007, (b)
in 2008, (c) in 2009

Figure 4 a-d. Relation between maximum precipitation Pmax and Maximum MFI values in Kandilli(a),
)sparta b , Sakarya c and Eskişehir d .

)n general, Kandilli is under the effect of Low to Very (igh, )sparta and Sakarya are Low to (igh and Eskişehir
has Low–Moderate Erosivity Risks.

Figure 5 a-d show temporal variations of MFI calculated from 1975 to 2013 at four stations. In general,
Kandilli and near vicinity is under low to moderate erosivity risks. However, high and very high risk
characteristics were also recorded in 1985, 1988, 1997, 2002 and 2010. Similar to Kandilli, erosivity risk is
generally low (less than 90) in Isparta while moderate to high water erosion risk values were recorded in
recent years. Sakarya and near vicinity had low erosivity risk, as well, except it was also under high erosivity
risk in recent years. Erosivity risk using MF) variations shows very low risk characteristics in Eskişehir
compared to other stations in recent years.

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Figs 5 a-d. PC) and MF) values in a Kandilli, b )sparta, c Sakarya and d Eskişehir

The highest correlation between MFI and PCI is defined in Kandilli with r = 0.74,  = 5%. The lowest linear
relation is calculated in Sakarya. It shows the role of other more important factors on erosivity risk variations
like soil type, slope, topography and vegetation cover etc. in and near the vicinity of this station, which should
be the subject of further resolute data analyses in this study area.

ANALYSES OF OBSERVED AND SIMULATED EROSIVITYINDEX

There are low and moderate erosivity risk (EI) characteristics in Eskişehir and Sakarya Table . (igh
erosivity risk (Maximum EI class No=3) values have been recorded in Kandilli and Isparta in the last decade.

Table . Statistical Descriptive of E) values in Kandilli, )sparta, Sakarya and Eskişehir for a ten year period.

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Between 1985 and 1995 maximum erosivity risk values (EI) increased in Kandilli and Sakarya, but they
decreased in Eskişehir and )sparta. )n general, maximum index values show some more important variations
from the point of view of class types in all stations. There is not a more important temporal variation in
minimum risk values of EI in all stations.

SPATIAL VARIATION OF EROSIVITY

Figures 6a and b show potential and actual water erosion risk maps for Isparta (Senirkent). Potential erosion
risk map shows there are two class values: Class number - 1 represents low risk areas and class number - 2
represents high risk areas. However, detailed analysis of actual erosion risk map evaluates four different
classes from no erosivity risk to high erosivity risk areas.

L(1: Low erosivity risk), M (2: Moderate erosivity risk), H (3: High erosivity risk).
Figs 6a-b. (a) Potential and (b) actual soil erosion risk map at Isparta.

To estimate potential erosivitiy risk for a given study area, there are sufficient data, but for predicting actual
erosivity risk, actual land use maps and more data on agricultural fields are needed. By using the CORINE
method, land use planning programs, statistical and remote sensing analyses in time and space domain, more
reliable results have been evaluated 19.

When potential and actual erosion risk maps are compared with each other in three study areas, the roles of
surface characteristics, and slope and altitude, the differences between the two kinds of maps are better
illustrated (Figures 7-8). Similarly, potential and actual erosivity risk variations are compared with two other
study areas; Eskişehir and Sakarya. Actual and potential erosion risk maps of the whole of Turkey also show
some differences as defined in these three pilot areas 9.

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Figs 7a-b. (a) Potential and (b) actual soil erosion risk map at Sakarya.

Figs 8a-b. a Potential and b actual soil erosion risk map at Eskişehir.

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RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS

EI was also studied based on the CORINE method.

PCI analyses show an increasing trend, especially beginning from the year 2000 in Kandilli. In the last part
of the study period, its type changes from uniform to moderate seasonal although an increasing trend is
seen. However, strong seasonal conditions were recorded in recent years in Isparta.

Kandilli and its vicinity are generally under low to moderate erosivity risks. However, intermittent and
very high water erosivity risk values were also recorded in 1985, 1988, 1997, and 2002. Erosivity risk
values were less than MFI values observed in Isparta. Although very low to low soil erosion risks were
assessed in the past for this region, moderate to high water erosion risk values were also recorded in
recent years. Sakarya is generally under low erosivity risk except for the last ten years in which it is under
the high erosivity risk. Erosivity risk variations show very low characteristics in Eskişehir during the
entire study. When the estimated future precipitation values were examined, erosivity risks showed an
increasing trend in )sparta, Sakarya and Eskişehir, while it showed a decrease in Kandilli.

In the second part of the paper, CORINE Soil Erosivity Assessment Methodology is applied to define
potential and actual erosivity risks in the study areas. As a first step, soil erodibility (K; soil texture, depth
and stoniness) was taken into account by using remote sensing data and topographic maps. To define EI,
MFI and BGI were computed. Potential soil erosion risk (E P) was defined by considering K, EI and slope
angle (S). With the last additional factor (V; land cover), actual erosivity risk (E A) was evaluated for each
case.

Based on CORINE Soil Erosivity Assessment Methodology, more detailed analyses of actual and potential
water erosion risks for Isparta, Eskişehir and Sakarya are presented in the last part of this paper. Potential
erosion risk maps of the study areas show only two classes (low and high risk areas) while a detailed
analysis indicates four different classes of soil erosion risk in the pilot areas (from no erosivity risk to high
erosivity risk). There are also great differences between actual and potential soil erosion risk maps in
Sakarya and Eskişehir, 9.

This paper underlines the actual and potential erosivity risk and spatio-temporal precipitation variations
in recent years in selected pilot areas in Turkey. The authors have discussed the role of water erosion risk
and the combined effect on irrigation, water deficit and hydraulic energy sources and limitations of scale
factor. Because of these differences from other case studies and the detailed analyses of spatial soil
erosion risk variations, they are essential for the definition of actual erosivity risks in Turkey in micro-
meso class.

REFERENCES

1 Ramos, M. C. and Duran B. 2014. Assessment of Rainfall Erosivity and its Spatial and Temporal
Variabilitiess: Case Study of the Penedes area (NE Spain), Catena. Vol. 123, p. 135-147.
2 Moreno, J. F. S. C. M. Mannaerts, V.Jetten. 2014. Rainfall Erosivity Mapping for Santiago Island, Cape

Verde, Geoderma. V. 217-218, p. 74-82.


3 IPCC, Climate Change. 2007 (mi 2013 mü): The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group

I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Solomon, S.,
D. Qin, M. Manning (Eds).
4 Luis M. De, González- Hidalgo J.C., and Longares L.A. 2010. Is Rainfall Erosivity Increasing in The

Mediterranean Iberian
Peninsula. Land Degrade. Develop. 21: 139–144.
5 Luis M. De, González-Hidalgo J. C. , Brunetti M. and Longares L. A. 2011. Precipitation concentration

changes in Spain 1946–2005 ,Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 11, 1259-1265.
6 Zhang, G.Q.,Xu C., Gemmer M., Chen Y. D. and Liu C. 2009. Changing propertiesof precipitation

concentration in the Pearl River basin, China. Stoch Environ Res Risk Assess. 23: 377–385, DOI 10.
1007/s00477-008-0225-7.
7 Okçu, D and Akg“l, S. . Soil Erosion Risk Assessment of the Golbaşı Environmental Protection
Area and Its Vicinity Using the CORINE Model. Turk J. Agric. For., 29, 439-448. TUBITAK.
8 CEC (Commission of the European Communities) 1992. CORINE Soil Erosion Risk and Important Land

Resources. EUR 13233, Luxembourg.

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9 Aslan, Z, D. Gabriel, C. Ayday, D. N. Yeniçeri, D. Okçu, A.S. Söğ“t, B. Oğuzhan, Z. N. Çağlar, A. Tokgözl“, M.
G“mr“kç“oğlu, K. G“rer, and D. Lobo, . Actual Erosivity Risk Analysis Based on Ground
Measurements and Remote Sensing Data: Workshop Report, Bosphorous University, pp.42,
10 T“rkeş, M. and Tatlı, (. 09. Use of the standardized precipitation index (SPI) and modified SPI for
shaping the drought probabilities over Turkey. International Journal of Climatology, 29: 2270–2282.
11 Kurnaz, L., 2014. Drought in Turkey,

IPM–MERCATORPolicyReport;(inTurkish),http://ipc.sabanciuniv.edu/en/wpContent/uploads/2014/03/
IPC_ kuraklik.pdf, (December 19, 2014).
12 Pal I. and A. Al-Tabbaa. 2010. Assessing seasonal precipitation trends in India using parametric and non-

parametric statistical techniques, Theoretical Applied Climatology, DOI 10. 1007/s00704–010–0277–


8.
13 Kim S., 2004. Wavelet Analysis of Precipitation Variability in Northern California, U.S.A. , KSCE, Journal

of Civil Engineering, Vol. 8, No. 4, pp. 471~477.


14 Gabriels, D., 2003. The USLE for Predicting Rainfall Erosion Losses. ICTP-SMR. 705-3. Trieste.
15 Yang W, A. Bárdossy, H-J Caspary, 2010. Downscaling daily precipitation time series using a combined

circulation- and regression-based approach, Theoretical Applied Climatology, DOI 10. 1007/s00704–
010–0272-0.
16 Oliver, J. E. 1980. Monthly precipitation distribution: A comparative Index
Professional Geographer. 32: 300–309.
17 Arnoldus, H. M., 1980. An Approximation of the Rainfall factor in the Universal Soil Loss Equation. In

Assessments of Erosion, de Boodts, M, and D. Gabriels (Eds). John Wiley and Sons Ltd, Chichester 127–
132.
18 Michiels, P., and Gabriels, D., (1996): Rain Variability Indices for the Assessment of Rainfall Erosivity in

the Mediterranean Region. In: Rubio, J.L., Calva, A. (Eds.), Soil Degradation and Desertification in
Mediterranean Environments. Geoforma Editions, Logrono, Spain, pp. 49-70.
19 Erhard, M., Boken, H., Glante, F., 2003. The Assessment of the Actual Soil Erosion Risk in Germany, based

on CORINE Land-cover and Statistical Data from the Main Representative Survey of Land Use, OECD
Expert Meeting on Soil Erosion and Soil Biodiversity Indicators, Rome, Italy.

Acknowledgement

The authors thank TUJJB Turkey National Geodesy and Geophysical Union , Boğaziçi University, Kandilli
Observatory and Earthquake Research )nstitute and Computer Technician Mr. Şenol Solum. This paper is
related to the research project supported by the Turkish HGK (General Command of Mapping) with the
project number: TUJJB-TUMEHAP–01–06.

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)llegal, Unregulated And Unreported )uu Fısherıes )n The Black Sea


Dr. Nazlı KASAPOGLU1, Dr. Ertug DUZGUNES2

1Central
Fisheries Research Institute, Trabzon.
nazliktu@gmail.com
2KTU Faculty of Marine Science, 61530 Camburnu. Trabzon.

ertug@ktu.edu.tr

Abstract

Combatting against Illegal, Unregulated and Unreported (IUU) fisheries is one of the main interests of world
fisheries today. Though the Black Sea is the main production area for Turkey, IUU fisheries is also too high in
the region due to lack of efficient monitoring, control and surveillance services, characteristics of fishing
methods used for the small migratory and small demersal fish species living in the region.
Trawling is permitted only in the Western Black Sea off the miles zone. )t’s the case that some of the
trawling operations are carried out within this limit illegally. Due to use of traditional diamond shaped mesh
sizes, trawl nets are not selective for the undersized whiting and red mullet. In case of purse seine fisheries
quantity of undersized fish are also at high levels. The major problem is the use of unselective purse seine
nets. Bulk of catch mainly contains undersized anchovy and horse mackerel. Sprat, caught as bycatch which
has no minimum catch/landing size in Turkey. Gillnets are the most selective gears in the fishing operations
in coastal waters. But they have also great impact on exploited stocks as the high rate of undersized fish in
the catch. Mesh size are legal but they manage to use different rigging rates which make enable them to
catch more fish together with the portion above the minimum catch sizes (whiting, red mullet, bonito). Baby
clam is one the main export species of the shell fish community of the Black Sea. It is harvested mainly by
hydraulic dredges in the designated areas used for periodically in the Western Black Sea.
Unreported fishery is the most important problem in Turkey. The impact of fishing is not well known on the
exploited stocks. Fishermen don’t want to report their exact catch due to afraid of tax expectations as their
misunderstandings. After giving some figures on the IUU fisheries, it was aimed to propose solutions in order
to reduce the impacts of existing fishing gears/methods used in the region.

Key words: The Black Sea, IUU fisheries, purse seining, trawling, gillnetting

WHAT IS THE IUU FISHING?

Illegal, unreported and unregulated (IUU) fishing jeopardizes the livelihoods of people around the world,
threatens valuable marine resources and undermines the credibility and efforts of fisheries management
measures. (owever, the global community s awareness of these problems has failed to motivate
international action (Kuemlangan and Press, 2010).

Illegal fisheries are violations of international and national law. Fishing carried out in prohibited areas
without a license, with prohibited gear, on prohibited species, or over the quota. Unreported fisheries are
any catch that is not recorded or that is misreported to authorities. Unregulated fisheries are catch from
the sea, not under jurisdiction of a state or management organization.

The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) recently developed and adopted the
Agreement on Port State Measures to Prevent, Deter and Eliminate Illegal, Unreported and Unregulated
Fishing (PSM Agreement), a landmark global legally binding instrument that strikes at the key reason
behind IUU fishing – economic profit (FAO, 2009a). The 36th session of FAO s highest governing body –
the FAO Conference – acclaimed the PSM Agreement as a milestone in the international efforts to ensure
responsible and sustainable fisheries and urged FAO Members to sign and ratify, accept, approve or
accede to the Agreement as soon as possible so as to bring it into force at the earliest possible time FAO,
2009b).

The European Commission s definition of )UU fishing is essentially based on the internationally agreed
FAO s )nternational Plan of Action to Prevent, Deter and Eliminate Illegal, Unreported and Unregulated
Fishing (IPOA-IUU), which was adopted in 2001. The recently adopted Council Regulation on IUU gives, in

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Article 3, the most detailed definition of what counts as IUU. The text of the Article reads as follows: A
fishing vessel shall be presumed to be engaged in IUU fishing if it is shown that, contrary to the
conservation and management measures applicable in the fishing area concerned, it has:

- Fished without a valid license, authorization or permit issued by the flag State or the
- relevant coastal State, or
- Not fulfilled its obligations to record and report catch or catch-related data, including data
- to be transmitted by satellite vessel monitoring system, or prior notices under Article 6, or
- Fished in a closed area, during a closed season, without or after attainment of a quota or
- beyond a closed depth, or
- Engaged in directed fishing for a stock which is subject to a moratorium or for which
- fishing is prohibited, or
- Used prohibited or non-compliant fishing gear, or
- Falsified or concealed its markings, identity or registration, or
- Concealed, tampered with or disposed of evidence relating to an investigation, or
- Obstructed the work of officials in the exercise of their duties in inspecting for compliance
- with the applicable conservation and management measures, or the work of observers in
- the exercise of their duties of observing compliance with the applicable Community rules,
- or
- Taken on board, transshipped or landed undersized fish in contravention of the legislation in
- force, or
- Transshipped or participated in joint fishing operations with, supported or re-supplied other fishing
vessels identified as having engaged in IUU fishing under this Regulation, in particular those included
in the Community IUU vessel list or in the IUU vessel list of a regional fisheries management
organization; or
- Carried out fishing activities in the area of a regional fisheries management organization in a manner
inconsistent with or in contravention of the conservation and management measures of that
organization and is flagged to a State not party to that organization, or not cooperating with that
organization as established by that organization, or
- No nationality and is therefore a stateless vessel, in accordance with international law (Tinch et al.,
2008)

Causes of IUU Fishing

There are several ways/reaasons of IUU fishing:


- Ineffective Management: Low risk of detection and mild penalties.
- Overcapacity: Too many vessels fishing too few legal fish.
- Legal vs. Illegal Profit: ($10-23 billion in IUU) Drives down the cost of fish and unfairly outcompete
honest fishers.
- Flags of Convenience: Legal loopholes allow vessels to circumvent international law.
- Poverty: Provides labor pool with options that are easily exploited (Sumaila et al., 2015).
-
Effects of IUU Fishing

IUU fishing have an impact on sustainable use of fish resources as:


- Overfishing: Stock assessments do not include IUU catches, resulting in quotas set too high to be
sustainable, threatening food security.
- Collapse of Vulnerable Fisheries: Endangered Bluefin tuna on the black market sell for $4 billion
annually.
- Slowed recovery of depleted stocks: 3 to 4 sharks finned illegally for every 1 shark caught legally.
- Exploitation of developed countries: Illegal foreign vessels remove $300 million from Somalian waters
alone each year, threatening local livelihoods.
- Seafood fraud: Illegal fish mixed with legal catches and often mislabeled (so they can be sold as a
higher valued fish) to boost profits.
- Exploitation: Human trafficking, drug smuggling, physical and sexual abuse, child labor, dangerous
working conditions, and forced labor.
- Food Safety: Poor sanitation, disease, and unsafe food handling endangers the health of consumers
(Sumaila et al., 2015).

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The EU Regulation to prevent, deter and eliminate illegal, unreported and unregulated fishing (IUU)
entered into force on 1 January 2010. The Commission is working actively with all stakeholders to ensure
coherent application of the IUU Regulation.

IUU FISHING IN BLACK SEA

There are some IUU applications in the Turkish fisheries relating to minimum landing size, closed season,
gear, area and mesh size in the Fisheries Circular by the Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Livestock
(MFAL). However, there are a lot of species which unregulated fisheries in the Fisheries Circular. Annual
productions on these species are shown in Figure 1. IUU fishing examples are given in the various
headlines below:

Unregulated Fisheries

Unregulated fisheries can be seen in folowing cases in Turkey:


- Shrimp and Rapa whelk (Rapana venosa) (there are no minimum landing size limitations),
- Sprat (there is no minimum landing size limitation, closed season, gear and mesh size restriction),
- Garfish (there is no regulatory measures on this species),
- Goby fish species, picarel, shad (there are any fishing regulations on these species: no minimum
landing size, closed seasons, gear restrictions),
- Gurnard (no minimum size but size limitations for only Chelidonichthys lucerna (tub gurnard), not for
the other gurnard species).
- Endangered species (seahorse fishing ban only H. guttulatus, not for other Hippocampus species)

Figure 1. Production of selected unregulated fisheries (TSI, 2014)

Unreported Catch

There are discard rates in all types fisheries but not reported in Turkey and Black Sea. Because;
- Port offices is not working as ıt was targeted,
- There are administrative and legal uncertainties to operate port offices.
- Landing declarations of purse seiners and trawlers cannot be given to the port officers in order to
record to FIS (Fisheries Information System),
- Responsibility of recording landings was given to the cooperatives during the application of skippers
to have the certificate of transport which creates difference on landing and catch quantities.
- Fish markets are not fully cover the needs for fishing industry from
- Actually middlemen/wholesalers are very effective in the fish markets. In order to reduce their income
tax, commissions to them by the fishermen, they report lover quantities. This can be seen during any
day if visit paid to any of the fish markets.
- Municipality has very limited records which are only given by wholesalers.

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Illegal Fisheries

Due to lack of essential measures illegal fishing is very high in Turkey. Important cases can be
summarized as:

- There is illegal dredging and trawling activities for Rapana and other demersal fisheries whether in the
3 miles zone where trawling is permitted and in the areas completely closed to trawling.
- No efficient monitoring and control activities on daily quota allocated by the Ministry on baby clam.
- All the main local/main markets/restaurants selling undersized fish (anchovy, horse mackerel,
whiting, and bluefish).
- More landings encouraged to catch undersized anchovy is the award for fish meal and oil factories due
to its quantity and lowest price as a raw material.
- Fishing regulation permits to undersized fish at 15 % on weight basis for anchovy and other small
pelagics. It means, there is legal impact on the sustainability of the small pelagic stocks. Moreover,
survey results indicate that the rate of undersized fish catch is too high.

SOLUTIONS

Some actions may help to reduce IUU fishing in the country:


- Use of selective fishing gears should be provided and, selectivity studies should be promoted,
- MCS is needed from boat to plate,
- National data collection system need to be approved regarding biological sampling and fishery
operational data needs,
- Port offices should be activated for better data collection,
- Necessary measures should be provided for unregulated fisheries for species
Fishery observer program can be applied where/when necessary,
- Stakeholder participation and raising public awareness programs are necessary to combat against IUU
fisheries.

REFERENCES

Food and Agricultural Organizations FAO , a. FAO Legal Office. United Nations Agreement on Port
State Measures to Prevent, Deter and Eliminate )llegal, Unreported and Unregulated Fishing
[hereinafter PSM Agreement] was approved by the FAO Conference at its Thirtysixth Session on 22
November 2009, through Resolution No 12/2009, under Article XIV, paragraph 1 of the FAO
Constitution. Available online at: http://www.fao. org/Legal/treaties/037s-e.htm.
Food and Agricultural Organizations (FAO), 2009b. Conf. Res. 12/2009, at 2, U.N. Doc. C 2009/LIM/11-
Rev. 1 (Nov. 22,2009) [here in after Conference Report].
Kuemlangan, B., Press, M. 2010. Preventing, Deterring and Eliminating IUU Fishing- Port State Measures.
Environmental Policy and Law, 40/6. 0378-777X/10/$27.50.
Sumaila, U. R., Agnew, D., Doulman, D. J. 2015. Illegal, Unreported, and Unregulated (IUU) Fishing
Factsheet. Waitt Institute, February 2015.
Tinch, R., Dickie, I., Lanz, L. 2008. Costs of Illegal, Unreported and Unregulated (IUU) Fishing in EU
Fisheries November 2008 Economics for the Environment Consultancy Ltd 73–75 Mortimer Street,
London, England.
Turkish Statistical Institute (TSI). 2014. Fishery Statistics, Ankara, Turkey.

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The Proposal Related In Mitigation Of Carbon Footprint In Isparta Residential


Development Areas

GÖKCE Duygu1, ÖZSOY Z. Betül1

1Süleyman Demirel University, Faculty of Architecture, City and Regional Planning Department,
)sparta/TÜRKİYE
duygugokce@sdu.edu.tr, betulozsoy@sdu.edu.tr

Abstract

Building sector, significantly consumed energy and caused to CO2 emissions, is one of the main sectors in
mitigation efforts of the effects of global climate change. An important part of building sector consists of the
residential areas and the studies in these areas, by focusing on building scale, refer to reduce domestic
resourced emissions by the architectural and technological solutions. Urban planning discipline, determines
the spatial development of settlements, form and density of construction and the amount of carbon sinks, is
neglected the role and importance in creation of carbon footprint or mitigation climate change’s effect.
Based on this requirement, Sılaydın and Çukur ’’, for using by the land use planning, have developed a
method, respected local features and aimed at mitigation the carbon footprint by achieving the carbon-
oxygen balance in residential areas.

In the method, how much green space needs to spread out in the plan, depending on the form and density of
residential areas is calculating. About the method, for each placement natural characteristics and creating
potential emissions due to the idea that peculiar; by leaving side the general standards for free green areas,
according to the carbon-oxygen balance principle the amount of green space to be set aside for placements it
is taken as goal to calculate it separately in plans.

In the paper, by using this method, for residential development areas in development plan of Isparta city, the
produce of the different types of building to balance the amount of CO 2 with O2, the amount of green space to
be set aside in the plan will be calculated; the result taken will be compared with the amount of green space
split in development plan. Thus, according to the general standards in the reconstruction regulations the
carbon-oxygen balance in the amount of green space allotted to what extent provided will be discussed,
therefore limiting the carbon footprint at the local level or what the percentage of mitigation will be
discussed.

Keywords: Carbon Footprint, Carbon-Oxygen Balance, Residential Area, Climate Change, Isparta

INTRODUCTION

Global warming and climate change issues began being discussed on an international level (1992 United
Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, the 1997 Kyoto Protocol) in the early 1990s. A
significant portion of solutions on an international level, to prevent the dangerous effects on the climate
caused by humans, involve limiting and reducing greenhouse gas emissions in the atmosphere.

Our country became a party to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change in 2004 and
the Kyoto Protocol in 2009, and began preparing strategy and action plans for reducing the negative
impacts of climate change since the 2000s. In these reports, the building sector is considered as a priority
area in increasing energy efficiency and policies and programs for climate change, due to it being a
significant energy consuming sector.

One of the most important greenhouse gases that cause global climate change is carbon dioxide. Energy
use in the building sector has a significant share on carbon footprint. In the carbon emission scenarios,
emissions from energy use in buildings are estimated to be approximately 30% of total CO2 emissions in
2030 (IPCC; 2007).

Housing areas constitute a significant portion of the building sector, and the solutions proposed in the
literature of this subject (e.g. green building, smart growth and energy efficient building) focus on

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structural design based on renewable energy sources and ensuring energy efficiency with technological
measures in structures (e.g. Hunter, 2004; Brown and Southworth, 2008). Similar topics are also focused
on in national action plans and strategies related to climate change.

In the "National Climate Change Action Plan, 2011-2023" prepared by the Ministry of Environment and
Urbanism, the energy consumption of the building sector in 2009 is estimated to increase about two-folds
in 2020. In the control of greenhouse gas emissions related to the building sector; the increase in energy
efficiency and the use of renewable energy in buildings and limit to greenhouse gas emissions arising from
settlements are intended.

Proposals in the context of increasing energy efficiency and the use of renewable energy in buildings focus
on; making regulations on energy performance, developing and promoting the use of appropriate
materials and technology and administrative sanctions etc. briefly stated, they focus on building scale.

Greenhouse gas emissions resulting from settlements -especially from new settlements- are intended to
be limited. In this context, determining the effect of land use and all sectors concerned on greenhouse gas
emissions; improving energy-efficient and climate-sensitive planning and settlement policies for different
climate zones, setting criteria and preparing a guideline for effective implementation; improving and
implementing sustainable urban settlement plans with pilot projects and transferring the results to the
zoning legislation etc. actions have been defined. (MEU, 2011, p.90)

''National Climate Change Strategy, 2010-2023", also prepared by the Ministry, intend to; develop
mitigation strategies on climate change in settlements, determine procedure and principles related to
planning and structuring, determine strategies to use urban land effectively in order to prevent the
formation of urban heat islands and encourage the increase of open green areas in urban areas, in the
scope of greenhouse gas emissions control.

The actions developed for settlements, are parallel to the point of origin of the paper. In the paper, the
urban land use planning needed to mitigate CO2 emissions caused by structuring (especially with the
proposed housing areas) and carbon footprint, and to protect the local carbon cycle are scrutinized.

A METHOD FOR THE MAINTAINING OF CARBON-OXYGEN BALANCE IN HOUSING AREAS

Since the method developed by Sılaydin and Çukur is used in the paper, the explanation of the
method is given in this part.

Urban land use planning is directly connected with reducing carbon emissions, because it determines the
developments of housing areas, the density, the form and the type of vegetation. The existing emission
mitigation efforts do not integrate with the land use planning Sılaydın and Çukur, . The solutions
developed specifically for housing areas are limited with technological and architectural solutions within
the building scale, and the potential reducing power of urban green areas on emissions can t be benefited
from.

There are studies which emphasize the role of green areas acting as carbon sinks as a solution to climate
change (for example; Ergin. 1996, Gil and others. 2007, Jo 2002, Zhanga and others. 2007, Uy and
Nakagoshi 2008). However, these solutions, are either non-functional for urban land use planning or they
don't consider the local characteristics enough.

In order to protect and maintain nature's carbon cycle, the C content in the atmosphere mustn't exceed
the atmosphere's carrying capacity. In this context, maintaining the carbon-oxygen balance should be the
main priority, especially when preparing implementation plans for urban development and renewal areas,
in order to protect the local carbon cycle. The method Sılaydın and Çukur developed is based on
such an approach.

Urban open green areas, which are considered local carbon sinks due to their potential of trees, include
different scales of parks (e.g. neighborhood parks, district parks, city parks etc.), children gardens,
playgrounds and playfields in urban land use planning. These spaces not only include green areas, they
are also designed with unnatural areas for various human activities (and so devoid a natural vegetation of

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trees). Therefore, the green areas mentioned in the method include the parts of the urban open green
areas consisting only of trees, which the denaturation rate is at zero.
The open green areas for land use planning are determined according to norms which are; the type of land
(for example neighborhood parks, children playgrounds etc.) and the population of the settlement (for
example 10000-25000, 25000-50000 etc.). These standards are generally accepted on the state or nation
scale and different countries use different norms (Ersoy, 2009). In Turkey, according to the 3194
Construction Law for open green areas, the norm for m2/per person is 10 m2/per person within the
metropolitan municipality borders and 14 m2/per person outside the borders.

However, when forming these generally accepted standards, the settlement's CO2 emissions and the
mitigation potentials of green areas aren't considered and the local climatic and natural characteristics are
ignored. When considering CO2 emissions mitigation goals, the amount of green areas needed to be
reserved while making any settlement land-use planning, must be estimated specifically for each land
because every land has its own features due to its natural features and emission potential Sılaydın and
Çukur, 2012).

)n the context of carbon–oxygen balance, the local-scale characteristics play an important role for the
following reasons: (1) the characteristics ofthe local climate affectthe amount of energy used for
household heating and cooling;(2)the vegetation of each region varies and so does their carbon absorption
capacity, consequently; and (3) each urban settlement has different development characteristics and
densities, which in turn causes the cities and different residential areas within the cities to produce
different amounts of CO2 emissions. Sılaydın and Çukur, , p. .

With all the needs taken into account, the land use planning developed by the Sılaydın and Çukur
method aims to maintain the carbon-oxygen balance in residential areas, based on the oxygen output of
green areas. The method estimates the amount of green areas which need to be reserved according to the
type (attached, detached, block, etc.) and density of the settlement development areas in the land use
planning. The varying emission amounts in different residential areas with diverse housing types, the
number of actively used residential units, and local vegetation differences are included in the estimate.

n HCEi . Di . Ri .0,72
GA = 
i:1 70. HH . 1000

GA= Gerekli yeşil alan miktarı ha


HCEi: The average annual amount of CO2 emission per housing unit in residential area i (kg/housing unit);
Di: The density of residential area i (person/ha);
Ri: The total area of residential area i (ha);
HH: The average household size (person);
n: The number of residential areas with different densities and types in the land use plan.

According to the basic approach of the method, the carbon emissions must be estimated separately for
each settlement in different residential areas, to form the planning data to be used in land use planning.

APPLICATION OF THE METHOD IN ISPARTA RESIDENTIAL DEVELOPMENT AREAS

Isparta -our field of study- is located in the Mediterranean region, which has temperate climate
characteristics. This city is a medium-sized city mainly inhabited by households with families mostly from
the middle-income. According to TUIK 2014 data, the population of Isparta city is 207.266 people, and the
average household size is 3.1 people.

Detached housing and 1-2 storey buildings have been replaced by 6-7 storey apartments (collective
housing or housing estate) in the last 20 years. According to the current implementation plan, two types
of structuring have been predicted in residential development areas. The first one mainly consists of 2-
storey detached housing settlements (A region, Zafer neighborhood), and the other consists of 6-7 storey
housing estate forming a few block apartments (B region, Çünür neighborhood) (Figure 1).

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Figure 1: Residential Development Regions in Isparta

)n )sparta, the amount of open green areas parks, children s playgrounds and sports ground altogether
per person, according to Yilmaz and Eraslan's (2009) studies have increased from 1.9 m 2 in 2001 to 6.03
m2 in 2008. But, since this value wasn't calculated in neighborhood units nor in the neighborhood scale
and the amount of green areas consisting of trees were also unknown, there was no need to make use of it
in this paper. Moreover, the open green areas in the neighborhood scale are determined without any plan
or order and without considering the population of the neighborhood.

