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Free Vibration of a Functionally Graded Rotating

Timoshenko Beam Using FEM

S.C. Mohanty1,*, R.R. Dash2 and T. Rout3


1Departmentof Mechanical Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Rourkela, India
2Department of Mechanical Engineering, College of Engineering and Technology, Bhubaneswar, India
3Department of Mechanical Engineering, Parala Maharaja Engineering College, Berhampur, India

(Received: 11 June 2011; Received revised form: 20 June 2012; Accepted: 5 July 2012)

Abstract: Free vibration analysis of functionally graded ordinary (FGO) and


functionally graded sandwich (FGSW) rotating cantilever beam is carried out using
finite element method. The properties along the thickness of FGO beam and along the
thickness of the core of FGSW beam are assumed to follow power law as well as
exponential law. The increase in the parameters for rotary inertia, hub radius and
rotational speed, increase the first two mode frequencies of both the beams no matter
how the properties vary along the thickness of beams. The effect of property
distribution laws on the frequencies is found to be predominant for lower values of
rotary inertia parameter and for higher values of rotational speed parameter and hub
radius parameter. The first two mode frequencies of FGSW beam increase with
increase in the thickness of functionally graded material (FGM) core.

Key words: shear deformation, rotary inertia, power law, exponential law, FGM.

1. INTRODUCTION FGM at the interface. Many machine and structural


A FGM is a mixture of two or more dissimilar materials components in aforesaid sections can be modeled as
such that its properties can be designed to vary rotating beams. These rotating beam structural members
continuously with respect to spatial coordinates. The may undergo forced vibration and dynamic instability
designed material properties can be achieved by during their service period, which may even lead to their
varying the volume fractions of its constituent phases failure. So the study of effect of the system parameters
along spatial coordinates. FGMs possess higher on free vibration behavior of FGO and FGSW beams
strength, toughness and high temperature withstanding forms an important aspect of investigation.
ability. These are regarded as one of the most promising Stafford and Giurdiutiu (1975) have developed a
candidates among the advanced composites in many simplified model of helicopter blade considering shear
engineering sectors such as the aerospace, aircraft, deformation and rotary inertia corrections and
automobile, defense, electronic and the biomedical investigated the natural frequencies using transfer
sectors. FGMs ensure smooth transition of stress matrix method. The effect of rotational speed and
distributions, minimization or elimination of stress slenderness ratio on the error of the upper bound and the
concentration, and increased bonding strength along the influence of root elastic restraints on the fundamental
interface of two dissimilar materials which causes it to bending frequency of a rotating uniform Timoshenko
be preferred over traditional composites. Also, beam with general elastically restrained root is studied
improved fracture toughness can be ensured by using an by Lee and Kuo (1993) using Rayleigh’s principle. Yoo

*Corresponding author. Email address: scmohanty@nitrkl.ac.in; Fax: 91-661-2462999; Tel: +91-661-2462511.

