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Topic 2- dot point 1

 Classify common substances as acidic, basic or neutral.

Acid properties Bases properties

 General Properties:  General Properties:
o They taste sour o They taste bitter
o pH < 7 o pH > 7
o H+ provider o H+ accepter
o Acids are neutralised by bases o Bases are neutralised by acids
o Solutions conduct electricity (electrolyte) o Solutions conduct electricity
o They are corrosive o Turns litmus paper blue.
o For turns litmus red. o They feel slippery and soapy
o React with metals to produce salt and hydrogen o Are mainly insoluble in water
 Zn + 2HCI ZnCI2 + H2 o React with bases to produce water and salts.
 Ca(OH) 2 + 2HNO3 Ca(NO3) 2 + 2H2O
o React with carbonates to produce salt, water and
carbon dioxide.  Strong bases: NaOH, X+OH- (where X is a metal)
 MgCO3 + H2SO4 MGSO4 + H2O + CO2  Weak bases: NH3 (ammonia), CO32-

o React with bases to produce water and salts.

 NaOH + HNO3 NaNO3 + H2O

 Strong acids: HCl H2SO4 HNO3 HBr

 Weak acids: Acetic (CH3COOH), citric (C6H8O7), formic

Acidic Basic Neutral

Citric acid C6H8O7 Washing soda (sodium carbonate) N2CO3 Water H20
Acetic acid (vinegar) Baking soda/bicarbonate soda/ sodium Glucose C6H12O6
bicarbonate NaHCO3
Hydrochloric acid (HCI) Sodium hydroxide (drain-O) NaOH
Sulfuric acid H2SO4 Potassium hydroxide KOH
Carbonic acid H2CO3 Calcium hydroxide Ca(OH)2
Boric acid H3BO3 Magnesia Mg(OH)2
Phosphoric acid H3PO4 Ammonium NH3
Nitric acid NO3 Ammonium NH4+
Hydrobromic acid HBr

 Identify that indicators such as litmus, phenolphthalein, methyl orange and bromothymol blue can be used to determine
the acidic or basic nature of a material over a range, and that the range is identified by change in indicator colour.

 Indicator: A chemical that change colour as the ph in a solution changes.

 Indicator range: The range of acidity or basicity over which the colour of an indicator changes colour.
 Indicators can be either natural (extracted from plants) or synthetic.
 If the pH is between the colour ranges, mix the colours together.

Common indicators include:

 Litmus: A dye extracted from various species of lichen that changes colour around the neutral range.
 Red litmus stays red in acids, turns blue in bases,
 Blue litmus turns red in acid, stays blue in acids.
 Phenolphthalein: A synthetic indicator that changes colour in the basic range.
 Methyl orange: A synthetic indicator that changes colour in the acidic range.
 Bromothymol blue: A synthetic indicator than changes colour around the neutral range.
 An acidic or basic material can be determined by the combination of results from the 3 indicators.

The following table shows the colour changes and change ranges for four indicators:

 identify and describe some everyday uses of indicators including the testing of soil acidity/basicity.

 Everyday uses of indicators include:

o Soil testing- Chemicals like barium sulphate (BaSO4) are sprinkled on surfaces of soil to detect the pH. This is
important as some crops and flowers can only be grown in certain pHs.

o Swimming pool water testing- The water must be close to 7.4 so for human skin and eye comfort. It must be just
high enough to prevent bacteria growing.

o Aquarium water testing- The water in aquariums must not be too acidic/basic as the animals are sensitive to pH.

o Monitoring liquid wastes- Liquid wastes from industries and human sewerage must be monitored. If they are too
acidic, they will cause corrosion and thus they need to be neutralized with bases.

identify data and choose resources to gather information about the colour changes of a range of indicators.

Indicator Colour in base Colour in acid

Litmus Red (below pH = 5) Blue (above pH 7.6)
Phenolphthalein Colourless (below pH = 8.3) Red (above pH = 10)
Bromothymol Blue Yellow (below pH = 6.0) Blue (above pH = 7.6)
Methyl Orange Red (below pH = 3.1) Yellow (above pH = 4.4)