The underlying method of the paper, Sılaydın and Çukur method, will evaluate the open green
areas of neighborhood units or regions proposed, because it focuses on residential development areas.
Open green areas needed for the residential development regions in the implementation plans, are
estimated by multiplying the size of the population which will settle in the settlements and 14 m2/per
person of green areas as stated in the Construction Law. Therefore, it's possible to evaluate the residential
development region independently from the entire city.

In this method, the emissions of different types of housing areas, within the specifics of housing, have
been taken into account rather than the general emissions per person. Therefore, the amount of CO2
emissions produced by a housing unit, HCE (kg/ housing unit) value, is used in this method. The HCE
value varies depending on each area s characteristics local climatic characteristics of the settlement,
general consumption habits of the households in the housing unit, the fuel type used, type of housing,
technical features of the building etc.).

The HCE value includes the CO2 emissions caused by the energy use of the family members living in the
households and the emissions caused by the housing type. Therefore, according to the method
implemented in the sample fields, Sılaydın and Çukur obtained the (CE value by combination of
the results of two different studies.

The first of the studies is the report consisting of the CO2 emissions of households, based on the
geographic regions of Turkey, in Kamburoğlu and Arıkan . )n this report, the CO emissions
differ depending on the person's living habits (the energy consumption depending on the income levels),
climatic features (housing and water heating needs) and more.

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Accordingly, Isparta is in the Mediterranean region, which has a temperate climate, and according to the
report, the emissions per household with middle-income is 1.63 tons/ per year.

Since the housing types the household will live in will determine the emission amount, the second source
which was used was Firth and Lomas's (2009) studies. In this study, the emissions produced by different
housing types while heating were calculated. Sılaydın and Çukur , based on this calculation, have
made these projections between emission amounts of different housing types: end terrace: 2.14, mid
terrace: 1.57, semi-detached: 2.07, detached: 3.57, flat purpose built: 1.00 ve flat-other: 2.00.

The method has been implemented on two of the residential development areas proposed in Isparta's
implementation plan in force. In region A, there are housing areas formed mostly of detached housing and
a small amount of apartment buildings (Figure 2). There are 4 different regions with an average of about
186; 310; 372; 496 person/ ha, according to the densities of the regions (Figure 3).

Figure 2: Region A (Zafer Neighborhood) Housing Types

Figure 3: Region A (Zafer Neighborhood) Housing Densities

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In region B the housing types are apartments (Figure 4). There are 2 different regions with an average of
about 310; 465 person/ha, according to the densities of the regions (Figure 5).

Figure 4: Region A (Çünür Neighborhood) Housing Types

Figure 5: Region A (Çünür Neighborhood) Housing Densities

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HCE value; for region A, since detached is: 3.57; 1.63 x 3.57 = 5.82 tons (58200 kg) and flat purpose built
is: 1.00; 1.63 x 1.00 = 1.63 tons (16300 kg).

For region B; 1.63 x 1.00 = 1.63 tons (16300 kg) because it's flat purpose built is: 1.00. According to this,
we can see that the detached housing in region A will produce 3.57 times more CO2 emissions for housing
heating than the apartments in region B.

For every variation in region A, the values of HCE, R, D (R and D values were obtained from the
implementation plan) and GA value calculated are all given in Table 1.

Table 1: HCE, R, D values and GA value calculated for region A

Type of D value
Residential region HCE value
housing (built (person/h R value (ha) GA value (ha)
of different density (kg)
form) a)
1 A 58.2 186 97.3713 3.497
2 B 16.3 310 0.3489 0.006
3 B 16.3 372 0.3057 0.006
4 B 16.3 496 1.5641 0.042
Total 99.5900 3.551

The green areas (GA) needed in order to balance CO 2 emissions for four different residential areas (n=4)
with different densities, with the oxygen produced by trees was calculated by;

n HCEi . Di . Ri .0,72
GA = 
i:1 70. HH . 1000

58,2 . 186 . 97,3713 . 0,72 + 16,3 . 310 . 0,3489 . 0,72


+ 16,3 . 372 . 0,3057 . 0,72 + 16,3 . 496 . 1,5641 . 0,72
GA = = 3.551ha
70 . 3,1. 1000

For every variation in region B, the values of HCE, R, D (R and D values were obtained from the
implementation plan) and calculated GA value are all given in Table 2.

Table 2: HCE, R, D values and GA value calculated for region B

Type of D value
Residential region HCE value
housing (built (person/h R value (ha) GA value (ha)
of different density (kg)
form) a)
1 B 16.3 310 62.1602 1.042
2 B 16.3 465 3.7305 0.094
Total 65.8907 1.136

The green areas (GA) needed in order to balance CO2 emissions for two different residential areas (n=2)
with different densities, with the oxygen produced by trees was calculated by;

16,3 . 310 . 62,1602 . 0,72 + 16,3 . 465 . 3,7305 . 0,72


GA = = 1.136 ha
70 . 3,1 . 1000

The green areas necessary to balance the CO2 emissions caused by the housing units in the 99.5900
hectares of residential development area in region A, has been estimated as 3,551 hectares;

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The green areas necessary to balance the CO2 emissions caused by the housing units in the 65,8907
hectares of residential development area in region B, has been estimated as 1,136 hectares.
The open green areas in residential development regions A and B have been located as parks and children
gardens. The open green areas reserved for region A in the implementation plan is, a total of 15,1614 ha.
The open green areas reserved for region B is a total of 15,1614 ha. When the results obtained from the
calculation and the predicted values in the implementation plan are compared, the open green areas
reserved in the implementation plan are seen to be more.

DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION

It is very important to balance the carbon-oxygen levels while making the land use planning to mitigate
CO2 footprint or emissions caused by the residential areas, to use from the active green area potential as
the local carbon sinks and to make inactive the general standards for open green areas in the Construction
Law. The method used in the paper, specifically for this purpose, is enough to fulfill the urban strategy and
action plans made to limit or mitigate the greenhouse emissions caused by the settlements: especially
focusing on new settlements, determining strategies for local scaled (in different climatic regions) active
urban land use, increasing the amount of open-green areas, creating and planning energy efficient and
climate sensitive settlement criteria, transferring these to the Construction Law etc.

When the results of the method applied in Isparta residential development areas are evaluated, we see
that the open green areas reserved according to general standards in the implementation plan are
adequate to balance the carbon-oxygen balance, therefore contribute to limiting or reducing the carbon
footprint in a local scale. This value will decrease considering that all of trees vegetation doesn't form
properly. Even so, the decisions made related to Isparta residential development areas, set a positive
example for other cities.

The public open green areas, which is majorly specified in the neighborhood units, is thought to be
adequate for the majority of the green areas needed according to the calculation results. Apart from that,
although all the types of green areas consisting of trees in the neighborhood unit (street bland, school
yards, housing gardens and etc.) have adequate potential for the need, since it is a preference to plant
trees (for example the majority of housing estates' yards are floored with hard materials or are used as
parking lots), this option was not evaluated in this paper.

In the context of reducing the carbon footprint caused by the housing areas, the open green areas needed
to balance CO emissions for )sparta s residential development areas, must be estimated separately for
each settlement in order to generate data for the plans; and the norms which ignore local climatic and
natural features must be made inactive.

REFERENCES

Brown, M.A. and Southworth, F. (2008). Mitigating climate change through green buildings and smart
growth. Environment and Planning A. vol.40, 653-675.
Ergin, Ş. . Ekolojik denge sorununda ekolojik bir parametre karbon bağlanması ve mekana
yansıtılması olanaklarının araştırılması. Ekolojik Dengenin Korunması ve S“rd“r“lmesi Açısından
Kentsel Sistemlerin Planlanması başlıklı g“d“ml“ proje. DEU-ODTU-İTÜ. TUBİTAK/DEBAG/Proje
no: 127-G. İzmir.
Ersoy, M. . Kentsel planlamada arazi kullanım standartları. BRC Basım ve Matmaacılık: Ankara.
Firth, S.K. and Lomas, K.J. (2009). Investigation CO2 emission reductions in existing urban housing using a
cmmunity domestic energy model. Eleventh International IBPSA Conference Glasgow, Scotland, July
27-30, 2009, 2098-2105.
Gill, S.E., Handley, J.F., Ennos, A.R. and Pauleit, S. (2007). Adapting Cities for Climate Change: The Role of
the Green )nfrastructure. Buılt Envıronment. Vol. . No. . -133.
Hunt, J. (2004). How can cities mitigate and adapt to climate change?. Building Research and Information.
32(1), 55-57.
IPCC (2007). Mitigation of Climate Change. Contribution of Working Group III to the Fourth Assessment
Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, 2007. B. Metz, O.R. Davidson, P.R. Bosch,
R. Dave, L.A. Meyer (eds). Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York,
NY, USA.

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Jo, H. (2002). Impacts of urban greenspace on offsetting carbon emissions for middle Korea. Journal of
Environmental Management (2002) 64, 115–126.

Kumbaroğlu, G. and Arıkan, Y., . Farkındalık ve Fark Yaratmak: T“rkiye nin CO Salımları. Open
Society Foundation, İstanbul.
MEU Ministry of Environment and Urbanism, Çevre ve Şehircilik Bakanlığı , . İklim Değişikliği
Ulusal Eylem Planı - , Ankara.
Sılaydın Aydın, M.B. and Çukur, D. . Maintaining the carbon–oxygen balance in residential areas: A
method proposal for land use planning. Urban Forestry & Urban Greening. Volume 11, Issue 1, 87–
94.
Uy, P.D. and Nakagoshi, N. (2008). Application of land suitability analysis and landscape ecology to urban
greenspace planning in Hanoi, Vietnam. Urban Forestry & Urban Greening 7, 25-40.
Yılmaz, S. ve Eraslan, Ş. . Kentsel Yeşil Alanların Kentin Yaşanabilirliğine Etkileri. . Uluslararası
Yapı ve Yaşam Kongresi, Bursa. Bildiri kitabı: -354
Zhang, L., Liu, Q., Hall, N.W. and Fu, Z. (2007). An environmental accounting framework applied to green
space ecosystem planning for small towns in China as a case study. Ecolojical Economics 60. 533-
542.

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An Alternative Plant in the Coastal Planting Design: Rhaphiolepis umbellate

Elif Kaya Şahin 1, Müberra Pulatkan1, Asena Şule Kamber1


1Karadeniz Technical University, Forestry Faculty, Lanscape Architecture Department, Trabzon
e-mail: kaya_elif@hotmail.com

Abstract

Coastal area holds a great significance in the fulfillment of the recreation requirements of users. Plants which
could be used effectively in terms of aesthetic and functionality are important in the vegetation activities to
be carried out in coastal area. However, the use of plants which are able to meet demands and expectations is
quite limited due to negative effects which emerge in these types of areas. It becomes obligatory to use plants
which are resistant to problems such as salty water spray, wind affect infertile soil etc.
In this study, the importance of the Rhaphiolepis umbellata plant as an alternative species to plants which
could be used in the coastal area vegetations is called attention to. The generative propagation experiments
of Rhaphiolepis umbellata, which has the required features in the landscape architecture planting design
with its evergreen characteristics, leaf colour and texture, plant form and flowers blooming in the spring,
have been emphazised. As a result, encourage of Rhaphiolepis umbellata plant use in the coastal areas by
enhanced propagation has been aimed.

Keywords: Coastal Planting Design, Rhaphiolepis umbellata, Generative Propagation

INTRODUCTION

Coasts were always glamour centers until today. Therefore, all of the countries had been in a competition
for keeping their coasts in order as a showcase (Akyol et al. 1997). So this provides increasing the
landscape studies at the coasts which is a choice of enriching the visual esthetic and multiplying the
variety of plants at these parts. In this sense, it is possible to come across examples of enriching the coasts
by landscape in many countries.

However, due to negative factors appear at the coasts, using the plants which will able to fulfill demands
and expectations, is limited. This means that, we can't use every plant we want in every coast we want. For
instance: Factors such as saltwater backwash that occurs in the seashore during the process of wave
formation in the seas, the wind effect, the tides that occur in open seas and barren lands limit the
phenomenon of landscaping, in addition to narrowing the choice of plants, which could be used by
landscape architects. Thus, saltwater resistant plants should be selected in landscaping work that would
be conducted on a natural formation such as seashores.

Salinity is one of the main factors responsible for deterioration which makes soil unfit for planting. The
development of plant species that can tolerate high salt levels is important for the utilization of these soils
(Martinez vd.,1984; Ashraf vd., 1993). Around 930 million ha of land world-wide, 20% of total land, are
affected by salinity (Munns 2002). In Turkey, there is a salinity problem in 1.5 hectares of land in different
levels (Kanber ve Ünlü, 2008). One of the methods used to remove the negative effects of salinity is the
removal of the salt residue in soil by lavage. On the other hand, the negative effects of salinity are
attempted to be reduced by implementing special techniques during improvement of saline irrigation
waters and cultivation. However, these applications, which aim to reduce the harmful effects of salinity,
are quite expensive and provide only temporary solutions. Selection and cultivation of plant species and
varieties that tolerate the salt well is the most practical and economic method to peruse these types of
land (Khalid 2001; Elkoca, vd 2003; Güldüren 2012).

Recently there has been great interest in developing varieties of plant that are resistant to salinity
(Alparslanve ark.,1997). In this study, it is given information about Rhaphiolepis umbellata plant as an
alternative species to plants which could be used in the coastal area vegetations.

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Rhaphiolepis umbellate

Rhaphiolepis umbellata from Rosaceae are slow-growing, evergreen shrubs native to Japan and Korea.
This genus are most spread wider than they are tall. They are a dense, about 1,50 m. Their leather leaves
are paddle-shaped, smooth-edged and dark green with pale undersides. New shoots are often coppery red.
The white flowers are borne in loose terminal clusters of slightly fragrant in early summer. The bluish
black berries persist into winter. (Abbot, 1972 and Waren, 1999) . They propagate from seed or cuttings
or by layering (Waren, 1999) (Figure 1) .

Because of their nice for textural effect and form, attractive flowers and fruits beauty, these can be
observed in many landscape situations; mass, unpruned hedge, containers. They have appeared with
greater cold hardines and disease resistance. They do best in well-drained, sandy soil enriched with
organic matter. This species has adapted to seashore conditions because of salt tolerance (Dirr, 1998 and
Waren, 1999) (Figure 2). It can be used in the construction fence with evergreen feature (Figure 3).

Figure 1. Rhaphiolepis umbellata.

Figure 2. The characteristic images of flowers

Figure 3. Rhaphiolepis umbellata plants used as hedge plants

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MATERIAL AND METHODS

Rhaphiolepis umbellata seeds were collected on KTÜ Campüs in 2014. The coordinate is 40,993564
39,777033. The seeds were seperated from the fruit material and dried in the shade. The thousand-piece-
weight of Rhaphiolepis umbellata seeds was measured and recorded as 151.6023 g. In plastic box the
seeds were applied to the cold stratification (about 4-7 C° at dark and 3 month) (Figure 3).

Figure 4. The seeds of Rhaphiolepis umbellata

Growing medium

In greenhouse, four germination medium were prepared. Rhaphiolepis umbellata seeds were sown in
Peat, Peat + River sand (7:3), Peat + Forest soil (7:3), Peat + Forest soil + River sand (4:3:3). Germination
was tested with 100 seeds each media. The greenhouse conditions are %60-70 humidity and 23°C
temperature. The seeds started to germinate within 4 weeks. When the germination started, the number
of the seeds was determined once a week. The germination percentage was calculated from the number of
fresh and germinated seeds.

RESULTS

Rhaphiolepis umbellata seeds germinated about one month later after they sown (Figure 5). The figures of
the percentage of germination obtained as a result of the census conducted after 45 days following the
planting are presented in Table 1. The figures for the first week demonstrate that the best medium was
Peat + Sand with 91% germination rate. All media displayed an increase in time. At the final stage, the
observations conducted in the 10th week showed that the best results were obtained in Peat + Soil with
98%. Table 2 presents the germination status of Rhaphiolepis umbellata seeds in the 6th and 10th weeks
after germination.

Figure 5. After started germination

It was also observed that the Peat + Sand mixture percentage, which demonstrated very good results
during the first week, decreased in the following weeks. It was considered that this result was due to the
fact that the Peat + Sand medium pressurized the plant after germination.

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The medium that displayed the lowest development was Peat + Sand + Soil when compared to other
media. While the germination rate was 37% during the first week, it was calculated as 61% during the last
weeks. Table 3 shows the germinated and surviving Rhaphiolepis umbellata seeds at the end of the study
(10th week).

Table 1: The percentages of germinated seeds after started germination.

Table 2: The germination experiments of Rhaphiolepis umbellata


PERIODS
MEDIUM Week 6 Week 10

Peat

Peat + Sand

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Peat + Soil

Peat + Soil + Sand

Table 3 : The germinated seeds at the end of the studies.

The number of The number of


Germination Medium
the sown seeds the germinated seeds

Peat 100 93
Peat + Soil 100 98
Peat + Sand 100 92
Peat + Soil + Sand 100 61

SUGGESTIONS

It was observed that Rhaphiolepis umbellata could be a potential ornamental plant in the future due to its
characteristics. Beauty of Rhaphiolepis umbellata flowers and their evergreen property makes this species
significant for landscape architecture studies. In addition, this plant is among the preferred species for
plantation in coastline areas due to its resilience for salty water spray. This study demonstrated that it is
efficient in cultivation from the seed ratio studies. Since there are only limited number of plant species
that could be cultivated in coastline areas, Rhaphiolepis umbellata should be preferred in landscape
architecture studies due to its ease of cultivation.

REFERENCES

Abbot, N.,(illiers Manual of Trees&Shurubs, (illaer&Sons, .


Akyol, N., Tüfekçi, M. ve Demir, O., 1997. T“rkiye de Kıyıların Kullanımı ve Kamu Yararı İlişkileri: Trabzon
İli Kıyı Kullanımı ve Sonuçları, Türkiye'nin Kıyı ve Deniz Alanları I.Ulusal Konferansı, Türkiye
Kıyıları 97 Konferansı, Haziran, Ankara Bildiriler Kitabı, 196.
Alparslan, M., G“neş, A., Taban,S., Salinity Resistance of Certain Rice Oryza sativa L. Cultivars. J. of
Biology 23 (1999) 499–506, 1997.
Ashraf, M., Waheed, A., Response of some genetically diverse lines of chick pea ( Cicer arietinum L.) to salt.
Plant and Soil 154: 257-266, 1993.
Dirr, M.,A., 1998. Manual of Woody Landscape Plants, Fifth Edition, Stipes Publishing L.L.C.

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Elkoca, E., Kantar, F. ve G“venç, İ., . Değişik NaCl konsantrasyonlarının kuru fasulye Phaseolus
vulgaris L.) genotiplerinin çimlenme ve fide gelişmesine etkileri. Atat“rk Üniversitesi Ziraat
Fakültesi Dergisi, 34 (1), 1-8.
G“ld“ren, Ş. . Kuzey Doğu Anadolu Bölgesi ve Çoruh Vadisi nden toplanan bazı fasulye phaseolus
vulgaris l. genotiplerinin tuza toleransı. Yüksek Lisans Tezi, Atatürk Üniversitesi Fen Bilimleri
Enstitüsü, Erzurum.
Kanber, R., Ünl“, M., . T“rkiye de sulama ve drenaj sorunları: genel bakış. T.C. Çevre Ve Orman
Bakanlığı, Devlet Su İşleri Genel M“d“rl“ğ“, DSİ V). Bölge M“d“rl“ğ“. . D“nya Su Forumu Bölgesel
(azırlık S“reci, DSİ Yurtiçi Bölgesel Su Toplantıları, Sulama –Drenaj Konferansı, -11 Nisan 2008,
Adana, s.1-45.
Khalid, M.N., Iqbal, H.F., Tahir, A., Ahmad. and A.N., 2001. Germination potential of chickpeas (Cicer
arietinum L.) under saline conditions. Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences, 4 (4), 395-396.
Martinez, V., Cerda, A., Fernandez, F.G., Salt tolerance of four tomato hybrids. Plant and Soil 97: 233-242,
1984.
Munns R (2002) Comparative physiology of salt and water stress. Plant, Cell and Environment 25: 239-
250.
Waren, W., 1999. Botanica, Köneman.

Acknowledgements

This study was accepted as project and supported by Karadeniz Technical University Scientific Research
Project Department with grant no: 9733.

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Assessment of Scenic Road Potential near The Dam Lake in The Coruh Valley, Turkey

Banu Çiçek KURDOĞLU¹, Banu KARAŞA(²

1Karadeniz Teknik Üniversitesi Orman Fak“ltesi Peyzaj Mimarlığı Böl“m“ TRABZON


banukurdoglu@windowslive.com
2Artvin Çoruh Üniversitesi Orman Fak“ltesi Peyzaj Mimarlığı Böl“m“ ARTVİN
banukarasah@artvin.edu.tr

Abstract

This article examines the potential of the Artvin-Borcka state highway which is 33 km to serve as a scenic
road, in addition to its transportation function, considering the visual quality of the natural values of Coruh
Valley and other qualities formed by the dam and reservoir. In this research, the first step was to prepare and
apply a questionnaire survey to people in the region for the determination of the attractiveness and use
potentials of the road and its close proximity as a scenic road. The second step included the determination of
view points by an expert group who had previously seen, used or known the route, for scenic beauties offered
by the road. As a result of questionnaire survey, respondents’ preferred activities of taking photographs
(38.7%), viewing scenery (37.3%), and relaxing (24%). In expert assessment, 16 visual points determined
which were suitable for land use preferences. According to the results this route should be evaluated as a
scenic road. This study provides an example of visual impact assessment methods that can be used for other
dams to be constructed in the Coruh Valley as well as in other regions of the world.

Key words: Scenic roads, dams, questionnaire, Artvin Borçka Highway

INTRODUCTION

Greenways are systems that possess features such as wildlife corridors, cultural resources, historical
places, scenic roads, rivers and valleys, parks, greenbelts, coastal areas, park roads, paths, and ecological
corridors. (Ahern 1995). The greenway model can provide for recreation and conservation
simultaneously (Ahern 1995). Trail networks are usually passed through the landscape, which has
visually high quality landscapes; there are also water-based recreational sites and areas in greenways
(Fabos 1995).

Scenic roads often include points along the roadway where people can leave their vehicles and engage in
outdoor activities, including pedestrian activities. For example, scenic roads might be designed to allow
people to enjoy the seasonal features of natural and cultural landscapes. Such roads might be traversed by
vehicle or on foot, and provide not only scenic beauty but also recreational opportunities. The visual
values may differ by season. Planners can create inventories of these values by recording where and when
people stop to view and use certain points (Arslan et al 2004). Scenic roads are generally constructed to
meet entertainment needs and often attract little trade traffic, although other traffic is possible. They are
generally only two-lane roads, with various standards depending on speed limits and traffic aims (Seckin
1997).

Scenic roads are often on elevated terrain, have aesthetic and cultural values, cross regions with distinct
features, and provide enjoyable travel and viewing opportunities. These roads also often provide
overlooks and viewpoints where drivers can rest and enjoy the sights. For easy access and departure, such
roads should connect to main arteries or other transportation routes. In general, a scenic route should
provide for 2 to 4 hours of travel time (Basal 1979).

Roads connect rural and urban areas as well as countries, enabling travelers to view and visit both
artificial and natural landscape elements. In this respect, dams and reservoirs have potential as places of
scenic, recreational, and tourism use if scenic roads pass nearby. For centuries, people have built dams to
supply drinking and irrigation water, generate energy, and control floods. Dams can also serve tourism,
recreational, and fisheries purposes, further contributing to regional economic development and
employment. However, since large dam projects have environmental and social impacts, they are also
among the most discussed and debated construction projects (WWF 2004).

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The objectives of this study were to determine the attractiveness of the road for tourism and recreation,
identify points offering scenic views and vistas along the road, determine convenient recreational
activities for these viewpoints, examine which viewpoints are appropriate for various types of
recreational activities and be an example for other roads currently being constructed along the other
planned dams in the Coruh Valley. Overall, we sought to identify the required measures and regulations
needed for the road to be considered and used as a scenic road. We identified to this road as a part of the
Artvin urban greenway system. We assessed the area considering the following assumptions: 1) the road
can serve alternative uses because of existing natural and artificial features; 2) the route has features
attractive for recreation and tourism activities; 3) safe and sustainable use of these opportunities are only
possible through accurate planning. After examining these factors, we decided that the road could be a
scenic road and that planning for that purpose could be attempted.

MATERIAL AND METHOD

With the completion of Borçka Dam, the 33-km Artvin-Borçka state highway has had to be rerouted. While
the former road followed the bends of the river banks along the Çoruh Valley floor, the highway now runs
along higher lands, sometimes passing over the river by viaducts. The road includes 11 tunnels and four
viaducts. Waters that were fast and clouded before the dam construction are now more stable and clearer.
Moreover, the reservoir provides a large water surface with mirror-like qualities, providing incalculable
beauty. Çoruh Valley, with its natural beauty and four distinct seasons, was already a fascinating area but
has become even more impressive with the reservoir. The dam structure and its reservoir have created
more diverse and unique scenes by integrating with the natural beauty of the valley mentioned above. The
cultural and natural resources within the valley contribute to its significant scenic value. The changing
views created by seasonal flora are valued. It is striking to see that in spring, shrubs and herbaceous
plants turn into green and flower; in summer, shrubs bear fruit; in autumn, leaves of shrubs and trees turn
from yellow to orange and red; and in winter, their leaves and branches are adorned with white snow.
Similarly, the morphological characteristics of the area contribute to the visual quality of the natural
scenery. Pinus pinea, Tamarix tetranda, Punica granatum, Arbutus ssp. is forms to pseudomaki samples.
Moreover, Pinus sylvestris is also forms to road, dam Lake and along the river pastoral village perspectives.
The road follows the river across the Çoruh Valley.

Study material included a 1:30,000 chart and images of the area. We gathered data from maps, reports,
development plans, and charts showing urban development in Artvin and nearby areas. The study
was composed of three steps (Figure 1).

Figure 1. Flow Chart

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First, we developed a questionnaire to determine the recreational expectations to the Borçka-Artvin State
Highway with the Dam and reservoir of residents of Artvin and nearby areas. At this stage, determining
recreational attractiveness of the area and expected activities with the questionnaire applied to the local
residents, the next step was to specify which activities are possible in which view points on the Borcka-
Artvin state highway.

Kurdoglu et al (2009) has done his researches with questionnaires about the city of Artvin and around of
it after that some of these data was evaluated by them. This study is mainly formed by these data s results,
which was not used before. Face-to-face interviews were used to administer the survey. According to the
following formula of Kalıpsız :

where n is the sample size, Z is the confidence coefficient, P is probability, Q equals 1-P probabilities in a
binomial distribution (95% confidence level), and N represents the population.

It was underlined that more than 72 questionnaires were done to be able to make the study more reliable.
In total, we interviewed 150 respondents.

As the second step, we used landscape assessment methods that have been established and accepted by
many previous studies (e.g. Hills (1961), McHarg (1969), Steiner (1983), Pehlivanoglu (1987), Akpinar
(1994), Searns (1995), Ortacesme (1996), Mansuroglu (1997), Miller et al (1998)). McHarg (1969)
introduced principles for determining natural and cultural data and suggested that these data could be
used in physical planning. We also reviewed methods of visual quality assessment (e.g. Zube et al (1982),
Tzolova (1995), Burel ve Baundry (1995), Daniel and Meitner (2001), Clay and Smidt (2004), Asakawa
et.al (2004), Ribeiro and Barão (2006), Hallo and Manning (2009), Kearney et al (2008)). Some
assessment methods involve analysis of video or photographic images of natural and cultural landscape
characteristics. We incorporated photographic analysis into our method, as described below.

For site assessment we examined the current situations of the highway and dam and their proximity. We
additionally examined any deterioration along the road. To determine appropriate viewpoints, we
identified points along the road where scenes formed by the dam, reservoir, valley, and surrounding
landscapes were visible. We considered features such as viaducts, tunnels, the orientation of the road and
water elements, elevation differences between the road and water elements, especially wide or narrow
parts of the valley, vegetation, and water and land types. We evaluated the arrangement of all these
elements relative to the dam and the road. Our aim was thus to plan for alternative use of the road as a
scenic road, considering which points along the road would allow for activities such viewing scenic vistas,
taking photographs, relaxing, picnicking, and fishing. For this purpose, we divided the study area into two
parts: 1) the dam, reservoir, and nearby areas, and 2) the valley and its layout. In each part, we
considered existent viaducts and tunnels, which create visual interest along the route; the placement
of the road relative to water elements; the width, vegetation, water condition, and land forms of the
valley; and the organization of the valley features in relation to the road. We took 100 photographs at
21 points determined in the initial field survey (Figure 2). All photographs were taken with a Fuji Finepix
S20 Pro digital camera, capturing an image that contained an appropriate scene. The photographs were
taken between 11:30 and 13:30, local time. The photographic techniques implemented in this study
corresponded to those in various previous studies (e.g., Daniel and Boster 1976; Clay and Smidt 2004;
Kurdoglu 2005).

Using the set of 100 pictures at 21 visual points was evaluated by a panel of experts in regard to their
scenic value (Zube et al 1982). The authors and 30 other university-based experts in landscape
architecture and forest engineering fields participated in this process. The experts know and use this way
very well. On this stage, 16 visual points were selected by expert group. The group of experts assessed
these landscape features, using the matrix below (Table 1). In this matrix, status of any current usage in
the view points, safety, visual value of the view points and the landscape components were graded.
The safety was the first criterion in this matrix and if a viewpoint s safety score was zero, that viewpoint
was not chosen (Seckin 1997; Dirik 2005).

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Figure 2. Study area

Table 1. Matrix to Determine the Potential Visual Points


Landscape
Criteria Current usages* Safety Viewpoint components*
*
Visual Points Scores
1
2
.
.
0 3 0 1 2 3 0 1 2 3 0 1
2 3
Absent Available least most least most least
most

* Area to get out of the car and enjoy a viewpoint, existence of vendors, existence of some shops
** broadleaved and coniferous forests, pistachio–pine forest, village scenes, reservoir, dam
structure, fluvial valley formation

Current Usages: Area to get out of the car and enjoy a viewpoint, existence of vendors, existence of some
shops

Safety: Safety can operate secure parking along the motorway, sightseeing, taking photo etc. with
minimizing dangerous of topography effects.

Visual value of the viewpoint: In terms of view point efficiency, (visual point, field of vision, spatial
quality, etc.)

Landscape Component: Broadleaved and coniferous forests, pistachio–pine forest, village scenes,
reservoir, dam structure, fluvial valley formation etc.

In third step, the 16 final visual points were classified according to the activities that could be performed
there (Table 2). Table 2 shows to visual points and their features detailed, and then as a result of these
findings accessibility of area is identified.

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Table 2. Criteria and Suitable Activities


CRITERIA SLOPE ANGLE SIZE OF THE VISUAL POINT AREA WATERFRONT
ACTIVITIES 0–5% 5–10% >10% 50–100 m 100–500 m 500–1000 m >1000 m
Viewing
X X X X X X X X
scenery
Relaxing X X X X X X X X
Taking photos X X X X X X X X
Parking X X X X
Picnicking X X X
Fast food X X X X
Fishing X X X X

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Visual characteristics of the landscape include cultural, physical, and biological resources. The beauty of
the landscape stems from two inseparable sources: the observed object and the person who observes and
perceives that beauty. A landscape will influence each person differently (Arriaza et al 2004). Kurdoglu
(2005) proposed that there is a true relationship between scenic value and recreational and historical
values. In this respect, we can say that visual characteristics directly affect the quality of a recreational,
historical, or cultural experience. In addition to natural and cultural features, the Artvin-Borçka state
highway and Çoruh Valley offer varied visual features, including the dam and reservoir.