Advances in Structural Engineering Vol. 16 No. 2 2013 405


Free Vibration of a Functionally Graded Rotating Timoshenko Beam Using FEM

and Shin (1998) have used Raleigh-Ritz method to investigated the problem of free vibration of a rotating
determine the effect of gyroscopic couple on the natural tapered beam by developing explicit expressions for the
frequencies of rotating cantilever beam. They have also mass, elastic and centrifugal stiffness matrices in terms
computed the tuned angular velocity of the beam. The of the taper ratios. Lesaffre et al. (2007) have done the
dynamic stiffness matrix of a centrifugally stiffened stability analysis of rotating beams using the Routh-
Timoshenko beam has been developed by Banerjee Hurwitz criterion. Lee and Sheu (2007) have developed
(2001) using Forbenus method of series solution with an exact power-series solution for free vibration of a
imposed boundary conditions for study of free vibration rotating inclined Timoshenko beam. It is shown that
of centrifugally stiffened Timoshenko beam. both the extensional deformation and the Coriolis force
Wittrick–Williams algorithm has been applied to find have significant influence on the natural frequencies of
the natural frequencies. Rao and Gupta (2001) have the rotating beam when the dimensionless rotating
used finite element method to study vibration of rotating extension parameter is large. Fazelzadeh et al. (2007)
Timoshenko beam. Chung and Yoo (2002) investigated have studied the vibration of rotating thin walled blades
the effect of angular speed on the natural frequency of a made of FGM operating under high temperature
rotating cantilever beam. They have used finite element supersonic gas flow using differential quadrature
method considering stretch deformation of the beam. method. The effects of Mach number, rotating speed,
Chakraborty et al. (2003) have developed a beam finite geometric parameters and material properties on the
element to study the thermoelastic behavior of natural frequencies are examined. Ouyang and Wang
functionally graded beam. Telli and Kopmaz (2004) (2007) have presented a dynamic model for the
have compared different models for investigation of vibration of a rotating Timoshenko beam subjected to a
rotating cantilever beams. Sabuncu and Evran (2005) three-directional load moving in the axial direction.
have studied static and dynamic stability of a blade Attarnejad and Shahba (2008) have studied free
having asymmetric aerofoil cross-section subjected to vibration of non-prismatic rotating Euler-Bernoulli
an axial periodic force using the finite element method. beams using differential transform method. The effects
The effects of shear deformation and rotary inertia are of rotational speed parameter and taper ratio on natural
included in the analysis. It is found that as the length of frequencies have been investigated. Lin et al. (2008)
the beam decreases, the effect of rotation on the static have modelled the blade of a horizontal-axis wind
buckling load parameters decreases and the effects of power turbine as a rotating Bernoulli-Euler beam with
coupling and the shear coefficient on the stability pre-cone angles and setting angles. The influences of the
become significant. Yoo et al. (2005) have investigated pre-cone angle, the angular speed and the setting angle
the flap-wise bending vibration analysis of a rotating on the natural frequencies of the beam are explored. The
multi-layered composite beam considering the shear phenomenon of divergence instability is also discussed.
deformation and the rotary inertia effects. Kaya (2006) A rotating beam finite element is developed by Gunda
has studied the flap-wise bending vibration analysis of a and Ganguli (2008) in which the basis functions are
rotating cantilever Timoshenko beam using differential obtained by the exact solution of the governing static
transform method. The effect of pretwist angle of an homogenous differential equation of a stiff string.
aerofoil blade simplified as a rotating Timoshenko beam Piovan and Sampaio (2009) have developed a rotating
has been investigated by Subuncu and Ervan (2006). non-linear beam model accounting for arbitrary axial
Vinod et al. (2007) have formulated an approximate deformation to study the dynamics of rotating beams
spectral element for uniform as well as tapered rotating made of FGM. Yuksel and Aksoy (2009) have studied,
Euler-Bernoulli beam in order to carry out both free bending vibrations of a radially rotating beam with end
vibration and wave propagation analysis. Das et al. mass subjected to different base excitations using the
(2007) have studied the large displacement free Lagrangian’s approach. Ahmad and Naeem (2009) have
vibration analysis of linearly tapered rotating beam. A investigated the vibration characteristics of rotating
super element having shape functions as a combination FGM cylindrical shells using Budiansky and Sanders,
of polynomials and trigonometric functions is used by thin shell theory. Hsu (2009) has investigated the
Gunda et al. (2007) to study the dynamic analysis of vibration of a pre-twisted beams using spline
rotating tapered beams. Comparable results are obtained collocation method. Hosseini and Khadem (2009) have
using one superelement with only 14 degrees of freedom used multi scale method to investigate the free vibration
compared to of simply supported rotating shaft with nonlinear
50 conventional finite elements with cubic shape curvature. Huang et al. (2009) have provided a power
functions with a total of 100 degrees of freedom for a series solution to free vibration of rotating inclined
rotating cantilever beam. Bazoune (2007) has Euler beam. Divergence instability and vibration of a