According to questionnaire survey results, 34.3% of respondents was female and % 65.7 of them was
male. 73% of the respondents participated in recreational activities, while 27% of them did not use
recreational facilities and most of them (76.7%) recreational facilities were not enough and efficient in
and around the Artvin city (Kurdoglu et. al., 2009). Furthermore, results showed that most of the local
people (45,3 %) realized the importance of the road for recreation and tourism. Respondents used this
route for recreational activities, and wanted to see the route be more specifically designed to facilitate its
use for those activities. Their preferred activities of taking photographs (38.7%), viewing scenery
(37.3%), and relaxing (24%) suggest the potential of this road as a scenic road.

The results from the questionnaire revealed the activities that the residents wish to see for the dam and
its close proximity. Looking at the average values listed in Table 3, one can see that the viewpoints of 1, 2,
11, 13, and 17 were not chosen as they were graded zero in respect to safety.

Table 3. Descriptive Scores for the Potential Visual Points


Landscape
Criteria Current usages* Safety Viewpoint components*
*
Visual Points Scores
1 0 0 2 1
2 0 0 1 2
3 (A) 0 3 3 2
4 (B) 0 3 3 3
5 (C) 0 3 3 3
6 (D) 0 1 2 3
7 (E) 0 3 3 3
8 (F) 0 3 3 3
9 (G) 3 3 3 3
10 (H) 0 2 3 2
11 0 0 2 2
12 (I) 0 2 3 3
13 0 0 1 2
14(J) 0 1 3 3
15 (K) 3 3 3 3
16 (L) 3 3 3 3
17 0 0 2 2

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18 (M) 3 3 3 3
19 (N) 3 3 3 3
20 (O) 3 2 3 3
21 (P) 3 2 2 2

Figure 3 shows photographs taken at selected visual points. For each visual point, suitable activities were
suggested based on analysis of convenience criteria. All the selected points have wide views, offering
diverse scenic.

Figure 3. Determined Visual Point


Table 4 evaluates each visual point with result of table 2 outcomes and we can reach potential of area and
then suggest optimum facilities. In addition, first of all we suggest facilities for people, who lives Artvin
and around of it, then as a result of survey studies, finally, we offer different facilities according to
accessibility of visual point: such as, parking, picnic, fast food and fishing.

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Table 4. Suggested Visual Point Types and Activities


Activities
Visual Viewing Taking Fast Features
points scenery Relaxing Parking Picnic Fishing
photos food
A X X X 0–5% Slope,50–100 m
B X X X 0–5% Slope,50–100 m
C X X X 0–5% Slope,50–100 m
D X X X 0–5% Slope,50–100 m
E X X X 0–5% Slope,50–100 m
F X X X 0–5% Slope,50–100 m
0–10% Slope,500–
G X X X X X X
1000m, waterfront
H X X X 0–5% Slope,50–100 m
I X X X 0-5% Slope,50-100 m
J X X X 0-5% Slope,50-100 m
0-10%Slope, 500-
K X X X X X X
1000m, waterfront
0-10%Slope, 500-
L X X X X X X
1000m,waterfront
0-10%Slope,500-1000
M X X X X X X
m, waterfront
0-10% Slope,>1000 m,
N X X X X X X X
waterfront
O X X X X 0-5%Slope, 100-500 m
P X X X X 0-5% Slope,100-500 m

When examining the results of correlation analyses (Table 5), it is clear that there is a positive significant
relation between current usage, safety, visual values of viewpoint and landscape components. This means
that when a view point graded as secure, it also indicates that this view point is suitable for land use
preferences, too. In addition, a view point with a high visual value also possesses diverse scene in terms of
landscape components. Table 4 shows the results of the expert evaluations of the field photographs; visual
points were selected, and according to the results of questionnaire; the selected activities are noted for
each point.

Table 5. Corelation Table


Current Safety Viewpoint Landscape
usages components
Correlation 1,000 ,438** ,301** ,344**
Current Coefficient
usages Sig. (2-tailed) . ,000 ,000 ,000
N 630 630 630 630
Correlation ,438** 1,000 ,825** ,654**
Safety Coefficient
Sig. (2-tailed) ,000 . ,000 ,000
N 630 630 630 630
Correlation ,301** ,825** 1,000 ,698**
Viewpoint Coefficient
Sig. (2-tailed) ,000 ,000 . ,000
N 630 630 630 630
Correlation ,344** ,654** ,698** 1,000
Landscape Coefficient
components Sig. (2-tailed) ,000 ,000 ,000 .
N 630 630 630 630
** Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level(2tailed).
The convenience assessment method was first used by Hills (1961) and later by McHarg (1969) and in
numerous other land use, ecologic, recreational, and greenway planning studies. We used this method in

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the viewpoint-selection stage. In this stage, we took photographs from points on the road; these images
were shown to experts, who evaluated each point according to certain criteria considered to define key
aspects of a viewpoint. Among 21 proposed viewpoints, 16 were found to be compatible with the chosen
criteria. According to Seckin (1997) and Dirik (2005), when planning scenic roads, the optimum capacities
of the roads and their proximity to visual points, vistas, and other facilities should be determined. Further,
activities associated with specific scenes should be identified and the types of expected visitors should be
considered. Safety and design plans should be in accord with the route. All of those steps were followed in
this study.

Observations provide important information on physical traces in an area, namely the physical
remainders of previous uses. Physical traces may be left consciously or unconsciously (Gür 1996). We
conducted observations to examine physical traces. Those traces with potential for recreational use were
marked, and some were determined to be potential viewpoints by the expert group, considering the
existent use situation along the route. In assessing points for multiple landscape features, we considered
scenes visible along the road, such as those of broadleaved and coniferous forests, pistachio–pine forest,
village scenes, the reservoir and dam structure, and fluvial features of the valley. The expert group scored
scenes in regard to the number of visible landscape features. The types of relevant compound
landscapes differ by study area and purpose. Meitner (2004) investigated human perceptions of scenic
beauty for scenes in the US Grand Canyon. These studies and others have supported the representational
validity of photographs for assessing and examining many types of environmental experience. Kurdoglu
(2005) and Kurdoglu et al (2010) reported that forests, shrub lands, and mountains were larger
contributors to scenic function. Bulut et. al., (2010) used visual quality assessment method in their study.
They found that fascinaty, being interesting and vividness have highly significant effect upon preference.
They also found that all waterscapes in the Tortum valley have very important visual value. Sezen and
Yılmaz conducted a questionnaire survey in their study. They found that participants considered
Uzungöl Nature Park to be the most preferable while Erzurum - Alkali route to be least preferable. In their
study, in the order of deficiencies on the route, traffic security took place in the first order. They
determined that study route should be evaluated as scenic road.

CONCLUSION

Our study is focusing on an incomplete road under construction near a dam and its reservoir; as noted
above, dams can destroy natural areas, but they may also create new scenic resources. In addition to
determining the potential of the road, this study proposed ways to avoid negative impacts of the dam. We
assessed the scenic and recreational potential of the area; the process included assessment by a panel of
experts who evaluated the route s potential as a scenic road and the input of local residents who provided
comments on planning and their preferred use of the area. In this way, we achieved a participatory
approach to planning. Alternative planning processes may help remove or ameliorate the negative effects
of dams both during and after the construction process and accelerate the restoration process.
Participation by both experts and local residents may be an optimal method for planning alternative uses.
Furthermore, this approach may hasten the environmental restoration process and lead to favourable
evaluations of the new landscape. Such effective planning may foster more sustainable use of natural and
cultural values. In addition, this kind of planning can increase interest in a region and contribute
economically at both national and regional levels.

As seen this study, this road provides lots of recreational facilities and unique views. This road should be
evaluated a scenic road and should be considered in the planning process. Thus, sustainability of green
areas will be provided and these areas will promote different social, psychological and recreational
benefits to drivers and users.

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Consideration Regarding The Transition To Sustainable Manufacturing


)n The Romanian Sme’s

TILINA DANA IULIANA1, CRISTINA MOHORA2, ZAPCIU MIRON3, VASILE BENDIC4, VASILICA DAESCU5

University POLITEHNICA of Bucharest, Faculty of Engineering and Management of Technological


1,2,3,4

Systems, Machine and Production Systems Department, Splaiul Independentei no. 313, Bucharest,
Romania
tilina.dana@gmail.com, cristinamohora@yahoo.com, miron.zapciu@upb.com, vasilebendic@yahoo.com
5 The National Institute for Research and Development in Environmental Protection Splaiul Independentei

no. 294, Bucharest, Romania


vasilica_daescu@yahoo.com

Abstract

The environment and manufacturing are two important concepts that are getting a lot of attention these
days. Today and in the near future, all the manufacturing organizations are facing growing pressure to
become greener or more environmentally friendly. Consequently, as a result of the EU environmental policy,
companies must to review their production processes. In the case of large companies the transition to the
sustainable manufacturing is much easier and quicker than for the SME’s. But the Romania’s industry is
today dominated by SME’s and more than that, the vast majorities are in the manufacturing industry. )n
addition, EU study regarding the implications of European SMEs in the environmental issues show that in
Romania % of the SME’s are complying with the environmental legislation and only % acting to be more
resources efficient. Considering the importance of sustainable development, the main goal of this paper is to
offer guidelines for the Romanian manufacturing SME’s to become sustainable by developing eco-innovative
production systems.

Keywords: sustainable, environment, manufacturing, Romanian SME’s

INTRODUCTION

Development of human activities, especially in industry, has led to an intense pollution and irreversible
degradation of environmental components quality (Deak and al., 2015).
In March 2010, the European Commission launched the strategy called Europe for smart,
sustainable and inclusive growth. The strategy puts forward three mutually reinforcing priorities
(European Commission 2010):

 Smart growth: developing an economy based on knowledge and innovation;


 Sustainable growth: promoting a more resource-efficient, greener and more competitive economy;

Inclusive growth: fostering a high employment economy delivering social and territorial cohesion.
Linked to this strategy, in 2013, the 7th Environment Action Programme (7th EAP) was launched to guide
European environment policy until 2020. Concretely, the 7th EAP sets out a long-term vision with three
key objectives (European Commission, 2014a):

 to protect, conserve and enhance the Union s natural capital;


 to turn the Union into a resource-efficient, green, and competitive low-carbon economy;

to safeguard the Union's citizens from environment-related pressures and risks to health and wellbeing.
The 7th EAP vision also includes the private sector in the European Union which is dominated by the small
and medium sized enterprises (SMEs). Approximately 98% of all European businesses are SMEs with a
workforce of nearly 90 million people.

The SMEs and the environment in the European Union study's estimations suggest that SMEs account
for approximately 64% of the industrial pollution in Europe (Constantinos et al., 2010). The main impacts
under consideration are energy use, CO2, SOx, NOx, PM10, nmVOC, waste and hazardous waste. Sector
variations are generally within the 60% to 70% range but, amongst all the industrial sectors, the

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manufacturing sector is considered the main consumer of energy and natural resources which release the
largest amount of greenhouse gases. The same study presents a troubling conclusion: only 24% of SMEs
actively engage in actions reducing their environmental impact and only 0.4% of SMEs use a certified
Environmental Management System who lead to only one way: a clean, safe and healthy environment
(Constantinos and al., 2010) (Resetar-Deac and al., 2015).

The real problem is that these situations come across not only at the European Union level but in each of
the 28 member states including Romania. Because of this, a number of environmental policy instruments,
ranging from mandatory rules to voluntary tools, intend to ensure that European manufacturing industry
works towards a high level of environmental protection, minimises its environmental footprint and
increases its sustainability.

Given the above, the purpose of this work is to present the ways in which the Romanian manufacturing
SME s became sustainable and to offer guidelines for these manufacturing industrial organizations to
develop eco-innovative production systems.

THE INVOLVEMENT OF THE ROMANIAN SMEs IN THE ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES

According to the Annual report on European SMEs the Romania s industry is dominated by SME s
(European Commission, 2014b). In 2014, from a total of 435.262 enterprises that operated in Romania,
. are SME s and only . are large enterprises European Commission, 2014c). Almost two thirds
of Romanian SMEs are in four sectors: Commerce, Manufacturing, Professional activities, and Construction
(Figure 1).

Figure 1: Distribution of Romanian SMEs in the non-financial sectors (Dumitru, 2015)

Regarding the implication in the environmental protection, despite the environmental policy impose by
the Romanian and EU legislation, according to the 2014 SBA Fact Sheet ROMANIA , Romanian SMEs are
less likely to take steps to increase their resource efficiency than SMEs in the rest of the EU: only 89% of
SMEs have taken resource efficiency measures compared with the average of 95% at the EU level
(European Commission, 2014d). % of the Romanian SME s are complying with the environmental
legislation but does not wish to go beyond these requirements and only 3% are going beyond
environmental legislation and consider the sustainability among the firm s priority objectives European
Commission, 2013) . Saving energy is the most common actions to be more resource efficient (72% of
SMEs). As is show in the Figure 2 the majority of the Romanian SMEs (28%) considered the complexity of
administrative or legal the most important reason of inaction.

If we consider not only the short presentation about the involvement of the Romanian SMEs in the
environmental issues presented above but the entire study made by the European Commission Flash
Eurobarometer on SMEs, Resource Efficiency and Green Markets we can see that the reality is alarming.
The Romanian SMEs still are not yet aware that, because of EU environmental policy, managing operations
in an environmentally responsible manner is no longer just something nice-to-have but a business
imperative to resist on the market.

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Figure 2: The reasons for inaction in the Romanian SMEs (European Commission, 2013)

Tacking into account the above, our research is trying to support the Romanian manufacturing SMEs for a
easier transition in developing eco-innovative production systems. The two main reasons why we have
chosen to help the SMEs from the manufacturing sector, as it will be seen below, are primarrly because
this sector is the most important for the Romanian industry and secondly is considered the main
consumer of energy and natural resources which release the largest amount of greenhouse gases.

OVERIEW ON THE ROMANIAN MANUFACTURING SECTOR

The manufacturing sector is considered the main component of Romanian industry, with more than 70%
of the industrial production and with a workforce of nearly 85% of the total labour force in the industrial
field. During the economic crisis this sector was the main driver for the Romanian economy. More than
that, in 2013 over a third of the foreign direct investment (FDI) was directed to the manufacturing sector
(NBR and NIS, 2013).

In the last years the manufacturing sector has registered in Romania continuous growth especially
because of the development of automotive industry, metal forming, electrical motors production and oil
and energy equipment s FRD, . According to the Annual report on European SMEs , in , from
52.713 enterprises that were active in Romanian manufacturing sector, 52.129 were SMEs.

The manufacturing sector includes 24 subsectors. In 2014, according to the ORBIS database, in Romania
the subsector Machinery, equipment, furniture and recycling industry is the biggest with 22% of the
enterprises from this sector, followed by Food, beverage and tobacco with 20%. The smallest subsector is
Publishing and printing with only 3% of all enterprises from this sector.

In 2010, the European Commission – DG Environment, has completed a study which estimates the
environmental impact of SMEs in Europe by size class and sector. The study is accompanied by a
completed web-based toolkit- EIDSME database- to assist policy-makers and SMEs in developing
environmental improvements. For each EU country and sector this database provides the following
information (Constantinos and al., 2010):

- Structural information : number of enterprises, number of people employed, value added at factor
prices and turnover;
- Environmental information: eight environmental indicators: Greenhouses emission (aggregated CO2,
CH4, N2O, HFCs, PFCs and SF emissions in tones of CO2 equivalents), Energy Consumption (TOE –
Tones of Oil Equivalents – in thousands tones)., SOx (SOx emissions in tones of SO2 equivalents), NOx
(NOx emissions in tones of NO2 equivalents), nmVOC (Non-methane Volatile Organic Compound
emissions in tones), PM10 (Particle Matters of 10 micrometers or less emissions in tones), Waste
(Nonhazardous waste generation from commercial activities in tones) and Hazardous Waste (from
commercial activities in tones),

Sector impact profile shows the relative impact per company in the selected sector and country compared
to all other sectors and countries.

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According to EIDSME the total environmental impact for Romanian manufacturing sector show alarming
values for four of eight indicators: SOx, NOx, nmVOC and PM10 (Figure 3).

Figure 3: Total environmental impact for Romanian manufacturing sector


(Source EIDSME database)

Regarding the environmental profile, the results indicates a higher environmental impact (bigger than 0)
than the average company of that size in the same sector in EU (Figure 4).

Figure 4: Romanian manufacturing sector impact compared with other sectors in EU


(Source EIDSME database)

GUIDELINES FOR THE ROMANIAN MANUFACTURING SMEs TO DEVELOP ECO-INNOVATIVE


PRODUCTION SYSTEMS

In the literature, the relationship between environment and the manufacturing companies is discussed in
many different ways, often using terms such as green manufacturing, eco-design, clean technologies,
footprint, eco-innovation etc., which are not always clearly defined and can be mistaken especially in the
SMEs case.

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In the case of large manufacturing companies, for reasons such as cost implications, company culture, top
management support, money or effort required, the studies have shown that the transition to the
sustainable manufacturing is much easier and quicker than for the SME s.
For this reason (in addition to the conclusions presented above), in these sectors, it is important to
provide some guidelines to help the SMEs as well.

To do this, the first step in our research was to identify were the focus should lie to help the Romanian
manufacturing SMEs to be more resource efficient. At this questions, the Romanian SMEs responded
(European Commission 2013) : grants and subsides (31%), consultancy on how to improve resource
efficiency (19%), advice on funding possibilities (22%), demonstration of new technologies or processes
(15%), more cooperation between entrepreneurs in order to reuse waste (24%), a tool to self-assessment
(5%), database with case studies (13%).

Considering the responses above, further, we present four of the seven variables listed by Romanian
SMEs: grants and subsides, consultancy on how to improve resource efficiency, databases with case
studies and a tool to self-assessment.

GRANTS AND SUBSIDES

The Competitiveness Operational Programme (COP) 2014-2020 address the challenges stemming from
the low support for research, development and innovation (RDI) and the under-developed information
and communication technologies (ICT) services and infrastructure. By investing in these areas, the COP
aims to contribute to suport the competitiveness of the Romanian economy (European Commission,
2014e).

The Programme has two main priorities:

 Axis1. Research, development and innovation supporting economic competitiveness and the
development of businesses total budget € . million ;
 Axis . )nformation and communication technologies for a competitive digital economy total budget €
630.2 million).

For the Manufacturing SMEs Axis 1 is the most suitable because the main direction of investment in RDI is
to build a more compact and modern R&D environment that focuses on the businesses' needs by: research
/ investment in energy, environment and climate change and eco-nano-technologies and advanced
materials.

The seven projects types that can be financed together with the guide section where are presented the
application conditions are presented in Table 1 and Figure 5.

Tabel 1: COP 2014-2020: the projects types (COP, 2015)


Project type Guide Action
section
Investments for the R&D A Action 1.1.1. Large RD infrastructures
departments of enterprises
Projects for innovations B
clusters
Projects for innovative business C Action 1.2.1. Stimulating the enterprises demand for
type start-up and spin-off innovation through RDI projects developed by individual
Projects for innovative new D companies or in partnership with R&D institutes and
enterprises aiming to do universities
product or process innovation
Attracting staff with advanced E Action 1.1.4. Attracting staff from abroad with advanced
skills from abroad skills for strengthening the R&D capacity
Investment projects for public F Action 1.1.1. Large RD infrastructures
R&D institutions / universities
Knowledge Transfer G Action 1.2.3. Knowledge Transfer Partnerships
Partnerships

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Figure 5: COP 2014-2020: the projects types which can be applied by Romanian manufacturing SMEs

CONSULTANCY ON HOW TO IMPROVE RESOURCE EFFICIENCY

19% from Romanian SMEs think that consultancy on how to improve the resource efficiency will help
them. According to the European Environmental Bureau, in Romania there are seven groups/ association/
foundations which provide consultancy for the environmental protection: Green Planet, Centre for the
Sustainable Development Strategy Association, ADEPT Foundation, Focus Eco Centre, Sun Valley
Association, Ecological Group for Cooperation and Eco Counselling Centre Galati Romania (European
Environmental Bureau, 2014). More than that, at the EU level, the CIRCABC Network is a very important
collaborative platform for sharing information and resources over the web (European Commission,
2014f).

DATABASES WITH CASE STUDIES

13% from Romanian SMEs believe that a database with case studies will help them to be more resource
efficient. To support them, forwards, in the Table 2 will present several important databases with case
studies from the manufacturing industry.

TOOL TO SELF ASSESSMENT

The tool that we have developed and we propose to the Romanian manufacturing SMEs is named The
Green manufacturing integration model and is based on three steps: Evaluation, Diagnostic and
Improvement measures. This tool can be considered as a starting point to improve the resource efficiency
by measuring the environmental impact relating to the production activities.

)n the first phase Evaluation we mapping the current situation of the manufacturing enterprise process
by describing and analysing each step of the production process, by identifying the green (environmental)
tools used and by identifying the key environmental concerns. After this radiography of the
manufacturing process in the next step we classify the issues identified according to their relative
environmental and business impact level (high, medium or low).

)n the second phase Diagnostic we propose of the most important Environmental Key Performance
Indicators (Water intensity, Energy intensity, Renewable proportion of energy, Greenhouse gas intensity,
Residuals intensity, Air releases intensity, Water releases intensity, Proportion of natural land) which are
quantifiable metrics that reflects the environmental performance of an organizational performance in the
context of achieving its wider goals and objectives (Wajahat and Rahul, 2013). For each SME s the
selection of the right indicators should reflect the result and the classification made in the first phase. At
the same time, the period of time needed for this stage is depending on the objectives pursued by each
SME s. )f the SME s want to do a more complex analysis (for example to the environmental performance of

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the products or the environmental impact of the inputs) may use the other 10 Environmental Key
Performance Indicators.

)n the last phase )mprovement measures , after the SME s have collected data for a period of time days,
weeks, months or years), will be able to see where the results has been positive or negative or consistent
over time. After this analysis the SMEs can start to investigate different options and scenarios (taking in
account the continuous improvement and the impact on the production process, the degree adaptation of
company departments, productivity, etc.) on how to improve the environmental impact of the
manufacturing process.

Table 2: Database with case studies


Title Content Web address
IAC Database The Industrial Assessment Centres (IAC) Database is a https://iac.rutgers.edu
collection of all the publicly available assessment and /database/
recommendation data from USA. This includes information on
the type of facility assessed (size, industry, energy usage, etc.)
and details of resulting recommendations (type, energy &
dollars savings etc.).The Database can be searched by:
assessments- industry type, size, year, energy costs, products;
recommendations- type, savings, cost, implemented and
industry type
Ecolabel Presents the companies awarded the EU Ecolabel for their http://ec.europa.eu/ec
Catalogue products and services (not including food and medicine) at/
EDC Library Is the database of the European Documentation Centre, http://www.ub.uni-
University of Mannheim mannheim.de/893.htm
l
Biofuels Database with reports, presentations and journals since 2007, http://www.biofuelstp.
database covering feedstock, conversion technologies, end use, eu/reports_search.php
sustainability, policy and markets, and global biofuels
LIFE Projects More than 600 LIFE-projects http://ec.europa.eu/en
Database vironment/life/project
/Projects/index.cfm

CONCLUSIONS

At the EU level the manufacturing industry is the most important source of economic development and
growth and is worth € . billion in turnover. Moreover, it provides jobs for million employees
directly and is the source for twice as many jobs indirectly, the vast majority in SMEs. In the same time
this industry is responsible for the majority of the industrial pollution.

In Romanian from 52.713 enterprises that were active in the manufacturing sector, 52.129 were SMEs.
Despite the importance of sustainable manufacturing, many SMEs are still sceptical about the business
benefits. % of the Romanian SME s are complying with the environmental legislation but does not wish
to go beyond these requirements because they only want to avoid legally sanctions. Only 3% want to go
further and do more.

Once we have identified the ways in which the Romanian SMEs can be helped to be more resource
efficient, our research present four of the seven variables: grants and subsides, consultancy on how to
improve resource efficiency, databases with case studies and a tool to self-assessment.

REFERENCES

Competitiveness Operational Programme (COP) 2014-2020, 2015, Guide for applicants, Axis1. Research,
development and innovation supporting economic competitiveness and the development of
businesses
Constantinos, C., Sørensen, S. Y., Larsen, P. B., Alexopoulou, S., 2010, SMEs and the environment in the
European Union, Published by European Commission, DG Enterprise and Industry

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Deak, GY., Daescu, V., Holban, E., Marinescu ,P., Tanase, G. S., Csergo, R., Daescu, A.I., Gaman, S., 2015. Public
health – environmental medicine Health – Environment relation: A key issue of Romanian
environmental protection, Journal of Environmental Protection and Ecology 16, No 1, 304–315
Dumitru, I. 2015, SMEs in Romania – some structural issues, Available from
www.fiscalcouncil.ro/prezentare-31.03.2015-ionut.pdf
European Commission 2010, Europe 2020 A strategy for smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, COM
(2010) 2020 final. Available from http://eur-
lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=COM:2010:2020:FIN:EN:PDF
European Commission 2013, Flash Eurobarometer on SMEs, Resource Efficiency and Green Markets.
European Commission 2014a, General Union Environment Action Programme to 2020, Living well, within
the limits of our planet. Available from http://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-
content/EN/TXT/?uri=CELEX:32013D1386
European Commission 2014b, Annual report on European SMEs 2013/2014: a partial and fragile
recovery, Available from ec.europa.eu/enterprise/.../sme/facts.../annual-report-smes-2014_en.pdf
European Commission 2014c, SME Performance Review, Available from
http://ec.europa.eu/enterprise/policies/sme/facts-figures-analysis/performance-
review/index_en.htm#
European Commission 2014d, Enterprise and Industry, The 2014 SBA Fact Sheet ROMANIA,
European Commission 2014e, Regional Polcy Programmes, Available from
http://ec.europa.eu/regional_policy/en/atlas/programmes/2014-
2020/romania/2014ro16rfop001
European Commission 2014f, The CIRCAB Platform, Available from
https://circabc.europa.eu/faces/jsp/extension/wai/navigation/container.jsp
European Environmental Bureau 2014, Available from
http://www.eeb.org/index.cfm/members/index.cfm?country=RO
FRD Center Market Entry Services 2013, Demo sector brief: Industrial manufacturing in Romania,
Available from www.frdcenter.ro
National Bank of Romania (NBR) and the National Institute of Statistics (NIS) 2013, Statistical survey
regarding foreign direct investment (FDI), Available from www.bnr.ro
Resetar-Deac ,A. M., Deak, GY., Marinescu ,P., Daescu, V., Holban, E., Csergo, R., Tanase, G. S., Gaman, S.,
2015. The platic materials impact on environment and health. Population awareness in Romania,
Journal of Environmental Protection and Ecology 16, No 1, 183–193
Wajahat, S., Rahul, R. 2013, Environmental KPI's for management and improvements in manufacturing:
Increase employee sustainability commitment for Lean and Green production at ABB, Student
thesis, Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering

Acknowledgement

The work has been funded by the Sectorial Operational Program Human Resources Development 2007-
2013 of the Ministry of European Funds through the Financial Agreement POSDRU/159/1.5/S/132397.

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Evaluation of a Nursing Home Garden in context of Healing Gardens

Karaca Elif1, Timur Özgür Burhan2, Karaca Mehmet3

1Çankırı Karatekin University Kızılırmak Vocational (igh School Department of Park and Garden Plants
2Çankırı Karatekin University Forestry Faculty Landscape Architecture Department
3Landscape Architect and Urban Designer

Abstract

Studies have shown that outdoors have several positive effects for people, especially healing gardens restore
mental or physical health of patients, residents and visitors. They can provide faster healing.
(ealing gardens are designed for places such as (ospitals oncology, psychiatry, children’s hospitals and
etc.), Nursing homes, Rehabilitation centres, where the aim is to lower stress and promote wellbeing. In other
words, healing gardens are an important support tool in the care and behaviour management, and are
contributor to quality of life, especially of elderly people.

Our goal was to evaluate a garden for elderly people living in Nursing Home and to assess it as a factor
increasing life quality. The methodology for the study was through observation. The elements of Çankırı
İsmail Özdemir Nursing (ome Garden for the research were based on Ulrich’s theory of supportive garden
from Ulrich (1999) and guidelines for the designing of healing gardens from Cooper and Barnes (1999).
Based on the result of the observation, strengths and weaknesses were determined, and design
recommendations for Çankırı İsmail Özdemir Nursing (ome Garden were developed.

Key Words: (ealing Gardens, Nursing (ome, Çankırı

INTRODUCTION

There are many theories regarding the effects nature has on human beings and many studies have shown
that nature scenes have the ability to decrease stress and blood pressure in human beings.
As known gardens are small imitation of nature and gardens should used as much as possible for human
health and treatment.

There are several varieties of gardens which have been introduced into the healthcare settings –
contemplative gardens, restorative gardens, healing gardens, enabling gardens and therapeutic gardens
(Gerlach-Spriggs et al, . According to Rodger Urlich, A healing garden refers to a variety of garden
features that have in common a consistent tendency to foster restoration from stress and have other
positive influences on patients, visitors and staff or caregivers Marcus and Barnes, .

Healing Gardens are calming and peaceful garden settings where one can escape and emotionally
regenerate. A place to meditate, to quietly chat or to just relax and get away from it all. By spending time in
a healing garden users are healed in a passive way, through sensing nature (Anonymous, 2015a).

Healing gardens are usually designed at the gardens of caring organisations such as nursing homes,
rehabilitation centers and hospitals where it is aimed to reduce stress and affect the health in a positive
way (Elings, 2006).

Restorative gardens first appeared in Europe around the Middle Ages. Hospitals and Monasteries for the
sick and insane often incorporated courtyards which served as places for reflection, growing food and
herbs for consumption and medicinal use, and growing flowers for use in ceremonies (Tyson, 1998).

Healing Gardens For Nursing Homes

Older people are not a homogenous group. They have a range of needs and preferences. However, they do
share a number of common general qualities and characteristics because of the ageing process:

 Possible sensory and perceptual changes

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 Potential decrease in physical mobility, changes in muscular efficiency and co-ordination – older
people are generally slower, less strong, accurate and confident in walking, climbing, gripping, lifting,
pushing and pulling
 Potential loss in comprehension and orientation, including: memory loss, forgetfulness, disorientation
and incoherence
 Possible reduction in social contacts, caused by retirement, loss of health, death of intimate friends
etc. In addition to the above general characteristics, older people also experience changes in
customary roles, rights and duties (Sarkissian and Stenberg, 2013).

These common general qualities and characteristics of ageing are also sometimes exacerbated by some of
the following issues: Low income, suitable housing. Poor nutrition; Personal mobility and transportation;
Educational opportunities, Isolation, loneliness and marginalisation, health.

To start to build a set of design guidelines for healing gardens, one must begin with Roger Ulrich s Theory
of Supportive Garden Design. Ulrich s theory has four main principles (Create opportunities for physical
movement and exercise, Make choices, seek privacy and experience sense of control, Settings which
encourage people to gather together and experience social support, Engagement with nature)

In addition to these four basic guidelines, if the garden is to be used and reach its full potential it should be
examined 5 more criterias (visibility, accessibility, familiarity, quiet, comfort) (Marcus, 2007).

Create Opportunities for Physical Movement and Exercise

Exercise for elderly in nursing homes is often challenging, because they often have chronic conditions that
make movement difficult. However, it is especially important that they get some form of exercise to help
maintain or improve their range of motion (Owens, 2013). Ruuskanen and Parketti(1994) found that
higher levels of physical activity were associated with lower depression among elderly in nursing homes
(Marcus and Barnes, 1999).

Physical activity is activity that gets a person moving, such as taking the stairs instead of the elevator, or
gardening, whereas exercise includes activities such as weight training, tai chi, and aerobics classes.
Physical activity and exercise are both important for health and fitness (Anonymous, 2015e) and
movement refers not only to exercise but also circulation through space.

Design considerations that facilitate movement and exercise in the garden include (Bowers, 2003);

 Ease of way finding


 Looped pathway systems offering a choice of shorter and longer routes. Also pathway can be designed
and sited to serve as positive trip destinations that motivate increased older people walking and
wheelchair
 Pathway systems offering more variety and more visually interesting features
 Spaces for children to interact with older people (Anonymous, 2015d).

The garden can be designed to promote exercise and at the very least, movement through space that
allows restoration from stress and promote overall well-being (Bowers, 2003). It can be designed visible
from corridors that can also be used for exercise (Anonymous, 2015d).

Types of exercises for older people; Tai-chi, meditation, aerobic, walking, gentle rehabilitation
exercises/mild exercises.

Potential activities in a nursing home garden range from passive to active (Marcus, 2007). These activities
are viewing garden through window, sitting outside, watching tv, dozing/napping/meditation/prayer,
eating/reading/doing paper work outside, taking a stroll, raised bed gardening, sports.

Make choices, seek privacy and experience sense of control

A healing garden for elderly should afford opportunities to make choices: private areas and public spaces,
contemplation and people watching, various walking routes, different kinds of seating, interaction with
nature, and more (Anonymous, 2015d).

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Users must know the garden exists, how to gain access to it, they should be able to use it in ways they
prefer, and be involved in its design and maintenance (Anonymous, 2015d).
Involving residents in designing or maintaining the garden may also enhance a sense of control (Francis,
1989; Hester, 1984; Marcus and Barnes, 1999).

 Sitting spaces for privacy and independence for residents and visiting families
 Sitting spaces to sit in the sun or shade
 Fixed and moveable seating
 Fostering a sense of independence, and decreasing restlessness and the frustration associated with a
restrictive environment.
 It should provide opportunities where older people can choose to be in an isolated niche, in an area
that encourages or increases the opportunity for sociability (Sarkissian and Stenberg, 2013).
 Utilazing landscape elements to create a spatial hierarchy seperating public, semi public, semi private
and private spaces for increasing privacy (Marcus and Barnes, 1999).

Settings which encourage people to gather together and experience social support:

Social support is a particularly important issue for older adults as common life events may jeopardize the
support networks of this age group (Kahn et all, 2003).

The garden encourages social interaction. Social support helps the individual overcome stress and
encourages users with life-threatening illness to keep fighting. A healing garden should provide enough
space for this interaction (Marx, 2012).

The garden needs to provide subspaces and seating arrangements that allow gathering in larger and small
groups. It needs natural, spatially enclosed settings for talk and conversation (Anonymous, 2015d).

Large walkways and common areas for socializing (beautifully landscaped dining terraces, courtyards,
gazebos, fountains and water features) (Anonymous, 2015b), Also when planning the garden it should be
considered, can be estabilished walking and exercises groups and can make activities with family
members.

Engagement with nature:

In exploring the psychological benefits of getting outdoors, contact with nature has been shown to reduce
mental fatigue thus aiding in the restoration of people s attentional resources Kaplan and Kaplan, ,
reduce stress by leading to positively-toned emotional states (Ulrich, et all, 1991) and help other
processes such as reflection particularly as people s favourite places are also very frequently natural
settings (Korpela and Hartig, 1996; Anonymous, 2015f).

 Activities such as gardening in raised planter beds


 Provides sensory stimulation through variation in daylight, weather, seasonal changes, native birds,
fragrant blossoms
 Include nature attracting elements to attract native birds, animals and insects
 Scenes of vegetation and water together are the most pleasing and affect enhancing (Gerlach-Spriggs,
Kaufman, Warner, 1998; Marx, 2012).
 Designers need to facilitate patients de-stressing process by including simple and natural scenes (2).
Naturalistic scenes include features like organic-shape paths, water, and colorful vegetation. Color
plays an important part in a healing garden, because monochrome planting schemes have no healing
potential (Rawlings, 1998; Marx, 2012).
 Use plants with different leaf textures, forms, and smells to stimulate the senses and memory.

Visibility:

Visual Access for both staff and residents is included in Grant s five factors and Lovering s Design
Principles. It encompasses views of the legible garden entry and to the garden from the interior The door
itself should have good contrast with the frame or wall. Residents should be able to preview the outdoors
from the entryway area: i.e. through glass in the door and large adjacent windows. Members of staff are

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more comfortable in allowing residents to use the outdoor area independently if they can easily monitor
them from indoors. For large gardens outdoor call boxes and video monitoring could be considered
(Benbow, 2014).
Accessibility:

Accessibility is one of the important criteria that should be considered in nursing homes. The importance
of availability are listed below.

 Location determines the indoor-outdoor connection and is critical to a number of factors influencing
use particularly independent wayfinding. To encourage use, outdoor areas need to be visible and
easily accessible from each care unit (Benbow, 2011).
 Outdoor gardens should be located immediately adjacent to each household unit s common areas
dining, lounge, activity . This facilitates self-initiated or independent use and gives both residents
and staff a sense of security (Benbow, 2014).
 Outdoor areas are preferably must be classified, but for multistory buildings can be accomplished
with a balcony, deck or sunroom.
 A single access point helps nursing house residents to easily locate the outdoor area and reduce
confusion
 Main paths are wide enough for two users either walking or in wheelchairs to pass easily (Cochrane,
2010). Pathways must not dead end.
 Landscaped outdoor resident spaces are required, complete with barrierfree and wheelchair
accessible walkways, fencing, outdoor seating and furniture that are barrier free and wheelchair
accessible.
 The building entrance must be recognizable from the garden/outdoor space
 Pedestrian and cyclist traffic should be separate from vehicle traffic
 Handrails must be provided for all stairs, ramps, and used to assist residents on level outdoor
walkways. Providing handrails will encourage less able residents to participate in outside activities
(Anonymous, 2015c).
 Direction should be limited to avoid confusion
 Locate seating at regular intervals for resting (Cochrane, 2010).
 The paths and other elements within the site should be easy to find, should promote accessibility and
independence Marcus & Barnes, .
 Provide a clear organizational pattern with well-identified paths, a clear hierarchy of spaces and
features or focal points to help orient residents (Anonymous, 2015c).

Familiarity and Qquiet:

Stimulate memory and evoke a sense of familiarity.


Healing gardens should provide a quiet, meditative space, but they should have congruent or fitting
nature sounds e.g., birds, brook, breeze that produce positive effects on one s well-being (Marcus and
Barnes, 1999).

Comfort:

Shade and shelter are essential to maximize Garden use. Some facilities mitigate weather issues with
enclosed perimeter paths and solariums. Lovering found support in her follow up study for a variety of
microclimates within the garden to allow for shade in summer as well as warm sunny spots to extend the
use of the garden in the spring and fall.

 The entryway patio should be covered and sheltered to protect from wind, rain, sun and provide
visual adjustment from outdoor glare. It should be large enough to accommodate wheelchairs, seating
and tables. Outdoor gas heaters could extend its usage. For those able to venture deeper into the
garden destination shelters such as Gazebos and shady nooks should be provided.
 Seniors need a variety of seating options to enjoy both sun and shade, to provide opportunities for
privacy and social interaction, and for rest stops along the walkway (Lovering, 2002).
 Garden furniture that is of a sturdy timber construction with armrests for ultimate comfort and
accessibility(Cochrane, 2010).

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METHODOLOGY

The methodology for the study was through observation. The observations were supported by photos to
explore the use of the garden and determine design elements.

The elements of Çankırı İsmail Özdemir Nursing (ome Garden for the research were based on Roger
Ulrich s Theory of Supportive Garden Design which are

 Movement and Exercise


 Make choices, seek privacy and experience sense of control
 Settings which encourage people to gather together and experience social sport
 Engagement with nature
 Guidelines for the designing of healing gardens from Clare Cooper Marcus which were drawn from
the research findings and from field observations by Marcus at more than 70 healthcare facilities in
the US, UK, Canada and Australia. These are;
 Visibility
 Accessibility
 Familiarity and quiet
 Comfort

The researcher observed and noted the elements of the garden whether they were according to the
Ulrich s Theory and Guidelines from Marcus.

Based on the result of the observation, strengths and weaknesses were determined, and design
recommendations for Çankırı İsmail Özdemir Nursing (ome Garden were developed.

FINDING and DISCUSSION


Location

Çankırı İsmail Özdemir Nursing (ome was estabilished in and it located in Çankırı Central District
(Fig 1).

Fig 1. Location Map

FINDINGS

)n this part Çankırı İsmail Özdemir nursing home s outdoor spaces examined under different title Table
1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8)

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Table 1. Movement and Exercise


Movement and Exercise
Ease of way finding Because of the area is small, there
aren't any problems for the users
at finding their way. But there
aren't any direction signs for the
other users.
Looped pathway systems offering a choice of shorter and longer None
routes
Positive trip destinations that motivate increased older people None
walking and wheelchair.
Pathway systems offering more variety and more visually There is no pathway system
interesting features
Spaces for children to interact with older people None
Types of exercises and activities There are a lot of passive
activities (viewing garden
through window, sitting outside
(Fig 2), watching tv (Fig 3), table
games(Fig 4)) only one active
activities is taking a stroll

Fig 2. Sitting outside Fig 3. Watching TV Fig 4. Table games

Table 2. Make choices, seek privacy and experience sense of control


Make choices, seek privacy and
experience sense of control
Places to be alone or with others Yes
Sitting spaces to sit in the sun or shade Yes
Different walking routes None
Fixed and moveable seating Yes
Utiliazing landscape elements to create a spatial hierarchy None
Designing or maintaining the garden None

Table 3. Settings which encourage people to gather together and experience social support
Settings which encourage
people to gather together and
experience social support
Subspaces and seating arrangements that allow gathering in larger Yes
and small groups.
Large walkways and common areas for socializing (beautifully Only gazebos
landscaped dining terraces, courtyards, gazebos, fountains and
water features)
Activities with family members None
Walking and exercises groups None

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Table 4. Engagement with nature


Engagement with nature
Activities such as gardening in raised planter beds None
Nature attracting elements to attract native birds, animals and There are a lot of tree and shrub
insects species (Fig 5)
Organic-shape paths, water, and colorful vegetation. No paths. There are a decorative
pool(Fig 6) and colorful
flowers(Fig 7)
Plants with different leaf textures, forms, and smells to stimulate Yes
the senses and memory.
Sensory stimulation through variation in daylight, weather, Yes
seasonal changes, native birds, fragrant blossoms

Fig 5. Trees and shrubs Fig 6. Decorative pool Fig 7. Flowers

Table 5. Visibility
Visibility
The legible garden entry and to the garden from the interior None
Doors have good contrast with the frame or Wall Yes
Residents preview the outdoors from the entryway area Yes
Are there call boxes and video monitoring outdoor. None

Table 6. Accessibility
Accessibility
A number of factors influencing use particularly independent None
wayfinding
Classified outdoor areas and No classified areas
A balcony, deck or sunroom for multistory building There are balcony and terrace
(Fig 8)
Dead-ends paths Yes (Fig 9)
Main paths are wide enough for two users either walking or in There is no path but courtyard is
wheelchairs to pass easily suitable for wheelchairs.
Barrierfree and wheelchair accessible walkways, fencing, outdoor There are no fencing and
seating and furniture wheelchair furniture
Recognizable building entrance from the garden/outdoor space. Yes
Pedestrian and vehicle ways No seperate
Handrails and ramps There are handrails and ramps at
building entrance(Fig 8). But
there isn t a ramp between upper
and lower garden(Fig 10)
Locate seating at regular intervals for resting Yes
Well-identified paths and hierarchy of spaces None

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Fig 8. Balcony and terrace Fig 9. Dead-ends path Fig 10. Upper and lower garden

Table 7. Familiarity and Quiet


Familiarity and
Quiet
Stimulate memory and evoke a sense of familiarity None
Quiet and meditative spaces Yes
Spaces with nature sounds (e.g., birds, brook, breeze) Yes

Table 8. Comfort
Comfort
The entryway patio should be covered and sheltered to protect from wind, rain, None
sun and provide visual adjustment from outdoor glare
Large enough to accommodate wheelchairs, seating and tables. None
Shelters such as Gazebos and shady nooks Yes (Fig 11)
Seating options to enjoy both sun and shade Yes (Fig 12)
Seating options to provide opportunities for privacy and social interaction Yes (Fig 12-13)
Seating options for rest stops along the walkway. None
Seating with back support and arm rests Yes

Fig 11. Gazebos Fig 12. Seating options Fig 13. Privacy and social areas

CONCLUSION

While the healing gardens are being designed, criteria specialised according to the user types should be
constituted and the design should be led in this direction. As part of this study, the garden of Çankırı
İsmail Özdemir Nursing (ome was examined according to Ulrich and Cooper's designing principles by
also taking the elders' characteristic features into consideration. The nursing home garden was examined
under nine main topics.As a result of the surveys; at the nursing home garden where there isn't any
declared entrance or a spatial hierarchy, it was seen that there aren't separate roads for pedestrians and
carriages, there aren't any walking trails for the users, also that any guidances that allows the users an
easy access aren't included. It was seen that though there are sitting units at the area that allow groups in
different sizes to gather, the other criteria that enables socialization weren't found. Other than some
passive activities, there aren't any places at the area that provide opportunity for any activity.

At the garden of the nursing home where there aren't any sitting areas or tables for the disabled users,
there also aren't any places thought for the activities (flower planting and care etc.) aimed at those
people.

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It was seen that because of the fact that the nursing home being located outside of the city center, it has a
silent and relaxing environment. After evaluating the inadequacies and facilities of the current nursing
home garden, it was determined that it didn't meet most of the criteria of a healing gardens. It is very
important to make a new planning at the area taking account of the healing gardens designing criteria for
the users' physical and mental well-beings to be ensured and quality of life to be improved.

REFERENCES

Anonymous,2015a.http://www.outhousedesign.com.au/documents/WBO001_p088
89_Healingardens.pdf
Anonymous, 2015b. http://surface678.com/wp-content/uploads/5-Designing-for-Seniors.pdf
Anonymous, 2015c. http://www.extension.umn.edu/garden/landscaping/design/healinggardens.html.
Anonymous, 2015d. http://alexstark.com/healing-gardens/
Anonymous,2015e.http://www.todaysgeriatricmedicine.com/news/ex_092210_03.shtmlExercise
Recommendations for Older Adults By LaVona S. Traywick, PhD
Anonymous, 2015f. http://www.idgo.ac.uk/older_people_outdoors/outdoor_environment_qol.htm
Benbow, B., 2011. Multilevel Care (MLC) Design Guidelines Commentary. 1994 British Columbia.
http://wabenbow.com/?page_id=173.
Benbow, B., 2014. Benbow Best Practice Design Guidelines: Nursing Home Complex Care And Dementia.
http://wabenbow.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/03/Benbow-Best-Practice-Design-Guideline-
November-2014-compressed.pdf.
Bowers, A. D., 2003. Incorporating Restorative Experiential Qualities And Key Landscape Attributes to
Enhance The Restorative Experience In Healing Gardens Within Health Care Settings. Master of
science Washington State Unıversity Department of (orticulture and Landscape Architecture. USA.
Cochrane, G. T., 2010. Gardens that Care: Planning Outdoor Environments for People with Dementia. An
Australian Government Initiative. Australian Government Department of Health and Ageing. ISBN:
978-0-9577999-8-1
Francis, M., 1989. Control as a Dimension of Public Space Quality. Human Behavior and Environment:
Advances in Theory and Research. Vol.10, 147-172
Gerlach-Spriggs, N., et al., 1998. Restorative gardens: The healing landscape. New Haven, CT: Yale
University Press.
Hester, R. T., 1984. Planning Neighborhood Space with People. New York.
Kahn, J.H., et all., 2003. Social support, health, and well-being among the elderly: what is the role of
negative affectivity? Personality and Individual Differences. Vol.35(1), 5-17. Department of
Psychology, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa, United States.
Kaplan, R. and Kaplan, S., 1989. The Experience of Nature:A psychological perspective. New York:
Cambridge University Press.
Korpela, K. and Hartig, T., 1996. Restorative qualities of favorite places. Journal of Environmental
Psychology, 16, pp 221-233.
Lovering, M.J., et all., . A Study of a Secure Garden in the Care of People with Alzheimer s Disease.
Canadian Journal on Aging, 21, No.3.
Marcus, C. C. and Barnes, M., 1999. Healing Gardens: Therapeutic Benefits and Design Recommendations.
47-48.
Marcus, C. C., 2007. Healing Gardens in Hospitals. Interdisciplinary Design and Research e-Journal. Volume
I, Issue I: Design and Health, January.
Marx, T., . Yantalo s (ealing Garden: A more meaningful community space. Senior Project. Landscape
Architecture Program of the University of California.
Owens, J., 2013. Exercise for the Elderly in Nursing Homes. http://www.livestrong.com/article/279411-
exercise-for-the-elderly-in-nursing-homes/
Rawlings, R., 1998. Healing Gardens. Minocqua, WI: Willow Creek.
Ruuskanen, J. M. and Parketti, T., 1994. Physical Activity and Related Factors among Nursing Home
Residents. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, Vol. 42, 987-991.
Sarkissian, W. and Stenberg, B. (2013). Guidelines for Planning for Older People in Public Open Space
www.sarkissian.com.au
Tyson, M. M., 1998. The Healing Landscape: Therapeutic Outdoor Environments. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Ulrich, R. S., et all., 1991. Stress recovery during exposure to natural and urban environments. Journal of
Environmental Psychology. 11, 201-230.
Ulrich, S. R., 1999. Effects of Gardens on Health Outcomes: Theory and Research. Healing Gardens. Chapter
2, 27-86.

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Fire Risk Assessment of Karaöz Region in Antalya

Benliay, Ahmet*; Soydan, Orhun

Akdeniz University, Agriculture Faculty, Landscape Architecture Department, Antalya


benliay@gmail.com; orhunsoydan@akdeniz.edu.tr

Abstract

Natural sources have been destroying rapidly in the world. Therefore, the importance of sustainable natural
sources like forests has been increasing in recent years .It is known that, these conditions create pressure on
the forests. It is necessary to afforestation and protection, rehabilitation of existence forests.
The aim of this study is to analysis of the current situation, detection of sensitivity to fire and develop
suggestions for prevention to fire for forests in Karaöz town in Kumluca district in Antalya province. Total
area is 4433,5 ha. Existing map and satellite images of the Karaöz town were used. Risk areas of the fire were
determined with overlaid maps obtained using ArcGis 10.1 software. Analysis was done to learn which areas
are visible from watchtower of the fire. Risk analyses of fire were evaluated and recommendations were given
for the region where not visible from watchtower of the fire.

It was determined that watchtower of the fire in the study area doesn't have enough visibility as a result of
potential fire. Three watchtower or systems of wireless sensor networks is proposed for areas which are not
in the viewing angle of the existing watchtower.

Key words: Forest, Forest Fires, ArcGIS, Risk Analysis

INTRODUCTION

Forest fires play an important role on ensuring ecological balance however they are an indispensible part
of forest economists included in Mediterranean basin (Bilgili et al., 2001). Besides, burning of thousands
hectares of forest areas each year cause great destructions in terms of economy, ecology and culture.
When it was looked at the 73 years passing from the year 1937 when the data related with forest fires in
Turkey was started to be kept until 2009; it is observed that total number of fires are 86,796, and the area
which was burned is 1,617,701 ha. (OGM, 2011).

Each year about 1,200 forest fires arise in Turkey and 22,000 hectares of forest areas are destructed.
However the forest fires graphically arise in our country in a remittent way in times of occurrence, it is
observed that there is an increase in the number of fires arisen in the world, especially in the burned areas
arisen in the recent years. This situation may be related with growth of the factors together with the
population growth, because, 91% of the fires arising in our country occur as a result of human activities
(OGM, 2011). In order to be able to be successful in forest fire fighting, it is possible to use the developed
technologies too in every process of firefighting, not only by taking required measures only in due place
and due time and using the sources economically and in an effective way. Developed technologies direct
the development of computer aided forest development systems and provide the chance of elimination of
existing shortages in fire development plans.

Geographical Information Systems (GIS) enables executions of analyses like forecasting the fires, modeling
them, keeping track of arise of the fires, organizing extinguishing activities, identifying the damage
occurred after fire that are least expensive, fast and their accuracy rate is high. In order to make a fire start
in a forestry area, many geographical factors (slope, inspection, distance to road and residential area, etc.)
should come together and proper conditions should be created. GIS evaluates many geographical variables
and provides many advantages on analyzing developing events and happenings. In this activity,
Geographical Information Systems have been used and geographical conditions of Kumluca - Karaöz
region and it was endeavored to identify the fire risk areas.

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MATERIAL AND METHOD (EXPERIMENTAL)

Field of activity is the Karaöz bay accountable to Mavikent town of county of Kumluca located on the
extension leading toward Mediterranean in line with Gulf of Antalya and Gulf of Fethiye called Teke
peninsula in western part of Gulf of Antalya in Western Region of Antalya. (Figure 1). County of Kumluca
surrounded by Mediterranean on its south, county of Finike on its west, county of Elmalı in the direction
of west and northwest. Total area is 4433.ha. For processing data of research are, map sections and stand
maps prepared by Ministry of Defense, General Command of Mapping that belong to the area. Digital rise
model, slope and inspection maps have been created from the digital topography map sections with
1/25,000 scales, and the roads and residential areas have been digitalized and obtained from topography
with 1/25,000 scales and land use maps.

ArcGIS 10.1 has been used as GIS software. It was benefitted from this software in producing, analyzing
the maps and application on the area of the method.

Figure 1. Position of Activity in Turkey (Google Earth 2014)


METHOD
Geographical factors that are effective on forest fires like vegetation cover in the area, topography,
distance to the roads and residential areas have been evaluated by the help of model established in GIS
environments.

In the study, first of all literature scanning has been executed regarding research purpose and area.
Mountainous and forested area has been targeted in the research. Mount Markiz which is in interaction
with seaside area has been identified as the research area. Data and maps that might be necessary for
creating the risk map have been collected and transmitted to digital environment.

In determining fire risk potential, weights of parameters and factors have been used that Erten et al. have
used in their studies in 2005. To all the parameters, risk factor has been assigned according to the risk
creation potential. )n here, most sensitive condition for the fire has been expressed with or has
been expressed as non-sensitive condition. Data collected for using for analysis have been updated by the
help of land studies and satellite images and new maps have been created.

Evaluation matrixes of the maps created according to the compliance factors have been created by using
re-classification in ArcGIS 10.1 program. All the maps made by creating classification and matrix in order
to create fire risk analysis have been superimposed using ArcGIS 10.1 program and the risky regions in
the areas have been identified. Visibility analysis of fire observation tower has been executed according to
the risky areas and analysis of which areas are visible has been executed.

Consequently, the areas that have fires risk identified in the field of activity the points where the fires
arisen in the area in the last 10 years have been commented by the points of view and suggestions of
landscape architecture.

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RESULTS

The Kumluca climate station in the field of research (its altitude from the sea is 60 m.) has served between
the years 1975 and 1992 and it is currently operating. As the climate, typical Mediterranean climate is
ruling over where it is hot and dry in summer, winter is warm and rainy. 75% of the rainfall happens
during November, December, January and February. Number of days of snowing within 31 years is only
one day. In the field of research, Even in February which has lowest average temperature, since the
temperature doesn t fall below -4 0C, agricultural character rules over. As the relative humidity depending
on summer times is very high, temperature felt increases.

The highest point the research area is the peak of mount Markiz is (980 m), and altitudes change between
sea level and 980 m. When pitch groups used in our country with agricultural purpose and with other
reasons and accepted by Village Services have been evaluated and when pitch maps created for the area
are inspected, it is observed that mountainous region is generally steep, and the regions where Karaöz and
ward of Üçbük forming the residential area is formed of the pitch which is flat and almost flat (Figure 2).
There are 0-5 slope group in working area (that are flat and almost flat) and also there are usage areas
where agricultural applications are made in the regions that are close to settlement in western, northwest
and northeast regions.

As a result of the analysis made according to the pitch groups, it was understood that 35%of the area had
no risk, 1.71% had low risk, 6.25% had average risk, 8.67 is risky, 78.02% is very risky. While the fire
progress is fast in the places where pitch is high, fire progress in the places where the pitch decreases is
slow (Table 1).

Table 1. Pitch groups that belong to field of research, size of area and their percentages
SLOPE CLASSES (%) Area (ha) Percent (%)
0-5 Flat and Close to Flat 237,3 5,35
5-10 Moderately Slope 75,6 1,71
10-20 Steep 277,0 6,25
20-30 Too Steep 384,6 8,67
>30 Sheer 3459,0 78,02
TOTAL 4433,5 100,0

Figure 2. Topographical map and Slope analysis map

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Inspection conditions confront us as the criteria which should be taken into consideration in fire risk
analyses because of the sun and moisture conditions. While the sun effect is felt more in the slopes facing
the south, this effect decreases in north slopes. According to the inspections made as a result of analysis, it
was understood that flat regions of the area in fire risk classification were found as having no risk
(2.07%), areas facing north regions as having low risk (16.67%), areas facing east regions as having
average risk (%32.95), areas facing west regions as risky (30.69%) and the areas facing the south regions
were found very risky (17.62).

Between the tree types that exist in the area and met in the maquis shrubland, wild olive (Olea europaea),
shrub (Calluna vulgaris), carob (Ceretonia sliua), gumwood (Pistacia lentiscus), laden, blackberry (Rubus
sp), oleander (Nerium oleander), sandalwood (Arbutus andrachne), terebinth (Pistacia terebinthus), myrtle
(Myrtus communis), arbutus (Arbutus unedo), kermes oak (Quercus coccifera) may be listed. Maquis
shrubland vegetations have developed in an intense way which generally doesn t give any access and
forms a fairly tight texture on the face of soil. Most of them meet the water from the moisture of night.
Especially the slopes facing the sea in the area are covered with thorny plants. There are maquis
shrublands in the sections where the slope is more than 30% in south and southeast regions. Red pine
(Pinus brutia) tree groups form the forestry region in the field (Benliay, 2009). Map of the current land use
were given in Figure 3.

Figure 3. Aspect analysis and land use map

In the area where Mediterranean climate rules over, read pine, maquis shrubland and garig elements and
partly deformed oak groups that are typical Mediterranean vegetation are seen. In this context, plant
types in forestry field of Kumluca-Karaöz region have been classified according to the features of
humidity. The areas that are very damp (9.35%) have no risk, the damp areas (17.6%) have low risk, the
areas that have average dampness (18.79%) have average risk, dry areas (26.78%) are risky, maquis
shrublands are very dry (28.02%), areas facing south, southeast and east are very risky as they have slope
more than 30% (Table 2).

Sections of forests that are close to the road are also the areas where fire risk is very high. As a result of
the distance analysis to road in working area, arising percentage of fire risks in the area according to the
closeness level to the road were found as follows: 9.25% of it has no risk, 10.62% of it has low risk, 13.9%
of it has average risk, 18.7% of it is risky and 48.34% of it is very risky (Table 3). Map of vegetation and
distance (m) classifications towards the road were given in Figure 4.

Table 2. Vegetation classes, area size and percentages

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VEGETATION CLASSES AREA (ha) PERCENT (%)


Very Moist 414,6 9,35
Moist 756,3 17,06
Intermediate Moisture 833,1 18,79
Dry 1187,2 26,78
Very Dry 1242,4 28,02
TOTAL 4433,5 100,00

Table 3. Distance classification to road, area sizes and percentages


DISTANCE TO ROAD (m) AREA (ha) PERCENT (%)
>400 410,0 9,25
300 - 400 470,8 10,62
200 - 300 580,4 13,09
100 - 200 829,3 18,70
0 - 100 2143,1 48,34
TOTAL 4433,5 100,00

Figure 4. Vegetation moisture map and Buffer analysis for roads map

Map of distance analysis to residential area were given in Figure 5. As a result of the distance analysis to
residential area within the working area, arising percentage of fire risks in the area according to the
closeness level to the residential areas were found as follows: 3.51% of it has no risk, 8.64% of it has low
risk, 11.08% of it has average risk, 15.42% of it is risky and 61.13% of it is very risky. As the distance to
residential area reduces, fire risk increases (Table 4). There are residential centers on the west and
northeast of the working area. These are the ward of Karaöz and ward of Üçbük. While making fire risk
map, distance analysis is made in equal distance from the region where residential centers were located.
When fire risk maps are being prepared, closeness of agricultural fields towards forest and residential
areas should be evaluated.

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Table 4. Distance classification to residential area, area sizes and percentages


DISTANCE TO RESIDENTIAL AREA (ha) PERCENT (%)
>2000 155,5 3,51
2000 - 1500 360,9 8,14
1500 - 1000 523,0 11,80
1000 - 500 683,9 15,42
500 - 0 2710,2 61,13
TOTAL 4433,5 100,00

Visibility Analysis of Fire Observation Tower According to the Fire Risk Analysis

Fire observation towers should be located on the high hills in such a way and according to their
environment for providing means for observing a large part of the forestry areas in the region.
Observation towers should be built in the visibility area of forestry land in such way for observing 100%
of the forestry areas in flat land and % in the rough land Çanakçıoğlu, . Location of fire
observation towers should be planned in such way that the whole area should be seen directly and from
more than one tower. Besides, observation room in the towers should be able to see an area of 3600, and
the distance between the towers should km maximum Çanakçıoğlu, . Map of fire risk were given
in Figure 5.

Figure 5. Buffer analysis for city centres and Fire risk analysis map.

In order to be able to identify the forestry areas that can be seen by the fire towers, visibility analysis
method should be used from G)S techniques Aşkın, . )n the visibility analysis which belongs the
working area, as a result of the fire risk analysis in the areas included in field of view of existing fire tower,
it is observed how much of the risky areas are included in field of view of fire observation tower in the
map created by superposing risky areas (Figure 6).

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Figure 6. Overlay of fire risk analysis and visibility of fire watch towers map.

As a result of the questioning executed when the areas that could be seen by the available tower form a
layer and superposed with the fire risk analysis result, the area which can be seen at the moment is 1586.2
h and 25.46% of the area which is seen has no risk,, 9.54% of it is risky, and 0.84% of it is very risky. And
the areas that can t be seen is . ha and . % of these areas have no risk, . % of them is risky
and 0.64% of them is very risky. 64.16% of the area can t be seen by the existing observation tower Table
5).

Table 5. Distance classification to residential area, area sizes and percentages that belong to the research
area
Area (ha) Percent (%)
VISIBILITY ANALYSIS OF FIRE OBSERVATION TOWER CLASSIFICATION
01 Invisible Riskless 1917,6 43,25
02 Invisible Risky 898,7 20,27
03 Invisible Very Risky 28,3 0,64
11 Visible Riskless 1128,6 25,46
12 Visible Risky 422,9 9,54
13 Visible Very Risky 37,4 0,84
TOTAL 4433,5 100,00

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When we look at the map of the area which can t be seen, it is observed that its great majority is formed of
the areas that are sensitive against the fire, and this indicates the areas where alternative fire towers,
camera stems or wireless sensors with the purpose of detecting the fire should be especially considered.