406 Advances in Structural Engineering Vol. 16 No. 2 2013


S.C. Mohanty, R.R. Dash and T. Rout

rotating Timoshenko beam with precone and pitch (a) Z, w, V


Y, M, ϕ
angles are investigated by Lee et al. (2009). Yardimoglu
(2010) has used a finite element model based on the
coupled displacement field for vibration analysis of Material-1
X, u, N
rotating Timoshenko beam of equal strength. Chhabra FGM
and Ganguli (2010) have developed a two-nodded Material-2
twelve degree of freedom finite element for study of
coupled vibration of rotating blades. Mohanty et al.
(2011) have investigated the parametric instability of (b)
Timoshenko beam on Winkler’s elastic foundation. φi φI + 1
Though the literatures on vibration of rotating beams are
ui i ui + 1
plenty, the literature on vibration of functionally graded
rotating beams reported are not enough to the best of the
authors’ knowledge. wi + 1
wi
The present work addresses to the free vibration of
rotating FGO and FGSW cantilever Timoshenko beams. Figure 2. (a) The coordinate system with generalized forces and
The effects of property distribution laws, rotary inertia displacements for the FGSW beam element; (b) Beam element
parameter, rotational speed parameter and FGM content showing generalized degrees of freedom for ith element
of the beam on the natural frequencies have been
investigated.
2.1. Shape Functions
The displacement fields according to first order
2. FORMULATION
Timoshenko beam theory is expressed as
A functionally graded sandwich (FGSW) beam with
core as FGM and surface layers as dissimilar materials
U ( x , y, z , t ) = u( x , t ) − zϕ ( x , t ),
is shown in Figure 1. The beam is clamped at one end (1)
and free at the other end. The mid-longitudinal (x-y) W ( x , y, z , t ) = w( x , t ),
plane is chosen as the reference plane for expressing the
displacements as shown in Figure 2(a). The thickness U and W are axial and transverse displacement of a
coordinate is measured as ‘z’ from the reference plane. material point respectively. The corresponding linear
The axial displacement and the transverse displacement strains are expressed as
of a point on the reference plane are, u and w
respectively and φ is rotation of cross-sectional plane ∂u ∂φ ∂w
ε xx = − z , γ xz = −φ + (2)
with respect to the un-deformed configuration. Figure 2(b) ∂x ∂x ∂x
shows a two nodded beam finite element having three
degrees of freedom per node. The element matrices for The stress-strain relation in matrix form can be given
the FGSW beam element are derived following the as
method as proposed by Chakraborty et al. (2003).
Moreover the same element can be used for the analysis σ   E ( z ) 0  ε xx 
of a functionally graded ordinary beam by making the {σ } = τ xx  =  0  
kG( z )  γ xz 
(3)
thickness of the skins equal to zero.  xz  

where σ xx is the normal stress in longitudinal direction


~
N
and τ xz is shear stress in x-z plane, E ( z ) is Young’s
modulus, G ( z ) is shear modulus and k is shear
correction factor. The material properties of the FGM
Material-1 that varies along the thickness of the beam are assumed
FGM d h to follow exponential law given by
Material-2
L R( z ) = Rt exp(− e(1 − 2 z / h))
R (4)

Figure 1. Rotating functionally graded sandwich beam fixed at one 1 R 


e= log  t  , and power law given by
end free at the other 2  Rb 

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Free Vibration of a Functionally Graded Rotating Timoshenko Beam Using FEM

n The governing differential equations in terms of the


 z 1 degrees of freedom u w and φ without considering Wc,
R( z ) = ( Rt n Rb )  +  + Rb (5)
 h 2 the work done by centrifugal force can be written as

where, R(z) denotes a material property such as, E, G, ρ ∂ 2u ∂2φ ∂ 2u ∂2φ 


etc., Rt and Rb denote the values of the properties at I0 2
− I1 2
− A11 2
+ B11 2
= 0, 
∂t ∂t ∂x ∂x 
topmost and bottommost layer of the beam respectively,  ∂2 w ∂φ  
∂2 w 
and n is an index. The kinetic energy T and the strain I 0 2 − A55  2 −  = 0  (11)
∂t  ∂x ∂x  
energy S of the beam element can be expressed as

∂2φ ∂ 2u ∂ 2u ∂2φ  ∂w 
I2 − I1 + B11 − D11 − A55  − φ =0 
∂t 2
∂t 2
∂x 2
∂x2  ∂x  
1
l  ∂U  2  ∂W  2 
T = ∫ ∫ ρ(z )   +  ∂t   dAdx (6)
20A  ∂t   where,


l  A11 B11 D11  = ∫ E ( z ) 1 z z 2  dA, 
 
S=
1
2 ∫0 ∫A xx xx
(
σ ε + τ xz γ xz dAdx) (7) A 

 I 0 I1 I 2  = ∫ ρ ( z ) 1 z z 2  dA , and  (12)
 
A 
Substituting Eqn 1 into Eqn 6 and Eqn 3 and Eqn 2 
A55 = ∫ G ( z )dA 
into Eqn 7 we get Eqn 8 and Eqn 9 respectively.
A 
 ∂u  2  ∂u   ∂φ  
  − 2 z      The shape functions for the displacement field for
l  ∂t   ∂t   ∂t  
T = ∫ ∫ ρ ( z ) 
1 finite element formulation are obtained by solving the
20A 2 2  dAdx (8)
+ z 2  ∂φ   ∂w  
static part of the Eqn 11 with the following
   +    consideration.
∂t ∂t

u = a1 + a2 x + a3 x 2 , w = a4 + a5 x + a6 x 2 + a7 x 3 ,
Substituting subsequently we get (13)
φ = a8 + a9 x + a10 x 2 .
l
1
20A
2
(
S = ∫ ∫ E ( z )ε xx + G ( z )γ xz
2
dAdx ) The assumed displacement field as per Eqn 13 has a
total of 10 constants to be determined. But we have six
boundary conditions (No of nodes 2 ∞ 3 degree of
 ∂u  2 2 freedom per node = 6) to be applied for the
2  ∂φ 
l   + z    determination of the constants ‘a’. Therefore 4 constants
 ∂x   ∂x  
= ∫ ∫ E ( z ) 
1 are to be expressed in terms of the other 6 constants.
 dAdx
20A
 −2 z  ∂u   ∂ φ   Substituting Eqn 13 into the static part of Eqn 11 we get
  ∂x   ∂x   the six independent constants as

{a} = [ a1 a2 a4 a5 a8 a9 ]T (14)
1
l   ∂w 
2
∂w 
+ ∫ ∫ G ( z ) φ 2 +   − 2φ  dAdx (9)
20A   ∂x  ∂x  a −a 
The four dependent constants are a3 = η  8 5  ,
 2 
where, ρ ( z ) , l and A are density length and area of a −a 
cross-section of the element respectively. By applying a6 = a9 / 2 , a7 = β  8 5  , and a10 = 3a7 and
 6 
Hamilton’s principle
t2 B11 A55 A11 A55
η= , β=
δ ∫ ( T − S + Wc ) dt = 0 (10) ( A11D11 − ) 2
B11 ( A11D11 − B112 ) .
(15)
t1

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S.C. Mohanty, R.R. Dash and T. Rout

The displacement now can be expressed as where, ℵu ( x ) , ℵw ( x ) , ℵφ ( x ) are the shape functions
for the axial, transverse and rotational degree of freedom
respectively.
{u } = [ u w φ ]T = [ N ( x )]{a} (16)
2.2. Element Elastic Stiffness Matrix
The general force boundary conditions for the element
 η 2 η 2 
1 x 0 − x x 0  can be given as
2 2
 
  β  β 3 x2 
[ N ( x )] =  0 0 1  x − x3
 6 
x
2 
(17)
N x = ∫ σ xx dA = A11
∂u
− B11

∂φ
 6 
∂x ∂x

 β 2 β  A
0 0 0 − x 1 + x2 x  
   ∂w  
2 2 Vx = ∫ τ xz dA = A55  − φ  (23)
 ∂x  
A

The coefficients {a} can be found in terms of nodal ∂u ∂φ 


M x = − ∫ zσ xx dA = − B11 + D11 
values of displacements by substituting x =0 and x = l in A
∂ x ∂x 
Eqn 16 and can be expressed as