DISCUSSION

One of the most important problems that the implementers faced in the activities of fighting forest fires is
what the fire potential in any place is and the compliance of the position in the area under fire detecting
systems. Fire risk map arisen in the classifications made with topographic qualifications of the area and
the vegetation and the fire observation tower existing in the area have been analyzed whether the fire
observation tower existing in the area has adequate angle of view as a result of a possible fire.

Overlay map between fire observation tower and risk analysis were given in Figure 7. Mount Markiz
observation tower is being actively used and it could see 35.84% of the area it scans according to the
criteria applied in the questioning. According to the fire data received from Antalya – Kumluca Forest
Directory, it had been detected that the fire incident had occurred in the working area during previous
years. According to the report obtained, it was detected that a fire had occurred on 20.09.2005 at Kumluca
Karaöz, hill of (urmalık and immediate vicinity. )t was detected that about thousand square meters
forest cover haws burned in this fire. According to the risky areas map created as a result of the work
performed, this area has been identified as very risky . This holds a fairly important place in terms of
accuracy of the work performed.

Remote sensing and camera-based early warning systems are able to fulfill the functions of an efficient
early detection system in all weather conditions. Also Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) can be installed.
The study shows that the location of the fire observation tower is not positioned correctly and therefore
this site cannot function as early warning system for forest fires. Therefore additional fire watch tower or
wireless sensor network sites must be installed for the areas that existing fire watch tower cannot see
(Figure 7). These locations coordinates were given in Table 6.

Table 6. Proposed fire watch tower or remote sensor network locations


Legend Locations Visibility of fire watch tower or WSN
1 36 o . N, o . E Can see 3 High Risk Area
2 36o . N, o . E Can see 3 High Risk Area
3 36 o . N, o . E Can see 2 High Risk Area

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Figure 7. Proposed fire watch towers and visibility of high risk areas map.

CONCLUSION

Forest fires are an inevitable event in our country as it happens in all Mediterranean countries. Every year
thousands hectares of forestry area are destroyed and they paves the way for ecologically irreparable
losses and also cause economically great losses. (owever the forest fires can t be prevented in our day, the
risk analyses executed and identifying the areas having high potential provide great easiness for the

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managers and implementers. Development of forest fires under control of many geographical factors
makes evaluation of intense data sets mandatory.

Since GIS has the ability of evaluating intense data sets in the same scale, it may be used as a fairly
effective tool in forest fire risk analyses. On the other hand, development of new standards in firefighting
efforts has great importance on ensuring national and international coordination. Findings obtained in
this activity may be used as a supporting material for the managers and decision makers in the possible
fires that might arise in Mount Markiz. On the other hand, there are many fire risk analysis methods where
the factors that are effective on fire like climate may also be included. In order to be able to make right
decisions, more than one analysis should be made and required actions and interventions should be taken.
Since it may be seen beforehand that the areas where intense of the fire would be high by means of the
digital maps created by GIS, existing place and volume of the fire at that moment is considered and it may
be estimated in what areas the fire may be dangerous. In order to be able to keep the fire in small areas,
what the width of strips that will be opened would be, where the fire would be intervened with what
instruments vehicles may only be possible by determining intensity of the fire in a safe way.

Forest fires are one of the most important reasons in conversion of archeological and cultural Inheritance
especially in Mediterranean region into ruins in the recent years. Seasonal temperature rises have caused
great increases in the fires arising automatically in the forest areas. These fires that are fed by dry
vegetation rises by the effect of wind may turn into disasters in a fast way. Besides all these things, fires
come first in natural disasters that might be prevented by using technological developments. Early
detection of the fires provides great help in extinguishing them before reaching the disaster level.
Together with fire prevention measures, early fire warning and fire spread observation systems play
important role in increasing efficiency of firefighting activities.

Successes of remote sensing by satellite and the camera based early warning systems depend on the time
interval during the day, existence of clear view and the conditions determining other visibility quality.
Therefore, if these types of systems are supported by wireless networks that the temperature, humidity
and smoke sensors will create, then the fire observation system with multiple mod arisen may be much
more successful. Such an integration structure will provided help for the experts in the areas of network
planning, fire detection/ locating and fire risk evaluation to protect vulnerable ecological structure.

REFERENCES

Aşkın, Y., . CBS Kullanarak Kemalpaşa Dağı'ndaki Orman Yangın Gözetleme Kulelerinin Gör“n“rl“k
Analizlerinin Yapılması Ve Alternatif Gözlem Noktalarının Saptanması. . Coğrafi Bilgi Sistemleri
Bilişim G“nleri. – Ekim . İstanbul. - 33
Benliay, A., . Peyzaj planı oluşturulması bağlamında Finike – Kumluca kıyı bölgesinin
değerlendirilmesi. Ankara Üniversitesi Fen Bilimleri Enstit“s“ Peyzaj Mimarlığı Anabilim Dalı.
Basılmamış Doktora Tezi, Ankara.
Bilgili E., Sağlam B., Başkent E.Z., . Fire Danger Rating and Geographical Information Systems In Fire
Management Planning, KSÜ Fen ve Mühendislik Dergisi, cilt.22, ss.88-97.
Çanakçıoğlu, (., . Orman Entomolojisi – Genel Böl“m. İ.Ü. Yayınları, Rek. No: , Orm. Fak. No: ,
İstanbul.
Erten, E., Kurgun, V. and Musaoglu, N., 2005. Forest fire risk zone mapping form satellite imagery and GIS a
case study. Eur. J. Oper. Res., 2005; 15: 1-7.
OGM., . Orman Genel M“d“rl“ğ“ Faaliyet Raporu. T.C. Orman Ve Su İşleri Bakanlığı Strateji Geliştirme
Dairesi Başkanlığı Yayınları. Ankara.

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Occurrence of Acanthochitona crinita (Pennant, 1777) (Mollusca: Polyplacophora) from


the Black Sea Coast of Turkey

Ahmet Mutlu GOZLER1, Ertuğrul AĞ)RBAŞ and Ülgen AYTAN

1 Recep Tayyip Erdoğan University, Faculty of Fisheries, 53100, Rize/Turkey


ahmetgozler@yahoo.com

Abstract

This study was carried out along the Turkish Black Sea coast between 2005 and 2009. The samplings were
conducted by scuba or free diving techniques from rocky habitats at various depths (0.5-9 m). A total of 70
chiton specimens belonging to a Polyplacophora were obtained from 35 stations. Acanthochitona crinita
(Pennant, 1777) is reported for the first time from the Black Sea coast of Turkey.

Key Words: Acanthochitona crinita, Turkish Black Sea coast, Polyplacophora

INTRODUCTION

The faunistic and floristic studies of the Turkish Seas started at the beginning of the 19 the century
(Öztürk and Cevik, 2000). The number of studies has increased rapidly since s; however, the
Mollusca fauna of the Black Sea coast of Turkey has not been sufficiently studied up to now. The
information on the Mollusca fauna of the Turkish Black Sea are included in the following papers (Caspers,
1968; Bacescu et al., 1971; Fischer at al.,1987; Mutlu et al., 1993; Kocatas et al., 2000; Ozturk and Çevik,
; Çulha et al., ; Demir, ; Gönl“g“r Demirci and Katağan, ; Çulha, and Luth, ;
Öztürk et al., 2008). The present study reports a newly recorded an intertidal chiton, Acanthochitona
crinita (Pennant, 1777) from the Black Sea Coast of Turkey.

MATERIAL AND METHODS

The samplings were conducted along the Turkish Black Sea coast at various localities (Figure 1) between
2005 and 2009. The information on the characteristics of the samplings stations is given in Table 1. The
material examined was obtained by SCUBA and free diving techniques from rocky habitats. The samples
were firstly fixed in 4% formalin prepared with sea water, and then material was rinsed in fresh water in
the laboratory and through a sieve with 0.5 mm mesh size. Specimens were sorted under a
stereomicroscopy in the laboratory and preserved in 70% ethanol. Species were identified according to
Yakovleva, 1952 and Öztürk et al, 2008. All specimens are described by measurements in millimeters
(mm).The specimens of the present study have been deposited at our collections, Recep Tayyip Erdogan
University, Faculty of Fisheries.

Figure 1. Study area with sampling points where Acanthochitona crinita (Pennant, 1777) was sampled

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Table 1. Coordinates, sampling dates, depths, and facies characterizations of the stations
St. No Stations Coordinates Depths N Biotopes
2
º ′ ′′ N Cystoseira barbata
1 Hopa 1 - 2.5 m
º ′ ′′ E Mytilaster lineatus
N 2 Cystoseira barbata
2 Fındıklı 0,5-7 m
º E Mytilaster lineatus
5
º ′ . ′′ N Cystoseira barbata
3 Pazar 0.75 - 9 m
º ′ . ′′ E Mytilaster lineatus
1 Cystoseira barbata
4 Çayeli 0.5-6 m
N 3 Cystoseira barbata
5 Rize 0.5-3 m
^ E Ulva sp.
º ′ . ′′ N 1
6 İyidere
º ′ . ′′ E 0.6–1.1 m Ulva sp.
. N 2 Mytilaster lineatus
7 Sürmene 0,5-9 m
. E
N 1
8
Akçaabat E
0.7- 1.6 m Mytilaster lineatus
N 3 Cystoseira barbata
9 Vakfıkebir 0,5- 7 m
. E
N 1 Cystoseira barbata
10 Karaburun 0.5-9 m
º
N 1
11 Keşap 0.5- 3 m Cystoseira barbata
º E
N 3
12 Perşembe 0.5-9 m Ulva sp
E
º ! N 2
13 Terme 0.5 -2 m Cystoseira barbata
º E
º . N 1
14 Samsun 0.5-4 m Mytilus galloprovincialis
º E
º N 3
15 Gerze 0.5 -5 m Cystoseira barbata
º E
Sinop º N 2
16 0.5-3 m Cystoseira barbata
İçliman º E
Sinop º N 1
17 0.5-6 m Cystoseira barbata
Burunucu º E
º N 2
18 Akliman 0.5-3 m Cystoseira barbata
35º E
º N 4
19 Hamsiroz 0.5 -6 m Cystoseira barbata
35º 2 E
º N 1
20 Ayancık 0.5- 2 m Cystoseira barbata
º E
º N 1
21 Cide 0.5-5 m Cystoseira barbata
º E
º N 1
22 İnebolu 1-5 m Cystoseira barbata
º E
º N 3
23 Amasra 0.5-6 m Cystoseira barbata
º E
º N 3
24 Filyos 0.5-4 m Cystoseira barbata
º E
º N 1
25 Ereğli 0.5- 2 m Cystoseira barbata
º E
º N 1
26 Akçakoca 0.5-3 m Cystoseira barbata
º E
º N 3
27 Karasu 0.5- 7 m Cystoseira barbata
º E

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º N 2
28 Kefken 0.5-9 m Mytilaster lineatus
º E
º N 1
29 Kerpe 0.5-4 m Mytilaster lineatus
30º E
º N 3
30 Ağva 0.5-5 m Cystoseira barbata
º E
º N 3
31 Şile 0.5-6 m Cystoseira barbata
º . E
º N 2 Mytilaster lineatus
32 Riva 0.5- 3 m
º . E
º N 1
33 Yeniköy 0.5- 6 m Cystoseira barbata
º E
º N 1
34 İğneada 0.5 -6 m Cystoseira barbata
º E
3 Cystoseira barbata
º N
35 Beğendik 0.5- 6m Mytilaster lineatus
º E

RESULTS

A total of 70 chiton specimens obtained from 35 stations along the Turkish Black Sea coast revealed a new
record of Acanthochitona crinita (Pennant, 1777) for the Turkish Polyplacophora fauna (Figure 2).

Material: Collected species were observed at depths ranging from 0.6 to 9 m. at various hard substratum
biotopes.The specimens lengths ranged from 3.71 to 12.12 mm.

Distribution: An Atlanto-Mediterranean species is known from several areas all over the Mediterranean
and the Atlantic, from Norway, south to the Cape Verde Archipelago, Azores and Canary Islands, North
American coast, Madeira and Brazil (Koukouras and Karachle, 2005), Mediterranean (Cevik & Ergüden,
2004), Aegean Sea (Tringali & Villa, 1990; Öztürk et al., 2000; Öztürk et al., 2008) and Black Sea (Kaas and
van Belle, 1987). In this study, A.crinita is reported for the first time from the Turkish coasts of the Black
Sea.

Figure 2. Acanthochitona crinita (Pennant, 1777) (A: Acanthochitona crinita, B: Anterior valve, C: Median
valve, D: Posterior valve)

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DISCUSSION

A. crinita is a small sized Polyplacophoran species commonly found in the rocky intertidal zones. of the
Mediterranean, Black Sea, Red Seas, and Atlantic Ocean (Koukouras and Karachle, 2005). The review of
relevant literature has showed that up to date 31 valid species have been known from the Mediterranean.
The Black Sea chiton species comprise nearly 9.37 % of the Mediterranean Polyplachophoran fauna
(Koukouras and Karachle, 2005). The extremely low diversity of the Black Sea fauna is a result of the very
peculiar oceanographic conditions prevailing in the area, especially low salinity and temperature
(Koukouras and Karachle, 2005). Onlyhree chiton species are reported from the Black Sea: Lepidochitona
(Lepidochitona) caprearum (Scacchi, 1836), Lepidochitona (Lepidochitona) cinerea (Linnaeus, 1767),
1767).In this study we found same polyplacophoran species as previously reported except for A.
fascularis. (data is not shown). Here A. crinita is reported for the first time for the Black Sea fauna of
Turkey.

Although previous studies reported A. fascicularis from the Turkish Black Sea coast (Demir, 2003;
Gönlügür Demirci, 2005; Gözler,at.al,2009) we did not find A. fascicularis among the 35 sampling station
along the Turkish Black Sea coast. It is noteworthy that A. fascicularis and .A. crinita have similar
dimensions and morphologies. Both species have a granular surface, but the former species has relatively
large, slightly concave and oval granules on the tegmentum A. crinita is readily separated from A.
fascicularis by these distinctive features (Figure 2) (Öztürk et al., 2008). Most likely explanation is because
of these similarities, A. crinita might have been misidentified as A. fascicularis in the previous studies.
(Öztürk et al., 2008).

REFERENCES

Bacescu, M.C. Muller, G.I and Gomoiu, M.T. 1971. Ecologie Marina Cercetari de ecologie bentala in Marea
Negra Analiza cantitativa calitativa si comparata a faunei bentale pontice, Romania, IV: 357 p.
Caspers, (. . La macrofaune benthique du Bosphore et les problèmes de L infiltration des éléments
méditerranéens dans la mer Noire, Rapp. Comm. İnt. Mer Médit., : , -117.
Çevik, C. and Erg“den, D. . T“rkiye'nin Kuzeydoğu Akdeniz sahilleri Samandağ-Anamur)
Polyplacophora faunası, ). Ulusal Malakoloji Kongresi, İzmir, -3 Eylül 2004, pp. 87-91.
Çulha, M. . Sinop ve civarında dağılım gösteren Prosobranchia Mollusca-Gastropoda) türlerinin
taksonomik ve ekolojik özellikleri, Doktora Tezi, Ege Ü. Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü, 150 s.
Çulha, M. Bat, L., Akbulut, M. ve Satılmış, (.(. . Sinop ili İçliman mevkiinde bulunan bazı makrobentik
organizmaları “zerine bir çalışma. Su Ür“nleri Sempozyumu -22 Eylül 2000), Sinop, pp. 456-477
Demir, M. 2003. Shells of Mollusca collected from the seas of Turkey, Turk J. Zool. 27: 101-140.
Fischer, W. Schneider, M. and Bauchot, M.L. 1987. Mediterranee et Mer Noire, FAO,Rome. 1: 760 p.
Gönl“g“r Demirci, G. and Katağan, T. . Qualitative and Quantitative investigations on Ulva rigida
facies from the upper infralittoral zone along Sinop coast, Middle Black Sea, International
Workshop on Black Sea Benthos, 19-23 April 2004, (Eds., B. Öztürk, V.O. Mokievsky and B.
Toplaoğlu İstanbul,pp. -173.
Demirci Gönl“g“r,D. . Sinop Yarımadasının Orta Karadeniz Mollusca Faunası, Science and Eng. J. of
Fırat Univ. , 565-572.
Gözler,A.M,Kopuz,U and Ağırbaş,E. . Seasonal changes of invertebrate fauna associated with
Cystoseira barbata facies of Southeastern Black Sea coast, African Journal of Biotechnology, 9(51), 8852-
8859.
Kaas, P and van Belle, R. A. van 1987. Monograph of Living Chitons (Mollusca:Polyplacophora). Suborder
Ischnochitonina: Ischnochitonidae: Chaetopleurinae & Ischnochitoninae (pars), ( Eds. J. Brill,
Backhuys Leiden), Vol. 3, New York Köln Kobenhavn, pp: 302.
Kocataş, A., Ergen, Z. Mater, S., Özel, İ., Katağan, T., Koray, T. , Önen, M., Kaya, M., Taşkavak, E. ve Mavili, S.
. T“rkiye Denizlerinin Biyolojik Çeşitliliği, E. Ü. Su Ür“nleri Dergisi, : -4, 223-230.
Koukouras,A. and Karachle,P. 2005. The polyplacophoran (Eumollusca, Mollusca) fauna of the Aegean Sea
with the description of a new species, and comparison with those of the neighbouring seas, Journal
of Biological Research 3: 23 – 38.
Luth, U. 2004. The benthos of the oxic/anoxic interface in the western black sea: Comparative macro and
meiofauna investigations on transects from the Ukrainian, Romanian and Turkish Shelf,
International Workshop on Black Sea Benthos, 19-23 April 2004, (Eds., B. Öztürk, V.O. Mokievsky
and B. Toplaoğlu İstanbul,pp. -74.

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Marine Coastal Development Sustainability 18-20 September

Mutlu, E.,Ünsal, M. and Bingel, F. 1993. Faunal community of soft-bottom mollusc of the Turkish Black Sea,
Doğa –Tr. J. of Zoology. 17: 189-206.
Öztürk, B. and Çevik, C. 2000. Molluscs fauna of Turkish Seas, Club Conchylia Informationen. 32: (1/3), 27-
53.
Özt“rk,B. Önen, M. Doğan, . T“rkiye Denizel Mollusca T“rleri Tayin Atlası Cephalopoda hariç . Proje
No: TBAG 103T154, Ankara.
Öztürk, B., Ergen, Z. and Önen, M. 2000. Polyplacophora (Mollusca) distributed along the Aegean coasts of
Turkey, Zoology in the Middle East. 20: 69-76.
Tringali, L. and Villa, R. 1990. Rinvenimenti malacologici dalle coste turche (Gastropoda,
Polyplacophora,Bivalvia), Notiz. C.I.S.M.A.11: 33-41.
Yakovleva, A. M. 1952. Shell-bearing Mollusks (Lorica) of the Seas of the U.S.S.R., The Zoological Institute
of the Academy of Sciences of the U.S.S.R., No:45, Leningrad-Moscow.

Acknowledgements

We thank Prof. Dr. Bilal ÖZTÜRK from Ege University, Faculty of Fisheries for confirmation of species
identification and helpful suggestions. This study was funded by RTEÜ BAP (2011.103.03.1).

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The Evaluation of the Landscape Performance of the Coastal Fill Areas as Urban Parks
*(ilal KA(VECİ, Aslı Gözde GEL, Cengiz ACAR

*Department of Landscape Architecture, Karadeniz Technical University, 61080 Trabzon, Turkey.


hilalakkaya_61@hotmail.com

Abstract

From an historical perspective, it is known that the recreational needs of the humans are in constant
progress. Stress that is caused by especially the urban life is the reason for the increase in recreational needs.
For this reason, there is a need for designing or creating various spaces where people from different ages,
genders, professions, and those who have different living styles may find comfort, refresh themselves, and
renew themselves spiritually and physically. Of all these spaces, the most important one is the urban parks
which may serve as urban recreational areas. The concept of urban park in our country like anywhere else
in the world is one of the most important planning devices for people in crowded areas and urban ecosystems.
The urban parks where people have chance to breathe and are offered rich and various activities and which
form the main body of the urban ecosystems show continuous development in different dimensions and point
of views in the whole world but Europe and USA first for the last 200 years.
As a result of the increasing urbanization which is needed in this century, the need for urban green spaces
and transportation axes have emerged and they are built by filling the coastal areas in coastal cities.
Examples of these are seen in the Eastern Black Sea region in Turkey. Urban parks in the Eastern Black Sea
region are generally considered as more practical and available in coastal regions since they are easily built
in such topographic conditions. In spite of the fact that the problems posed inevitably by the coastal road
which has been built from the years 2000 onwards without actually considering the natural coastal lines of
the region and completely ignoring the relation between city and coast, these fill areas in Akçaabat, Beşirli-
Moloz and Arsin are studied as large and big coastal urban parks for the purpose of establishing city and
coast relation in the city of Trabzon. For this reason, in this study the aim is to evaluate, in terms of
ecological, visual and functional perspectives, the landscape performance of Akçaabat, Beşirli-Moloz and
Arsin urban parks, which are important areas for the city of Trabzon and which have been established by
filling the sea. The ecological, aesthetical and functional landscape elements of coastal city parks have been
determined and classified by using such methods and techniques as field work and mapping etc… and the
various comparisons have been made.
As a result, it has been seen that intervention with the coastal areas has become inevitable with the
increasing urbanization, and that there is a need to use sustainable approaches and plans by considering
seriously the coastal morphology and the needs and wishes of the urban people in the process of planning
decisions of the coastal fill areas that were made through the interventions. Accordingly, the necessity of
restoring and revitalizing the coastal landscape of the area that was damaged as a result of the filling, of
creating green areas along the coastline as well as creating the opportunities for re-establishing the relation
between humans and the coast with a focus to directing serious attention to the coast-human relations today
and tomorrow have all been seriously emphasized.

Key words: Coastal areas, Turkey, the Eastern Black Sea, landscape performance

INTRODUCTION

City is an alive and dynamic system which parks and green spaces are part of it. They are valuable because
of the effective role of them to reduce the urban density, completing and improving the functioning of
educational facilities, cultural, residential and reserve land for future expansion of the city (Razzaghian
and Rahnama, 2012).

Cities as a living space, are the human ecosystems in which many natural and cultural components exist
and interact together. On the one hand natural environment conditions like air, soil, water, and plants , on
the other hand socio-economic activities trasportation, trade, industry and tourism which should be
improved continuously for economical progress are interwoven. The healthy running of this structure
called city ecosystem depends on the harmony of the natural and cultural components of this ecosystem
and balanced between them Karadağ, .

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From an historical perspective, it is known that the recreational needs of the humans are in constant
progress. Stress that is caused by especially the urban life is the reason for the increase in recreational
needs. For this reason, there is a need for designing or creating various spaces where people from
different ages, genders, professions, and those who have different living styles may find comfort, refresh
themselves, and renew themselves spiritually and physically. Of all these spaces, the most important one
is the urban parks which may serve as urban recreational areas. The concept of urban park in our
country like anywhere else in the world is one of the most important planning devices for people in
crowded areas and urban ecosystems Sırtkaya, .

Parks are the open green space systems affecting the city in several ways in terms of physical, social and
economic structure, livability and ecological environment protection, city aesthetics and education,
recreation and the education of the children. Among the differing functions of the urban texture, the parks
are recreational spaces creating urban recreational and entertainment facilities and helping people keep
away from the heavy traffic and the chaos of the city (Onsekiz and Emür, 2008). They are the most
extensive recreational units where people meet their needs of recreation, entertainment, walking and
socializing as well as provide service to the whole city (Aslan, 2005).

The urban parks where people have chance to breathe and are offered rich and various activities and
which form the main body of the urban ecosystems show continuous development in different dimensions
and point of views in the whole world but Europe and USA first for the last 200 years. Central Park in New
York, Hyde Park in London, Tiergarten in Berlin and English garten in München are among the important
examples that are located in the centers of the cities and that help shape the city and meet the recreational
needs of the people as well as increase the urban ecosystem services. These examples make up the most
important landscape infrastructures of the cities they are located. The construction of many urban parks
in parallel to the city developments add up to the continuation of the green renaissance of the .th
century (Acar, 2015).

Following a close examination of the recent history, it is seen that the development of coastal cities and
emergence of the importance of urban open spaces for the city accompanied each other. The open space
arrangements in coastal cities developed in different characters compared to those of the inner cities. The
coastal regions between the water and the land can be described as the private spaces involving trade,
human traffic, diversity and intensity and acting as the link between the city and the outer world. They
can also be considered as the city`s economic and cultural assets (Aslan, 2005; Kap, 2010 ).

As a result of the increasing urbanization which is needed in this century, the need for urban green spaces
and transportation axes have emerged and they are built by filling the coastal areas in coastal cities.
Examples of these are seen in the Eastern Black Sea region in Turkey. Urban parks in the Eastern Black
Sea region are generally considered as more practical and available in coastal regions since they are easily
built in such topographic conditions. In spite of the fact that the problems posed inevitably by the coastal
road which has been built from the years 2000 onwards without actually considering the natural coastal
lines of the region and completely ignoring the relation between city and coast (Çelik et al., 2000), these
fill areas in Akçaabat, Beşirli-Moloz and Arsin are studied as large and big coastal urban parks for the
purpose of establishing city and coast relation in the city of Trabzon.

These parks which are used densely by the local people have been studied in terms of creating identity of
the city and establishing the link between the city and the coast. The findings of the study are important in
terms of using the filled spaces more effectively as coastal parks for the city.

Shortly, the aim of the study can be summarized as;


 Outlining the required criteria for ensuring the sustainability of the coastal regions that emerged as the
result of the interventions and disturbance of the natural balance.
 Ensuring the ecological, aesthetical and functional comparison of the coastal parks in order to improve
the quality of the green spaces in the city.
 Introducing the recreational activities preferred by the users in terms of the relation between the city
and the coast.
 Revealing the importance of coast landscape for the local people
 Focusing the need for a holistic approach for the interventions to the coastal spaces.

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MATERIAL AND METHOD


Material
The coastal regions of the Eastern Black Sea having the important landscape areas of our country are
important in terms of having a narrow coastal band that has magnificent beauties and where the sea and
the nature meet. The city of Trabzon, which is also our study site, is also located in the Eastern Black Sea
region. The city of Trabzon ° ′N– ° ′N; ° ′E– ° ′E is surrounded by Rize in the east,
Giresun in the west, G“m“şhane and Bayburt, in the south, and Karadeniz in the north. Having a
population of 766.782 in 2014, it has a surface area of 190 km 2 as well as being one of the two big cities of
the Blacksea region. The city of Trabzon which has an old settlement history has been an important trade
and harbor city within the city for ages thanks to its geographical location (acısalihoğlu,

This study was done by evaluating the ecological, visual and functional landscape performance of the
land-filled Akcaabat, Besirli-Moloz and Arsin city parks in terms of landscape architecture.

AKCAABAT

TRABZON
(City Center)

ARSIN

Figure 1. Study area

Method

Data is obtained through a literature search, mapping, on-site observation, photographing and expert
opinion about the three important parks of the city of Trabzon, Akçaabat, Beşirli-Moloz and Arsin.
In the study, SWOT analysis will be used in order to evaluate the landscape performance of the coastal
parks. Their strengths and weaknesses will be determined and the future opportunities and threats will
be revealed.

RESULTS
Arsin coastal park
Arsin coastal park is located in the town of Arsin within the Trabzon metropolis of the Eastern Blacksea
Region. The location of the study site is important not only for the town of Arsin but also for the city of
Trabzon with its proximity to Arsin.

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While the problems caused by the coastal road which has been built with a total disregard to the city and
coast relation and the beautiful coasts of the region from 2000s onwards seem inevitable, the coastal area
of Arsin has been considered as a coastal park for the purpose of maximizing the city and coast relation.
This park is 220.000 m2 in width and was opened to the service in 2014. In the park, there are pedestrian
ways, cyling and runways, pools, recreational spaces and city furniture, sports halls, parking areas, child`s
playground, two restaurants, open wedding spaces and sale units.

Figur
Figure 2. Plan of Arsin coastal park and aspects
Beşirli-Moloz coastal park

After the road that passed through the Trabzon coastal area, a large filled area emerged. This site is used
as coastal parking area and is used heavily by the city dwellers. The park located in the center of the city is
the most popular one in Trabzon. The width of the area is 1.100.000 m2 and was opened to use in 2009.

In the applications following the planning session, sports areas, fair spaces, park and walking areas,
harbor and promenades are sees. The helicopter landing area is among the functions that were added to
the area after the planning. In the project site, an ambulance helicopter take-off, landing and stop area was
planned for the helicopters belonging to the city board of health.

Figure 3. Plan of Beşirli-Moloz coastal park and aspects

Akçaabat coastal park

The Fill-House planning was officially approved in 20.04.1998. The filling started in 2000s and was
allocated to the Akçaabat Municipality in 2006. The width of the area is 80.000 m 2 and was opened to the
service in the early 2000s.

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The coastal park in the town of Akçaabat of Trabzon is used heavily by the local and foreign people as a
recreational area. In the park, there is a pedestrian way, sitting areas, various aesthetical objects, child`s
playground, pools, and a space with marine concept. The presence of restaurants that offer especially
famous Akcaabat meat ball grill makes the space more attractive for people who are bored with urban life.

Figure 4. Plan of Akçaabat coastal park (Yandex, 2015) and aspects

SWOT analysis

In the coastal cities, the sea is filled in order to create new spaces. Trabzon is one of those cities which
grow by land filling. 930 ha of sea area was filled between the years 1975-2013 for a time span of 40 years
and most of these spaces were created only recently (after 2000) Çölkesen and Sesli, ; )şık ve
Demirel, 2014). These filled spaces were transformed into coastal parks and recreational spaces in order
to reduce the damage to the environment, providing rehabilitation and for public good. Evaluations based
on the SWOT analysis will be done in order to reveal the present conditions of these areas and to prepare
the ground for future studies.

The SWOT analysis is a decision support method which aims at organizing decision processes.The theory
was developed in the s in the domain of business administration with the objective of supporting the
definition of management strategies . The method has been then applied in the context of regional and
local programming in order to evaluate alternative development scenarios . Nowadays, the method is
widely employed in many research fields, with particular reference to spatial planning and environmental
assessment Bottero, ; Uçar and Doğru, ; Pirselimoğlu, .

DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS

One of the positive effects of developing the parks and green spaces is to increase the bioclimatic
efficiency and reduce the air pollution. (Baharam Soltani, 2008 ). For this reason, the presence of green
spaces and parks in urban spaces is very important in terms of urban ecology (Bekiryazıcı, . Arsin,
Beşirli-Moloz and Akçaabat coastal filled parks include very important elements in terms of coastal filled-
park landscapes.

Coastal spaces are attractive for human activities due to their locations between the land and the sea. But
coastal systems are used badly for a long time and subjected to misplanning (Calvao et al., 2013). As a
result of the fillings to the coastal areas in our country, the relation between the city and the sea broke and
the coastal regions are used only for walking. The natural ecology of the coast was damaged and the beach
(sand) disappeared and replaced by stone fillings (Yüksek et al., 2007; Kahveci, 2009). Espacially, in the
city of Trabzon, our study area, this is clearly the case.

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SWOT analysis of Arsin Coastal Park

SWOT analysis of Beşirli-Moloz Coastal Park

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SWOT analysis of Akçaabat Coastal Park

When the urban morphology and the urban development plan of the region is considered, the most recent
urban strategies point to the valleys and coastal regions as spaces which offer potentials for the green
areas. For this reason, urban parks are better perceived due to their topographic characteristics on the
coastal areas as is the case for everywhere in Black Sea region.