{a} = [ G ]{uˆ} (18) where, Nx , Vx , Mx are axial force, shear force and
bending moment respectively acting at the boundary
nodes.
Such that Similarly substituting Eqn 16 into Eqn 23 we get

−1 (
[ N ( 0 )] G ( x )  {a} = { F ( x )} (24)
[G ] =   (19)
 [ N ( l )] 
where, {F ( x )} = [ N x Vx Mx ]
T
is the element load
(
{û} = [ui wi φi ui +1 wi +1 φi +1 ] (20) vector and G ( x )  is given in appendix.
By substitution of x = 0 and x = l into Eqn 24 we can
have
is the generalized displacement vector of ith element.
Now substituting Eqn 18 into Eqn 16 we get (
G  {a} = { F } (25)

{u } = [ℵ( x )]{uˆ} (21) (


The nodal load vector { F } and G  are given in
appendix.
where, [ℵ( x )] = [ N ( x )][G ] , a 3 × 6 matrix is the Now substituting Eqn 16 into Eqn 20 we get

required shape function matrix. ℵ( x ) is given in (


appendix. G  [ G ] {uˆ } = { F } or [ ke ]{uˆ} = {F } (26)
It is seen above that unlike the conventional elements
where, [ ke ] is the required element elastic stiffness
the shape function not only depends on x but it also
depends on cross-sectional and material properties
which ensures better accuracy. Moreover better matrix.
convergence can be achieved as the shape functions are
obtained from the exact solution of static part of the 2.3. Element Mass Matrix
governing differential equation. Now the shape function The element mass matrix is derived by substituting Eqn
can be expressed as 16 into Eqn 8.

1 &
{} [ m ]{uˆ&}
T
T T= uˆ (27)
ℵ( x ) = ℵu ( x ) ℵw ( x ) ℵφ ( x )  (22) 2

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Free Vibration of a Functionally Graded Rotating Timoshenko Beam Using FEM

where, [m] = [mu ] + [mw ] + [mφ ] + [muφ ] , [ m ]{u&&ˆ} +  kef  {uˆ} = 0 (32)

( )
l
where,  mu  = ∫ I 0 ℵu  ℵu  dx ,
T where  kef  =  ke  +  kc  (33)
0
where, [ ke ], [ kc ], [ m ] are element elastic stiffness
( )
l
T
 mw  = ∫ I 0 ℵw  ℵw  dx , matrix, stiffness matrix due to centrifugal force, mass
0
(28) matrix respectively. Assembling the element matrices as
l used in Eqn 32, the equation of motion for the beam in
 mφ  = ∫ I 2  ℵφ  ℵφ  dx ,
T
       global matrix form, can be expressed as
0