The coastal filling spaces which are also considered as urban parks are very important as a study topic in
terms of improving their environmental effects and establishing the relation between human and sea. In
this study, when Arsin, Beşirli-Moloz and Akçaabat coastal parks are evaluated in terms of landscape
performance, it has become apparent that it included positive elements and some other elements needing
to be improved. These elements are given below for each park spaces.
 The fact that the Beşirli- Moloz coastal park is located in the city center and includes Faroz harbor
within itself as well as being next to two important historical spaces (Ganita and Hagia Sophia)
increased the importance and the density of the space. What is more, the presence of large grass
grounds, walking ways, monuments areas, exercise tools, child`s playgrounds and running tracks and
sporting facilities are all welcomed by the users. Especially the walking and running tracks in the sea
side of the Black Sea Coastal Road has become a popular place for the people of Trabzon. But the
location of intercity road between the coast and the city causes some concerns in terms of security.
 The most recent park is the Arsin coastal park. New landscape approaches were adopted here and
important aesthetical, ecological and functional elements were developed. A holistic cover system and
a large grass ground with an open wedding concept reveal the authentic aspects of the space. In
addition, floor layings, sitting furniture, child`s play furniture show originality. With all these elements
together, ecological vegetation of the space does not make itself felt since it is still in the adaptation
process. In the coming months, with the strong influence of the vegetation its landscape performance
will stand out as attractive.
 Akcaabat coastal park goes back a long way in history and it has become a popular place to visit for
local and foreign tourists for years. But its surface area is small and it creates problems at rush times
and cannot meet the need for intense use. For this reason, alternative park spaces should be created
and its intense use should be reduced. It is also the case that the pedestrian ways are used by the
cyclists and this creates disturbance on the pedestrians. There is a need for separating the pedestrians
and the cyclists alongside the coast.
 A holistic approach related to the planning of the land-filled spaces in the coastal cities should be
adopted. In this context, by protecting the ecologic value of the space, visual and functional elements
must be increased and local people should be included to the planning decisions actively. )şık and
Demirel (2014) evaluated the coast of Trabzon in terms of recreation and concluded that coast users
need spaces where they can spend their free time activities.

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 Solutions related to the environmental problems in the coastal parks must be solved (air and sea
pollution, waste etc.)
 Finally, there is a need for revitalizing the coastal landscape which was damaged due to the fillings.
There is also a need for establishing human-coast relations again as a coastal park which can make use
of coastal green spaces and which care about the coast-human relation of today and tomorrow.

REFERENCES

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Çevre Ve Peyzaj Tasarım Projesi, Plant Dergisi, Basımda.
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Değişimleri ve Çöz“m Önerileri, ))). Ulusal Kıyı M“hendisliği Sempozyumu, Çanakkale.
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Belirlenmesi, Sosyal Bilimler Enstit“s“ Dergisi, Sayı:
Karadağ, A., . Kentsel Ekoloji: Kentsel Çevre Analizlerinde Coğrafi Yaklaşım, Ege Coğrafya Dergisi,
İzmir.
Kap, S. D., . İstanbul-Şile Sahil Bandı Kıyı Kullanımının Peyzaj Planlama Kapsamında
Değerlendirilmesi: Potansiyeller-Tehditler, T“rkiye nin Kıyı ve Deniz Alanları V))). Ulusal Kongresi
Bildiriler Kitabı, Cilt ), -276, Trabzon.
Kahveci, (., . Trabzon da Kıyı Tahkimatlarının Bitki Ört“s“ Analizi ve Değerlendirilmesi, KTÜ, Fen
Bilimleri Enstitüsü, Trabzon.
Pirselimoğlu, Z., . Ekolojik Temelli Rekreasyon ve Turizm Planlama İlkelerinin Araştırılması; Trabzon
Çalköy“ Yayla Yerleşimi Örneği, KTÜ Fen Bilimleri Enstit“s“ Y“ksek Lisans Tezi, Trabzon.
Razzaghian, F. and Rahnama, M. R., 2012Ecological Analysis of Urban Parks (Case Study: Mashhad
Metropolitan), International Journal of Applied Science and Technology Vol. 2 No. 7; August 2012.
Sırtkaya, N., . Samsun, Ordu ve Rize Kentlerinin Bazı Kıyı Parklarındaki Bitki Kompozisyonlarının
Mekansal Yapı Yön“nden İncelenmesi, Y“ksek Lisans Tezi, KTÜ Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü, Trabzon.
Uçar,D. and Doğru,A., . CBS Projelerinin Stratejik Planlanması ve SWOT Analizinin Yeri, TMMOB
(arita ve Kadastro M“hendisleri Odası . T“rkiye (arita Bilimsel Teknik Kurultayı, Mart-
1Nisan 2005,Ankara.
Yüksek, Ö., Önsoy, (., Köm“rc“, M., İ., Kankal, M. ve Akpınar, A., . Karadeniz Sahil Yolunun Kıyı
Açısından Değerlendirilmesi, . Ulusal Kıyı M“hendisliği Sempozyumu, İzmir.

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Assessment Of Partıcıpatory Ecotourısm Plannıng And Management Usıng By Dıfferent


Stages of Basin Scale

Osman UZUN1, Pınar GÜLTEKİN 1*, Yaşar Selman GÜLTEKİN2

1.DuzceUniversity
Forestry Faculty Landscape Architecture Department Duzce/TURKEY
pinargirti@duzce.edu.tr
2.Duzce University Forestry FacultyLandscapeForestry DepartmentForest Economics Duzce/TURKEY

Abstract

Using participation in different stages such as basin/city/county scales provides more rational
recommendations in ecotourism planning. Areas of study are Ugursuyu and Aksu watersheds, which have a
surface area of 639 square kilometers and are located in the south of Duzce City. The area is an attraction
centre with natural and cultural landscape elements for ecotourism activities in Duzce Province.
In this study, firstly ecotourism stakeholder analysis was conducted, benefits, priorities, behaviors and values
of each stakeholder were determined and mutual goals and purposes were established. Then ecotourism
stakeholders in the area were divided into three groups. In the first stage of the stakeholders, the target
group was defined as local government and public institutions. Village’s headmen elected head of village
were second target group. As a last stage of the stakeholders local people were defined. The study method
was implemented by using questionnaires for three groups of the stakeholders. Three different type of
questionnaires were developed for the each stakeholder group. The first group participants in the survey the
effects of ecotourism, ecotourism activities, obstacles, and resources to the development of eco-tourism
resources, the degree of attractiveness, management strategies, five-point Likert scale, 77 titles are proposed.
The second group participants were asked totally 26 questions about natural and cultural values of the area
and the villagers’ attitudes toward ecotourism. Local people are the third group of the study was asked 17
questions to evaluate their ecotourism perception. The results obtained were evaluated using SPSS 19.0
program. One way ANOVA, cross- tab analysis and means were consulted as statistical methods.
As a result of the study, data obtained from surveys serves as important input for ecotourism decisions in the
region. Opinions of the stakeholders who participated in the survey can be summarized as below: They think
that local community looks optimistically towards the ecotourism activities in Ugursuyu and Aksu
watersheds. However, they also think that the local community has not been sufficiently informed about the
income-generating aspect of ecotourism, that there are not enough promotional and marketing works about
the study area, that there are deficiencies about infrastructure and superstructure in the study area and that
all these problems can be worked out through coordinated work of all stakeholders who may participate in
ecotourism activities. In the light of all assessments, ecotourism management model which includes different
stages was founded in Ugursuyu and Aksu watersheds and it was structured for stakeholders of the study
area. Participation of different stages will increase the efficiency of the decisions and the ecotourism
management model reflects in the watersheds which has high ecotourism potential.

Key Words: Duzce, Ecotourism, Ecotourism Management, Participatory Planning

INTRODUCTION

Ecotourism includes more than tourism that is done in nature. Hetzer (1965) called for ecotourism as a
rethinking of culture, education, and tourism, and promoted an ecological tourism Grenier et al., .
Ecotourism which is essential to protect the balance in nature has emerged as a result of sustainable
development. (Gultekin, 2010). It grounds on the consistent utilization of nature by being in touch with
nature without any harm on it. Karaş and Ozturk . When eco-tourism is planned well, it provides
benefits for providing the sustainability of natural and cultural resources and bringing environmental,
economic and social concerns together (Saner, 1995; Weaver, 1999; Western, 1993), in the contrary, it
may cause as much harm as mass tourism do and it can damage the cultural structure in the touristic area
due the problems that result from the interaction between the tourists and the locals (Butler, 1990;
Schaller, 2004). The place of local people in ecotourism planning and management is quite important in
terms of the contribution of income that is obtained from protection works and activities on regional
economy Bekiroğlu, . The fact that the local people have an important place in tourism resources is
emphasized in various studies (Ap, 1990; Perdue et al. 1990; Tosun, 2002; Akova, 2006; Karaman and

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Avcıkurt Ecotourism consists of contribution of several various stakeholders with different


interests and the usage of several private resources as well as the support and participation of the local
people (Cawley and Gillmor 2008; Ertuna et al. 2012). Stakeholder engagement, collaboration,
participation, shared learning and fact-finding have become buzz words in tourism management and
planning models (Voinov and Bousquet, 2010). An efficient stakeholder management is required in order
to communicate with all of the stakeholders during the ecotourism planning process, to make agreements
and arrange meetings with them, to direct the attitude and behaviors of the stakeholders in favor of the
ecotourism studies Sarıkaya, ; G“ltekin .

Participation in ecotourism planning in different scales of city/district and village makes the suggestions
for ecotourism more rational and supportable. It also enables to solve the problems in different scales
without spreading it to other scales and to transfer the positive aspects of scales to others. According to
the studies on ecotourism planning, equal participation of the public, stakeholders, local people, scientists,
private sector and local managers is not possible (Bryd et al. 2009; Ertuna et al. 2012; Gultekin, 2014).
Multidimensional participation works have an important role in the success of the development of the
ecotourism and the union at the national, local and regional level. Nowadays, studies on how to ensure the
participation of a stakeholder on a wide base and different scales and how to integrate it with the concept
of sustainability are needed.

The aim of this study is to enable the participation on different and multidimensional scales during the
process of ecotourism planning in Uğursuyu and Aksu Basins of Duzce. For this purpose, surveys ensuring
the participation of the stakeholders are prepared in three levels and these surveys are applied on them
after the stakeholders analysis done on the basin scale. In the first level, there are public, local managers,
private sector and scientists; in the second level headmen of the villages that are used as study areas and
council members; in the third level people in the village. Consequently, a management model based on
ecotourism is developed that will ensure the participation of the stakeholders of these three levels and
integrate the evaluation results.

MATERIAL AND METHOD

Uğursuyu and Aksu basins are located in the south of Duzce with km square Figure . The area
consists of important tourism resources for Duzce and the region when examined the natural and cultural
landscape elements of the area. The sample audience of the study includes the stakeholders that have
affected or have been affected by the process of ecotourism planning in Duzce Uğursuyu and Aksu basins.

As a first step of the method; stakeholders are defined and their analysis is done; interests, priorities,
behaviors and values of them are determined and common goals and purposes are specified in order to
detect all the stakeholders in the process of ecotourism planning in Uğursuyu and Aksu basins. As a result
of the examinations, the participation at three different levels is decided to be applied for the purpose of
enabling a multidimensional and wide base participation. At each level, it is aimed to assess the
ecotourism perceptions and find out what the expectations are from the ecotourism. Public, local
managers, private sector and scientists are at the first level. Headmen of the villages and council members
are designated as the second level and people in the villages as the third one. There are 77 propositions
under the title of Negative Effects of Ecotourism , Ecotourism Management , Obstacles in Applying
Ecotourism and Attractiveness Degree of the Ecotourism Resources in the surveys that are prepared for
the stakeholders in the first level. These surveys are applied to the stakeholders in person by visiting the
institutions they work. The responses are assessed with the variabilities of totally-agree and totally-not-
agree on the fivefold Likert scale. The surveys are applied to the stakeholders between 15.01.2013 and
15.03.2013. 131 of 167 surveys are valid. The data obtained from the surveys are evaluated with the help
of SPSS programme and the validity and reliability of the scale is questioned. Standard deviation values,
mean values, frequency distributions that are appropriate for the survey design are detected. Exploratory
factor analysis and qualitative evaluation are done.

Village information forms consisting of 26 questions are applied on village head men and council
members who are parts of the second level. The purpose of this form is to determine the perceptions of
these people on ecotourism and have an opinion on the natural and cultural configuration of the villages.
Source of income, educational background, population, cultural configuration, cuisines, customs and
traditions, handicrafts, history, location of each 50 village and how enthusiastic the folks are about the
ecotourism activities are examined. Perspective and the structure of the villages are broadly examined.

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Stakeholders from the third level are determined as the local people and several different surveys with 17
questions are prepared in order to evaluate the ecotourism value judgement of the local people.
Aydınpınar village is chosen for the research area out of villages located in the application area of the
surveys in accordance with the data obtained at the second level. It is the highest populated village of
Duzce according to the TUİK data. There is a tableland which is km far from the village in
Derebalık. There are mountain houses and families live there in the summer.5 waterfalls called
Aydınpınar waterfall, black sea salmon facilities, paintball and camping area are located in the border of
the village. Ethnicity of the village consists of Circassians, Abkhazians, Georgians and people from central
and eastern black sea region. This ethnic diversity has a positive effect on the traditions, cuisine,
handicrafts of the village which enriches the cultural life. The sources that were made use of while
preparing the surveys for the folk of Aydınpınar village are Ekin, ; Akova, ; Altanlar ;
G“ltekin, ; Uzun vd, ; Karaman and Avcıkurt, ; Taş, . The survey used for the
research consists of 17 questions. The first 10 of these questions try to find out demographic features of
the local people. Later, it is aimed to find answer to some other questions like what primary activities they
prefer for the development of Aydınpınar, whether they want the tourists to visit the village or not and if
these tourists harm the environment, which popular sites both local and foreign tourists prefer to visit,
what obstacles there are in the development of ecotourism, which activities can be done to support
ecotourism and what their attitudes are like towards tourists. The survey was applied on the local people,
who participated voluntarily from Aydınpınar village of Duzce with populations according to
population census.425 survey forms are used by interviewing participants in person and explaining the
reasons of the research in accordance with the sample represented by Altunışık et al . One way
Anova tests are applied. Statistical analysis of data is done and frequency values are obtained through
SPSS 19 programme. Lastly, responsibilities and duties of the stakeholders are specified with a
management pattern on ecotourism planning and management which consists of evaluations of 3 levels.

Figure 1. Study Area

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

In this study, stakeholders who take part in ecotourism planning process are stated. In the first level, there
are non-governmental organizations (The Turkish Foundation for Combating Soil Erosion, for
Reforestation and the Protection of Natural Habitats, North Caucasus Cultural Association); trade
associations (chamber of agriculture); village headmen representing the local people; public enterprises
(Provincial Directorate of Culture and Tourism, Provincial Directorate of Environment and Urban
Planning, Ministry of Forestry and Water Affairs Directorate of IX. Region Duzce, District and Provincial
Directorate of Agriculture and Livestock, District Governorship of Gölyaka and Kaynaşlı, Forest
Management of Duzce, Forest Sub- District Directorate of Golyaka, Provincial Directorate of Youth and
Sports) local administrations (Municipalities of Duzce, Gölyaka and Kaynaşlı ; employees of the university
( Faculty of Forestry) and private sector employees. The results of the statistical evaluations of the study
applied on first, second and third levels can be seen below. Village headmen are chosen as target

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stakeholders in both first level surveys prepared to change the perception of ecotourism and second level
forms whose aim is to get information about settlement areas.

Evaluation of the First Level Stakeholders’ Opinions

There are 77 propositions in the surveys prepared for stakeholders under the titles of Negative Effects of
Ecotourism , Ecotourism Management , Obstacles in Applying Ecotourism , Attractiveness Degree of
Ecotourism Resources . These surveys are applied by interviewing the stakeholders face to face. The
responses are assessed with the variabilities of totally-agree and totally-not-agree on the fivefold Likert
scale. %74 of the participants is women and %26 is men. Age range of %40 of the participants is 30-40.
%86 of them works in public institutions while %14 is from public institutions. Factor analysis is used for
evaluating the propositions. As a result of the analysis, propositions are examined under 6 factors. Results
related to factor analysis of the surveys applied to the stakeholders in table1 and standard deviation and
arithmetical average of the results are given.

Table 1. Factor analysis results, Means and Standard Deviation Related to Factors
Ecotourism
Strategy for
Ecotourism Ecotourists negative
the
contributions Ecotourism and local impact on Ecotourism
Factors development
to the local Obstacles public local resources
of
community interaction people's
ecotourism
way of life
Reliability ,989 ,952 ,926 ,859 0,864 ,769
Eigen 27,934
4,103 3,038 1,965 1,537 1,141
Value
Percentage 35,719
14,436 11,143 6,826 5,146 4,608
of varience
Total 77,879
varience 77,879 77,879 77,879 77,879 77,879
explained
Kaiser- 0,935
Meyer- 0,935 0,935 0,935 0,935 0,935
Olkin
Barlett’s 8639,306
Test of 8639,306 8639,306 8639,306 8639,306 8639,306
Sphericity
Mean 3,7221 3,6163 3,327 2,4962 2,180 2,6565
Standard 1,419
1,36 1,358 1,343 1,186 1,2611
Deviation
* 1 = strongly disagree, 2= disagree, 3= middle, 4= agree, 5= strongly agree

As seen in table1, participants agree on the propositions about the management strategies. They have
reached a consensus on that stakeholders should stick to the same plan, sales and marketing activities
should be more, awareness of the local people should be rose and an ecotourism inventory should be
created. Timothy (1999) did a research on Indonesia in which stakeholders and local people did not
participate. In this study he put emphasis on the importance of management strategies during the
planning process and he stated that especially bureaucrats and local people should be informed and
educated about this issue. When examined the Nature Tourism Master Plan which is prepared by
Ministry of Forestry and Water Affairs, Directorate of Nature Conservation and National Parks for
Zonguldak; it can be seen that stakeholders agree on the similar titles. Furthermore, Bonilla (1997), Aas et.
al (2005), Yates et. al (2010) emphasize the importance of agreement of the stakeholders on participant
tourism planning, ecotourism planning and management. Aydın and Selvi state that all
stakeholders have a positive attitude towards ecotourism planning and they make great effort. It is
suggested that these stakeholders should work coordinately. Participants agreed on the propositions
about the contributions of ecotourism on local people. They think that ecotourism planning on Uğursuyu
and Aksu basin is in favor of the local people both economically and socially. Furthermore natural and
cultural environment can be protected without any damage from ecotourism activities. As Drumm and
Moore (2005) claim; a good participant ecotourism planning with the balance of protection and usage can
be done with a good management and a necessary planning study.
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The attendances are hesitant about the propositions concerned with the interaction between the
Ecotourist and local people. The ecotourism activities in the working fields are not at the desired level yet.
Stakeholders do not have enough knowledge about the consequences of the interaction between local
people and ecotourists because they do not have experience in the studies of ecotourism. G“neş
mentions the importance of the collaboration between the local people and the other stakeholders. On the
other hand, Tayfun (2002) claims that there is a conflict on whether the local people will be affected
negatively or positively by the tourists. Nicholas et. al. (2009) states that the local people that are living in
Caribbean St. Lucia, announced as world heritage site, support touristic activities. As it is seen, there are
different ideas about the topic. Each region that is considered to be used as a travelling point reserves
different cultural constitutions. Local people and ecotourism interaction may show changes according to
cultural structure of local people, the profiles of incoming tourists and environmental conditions. The
ecotourism stakeholders that participate in the survey think that the incoming tourists do not have an
effect on local people s cultural habits cuisine, dressing, religious belief etc.). In a research that was
conducted by Eren and Aypek in Cumalıkızık village, it is claimed that local people see tourism as a
protective and developing factor for their cultures. However, Roberts and Hall (2003) emphasize that with
touristic activities there will be more job opportunities for women and it will spoil traditional family
structure Akın and Selvi, .

When it is taken into consideration that ecotourism is a tool that is used to increase the incomes of local
people, to provide new job opportunities and to raise awareness for protecting cultural values, it is
understood that ecotourism will change the lifestyles of the local people. Decreasing the rural-to-urban
migration with the help of increasing job opportunities especially for young population enables not only to
keep the cultural configuration and the traditions as they are but also to increase the rate of technology
usage and development of education as consequences of this local people- ecotourist interaction. The
issue of attractiveness degree of the ecotourism sources and whether the level of perception of the people
is sufficient is a point that leaves the stakeholder participants in conflict. When the literature (Duman and
Öztürk 2005, İnan and others , Ateşoğlu and Bayraktar , Sevim and others is examined, it
can be said that perception of destination changes according to tourists coming to that field again and
suggestions for the field. After the ecotourism planning studies concerning the perception level of the
field, it is suggested that the phases of monitoring and inspecting should be evaluated by asking tourists
ideas. )t is stated that ecotourism is not one of these suggestions that affect the local people s lifestyle in a
negative way. Also it is interpreted that, their indecision about ecotourism sources and ecotourist –local
people interaction is a consequence of their poor knowledge level about ecotourism.

The Examination of Second Level Stakeholders’ Opinions

In the second level of the participation, as a target group 50 village headmen (or in the case of not to
contact with the headman, a person from the council) are chosen from 50 villages in the study area. In
2011 and 2012 summer, all the accommodation units are visited one by one and it is asked from village
headmen to fill the information request forms. For the unattainable villages headmen a meeting is
organized in Düzce Governorship Meeting Hall and they are informed about ecotourism and asked to fill
the information request forms. For 50 villages, documents filled by their headmen are obtained. In this
level of the study, detailed socio-economic and cultural data is collected. It is observed that Caucasian and
Black Sea folk reflect their cultural diversity to their landscape. In this context, it is observed that lifestyle,
folkloric features, traditions, carnivals that took place in the highlands; protected nature fields as a result
of natural landscape; hiking trails, important exposure points, fishing areas, bridleways, basins of
waterfalls have a really important effect on ecotourism activities. Depending on the evaluations that is
made by village headmen; in Uğursuyu Basin Aydınpınar, Samandere, G“zeldere, Kavakbıçkı, Gölormanı,
Bıçkıyanı, Beyköy, Konaklı and Derdin villages; in Aksu basin Aksu Sçmalıpınar and (acıazizler villages
are identifed as the villages that ecotourism sources are dense and these are the villages eager to
participate in ecotourism activities. In this study when field observations and ecologic data are examined,
Aydınpınar village which stands out is chosen as the third level.

The Examination of Third Level Stakeholders’ Opinions

At the third level of participant ecotourism planning, the participants of the survey which is conducted in
Aydınpınar village are % male and % female. % of the participants is between -49 years old.
%42 of the participants have graduated from primary school and %31 of the participants are housewives.

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% of the participants average monthly incomes are above $ and % of the participants average
monthly incomes are minimum 351$. %39 of the participants are resident over 30 years and % 61 of the
participants are resident less than 30 years. Some researches claims that socio-demographical structure
has an effect on the local people s perceptions of tourism Akova, . Milman and Pizam ;
Brougham and Butler (1981); Liu and Var (1986) said that gender, age, language, time of life in the region,
level of interaction with tourists and individual and regional interactions affect the local people s outlooks
on tourism in a different way (Akova, 2006). On the other hand Perdue and the others (1990) stated in a
research they have conducted that the perceptions and evaluations concerned with the effects of tourism
are not directly connected with the local people s characteristics. )n the study some evaluations are made
by taking into consideration the statements that is stated above. Characteristic features and opinions of
Aydınpınar folk is evaluated by One Way Anova technique (Table 2, Table 3, Table 4).

Table 2. Analysis of Variance Related to Comparison of Ecotourism Perception (ANOVA) concerned with
the variabe of Aydınpınar vilagers time of settlement in the region.
Significa
nt
Sum of Mean of differenc
Variables squares df squares F Sig. es
Most of the Between 89,159 5 17,832 3,581 ,004
tourists visits their group
site in Düzce With in 1822,63 366 4,980 Over 30
Group 7 years
resident
Total 1911,79 371
6
Most of the Between 9,076 5 1,815 2,262 ,048
tourists visits their Group
site in Aydınpınar With in 293,707 366 ,802 Over 30
group years
resident
Total 302,782 371
p < 0,05

It is seen that the participants of the survey prefer agricultural activities as the primary activity for
progress of local people. In the second place there is forestry activities and in the third place they prefer
tourism. )t is thought that Aydınpınar village s suitable slope, cultivated lands and the product range may
have an effect on local people s preference for agricultural activities as the primary activity G“ltekin,
. )n a research that Doğan and Üng“ren conducted for )sparta region, they stated that local
people do not have enough knowledge about tourism activities. It is thought that, not having enough
knowledge about yielding services that are provided by ecotourism activities in Aydınpınar village is a
reason for Aydınpınar folk s preference for tourism in the third place as a progressing factor.

According to Aydınpınar folk, the tourists that come to Aydınpınar prefer to go to mostly Kaplanoğlu trout,
Aydınpınar trout and Efeni Lake. )n a study conducted by Çakcı and Çelem concerning to tourists
landscape preferences, it is revealed that waterfront places, places that are pleasant and well-kept in
terms of spatial design are preferred more. Kapanoğlu trout, Aydınpınar trout and Efeni Lake have these
features and according to Aydınpınar folk they are preferred by tourists.

Aydınpınar folk think that not having enough information about yielding services that is provided by
ecotourism, lack of publicity and marketing, rarity of government investments and encouragements and
background deficiency are the main obstacles in the development of the ecotourism. In a research
conducted by Doğan and Üng“ren for )sparta; it is revealed that local people do not have enough
knowledge about touristic potential of Isparta and the city is unable to use its touristic potential. Local
people also think that there are some background deficiencies in tourism and advertisement. In
Aydınpınar, similar headlines about ecotourism are also defined as obstacles in the development of the
ecotourism.

Multi-Dimensional Ecotourism Management Model

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When it is thought that ecotourism has emerged as a response particularly to negative environmental
effects of the unplanned and uncontrolled developments in mass tourism; planning and management can
be seen as primary parts of ecotourism. In this context, Yeni and others (2013) suggest the usage of an
organization pattern that they proposed under the title of )mplementation of Nature Tourism and
Consulting Council as a part of Zonguldak Nature Tourism Master Plan Figure . An organization must
be structured under the name of D“zce Uğursuyu and Aksu Basins Ecotourism Management and
Counselling Council in which D“zce Governorship is in charge of coordination; local people, headmen and
STKs form a monitoring and feedback mechanism; experts provide consultancy services about the topic in
the university and all other respective departments are involved. )n this organization local people s
participations, which is the most important factor of ecotourism, must be ensured. In this management
schema on the basin scale there is regional participation and on the city and local scale there is
participation from each three level. Besides, interactive structure between the units ensures the decisions
to be discussed from different aspects and put into practice.

Table 3. Analysis of Variance Related to Comparison of Ecotourism Perception (ANOVA) concerned with
the variable of educational backgrounds of the villagers
Sum of Mean of Significant
Variables squares df squares F Sig. differences
Tourists come to Between 2,125 6 ,354 Literacy does
Aydınpınar? groups not know
With in in 17,004 365 ,047 7,60 ,000
group 4
Total 19,129 371
Most of the tourists Bewtween 82,495 6 13,749 Literacy does
visits their site in groups not know /
Düzce With in in 1829,3 365 5,012 2,74 ,013 university
group 01 3 graduates
Total 1911,7 371
96
Whether to Between 7,337 6 1,223 5,13 ,00 Technical
support the people groups 3 0 school/college,
of ecotourism High School/
Aydinpinar With in in 86,943 365 ,238 University,
group Primary
Total 94,280 371 education/
university
p < 0,05

Table 4. Analysis of Variance Related to Comparison of Ecotourism Perception (ANOVA) concerned with
the variable of income status of villagers
Significa
nt
Sum of Mean of differen
Variables squares df squares F Sig. ces
The most important Between 68,845 4 17,211 8,064 ,000 Income
activity in the groups 1449$-
development With in 783,273 367 2,134 2536$,
Aydınpınar group Income
Total 852,118 371 1449$-
724$
The local people's Between 9,356 4 2,339 3,922 ,004 Income
attitude towards groups 1449$-
ecotourist With in 218,846 367 ,596 2536$,
group Income
Total 228,202 371 1449$-
724$
p < 0,05

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Figure 2. Ecotourism Management Council

Ugursuyu and Aksu Watersheds eco-tourism council is thought to be a council that is supported with
participation of all stakeholders and the responsibilities of stakeholders are defined in the Table 5.

The principles in participatory ecotourism planning are used in Ugursuyu and Aksu Basins (and also
different basin) can be shown below (Yeni ve diğ., ; G“ltekin, ; Uzun ve diğ., ; Yenilmez
Arpa, ; D“zce Doğa Y“r“y“ş Parkurları, ; G“m“ş, ; T“rkiye Turizm Stratejisi, ;
Akın ve Selvi a ; Yeni ve Diğ, ; D“zce Doğa Turizm Master Planı :

 In centralized management, the public institutions regarding ecotourism and the other sectors of
ecotourism should work in coordination.
 Achieving success in eco-tourism activities depends on conservation of nature in the research area. For
this reason, the fact that natural and cultural landscape elements in Ugursuyu and Aksu basins underlie
tourism should be understood by all groups and Stakeholders.
 Eco-system sources should be constructed in a way that is prone to its sustainable use, to protects not
only the use of today but also next generation s, with an interdisciplinary approach, accepts that man is
a dominant element for cultural landscape, has multidirectional uses and is constructed under the light
of reliable information and valid provisions.
 Income is needed for the sustainability of the areas that are open to eco-tourism in Ugursuyu and Aksu
basins. It should be accepted that this income will be provided from entrance fees, catering and local
food selling.
 Local people should necessarily be included to the eco-tourism activities to improve their welfare and
increase their source of income alternatives.
 In an eco-tourism based landscape management method, there should be some sharers such as local
community, local authorities, conservation area authorities, regional authorities, national authorities,
tourism agents, organizations, non-governmental organizations and education units that have the
potential of improving eco-tourism products and services or can help ecotourism improve.
 Tour operators and tourism agents should make contribution to the sustainability eco-tourism areas
with education opportunities they would offer to the ecotourists and their helps for the management of
the areas.
 Some precautions steps should be taken for conserving cultural unity and diversity of the local public
in the area. Within the frame of these universal principles, formation of an eco-tourism council in
which the research area is located at and formation of related units to this council in every sub-basin
has been aimed.

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Table . Stakeholders responsibilities in Ugursuyu and Aksu Basins Ecotourism Planning Drumm and
Moore, 2005; G“ltekin, ; Uzun et.al., ; Yenilmez Arpa, ; Akın and Selvi, .
Stakeholder Responsibilities Stakeholder Responsibilities
Governorship Leadership, Coordination, Monitoring University Consulting, Follow up, Feed back
Mayors Cooperation, Promotion and marketing, Development Providing Financial Support,
Infrastructure and Superstructure Agency Supporting enterprisers,
Presenting Regional solutions for
Ecotourism Planning Problems

Governors of Preparing education programs for local Tourists Protection natural and cultural
Golyaka and community, Inventory of cultural and values, Feedback about
Kaynaslı natural values, Seeking feedback about destinations
Counties ecotourism activities
City Directorate Increasing Environmental Quality, Generel Protecting of Forest Areas
of Urbanism and Promotion and Marketing, Infrastructure Directorate of
Environment and Superstructure, Inspection of hotels, Forestry
ecotourism activities

City Directorate Evaluating of Agricultural Potential., Headmen of Creating an inventory of cultural


of Food, Financial Support for Organic villages and natural values
Agriculture and Agriculture
Livestock

City of Environmental impact assessment, Non- Monitoring and Feedback


Directorate Analyzes of Soil, Air and Water pollution Governmental
protection of Organizations
nature and
national parks
City Directorate Creating a good image for ecotourism, Accomodation To ensure quality
of Culture and Promotion and Marketing, Building units, Cafe,
Tourism website, Developing Ecotourism Master Restaurant and
Plan and sub-plans, Measuring of gift shop
Ecotourism Satisfaction for tourists, owners
Developing new products of Ecotourism,
Creating an inventory of cultural and
natural values

City Directorate Training of natural sports educators, Tour Promotion and Marketing,
of Youth and Determining of new trekking, rafting, Operators Developing new products of
Sports orientring routes or areas, Promotion Ecotourism, Measuring of
and marketing Ecotourism Satisfaction for tourists

City Directorate Preparing education programs for local


of National community and high school students
Education

DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION

In the study, the importance of ecotourism development in different national, regional and local scales and
especially the importance of local people s participation in the decision progress are mentioned.
According to findings in the first group of stakeholders; the decision makers have positive attitudes
towards the issue of developing ecotourism sources. However there are some disagreements among the
stakeholders on the development of ecotourism resources and they do not work cooperatively. In the
examinations that are made with regard to headmen who are second group of stakeholders and the local
people who are third group of stakeholders, it is stated that local people do not have knowledge about the
yielding services which is provided by ecotourism. Agriculture which is a traditional mean of living is
important for their improvement. As a result of the evaluations, describing of the duties and
responsibilities are made by suggesting a management model that includes different levels. Consequently,
in ecotourism planning and management it is revealed that the participations of deciders from different
levels in decision-making-period and having a voice in management of the site and planning are the

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necessary steps. It is thought that the determined method can be used in many basins that have
ecotourism potential. Besides, value judgements, cultural features and life standards of people coming
from different places are suggested to be integrated into the planning and management studies that will
be done in different places.

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Uzun, O., Akıncı Kesim, G., G“ltekin, P., . Efteni göl“ sulak alan ekosistemi Peyzaj yönetim planının
oluşturulması, D“zce Üniversitesi BAP Projesi, BAP: . . . . D“zce.
Taş, S., . Trabzon ve ekoturizm: yerli ziyaretçilerin yöreyi değerlendirmesine yönelik bir araştırma,
Basılmamış y“ksek lisans tezi, Balıkesir Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstit“s“, Turizm
işletmeciliğive otelcilik Anabilimdalı, Balıkesir.
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1268-1281.
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Bennington, Vermont, pp.7-11.
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Planning, Volume 97,213–220.
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management of the protected areas in T“rkiye: Sultan Sazlığı National Park, Phd Thesis. Ankara
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Acknowledgment

This paper is based on work supported by the Duzce University Scientific Research Project under grant
BAP-2012.02.HD.045

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Identification Of The Response Strategies For Contingency Oil Pollution Incidents And The
Protection Of The Sensitive Areas In The Black Sea Coasts
Telli Karakoç Fatma1,2*, Aydöner Cihangir2, Ediger Dilek1,3, Günay Aslı S.2, Olgun Arzu2

1Karadeniz Technical University, Marine Sciences Faculty, Çamburnu, 61530 Sürmene, Trabzon, Turkey,
2TÜBİTAK Marmara Research Center, Institute of Clean Technology and Environment, 41470 Gebze
Kocaeli, Turkey,
3İstanbul University, Institute of Marine Sciences and Management, 34134 Vefa, İstanbul, Turkey

*fatma.tellikarakoc@ktu.edu.tr

Abstract

Black Sea coastal areas will be affected dramatically when oil pollution incident occurred. Natural protected
areas, economically important areas will be adversely affected with these pollutants. The return to the
background status of the nature and environment will take many decades. The determination of the risk
areas and contingency plans and infrastructure/strategy may be diminished the pollution effects of the
coasts.

There are coastal natural protected areas, important plant areas and RAMSAR area are identified in the
Black Sea coasts. There are also economically important areas such as aquaculture, ports, shelters, slipways
and coastal facilities, industrial facilities and shipyards settled in the coastal areas. The reason of the less
coastal facilities localized in the coasts is coastal highway.

Load types which come from or go to the ports are mainly general-cargo, bulk-cargo, chemicals, LPG,
petroleum products. There are 11 cities are located along the Black Sea coasts and the most crowed cities are
Samsun and Trabzon and busiest ports are located in the Trabzon and Samsun provinces.

Selected data are used for the emergency response-decision support system and contingency planning for the
protection of the coastal areas from the oil pollution incidents.

The present study is a part of the comprehensive national project which is completed in 2012. The main aim
of this study is to protect nature and economically important areas by using emergency response equipment,
emergency response plans and related other parameters in the Black Sea coasts in case of an oil spill incident.

Key words: Natural protected areas, economic important areas, oil pollution-contingency plan, emergency
response strategies, Black Sea

INTRODUCTION

Maritime transportation is more efficient and economic, so today, 80% of global trade is carried out by
this way. The last 65 years, maritime transportations have been grown up to 18 times and their financial
growth are reached 60%. This situation has brought the maritime sector to the most strategical level
(http://www.udhb.gov.tr , 2014). According to the USEPA report, more than 6 million are handled every
year and more than 600.000 chemicals are dangerous for human and environment. Worldwide 200
million tons of dangerous goods and chemicals are transported by maritime. These goods are carrying
either bulk or packed.

Petroleum is classified as a fossil fuel. The formation of the fossil fuels take millions of years, that is why
petroleum is also considered to be a non-renewable energy source (http://www.petroleum.co.uk/).
Petroleum is not a polluter as long as stays in their reserves. When oil drilling from the ground either
artificially or from natural cracks or spilled accidently, then oil becomes a danger for marine environment
and organisms. In order to stopped their adverse effects, spilled oil must be cleaned as soon as possible
for the protection of the marine life and the environment.

Of course, every part of the marine environment is unique, but some parts are critically important than
the other places. Specific areas of the coastal and marine environment must be protected according to the
pollution risk. Specific natural areas such as, environmentally protected areas, important plant protected
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areas, marine protected areas, fishing areas etc, and important economic areas such as maricultural areas,
beaches, coastal industrial areas, ports, marinas etc must be protected in the first place for supplying
sustainability of the economic and natural resources.
Protection from pollution and methods for cleaning the polluted areas must be pre-planned according
their sensitivities. The success of the diminishing oil pollution directly involves to collecting of the
petroleum as soon as possible from the marine environment either in water, sediment or coastal area.
Governments and coastal facilities must be ready for the pollution prevention. They should prepare their
contingency plans and infrastructures. The meaning of the preparedness of the infrastructures are;
 Cleaning equipments (like booms, skimmers, sorbents, bunkers, ships, even dispersant (for some
special cases)) should be purchased and stored in stockpiles or should sign contracts with the private
cleaning firms,
 Oil spill model (consists of meteorological data and current data) must be ready for run to find out spill
direction,
 Important economic areas (harbours, ports, coastal industrial facilities, beaches, aquacultural areas,
etc) must be mapped,
 Important natural areas (fishing areas, special protected areas, plant areas, bird areas, marine
protected areas, marine mammalians and posedonia banks etc) must be mapped,
 Ship traffic roads must be mapped,
 The location of the stockpiles and their contents must be identified.
 Coastal facilities and their emergency response equipment must be determined.
 Experts related with polluted areas, marine resources and pollution should be identified and reached
easily,
 Contingency plans must be prepared,
 Cleaning firms which are struggling with pollution must be determined, announced and reached easily
when necessary.

Cleaning of the oil pollution from the environment is very expensive, hard and time consuming process.
Unfortunately the success of the oil collection from sea is only 20-30% of the total spills. When the oil
spills reached the coast, the cleanup process and expenses are much higher than the cleaning at the sea.
Therefore, the success of the combating of the oil pollution is directly related with the preparedness. If oil
spill reaches to the coasts, oil must be cleaned up by using coastal cleaned up methods such as coastal
cleaning (washing, sobbing with sorbent pads etc), bioremediation, chemical cleanup, in situ burning.

MATERIAL AND METHOD

This study is a part of the national project called “Constitution of the Emergency Response Centers and
Determination of the Present Situation of the Turkish International Waters for the Feasibility Works”
conducted by TÜBİTAK –MAM and supported by the Ministry of Transport Maritime Affairs and
Communications.

Determination of the different risk levels of coastal and marine areas and protection strategies of the
Turkish Black Sea coasts were explained in this study. The protection of the marine areas and coasts must
require preparedness. For this purpose, many different parameters were identified, analyzed and
integrated in geographical information system (GIS) as a layer to support decision makers in case of
accidental oil pollution.

There were many natural and industrial parameters were selected for the determination of the risk levels
of the Black Sea and coastal areas. Sensitive and protected natural areas for plants and animals were
selected as natural parameters, tourism areas; beaches, marinas, special underwater structures
(archeological areas, cables etc) were selected as important industrial areas. According to these
parameters, risk levels (high risk, risk, medium risk and low risk) were evaluated and integrated with GIS.
Figure 1 shows that if the accidental spill is occurred, what kinds of parameters are required for the
combating oil spill effectively.

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Figure 1: Determination of the requirements for the effective combating of the oil pollution

A) Determination Of The Risk Levels According To The Sensitive Areas And Industrial Facilities
For The Black Sea Coasts

1. Natural important areas: There are four coastal natural protected areas in the Black Sea coasts which
are Çamburnu- Artvin, Hacıosman-Samsun, Sarıkum-Sinop and Demircionü-Bolu. Sinop peninsula,
Kızılırmak Delta, Kozlu coast- Zonguldak Ereğlisi, Coasts of Bartın and Amasra, betweenTirebolu beach
and Kilise Burnu, coasts of Vakfıkebir are identified as natural protected areas. Kızılırmak Delta is
declared as an important plant area, important bird area, wetland, natural protected area, wildlife
protected area and RAMSAR area. Special areas such as Giresun, Ordu, Kozlu coasts, which are
extending from mountain to the coasts, are very important for the sea birds during migration, breeding
and wintering seasons. Sinop peninsula is far north part of the Turkey. It has İncekum and Sarıkum
Lake and the forest around them. These areas are known as special bird area and nine different kinds
of special birds are migrating here for wintering and breeding. In addition to these areas, Yeşilırmak
Delta is also another bird area and wetland in the Black Sea coast. There is no specific protected area in
the Black Sea coast (Telli Karakoç ve diğ., 2010). These data were mapped and integrated GIS as a
layer.

2. Important industrial areas: There are 43 aquacultures which are localized mainly Rize, Trabzon, Ordu,
Samsun and İstanbul (http://www.ormansu.gov.tr/). Summer truism is getting important day by day
in the Black Sea coasts. Last years, especially internal tourists have shown great interest to spend their
holidays in the Black Sea coasts. There are 257 beaches along the coasts and 15 of them have blue flags
( http://www.csb.gov.tr/; http://yuzme.saglik.gov.tr). There are 142 coastal facilities such as fishing
shelters, slipway, shelters, ports, shipyards. Because of the coastal high way, there are no intense
industrial facilities along the Black sea coast. Çatalağzı termal power plant in Zonguldak, Fuel oil power
plant in Hopa and 6 shipyards in Zonguldak have the biggest coastal facilities (Telli Karakoç ve diğ.,
2010). There are 33 load and passenger ports along the coasts. The busiest ports are localized in
Samsun and Trabzon. The biggest and busiest port is Trabzon Port and the numbers of handling ships
are more than 5500.There are eleven cities along the Black Sea coast. The most crowded cities are
Samsun and Trabzon respectively. These data were mapped and integrated GIS as a layer.

According to three levels of risk analysis, Although, Black Sea coasts are at second level risk (second level)
which is not high, some local areas such as Trabzon, Fatsa, Sinop Amasra, Karadeniz Ereğlisi and Şile are
at very high risk.

B) Preparation Of The Responses At Different Levels

A number of advanced response mechanisms are available for controlling oil spills and minimizing their
impacts on human health and the environment. Careful selection and proper use of the equipment and
materials which are best suited to the type of oil and the conditions of the spill sites, are the keys to
effectively combating the spills. Most of the spill response equipments and materials are greatly affected
by such factors as conditions at sea, water currents, and wind. Much different type of equipments was

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designed for the effective compating of the oil spill. Containment and recovery equipments include a
variety of booms, barriers, and skimmers, as well as natural and synthetic sorbent materials. Mechanical
containment is used to capture and store the spilled oil until it can be disposed properly.

Skimmers: Skimmers are devices that can remove oil from the sea surface before it reaches sensitive
areas along a coastline. Sometimes, one or two boats will tow a collection boom, allowing oil to
concentrate within the boom, where it is then picked up by a skimmer.

Booms: Boom is a common type of oil spill response equipment. It is used to protect shorelines or
sensitive locations by acting as a barrier to oil to enhance the recovery effectiveness of skimmers or other
response operations. Booms can be placed to exclude oil from a sensitive stretch of shoreline, such as a
coastal marsh, marina, seabird nesting area, or marine mammals’ areas. They are made of plastic, metal, or
other materials, which slow down the spread of oil and keep it contained.

Sorbents: Sorbents are solid products used to fix oil pollutants in order to facilitate recovery. When in the
presence of water and oil together, sorbents are capable of fixing the oil (oleophilic property) rather than
the water (hydrophobic property). There are many types of sorbent products such as sausage sorbent
booms, paperlike sorbents etc. Paper sorbents (absorbent pads) would be useful for collecting oil from
drier areas such as rocks and artificial structures. Sorbent booms are flexible and the sorbent material is
contained in a permeable envelope, which is resistant enough to be able to be manipulated
(http://www.eoearth.org, 2010).

C) Tag Boats

Tag Boats are necessary for towing a wounded ship in order it to reach the place of refuges. The number of
tag boats , binging sites and their specifications (type, flag, KW (power), FiFi class, number of staff, boom
deployment specifications, etc) were listed and mapped. 22 tag boats were served in the Black Sea.

D) Real Time Or Near Real Time Oil Spill Model

Oil spill model is one of the most important layer for the decision support system. When the spill
happened, experts run the model according to the weather conditions in the spill area. Oil spill model
have many historical background data such as long term current data, sea water temperature, salinity,
atmospheric temperature, wind direction and intensity data, etc) for running properly and more
accurately. Figure 2 shows that the results of the scenario of the K. Ereğlisi offshore accidental oil spill
at 2 knot wind for 2 days.

Figure 2: Accidental Oil pollution at offshore of the Zonguldak Ereğli (Telli Karakoç and project team,
2008)

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E) Emergency Response Centers And Stockpiles

As it mentions before this study is a part of the national project and cover all over the Turkish surrounded
seas. In order to protect the Turkish coasts from the accidental oil pollution, infrastructure must be at
advanced preparation for the combating pollution. Turkey has one national emergency response center in
Tekirdağ, one national center in Antalya, and 18 stockpiles all around turkish coasts. 7 of them are
localized in the Black Sea coasts. Samsun is the biggest stockpile of them. Hopa and İğneada have small
capacities stockpiles for only local areas.

The accessibility of the incident area from stockpiles were calculated as a 1,2,4,6,8,24 and 48 hours. 2
hours preparation time must be added (Figure 3).

Figure 3: Emergency responce centres and stockpiles (Telli Karakoç and project team, 2010)

The locations of the stockpiles were selected more or less equal distance in between. The accessibility to
the any places of the Turkish Emergency Response Intervention Area in cases of emergency were
calculated and optimized. The optimization of the maximum and mean arrival time from containment sites
to the incident areas were defined as 8 and 4 hours respectively. There are no coastal facilities around
Hopa and İğneada, if oil spill incident happened, local stockpile would only have enough equipment for
first intervention. National Response Centre and Samsun Stockpiles were selected 24 hour intervention
base for combating of the large oil spill incident.

F) Contingency Plans

Oil Spill Contingency Plans (OSCPs) illustrate how a company (tier 1) and government (tier 2 and tier 3)
will respond, if the unlikely event of a spill occurs. If an oil spill does occur it can have serious and wide
range of consequences such as, affecting a variety of resources. If the spill occurs it vital that officials
should be able to make fast and effective call to number of different organizations. We know that
contingency plans are essential to combating a spill effectively. A good contingency plan must be
supported by risk assessment process and must show the strategies needed to avoid unwanted activities.
The size, location and timing of an oil spill are unpredictable, so it important for any response
arrangements to be flexible enough to cope with this uncertainty. Response to the pollution has three
tiers conceptually.

● Tier 1: The response plan is established for individual ports and oil handling facilities. The plan is
supported with equipment for small operational spill.
● Tier 2: This response provides arranging of the government or private resources at a local level or a
wider geographical area.
● Tier 3: This response provide for a combined national and/or international response to a major oil spill.
(IPIECA, 2005)

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Turkey has their own local and national level contingency plans. These plans were projected to TÜBİTAK-
MRC by the Ministry of Environment and Urban Planning (Ediger and project team, 2010). With this
system, coordination and cooperation of governmental and private resources are succeeded. When the
spill happens, the chain of command starts by Minister of Ministry of Environment and Urban Planning
pre-planned (Figure 5).

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Protection of the coastal environment from accidental oil pollutions requires very good coordination,
perfect background information and preparedness for supporting decision makers. When spill happens,
there will be no time to collect data, information and making a plan for the supporting response action.
Turkey has a very good decision support system during the accidental oil spill in all neighboring seas. All
requirements are available. In case of Black Sea coastal protection from oil pollution regional, national oil
spill contingency plans are ready with any necessities and international level agreements are also
available with other Black Sea countries based on many convention and declarations (Bucharest
Convention (1992), Odessa Declaration (1993), Black Sea Strategic Action Plan (1996), Black Sea
Emergency Response Plan (2007)).

REFERENCES

http://www.udhb.gov.tr. Maritime sectorial report., 2014


Telli Karakoç, and project team, 2008 Constitution of the Emergency Response Centers and
Determination of the Present Situation of the Turkish International Waters for the Feasibility
Works Work packages 6. 216 pages.
Telli Karakoç and project team, 2010 Constitution of the Emergency Response Centers and Determination
of the Present Situation of the Turkish International Waters for the Feasibility Works. Final
Report.446 pages.
http://www.petroleum.co.uk/, 2015.
http://www.ormansu.gov.tr, 2015.
http://www.eoearth.org/view/article/159151, 2010.
IPIECA, 2005. Action Against Oil Pollution, 22 page.
Ediger, D., and project team, 2010 Ulusal ve Bölgesel Acil Müdahale Planları. National Plan. 216 pages.

Acknowledgement

We would like to thank to the project supporting experts from Ministy of Transport, Maritime Affairs and
Communication and Ministry of Environment and Urban Planning. We would like to thank to consulters
and project team from TÜBİTAK MRC.

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The Importance Of The Chilia Branch For Protecting And Conservation Of The
Anadromous Migratory Sturgeons

Danalache Tiberius Marcel 1, Badilita Alin 1, Olteanu Marius-Viorel 1, Deák György 1

1 National Institute for Research and Development in Environmental Protection, Bucharest, Romania

Abstract

The hydrotechnic works often generate aquatic ecosystem disturbances. Sometimes they are local and short-
term, but sometimes they cause significant long-term impact that may be irreversible. The present paper
aims to analyze the possible impact of the maintenance works performed on Bastroe channel fairway on the
populations’ dynamics of migratory anadromous fishes, sturgeon.

The methodology implied sturgeon tagging and migration monitoring using ultrasonic telemetry technique
during 2011-2014. The tags were inserted into the abdominal cavity through a simple surgical intervention,
being set to transmit data related on swimming depth and water temperature towards receiver stations fixed
on Chilia branch, upstream and downstream of Bastroe channel, Tulcea and Old Danube branches.

The results showed that the distribution of the adult specimens during migration on Chilia and Tulcea
branches was 53% - 47% (spring 2012/2014) and 31% - 69% in autumn 2013. A possible progressive
warping of the Old Stambul and especially Musura branch, as well as an increase of the naval traffic on
Bastroe channel will have major negative effects on upstream sturgeon migration for breeding.

Key words: Sturgeon conservation, fish migration monitoring, Old Danube

INTRODUCTION

Chilia branch and Bastroe channel are parts of the Danube Delta Biosphere Reserve, having great
importance due to the many types of aquatic and terrestrial habitats existing here. The universal value of
the reserve has been recognized by its inclusion in the international network of the Biosphere Reserves
(1990), within the Program "Man and Biosphere" (MAB) launched by UNESCO in 1970. Bastroe channel
was formed naturally and makes the connection between Chilia branch and the Black Sea. Although the
area benefits of full ecological protection regime, according to which any human activity in the region is
forbidden, in the area have been conducted a series of works for the riverbed arrangement through which
is seeking the direct access of commercial ships in the Black Sea (Sofoneti and Dobrota, 2004). An effect of
the channel arrangement will be an overall disturbance of the habitats, due to the banks transformations
by digging the channel, which will cause the water flow’s system change and a new way of sedimentation
in the area of the Bastroe estuary. The impact on ichtyofauna may be a temporary one, generated by high
mortality among fish species caused by dredging activities or their withdrawal from the area, and also a
permanent impact, irreparably through the disappearance of species due to changes of habitual
requirements.

One category of fish species sensitive to hydro-morphological changes of the watercourse is represented
by sturgeon. It is proved the fact that human activities related to the change of the natural watercourses
led to a decline of this species population over time. The best example are the dams built for the Iron
Gates I and II Hydropower plants (Bacalbasa-Dobrovici, 1993; Ciolac, 2004; Reinartz, 2002). The
interruption of the longitudinal connectivity of watercourses leads to the impossibility of reproduction in
case these species cannot reach to specific habitats located upstream and thus, the number of specimens
decreases alarmingly from one year to another (Kerr, Davison and Funnell, 2010; Yi, Yang and Zhang
2010).

Sturgeon are cartilaginous bony fish species that migrate from the Black Sea on the Danube River only for
reproduction, and then return into the sea (Oţel, 2007; Antipa, 1909; Bănărescu, 1964 ). National
legislation protects sturgeon species by prohibiting fishing and their commercialization (Order no.
330/2006) and by Danube programs for restocking with juvenile sturgeon specimens. Internationally,
many non-governmental organizations take action for saving sturgeon species.

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Sturgeons are important due to the fact that their presence on the Danube River was confirmed since
ancient times and represented a source of food for coastal communities. Greek orator, Claudius Elian in his
papers from the second century b.h. describes a technique for beluga capturing in the Danube River
through the use of lines with hooks attached to a rope distributed transversely on the watercourse, a
technique very similar to lining fishing (Palatnikov, 2010). On Chilia branch, Bacalbaşa-Dobrovici (1997)
recalls the Italian monk Niccolo Barsari’s visit during 1633-1639 who noted that fishermen captured daily
between 1000 and 2000 sturgeon specimens.

The National Institute for Research and Development in Environmental Protection has analyzed the
migration of sturgeons in the period of 2011-2014 and has noticed the possible negative effect of the
arrangement works on Bastroe channel on these species.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

The monitoring of sturgeon species migration conducted by the National Institute for Research and
Development in Environmental during 2011-2014 has been performed by using ultrasonic telemetry. The
method involves the use of tags attached to sturgeon specimens which transmits the information through
water, with the help of ultrasounds, to a series of receiver stations fixed at certain strategic points (Deak
Gy., 2013, 2014).

Before assembling the systems, a riverbed in situ analysis has been performed. With a boat on which was
installed a device for bathymetric measurements (single beam and multibeam), sections from one side of
the riverbed to the other were made, on a sector of approximately 600 m (300 m downstream the location
where the monitoring system was mounted and 300 m upstream). The measurements result was a 3D
representation of the river morphology. For the assembly, have been chosen only the areas with slight
slope, without deep thresholds or holes, which may screen the signal transmitted by the ultrasonic mark
attached to sturgeon specimens.

The ultrasonic tagging of sturgeon specimens has been conducted after a procedure with minimal stress
on specimens. Thus, fish have been placed in a contention floating tube, directly into the water body
provided with slots for a good oxygenation. Before the tagging surgery, biometric measurements have
been performed (total length, standard length, weight), the genre of the fish has been determined with an
endoscope and DNA samples have been taken for each specimen. Then, the fish have been anesthetized
through electro-narcosis and on the incision area has been locally injected xiline. The size of an incision
was of approximately 3 cm and has been done with a sterile surgical material. The closure of the area,
after ultrasonic marking has been done with an absorbable suture thread. The area has been swabbed
with Betadine and then, a special medical adhesive that hardens in seconds and do not allow water to
enter in the abdominal cavity has been applied. Finally, an "anti-poaching" spaghetti tag has been fixed, on
the dorsal flipper, with a special pistol. All the identification data of each sturgeon specimen have been
noted on the catch sheet. On every operation, a veterinarian specialist was present, who monitored the
development of each phase of tagging procedure.

RESULTS

In 2011-2014 frame time, sturgeon catching, tagging and releasing was performed on the Danube River
between Calarasi and Braila. During this period were studied 253 specimens of beluga, Russian sturgeon,
Stellate sturgeon and Sterlet sturgeon, 186 being tagged both with ultrasonic and anti-poaching (T-bar)
tags, while 67 were only tagged with anti- poaching tags.
In order to have a general overview of the sturgeon migration on Chilia branch and to perform a
comparison with their behavior on Tulcea branch, the research team mounted reception systems for
ultrasonic signal on Danube river at km 100, on Tulcea branch at km 70 and on Chilia at Bastroe
confluence (Fig. 1).

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Fig. 1 - Location of the monitoring stations

On Chilia branch were not reported any catches of the T-bar tagged sturgeons in the studied period.
Regarding the ultrasonic tagged specimens, the receivers’ recordings showed that in 2012 spring 53% of
the specimens that migrated towards the Black Sea used Chilia branch, while during 2013 autumn the
percentage decreased at 31% and in 2014 spring reached again the value of 53% (Fig. 2).

Fig. 2 - Distribution of sturgeon migration on Chilia and Tulcea branches between 2012 - 2014

In table 1 is presented the distribution of sturgeon specimens detected between 2013-2014 on Chilia
branch in respect with the migration direction (upstream or downstream). Therefore, for the upstream
migration from the Black Sea to the spawning areas were identified also specimens tagged before 2011-
2013. The male Stellate sturgeon specimens with codes 2S5 and 3S48 came again for a new reproduction
cycle after 2 years and 2 years and a half, respectively, from the tagging moment. This observation is in
accordance with the previous research which showed that sturgeon do not perform reproduction actions
every year (Hochleithner and Gessner, 1999). Gonads’ maturation is directly influenced by the species,
age, gender and hydro-climatic conditions (Reinartz, 2002).

A second example is Stellate sturgeon 5S9 tagged in 2013 spring which came back after one year, in 2014
spring. An explanation for this behavior may be that the specimen did not reproduced in the previous year
and intended to accomplish this action in 2014.

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Table 1 Sturgeon migration routes on Chilia branch at the confluence with Bastroe channel
Nr. Sheet Tagging Records Migration
Species Gender
Crt. number period Chilia branch Type
Stellate
1 2S5 A. 2011 male 24.03.2014
sturgeon Spring migration 2014
Stellate (Returning of sturgeon
2 3S48 S.2012 male 24.04.2014
sturgeon specimens tagged in
2011, 2012, 2013)
Stellate
3 5S9 S.2013 male 04.05.2014
sturgeon
4 6S11 A. 2013 Beluga male 02.05.2014

5 6S12 A. 2013 Beluga male 15-16.11.2013


Autumn migration 2013
6 6S14 A. 2013 Beluga male 13-14.11.2013 (Sturgeon specimens
tagged in 2013)
7 6S21 A. 2013 Beluga male 24.11.2013

8 6S22 A. 2013 Beluga male 03.12.2013

9 7S1 S. 2014 Beluga male 07.05.2014


Stellate Spring migration 2014
10 7S28 S. 2014 male 23.06.2014
sturgeon (Sturgeon specimens
Stellate tagged in 2014)
11 7S32 S. 2014 male 01.05.2014
sturgeon
Stellate
12 7S33 S. 2014 male 24.06.2014
sturgeon
Stellate
13 7S42 S. 2014 male 13.05.2014
sturgeon

A. = autumn
S. = spring
= upstream migration
= downstream
migration

Even that a lot of research works consider that sturgeon specimens migrate upstream during autumn and
remain until the next spring migration season for reproduction purposes (Chebanov and Galich, 2011),
our research revealed that some specimens have a different behaviour returning to the Black Sea in the
same season (E.g.: 6S12, 6S14, 6S21, 6S22). From the 5 specimens of beluga tagged during 2013 autumn,
only the 6S11 specimen was recorded on Chilia branch also in 2014 spring season.

The 7S1, 7S28, 7S32, 7S33, 7S2 specimens were tagged in 2014 spring on Calarasi-Braila sector of the
Danube River and were recorded by the two receiving-recording systems mounted on the Chilia branch
(upstream and downstream of the Bastroe confluence), at the end of the reproduction season when they
migrated back to the Black Sea.

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Fig. 3 - Swimming depths of sturgeon specimens recorded on Chilia branch

The research performed on sturgeon swimming behavior showed that they prefer deep water for
upstream migration (Hochleithner and Gessner, 1999) because the water velocity is lower than in shallow
water, decreasing the energy consumption. For the downstream migration they prefer the shallow water
because of the high water velocity. The graph presented below highlights the sturgeon specimens that
passes through Chilia branch for both upstream and downstream migration. For downstream swimming
depth it can be seen a minimum value of 1.06m, while for downstream swimming depth the minimum
value is 4.6m (Fig. 3).

DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS

The results of the research performed by the INCDPM team showed that Chilia branch has a high
importance for sturgeon migration being used in both migration seasons (spring-autumn) both for
upstream migration in reproduction purposes and for downstream migration to the Black Sea. Therefore,
the results revealed that in the spring season of 2012 and 2014, 53% of the monitored specimens used
Chilia branch, while in the 2013 spring season only 31% used the same branch. On Chilia branch, at
Bastroe confluence, the minimum sturgeon swimming depths was 1.06 m for upstream migration and the
maximum value was 12.28 m. These swimming depths are in accordance with the previously reported
ones, sturgeon specimens preferring a lower water velocity at upstream migration (swimming close to the
riverbed) for energy saving purposes and a higher water velocity at downstream migration.

The dredging works performed upstream on Chilia branch, including Bastroe channel, may have
harmful effects such as: habitats losing or disturbing through elimination of the sediment used for
reproduction, destroying macroinvertebrates fauna which constitute the main food for sturgeon
species, and also increasing sturgeon larvae and juvenile death.

Knowing that at the end of 19th century was emphasized the negative effect of the dredging works on
Sulina branch consisting of hampering sturgeon migration on this branch, there is a major risk for the
sturgeon migration caused by the works performed on Chilia and Bastroe branches for fairway
improvement. A possible progressive clogging of the Stambulul Vechi branch and especially of Musura
branch may have a further major impact on sturgeon upstream migration.

Therefore, is necessary to undertake further research and monitoring activities for revealing the issues
that may have a harmful effect on sturgeon species in order to implement, in time, the necessary measures
to reduce the associated risks.