 
l


(      )
 muφ  = − ∫ I1  ℵu T ℵφ  +  ℵφ  ℵu   dx
T

{}
[ M ] U&&ˆ +  K ef  {Uˆ } = 0 (34)
0

 kef  =  ke  +  kc  (35)
mu, mw, mφ represent the contribution of u, w, φ degree  
of freedom to the mass matrix and muφ represents the
mass matrix arising due to the coupling between u and [ M ] , [ K e ] , [ K c ] are global mass, elastic stiffness,
φ. Though the mass matrix is not derived from the exact stiffness matrix resulting from centrifugal force
solution of the governing differential equation, it respectively and Û  is global displacement vector.
includes the effect of rotary inertia as seen above (Eqn 28)
Eqn 34 represents a system of second order differential
which definitely improves the accuracy of the solution.
equations. The eigen solution to the Eqn 34 is given as
2.4. Element Centrifugal Stiffness Matrix
The centrifugal force on ith element of the beam can be  K ef  − ω 2 [ M ] = 0 (36)
expressed as
The solution of Eqn 36 gives the value of natural
xi + l
h
2 frequencies {ω } .
Fc = ∫ ∫ bρ ( z ) N% 2 ( R + x ) dzdx (29)
xi − h 4. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
2 4.1. Validation of the Formulation
In the present formulation the FGSW beam becomes
where xi is the distance of ith node from axis of rotation, functionally graded ordinary (FGO) beam when the
N% (rad/s) is angular velocity of beam and R is the radius thickness of the skins are made equal to zero and the FGO
of hub. beam reduces to a homogeneous beam when the power
Work done by the centrifugal force is given by law index (n) for the property distribution is made equal
to zero. In order to establish the correctness of
l 2
1  dw  1 calculation, the fundamental non-dimensional natural
Wc = ∫ Fc  dx = {uˆ } [ kc ] {uˆ } (30)
2 0  dx  2 frequencies of a homogenous rotating steel beam
clamped at one end and free at other end are calculated for
various rotational speed parameters and compared with
Here, the centrifugal element stiffness matrix is those given by Gunda and Ganguli (2008), Bazoune
(2007) and Attarnejad and Shahba (2008).
l
The length of the beam is denoted by L.
[ kc ] = ∫ Fc [ℵ′w ]T [ℵ′w ] dx (31) R
0 Hub radius parameter δ = ,
L
1 I
Rotary inertia parameter r =
3. GOVERNING EQUATION OF MOTION L A
Substituting Eqns 27, 26, and 30 into Eqn 10 the
equation of motion for the beam element is obtained as ρ AL4ω n2
Frequency parameter ηn =
follows EI

410 Advances in Structural Engineering Vol. 16 No. 2 2013


S.C. Mohanty, R.R. Dash and T. Rout

Table 1. Variation of fundamental natural frequency of Timoshenko cantilever beam for different rotational
speed parameters (δ = 0, r = 1/30, E/kG = 3.059)

Fundamental natural frequency η

Gunda and Attarnejad and


v Present Ganguli (2008) Bazoune (2007) Shahba (2008)
0 3.4798 3.4798 3.4798 3.4798
1 3.6460 3.6445 3.6445 3.6452
2 4.1025 4.0971 4.0971 4.0994
3 4.7617 4.7516 4.7516 4.7558
4 5.5462 5.5314 5.5314 5.5375
5 6.4048 6.3858 6.3858 6.3934
10 11.0971 11.0643 – –

I is the area moment of inertia of the cross section aluminum at bottom. The material properties of the
about the centroidal axis. ωn is the nth mode frequency constituent phases of the beam are as follows.
of the beam and ηn is the nth mode frequency Properties of steel: Es = 2.1 × 1011 Pa, Gs = 0.8 ×
parameter. 10 Pa, ρs = 7.85 × 103 kg/m3.
11

The present results are found to be in good agreement Properties of aluminum: Ea = 0.7 × 1011 Pa, Ga =
as shown in Table 1. 0.2697 × 1011 Pa, ρa = 2.707 × 103 kg/m3.
The following additional non-dimensional The shear correction factor is chosen as k = 0.8667.
parameters are chosen for the analysis of the beam. The variation of non-dimensional frequency with
rotary inertia parameter is shown in Figures 3(a) and
%2
ρ AL4 Ν 3(b) for first and second mode respectively. The
Rotational speed parameter ν =
EI property distribution along the thickness is assumed to
follow exponential as well as power law with indices
E, G and ρ are the Young’s modulus, shear modulus n = 1, 2 and 3. The hub radius parameter and angular
and mass density of steel respectively and their values velocity are 0.05 and 344 rad/s respectively. The
are given in the following section. frequencies for both the modes increase with rotary
inertia parameter in all the cases of property
4.2. Functionally Graded Ordinary Beam distribution. The beam having properties according to
A steel-aluminum functionally graded ordinary (FGO) exponential law has distinctly the highest frequency
rotating cantilever beam of length 1 m and width 0.1 m among all the cases for lower values of r, where as there is
is considered for the analysis of free vibration. The no noticeable difference in frequencies for higher values
thickness of the beam is h. The beam is rich in of r. The increase in rotary inertia parameter increases

8 22
n=1 n=1
7 n=2 20 n=2
n=3 n=3
18
Exp law Exp law
6
16
η2

5 14
η1

12
4
10
3
8

2 6
0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2
r r
(a) First mode (b) Second mode