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REFERENCES

Antipa, Gr., 1909. Fauna Ihtiologică a României, Academia Română, Publicațiunile Fondului Vasile
Adamachi, Bucureşti.
Bacalbasa-Dobrovici, N., 1993. The romanian sturgeon salvation needs a consequent strategy and tactics,
Scientific Annals of the Danube Delta Institute.
Bacalbasa-Dobrovici, N., 1997. Endangered migratory sturgeons of the Lower Danube River and its delta,
Environmental Biology of Fishes,
Bănărescu, P., 1964. Fauna R.P.R. Vol. XIII. Pisces-Osteichtzes, Ed. Academiei R.P.R., Bucureşti.
Chebanov, M.S.; Galich, E.V., 2011. Sturgeon hatchery manual. FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Technical
Paper. No. 558. Ankara, FAO.
Ciolac, A., 2004. Study of migratory sturgeons captures in Romanian side of Danube River migration of
fishes in Romanian Danube River No3, Journal of Applied Ecology and Environmental Research, 3(1),
Budapest, Hungary.
Deák, Gy., Badilita, A.M., Popescu, I., Raischi, C.M., Manoliu, P.A., Dorobantu, G., Tănase, G.S., Danalache,
T.M., Antohe, A.G., Tudor, M., 2013. Research tools and techniques for sturgeons’ spawning
migration monitoring. Case study: Danube River, km 375-175, Universitas, Petrosani.
Deák, Gy., Badilita, A.M., Danalache, T., Tudor, M., 2014. Use of acoustic telemetry for providing an insight
into sturgeons behavior and migration routes on Lower Danube, Journal of Environmental Protection
and Ecology, 15, 3, 954 – 964.
Deák, Gy., Badilita, A.M., Popescu, I., Tudor, M., 2014. Research on sturgeon migration behavior using a
new monitoring, control and alarming system, Journal of Environmental Protection and Ecology, 15,
3.
Hochleithner M., Gessner J., 1999 – The Sturgeon and Paddlefishes (Acipenseriformes) of the World:
Biology and Aquaculture, AquaTech Publications, Kitzbuhl.
Kerr, S. J., Davison, M. J. and Funnell, E., 2010. A review of lake sturgeon habitat requirements and
strategies to protect and enhance sturgeon habitat. Fisheries Policy Section, Biodiversity Branch.
Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources. Peterborough, Ontario.
Oţel, V., 2007. Atlasul peştilor din Rezervaţia Biosferei Delta Dunării, Ed. Centrul de Informare Tehnologică
Delta Dunării, Tulcea.
Palatnikov, G. M., 2010. Sturgeons – Contemporaries Of Dinosaurs, Baku.
Romanian Government, (2006), Official Gazette 330/2006 regarding conservation of sturgeon species
from natural waters and aquaculture development in Romania.
Reinartz, R., 2002. Sturgeons in the Danube River, biology, status, conservation. Literature and
information study on behalf of the International Association for Danube Research (IAD),
Landesfischereiverband Bayern e.V. and Bezirk Oberpfalz.
Sofineti, M., and Dobrota, C., 2004. Controversa româno-ucrainiană în problema canalului Bastroe, Revista
Transilvană de Ştiinţe Administrative, 3(12).
Yi, Y., Yang, Z., & Zhang, S. 2010. Ecological influence of dam construction and river‐lake connectivity on
migrating fish habitat in the Yangtze River basin, China. International Society for Environmental
Information Sciences 2010 Annual Conference (ISEIS). Beijing: Procedia Environmental Sciences.

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Determination of The Environmental Status of Akcakoca Coastal Areas Through


Hierarchical Analysis

Pınar Kırkık AYDEMİR* G.Funda GÖKÇE** Öner DEMİREL***

* Bartın Üniversitesi Peyzaj Mimarlığı Bölümü-Bartın. mimar844@gmail.com


** Düzce Üniversitesi - Kaynaşlı MYO- Çevre Koruma ve Kontrol Bölümü-Düzce.
dr_gumusfunda@hotmail.com
*** Karadeniz Teknik Üniversitesi- Orman Fakültesi Peyzaj Mimarlığı Bölümü-Trabzon.
odofe01@gmail.com

Abstract

Apart from their ecological features, coastal areas are among important landscape areas thanks to their
cultural values. Coastal areas have been socially important throughout history for settlement and utilization
as they provided mankind with the means of practical access (transportation), maintaining resources easily
(port), tourism-recreation (secondary residences), dumping their waste (urban and industrial waste), fishing,
industry (power plant and refinery) etc. However, these forms of utilization may sometimes result in damages
on the natural balance due to poor planning. The fact that urban development plans, which are the main tool
of physical planning endeavors, consider coastal areas just as potential urban settlement zones can cause
deterioration of the coastline and irreversible ecological damages.

Therefore, redesigning efforts of the coastal areas started in the 1970s, and legal regulations were
introduced regarding the coasts and utilization of coastal areas. This approach aims at re-maintaining the
harmony of coasts and cities, which has been lost due to unplanned utilization. In this perspective, the
utilization forms of coastal areas in Akcakoca-Duzce will be identified, and SWOT and AHP (Analytical
Hierarchy Process) methods will be applied for the analysis of environmental status.

Keywords: Utilization of coastal areas, 1970 Environmental Consciousness, Analysis of Ecological and
Environmental Status – Akcakoca.

COASTAL AREAS AND FORMS OF UTILIZATION

Convenience of the coasts for transportation and defense led to more intensive use of coastal areas as
industrial bases, and trade activities proliferated along the coastline with construction of such buildings as
shipyards, customs, warehouses and other structures meant for storage. Especially, the planning process
that was followed in the 1960s focused on development, and increasing the opportunities constituted a
turning point for the coasts. As they hosted significant resources and available workforce, costal areas
were deemed as means of maximization of profitability1 (Table 1).

As every settlement became accessible as a result of industrial revolution, the scales and looks of the cities
changed dramatically. An irregular mass of buildings that caused coastal cities to rapidly lose their
cultural identities arose2. As a result of this, coasts were lost before cultures could grow to the required
maturity level. Along with the deteriorating ecosystems, visual pollution, air, water and soil pollution
developed. The roads built for transportation caused the separation of coasts from the settlements, and
embanking efforts made along the coastline led to changing wave movements on the coasts 3-4 .

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Table 1: Utilization forms of coastal areas; Transportation, Industry, Settlement, Tourism, Recreation and
other utilization activities5-6-7-8-9.

A GENERAL LOOK AT COASTAL AREAS, LEGAL AND ADMINISTRATIVE APPROACHES

Following industrialization, as the policy of “sustainable development” was adopted in United Nations
Conference on the Human Environment held in 1972 and Rio Conference on Environment and
Development held in 1992, governments started to take decisions focusing primarily on the environment,
and subsequently planning decisions were taken to protect natural resources, coastal areas, biological
diversity etc10 .In the scope of these efforts, restructuring of the coasts started in the 1960s, proliferated in
the 70s, and after a series of regulations and communiqués issued, the need for reserving all the coasts for
the public use in the constitutional level was advocated11-12-13.

Coast Law enacted in 1990, on the other hand, focuses on identifying the principles of utilizing these areas
for the sake of protection and ensuring public utilization by taking into consideration the natural and
cultural features of sea areas, coasts of natural and artificial lakes and the coastlines that are under the
effect of these places, as well as being integral parts of them, and it includes the regulations relating seas,
natural and artificial lakes, river banks and the coastlines surrounding seas and lakes, and the principles
of opportunities and terms of public utilization in such places 14-15.

In accordance with the relevant communiqué, the purpose of utilization for a given coastline composed of
two sections is determined through application development plan according to the topography and
natural thresholds. Structures meant to be built on the coastline cannot exceed the 50 m limit. The areas
contained in the forbidden zone are developed as promenades, resting places and recreational areas
identified in the Communiqué and pedestrian roads through application development plan; and the
second section (B) of the coastline is composed of the land area with a width of at least 50 m on top of the
first section, where only daily touristic facilities, vehicular roads, open parking lots and treatment plants
that are open for public use and listed in the Article 8 of the Law and the Communiqué can be built16.

TOURISM MOVEMENT ON THE COASTS AND THE PHENOMENON OF PUBLIC UTILIZATION

With the economic improvements and advancements in commercial applications, coasts are saved for
recreational and touristic purposes at present. Tourism Promotion Law no: 2634 enacted in 1982 to
improve tourism, enabled the measures that would develop the coasts and create a dynamic structure and
function. With the mentioned law, Ministry of Tourism was given the authorization to spare and
administer certain areas along the coastline for touristic purposes, and it became possible to provide
funding for private investors building touristic facilities in these areas 14 .

As is known, in drafting the tourism-oriented development plan, utilization of coast and its surroundings
should be prepared in accordance with defined principles. Public has the priority in utilization of coasts. In
the areas spared for tourism, sections beginning from the coastline contain structures meant for public
use only, and moving inwards, other touristic facilities and secondary residences are located in the second

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coastal section. However, five-star hotels and resorts limit public utilization of the coasts, because they
can only be used by their visitors as per their management principles17-18.

Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM) was established in coastal areas with the purpose of bringing
use of the coasts as recreational and public places to the fore and maintaining their sustainable utilization.
The main goal is to protect and improve economic, ecological, natural and cultural features. ICZM, which
integrates the interests of the state and society, science and administration, sectors and public, is an
important leap in terms of sustainable management of the coastal areas19-15.

The purpose of this study is to determine the current status of utilization in the coastal areas located in
Akcakoca district, and evaluate the environmental effect of the coastal areas, which were deemed as “area
for public use” on Akcakoca district, accompanied with coastal definitions, legal and administrative
approach to coasts and Environmental Consciousness movement of post 1970.

MATERIAL
AREA OF STUDY

The area of study is located in the Western Black Sea Region of Turkey. It starts at the point where Melen
stream disembogue into the sea in the North, and ends at the point where Melen meets with Karataş
stream in the South20. It covers a surface area of 463 square km. It is composed of 8 neighborhoods
namely, Osmaniye, Ayazlı, Yalı, Orhangazi, Cumhuriyet, Hacı Yusuflar, Yukarı and Yeni Mahalle21 (Figure
1).

Figure 1: Location of Akcakoca and the Neighborhoods20

In the study, Application Development Plan scaled 1/1000, documents containing notes on Application
Development Plan scaled 1/1000 and Master Development Plan scaled 1/5000 were used as the main
materials. Environmental Plan Decisions scaled 1/25,000, and current and potential development
decisions of the area were also analyzed. On-site observations, aerial photographs and digital images were
used in the field study. In order to identify the forms of utilization and current status of the coastal areas
located within the border of the adjacent area of Akcakoca Municipality, Analytical Hierarchy Process
(AHP) method based on a survey implemented to a group of specialists was employed, and the
environmental status was evaluated through the method of SWOT (Strengths-Weaknesses-Opportunities-
Threats) analysis.

HISTORICAL PROCESS OF AKCAKOCA DISTRICT – STATUES OF URBAN DEVELOPMENT

We can suggest that the economic structure of the town was shaped in the historical process by fishing,
growing chestnuts and hazelnuts, and handcrafts (weaving –leather processing etc.), lumbering, bee
keeping, small scale metallurgy and transportation – thanks to a small port it has. In and around 1887,
Akcakoca gained importance as the gate opening to Istanbul especially for Ankara and other surrounding
cities, and accordingly, distribution of goods became easier. The fact that it has a rich source of forests
enabled Akcakoca to meet the timber need of such cities as Bolu and Istanbul 22. Apart from that, old
sources reveal that Akcakoca port had a significant place as a shipyard, besides being a center point for
distribution of certain goods23.

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Regarding urban development, it is obvious that the rural areas and the town center are located
separately in Akcakoca. Because of the port, the city center developed parallel to the sea. Neighborhood
oriented development, which constitutes the key settlement texture of Ottomans, is portrayed by a
mosque, surrounded by a market place, shops etc., revealing a center and nearly radiant distributions
around it 24 (Figure 2). In Akcakoca, this structure is evident in the location of Central (Çarşı) Mosque and
the commercial units surrounding that building.

Figure 2: Development of Akcakoca Town Center

Social structure of the society changed with the commencement of Tanzimat Reform Era, and as it was the
case in most Ottoman cities, official structures were founded to administer the neighborhood units in
Akcakoca as well, and the common one-centered texture of the town survived in the form of scattered
distribution throughout developmental efforts i. The role of immigration is also important in Akcakoca’s
development. As it is known, the first immigration movement to Anatolia started from Balkans, Caucasia
and Crimea between 1785-1800. The immigration that continued in an increasing trend until the First
World War, included Crimeans and Circassians when Russia attained its sovereignty between 1856-
191324.

The immigrants were settled in plains and coastal areas by the state. Akcakoca received immigrants at
various times for different reasons. It is explicitly known that these immigrants were mainly settled by the
riverbank called Melen agzi irregularly24. While the effect of rapid urbanization is shaped by linear growth
in European cities, in most Ottoman cities – partly including Akcakoca, it was observed in the form of
increase in the number of floors up to 4 or 5 storeys 24. In the second half of the 19 th century important
transformations were experienced in the structure of the town. The first urban development plan was
drawn in 1989, and this plan mainly focused on the center and its surroundings24. In terms of topography,
the factor that affected the urban development in Akcakoca is the fact that it is vulnerable to natural
disasters like flooding due to 3 individual streams flowing downright to the sea. Because of flooding risk,
areas near these streams were generally spared as recreational areas, green zones and touristic facilities
in Akcakoca Development Plan24.

The partial increase in elevation along the coastline resulted in several steep slopes. There are some
slopes with 20-30% (or more than that) inclination, especially in the area that hosts Genoese Fortress and
its surroundings. The area which is famous for its natural and archeological features, is under Protection
and announced as archeological and natural site. The terms of Law (no. 2863) of Protection of Cultural
and Natural Assets are enforced in these areas that are pronounced as Registered Cultural Assets (Figure
3). Genoese Fortress and its surroundings are in the protected zone, where reside the 3 rd degree
archeological natural, 3rd degree archeological and natural, 3rd degree archeological and 2nd degree natural
sites. In accordance with the effective protection oriented development plan, the principle of “not taking
any deteriorating actions in the protected area and its surroundings” has been strictly adhered25.

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Figure 3: Slopes downright the coastline and Historical Genoese Fortress 25-26
The town center of Akcakoca has also been listed as Urban Protected Site thanks to its historical buildings
that need to be taken under protection. Cumhuriyet, Hacı Yusuflar, Orhangazi and Yukarı are the
neighborhoods located within the borders of the central area. However, Yalı neighborhood, which had
earlier been registered as historical trade center and which is actually annexed to the protected area, was
included in the Urban Protected Site with the decision no 868 dated 29.04.2009. In accordance with the
decisions taken as per Application Development Plan scaled 1/1000 and Master Development Plan scaled
1/5000, certain measures are defined to maintain full protection for the registered monuments and
samples of civil architecture which represents the traditional buildings located within the Urban
Protected Site25.

Scrutinizing the whole urban development structure, it is clearly seen that Akcakoca is a wealthy
Anatolian settlement thanks to its historical and natural values. Therefore, it is inevitable for the town’s
economy, which has relatively developed depending on the physical structure, to be further developed
through cultural publicizing and tourism.

COASTS OF AKCAKOCA AND FORMS OF UTILIZATION

The coasts of Akcakoca are about 30 km in length. It has the beaches of Geneose Fortress, Edilli,
Değirmenagzi, Akevler, Cinar, Cayagzi, Cuhallı, Kalkin, Limoncuk and Karaburun. Tourism in Akcakoca,
which is mainly based on recreational facilities, dates back to 1948. It has a significant potential for being
close to Ankara and Istanbul. Buildings standing along the shore are (in accordance with Law of Tourism
Promotion Law) the touristic buildings, namely secondary residences, hotels and recreational areas
(Figure 4).

Figure 4: The Map of Current Status of Akcakoca (Tourism buildings along the shore)

There are currently 28 tourism facilities offered for accommodation, 4 of which bear the license given by
the Ministry of Tourism . As per Law of Tourism Promotion Law no 2634, planning decision approved the
construction of open and daily tourism facilities in the second section on the coastline, on condition that
they are offered for public use as indicated in articles 13 and 14 of the relating Communiqué, not
exceeding 5.5 meters in height with a floor area ratio of 0.20 and hmax of 4.516. Nevertheless, as there was
not a development plan in force at the time of their construction and because of inadequacy of inspections,
Akcakoca Sky-tower and Teachers’ Guest House were built up to hmax 12.5, clearly violating the current
requirements of the Communiqué, and they are currently used for touristic purposes. The lack of such a
communiqué at the time of Sky-tower encouraged the construction of private apartment hotels and
similar buildings.
In accordance with the Tourism Promotion Law enacted in 1982, no fences, walls, bars etc. that will
hinder the access can be built on the coast, and wastes like debris, dirt, slag etc. that have a deteriorating

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effect on the nature can be dumped in the coastal areas 16. Yet, the walls built by Sky-tower to mark their
borders portray contradiction between privatization and public use. Akcakoca Municipality and District
Governorship tried to stop construction but they could not attain a significant success because of the legal
process (Table 2).

When the structural area is analyzed in terms of utilization, it is observed that secondary residences are
generally built in Karaburun Village and towards Melen Stream, which are located outside the municipal
adjacent area (Table 2). In terms of the port and pier, we can see that the port and fishing port located in
Yalı neighborhood contributed to the development and growth of the town. However, we observed that
the busy days of the current port are now over, and it is used as a fishing port only. A scattered and
irregular development took place in the port (pier) by fishers who use it.
As the elevation increases as you go further west of the city, the road construction had to be stopped. The
existence of vertical cliffs along the coast in certain distances enabled the utilization of these areas as
recreational green areas and meadows. Recently, a road has been planned leading down to Edilli beach,
but it was detected in the field visits that it has been cancelled due to high number of potential curves and
dangerous inclination (Table 2).

It will be necessary to evaluate in detail how the sand on the beaches will be affected by the construction
of a road, whether it will cause coastal erosion, whether it will change the wave movements and therefore
how the ecosystems will be affected; so the construction should start after the completion of all the
requirements and analyses. Settlements like Akcakoca, which have unique natural and cultural
characteristics, are very valuable in terms of cultural publicity and tourism, and consequently for
economic development.

The fact that there is a mosque (Central Mosque) and a clock tower on the road located parallel to the
coast, and they have close links with the commercial units, gained relative reliability for the area and
turned it into a focal point. This avenue (Çınar Av.) is not currently fully pedestrianized, and it is partly
closed for vehicular traffic only in summer. It was observed that it is mainly used for transportation and
parking purposes. This situation is a factor that limits the mobility in terms of pedestrian circulation, thus
negatively affecting the space perception.

Regarding utilization, the differences in altitude in the coastal area made it necessary to meet the
recreational needs on slope lands (Table 2). The rising cliffs located in parallel with the cost do not allow
such recreational activities as hiking and cycling along the shore. In order to gain functionality and
mobility, hanging access routes, wooden bridges, playgrounds, banks, enlarged pavements etc. would be
an efficient approach for better public utilization and the silhouette of the town. Introducing the teahouses
and kiosks compatible with the communiqué increases the recreational demand in utilization of the area.

Table 2: Images of the Costal Sceneries in Akcakoca

METHOD
IDENTIFICATION OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL STATUS OF AKCAKOCA COASTS THROUGH AHP
(ANALYTIC HIERARCHY PROCESS) METHOD AND SWOT ANALYSIS.

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In order to analyze the forms of utilization in the coastal areas of Akcakoca and their interactions, a survey
study was conducted on 5 specialists (The landscape architect of Akcakoca Municipality, the director of
Directorate of Development and Technical Works of Akcakoca Municipality, a graduate of Department of
Public Administration, An journalist from the local newspaper of Düzce province, a faculty member of
Faculty of Forestry in Istanbul Univrsity and a faculty member of Faculty of Civil Engineering –
Department of Geomatic Engineering in Istanbul Technical University) taking into consideration the
resources and capabilities of the district.

Implementing the method of Analytical Hierarchy Process, one of the methods extensively used in various
areas to analyze decision-making problems with multiple criteria, we processed the multiple criteria and
goals relating the given area27. The data acquired through Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) method are
explained step by step:
Step 1 – Identification of the Problem: In this phase, the criteria are determined in accordance with the
goals (Figure 5)

Figure 5: AHP Analysis of Environmental Status of Akcakoca

As indicated in Figure 5, as per the conducted survey, the goal of “Protection of the coasts of Akcakoca and
Environmentally friendly town” was taken as the reference in Akcakoca. According to the findings
revealed from the questions asked in the survey, the criteria such as “Generating the infrastructure of the
city, Consciousness of public use in the costal areas, Genuine City Identity, Socio-economic development,
Being an accessible city and Rehabilitating socio-cultural life” etc. were determined, and their priority
levels were assessed for the coasts and current status of Akcakoca, implementing the method of Analytical
Hierarchy Process.

Step 2 – It is based on the comparison of the criteria according to their priority levels. For this purpose,
scoring is conducted based on priorities (Table 3).

Table 3: Priority Ranking

Priority estimation is made through scoring according to pre-determined criteria. As a survey was
implemented on 5 specialists in the scope of the study, the “consensus” was identified by taking the
geometric averages of their responses (Table 4).
Dividing the consensus into the total number and taking the arithmetical average of the 6 criteria,
“priority” was determined.

Table 4: Consensus of the Assessment and Identification of Priority

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Step 3 – The consistency/inconsistency rate of the survey assessment was identified. In the AHP analysis
conducted with the opinions of 5 specialists, we resolved that the data acquired in the survey were
consistent as the inconsistency rate was found to be 1.75%. After the survey, in order to be able to detect a
common problem and suggest solutions, a SWOT analysis was conducted along with the AHP method
implemented to identify the environmental status of Akcakoca coasts; in this way, strengths, weaknesses,
opportunities and threats of the study area were evaluated. (Table 5 – Table 6).

Table 5: Positive and Negative aspects detected in Akcakoca (Strengths and Weaknesses) 25 .

Table 6: Opportunities and Threats detected in Akcakoca25.

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DISCUSSION AND RESULTS

It is observed that there are buildings constructed on the coasts of Akcakoca violating the terms of Coast
Law. Urbanization, immigration, uncontrolled development structure and lack of sustainable tourism
decisions resulted in the increase in the number of hotels, secondary residences etc. built on the coastal
areas. This situation creates a contradiction between public use and privatization. The road constructed in
parallel with the coastline thanks to topographical structure creates a split between the sea and the town,
thus causing breakdowns in the sustainable holistic structure of the town. Such facilities as green areas
and similar recreational places are the factors that positively affect the public utilization of the coastal
areas, and they should be improved so as to support the publicizing and the cultural structure of the city.
Akcakoca is a cultural mosaic that embodies archeological, natural and historical characteristics.
Therefore, it should be protected and transferred to future generations. A sustainable understanding of
administration is necessary for that. The phenomena of fishing and tourism are very essential in the
economic development of Akcakoca. In terms of tourism, it will have a sustainable development potential
with Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM) decisions, and its economy will be stronger. In the AHP
analysis conducted, it is observed that importance must be placed on the genuine urban texture of the
town and having an environmentally friendly city (with a priority rate of 26%) in accordance with the
goals of protection of Akcakoca coasts. This is followed by rehabilitating the socio-economic life with a
rate of 18% (Table 7).

Table 7: AHP Analysis on Akcakoca

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Akcakoca is a settlement prominent for its historical and cultural characteristics. Tourism is very essential
for the district to develop in socio-economic terms. The decisions of Development Plan scaled 1/1000 and
Master Development Plan scaled 1/5000 should be prepared in a way that they will support touristic
development while protecting the holistic identity of the town. As is known, the main cause of the
environmental problems in our country and around the world are the economic development strategies
based merely on construction and investment. Even if this is perceived as profitability in the short run,
such an understanding definitely causes serious problems damaging the infrastructure, physical and social
environment of a given city in the long run28-29.

For being such areas where land-sea interaction is on the highest level, coastal cities are experiencing an
intensive and unorganized utilization impact, along with the rapid population growth and the present
lifestyle that deems economic development as the ultimate goal. The fact that local administrations lack
the required personnel, equipment and opportunities in inspecting the construction activities that are
conducted as per efficient development regulations and without authorization alike directly contradicts
with the understanding that requires upmost public utilization on the coasts28-8-30.

Therefore, any interference taking place on the coasts does affect the ecological balance, life forms of
coastal ecosystems, as well as the urban silhouette. The district of Akcakoca, too, is a coastal town that has
a “rip tide” style flow for being located in the Black Sea Region. Uncontrolled construction to take place in
the coastal areas can cause several damaging results like erosion, calcification, rise in the sea level etc.

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New Frontiers for Cleaning Up Nuclear Contamination: Phytoremediation

ZEYBEK, Osman¹*; ENDER, Elvan¹, ÇELIK, Aysun¹; AKDENIZ, Nilufer, S.¹;


ZENCIRKIRAN, Murat¹

¹Uludag University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Landscape Architecture,


TURKEY, Bursa
* osmanzeybek@windowslive.com

Abstract

It seems like nuclear energy has been ephemeral yet, but the ideas about releasing energy which atoms hold
inside dates back to earlier. Before Einstein, many people had carried out research in many different ways
about atomic energy, but the thing is, they did not actually know what to do with that kind of tremendous
power. Regarding the upswing of population around the world, discovering new ways of gaining bigger and
cheaper energy is in many governments’ agenda. Nowadays, sustainable energies such as solar, wind,
biomass etc. are more popular, but nuclear power once had bigger reputation across the world. Nuclear
power seems to be the most effective, clever and strong source for generating sufficient energy to keep up
with our increasing consumption, but there are indelible marks on human history resulted from using that
power in wars and plants unconsciously. Were we to use nuclear energy in various ways, we must calculate
and try to foresee the possible consequences before all our plans, and no matter how we design safe plant to
generate, we must take some measures in case of any failure. The nightmare scenario is an explosion in a
nuclear plant, as it would be too difficult to clean up environment from radioactive molecules. Some recent
research indicates that phytoremedial plants could be a solution to radioactive contamination. This is an
eclectic study which includes a brief history of nuclear power, nuclear disasters and phytoremediation ways
to cleanup environment after a possible contamination.

Keywords: Nuclear energy, nuclear pollution, phytoremediation.

INTRODUCTION
Current trends in energy supply and use are unsustainable. Without decisive action, energy related
emissions of carbon dioxide will nearly double by 2050 and increased fossil energy demand will heighten
concerns over the security of supplies. We can change our current path, but this will take an energy
revolution in which low carbon energy technologies will have a crucial role to play. Energy efficiency,
many types of renewable energy, carbon capture and storage, nuclear power and new transport
technologies will all require widespread deployment if we are to sharply reduce greenhouse gas (GHG)
emissions. Every major country and sector of the economy would need to be involved. The task is urgent if
we are to make sure that investment decisions taken now do not saddle us with sub-optimal technologies
in the long term (Anonymous, 2015 a).

Nuclear technology uses the energy released by splitting the atoms of certain elements. It was first
developed in the 1940s, and during the Second World War to 1945 research initially focussed on
producing bombs by splitting the atoms of particular isotopes of either uranium or plutonium. In the
1950s attention turned to the peaceful purposes of nuclear fission, notably for power generation. Today,
the world produces as much electricity from nuclear energy as it did from all sources combined in the
early years of nuclear power. Civil nuclear power can now boast over 16,000 reactor years of experience
and supplies almost 11.5% of global electricity needs, from reactors in 31 countries. In fact, through
regional grids, many more than those countries depend on nuclear-generated power (Anonymous, 2015
b).

The first commercial nuclear power stations started operation in the 1950s. There are over 435
commercial nuclear power reactors operable in 31 countries, with over 375,000 MWe of total capacity.
About 70 more reactors are under construction. They provide over 11% of the world's electricity as
continuous, reliable base-load power, without carbon dioxide emissions. 56 countries operate a total of
about 240 research reactors and a further 180 nuclear reactors power some 140 ships and submarines
(Anonymous, 2015 b).

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Today, only eight countries are known to have a nuclear weapons capability. By contrast, 56 operate about
240 civil research reactors, over one thrid of these in developing countries. Now 31 countries host 437
commercial nuclear power reactors with a total installed capacity of over 375,000 MWe. This is more than
three times the total generating capacity of France or Germany from all sources. About 70 further nuclear
power reactors are under construction, equivalent to 20% of existing capacity, while over 160 are firmly
planned, equivalent to half of present capacity (Anonymous, 2015 b).

Graph 1: Electricity generating by nuclear plants between 1971 and 2013 (Anonymous, 2015 b).

Graph 2: World electricity production according to sources (Anonymous, 2015 b).

Sixteen countries depend on nuclear power for at least a quarter of their electricity. France gets around
three-quarters of its power from nuclear energy, while Belgium, Czech Republic, Finland, Hungary,
Slovakia, Sweden, Switzerland, Slovenia and Ukraine get one-third or more. South Korea and Bulgaria
normally get more than 30% of their power from nuclear energy, while in the USA, UK, Spain, Romania
and Russia almost one-fifth is from nuclear. Japan is used to relying on nuclear power for more than one-
quarter of its electricity and is expected to return to that level. Among countries which do not host nuclear
power plants, Italy and Denmark get almost 10% of their power from nuclear (Anonymous, 2015 b).

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A BRIEF HISTORY OF NUCLEAR ENERGY

From the discovery of radiation to nuclear weapons and power plants, a concise history is given below as
milestones throughout history (Anonymous, 2015 c):
 1895, Roentgen discovers X-rays
 1896, Becquerel discovers rays emitted spontaneously from uranium salts
 1898, The Curies identify 2 radioactive nuclides, coin term "radioactive"
 1899, Rutherford distinguishes alpha and beta radiation and discovers half-life
 1909, Rutherford discovers that most mass is concentrated in a small nucleus
 1920, Rutherford theorizes a "neutron"
 1935, Chadwick identifies neutrons
 1938, Hann and Strassman split uranium atoms with neutrons, Meitner and Frisch explain what's
happening and name it "fission"
 1939, Fermi and Szilard measure neutron multiplication, conclude that a nuclear chain reaction is
possible
 1939, Szilard, Wigner, and Teller convince Einstein to sign a letter warning Roosevelt of possibility of
nuclear weapons
 1939, Roosevelt authorizes creation of Advisory Committee on Uranium, begins US nuclear bomb
effort (though not vigorously)
 1942, Fermi achieves first nuclear chain reaction in a squash court at U. of Chicago. Manhattan project
in full swing. Secret cities are built in Oak Ridge TN (to enrich uranium), Hanford WA (to produce
plutonium), and Los Alamos NM (to design and assemble bomb)
 July 1945, The world's first nuclear weapon test, the Trinity shot, is successful
 Aug 6 & 9, 1945, Atomic bombs Little Boy and Fat Man dropped on Japanese cities, Hiroshima and
Nagasaki. Up to 240,000 people died.
 Aug 15, 1945, Japan surrenders unconditionally, ending WWII
 1951, EBR-1 reactor is the first to generate electricity in Arco, ID
 1953, Eisenhower gives Atoms for Peace speech, launching civilian program
 1954, Obninsk reactor in the Soviet Union becomes the first commercial nuclear power plant
 1954, USS Nautilus launches, the first nuclear-powered submarine
 1957, Shippingport reactor begins operation, first commercial nuclear power
 1974, French Prime Minister Messmer launches huge nuclear power program in response to oil crisis.
In 2004, 75% of France's electricity is nuclear
 1979, Three Mile Island reactor suffers a partial meltdown. Radiation largely contained
 1986, Chernobyl reactor suffers a large power excursion resulting in the release of large amounts of
radiation. 50+ fire-fighters die, up to 4000 civilians estimated to die of early cancer
 1986, EBR-II reactor demonstrates that advanced, sodium cooled reactors can passively shut down
without backup systems
 1994, Megatons to Megawatts program started, turns 20,00