Figure 3. Variation of non-dimensional first mode frequency with rotary inertia parameter of steel-aluminum FGO beam with Al-rich
~
bottom for property distribution along thickness as per power law as well as exponential law (N = 344 rad/s, δ = 0.05)

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Free Vibration of a Functionally Graded Rotating Timoshenko Beam Using FEM

5 20.4
n=1 n=1
4.9 n=2 n=2
20.2
4.8 n=3 n=3
Exp law Exp law
4.7 20
η1

4.6

η2
4.5 19.8

4.4
19.6
4.3

4.2 19.4
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1
δ δ
(a) First mode (b) Second mode

Figure 4. Variation of non-dimensional frequency with hub radius parameter of steel-aluminum FGO beam with Al-rich bottom for
~
property distribution along thickness as per power law as well as exponential law (N = 344 rad/s, r = 0.1)

the thickness of beam thereby increasing the stiffness of increase in hub radius parameter increases the
beam. As a result the frequencies increase with the centrifugal force on beam, which in turn increases the
increase in aforesaid parameter. The effect of hub radius stiffness of beam. Additionally, exponential distribution
parameter on first mode frequency of beam is as compared to power law distribution of properties
determined and shown in Figure 4(a). The rotary inertia makes the beam richer in steel-content thereby making
parameter and angular velocity are 0.1 and 344 rad/s the beam stiffer. The effect of rotational speed
respectively. The beam having properties as per parameter (ν) on the non-dimensional frequency for first
exponential law has the highest first mode frequency for and second mode is shown in Figures 5(a) and 5(b)
all the values of hub radius parameters. Moreover, the respectively. The hub radius parameter and rotary
effect of exponential property distribution on the inertia parameter are 0.05 and 0.1 respectively. The
frequency becomes predominant as the hub radius frequencies for both the modes increase with rotational
parameter approaches one. Contrary to the first mode, speed parameter. It is observed that the effect of
the power law with index n = 1 is predominant for exponential law on the frequencies is predominant for
second mode frequency in case of smaller hub radius higher values of rotational speed parameter. This may
parameter, whereas the exponential law is predominant be due to the fact that the increase in rotational speed
for the frequency in case of larger hub radius parameter parameter increases the centrifugal force at increasing
as shown in Figure 4(b). This is due to the fact that rate that increases the stiffness matrix accordingly.

7 22
n=1 n=1
6.5 n=2 21.5 n=2
n=3 n=3
6 Exp law 21 Exp law
η2
η1

5.5 20.5

5 20

4.5 19.5

4 19
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 0 0.5 1 1.5 2
ν ν
(a) First mode (b) Second mode

Figure 5. Variation of non-dimensional frequency with rotational speed parameter of steel-aluminum FGO beam with Al-rich bottom for
property distribution along thickness as per power law as well as exponential law (δ = 0.05, r = 0.1)

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S.C. Mohanty, R.R. Dash and T. Rout

4.3. Functionally Graded Sandwich Beam the property distributions are observed while studying
A steel-aluminum functionally graded sandwich the effect of rotary inertia parameter on the first two
(FGSW) rotating cantilever beam of length 1 m and mode frequencies of the FGSW beam. The effect of
width 0.1 m is considered for the analysis of free hub radius parameter on first and second mode
vibration. The bottom and top skin of the beam are frequency of FGSW beam is shown in Figures 7(a) and
aluminum and steel respectively, whereas the core is 7(b) respectively. The rotary inertia parameter and
the mixture of aluminum and steel with bottom layer angular velocity are 0.1 and 344 rad/s respectively. A
rich in aluminum. Both the top and bottom skin are of different trend of variation from that of FGO beam is
same thickness. The thickness of the core (d) is one obtained in this case. The first two mode frequencies
fourth of total thickness (h) Figure 6 shows the effect increase with the hub radius parameter for both the
of rotary inertia parameter (r) on first two mode cases of property distribution in core. The effect of
frequencies of the beam having properties in core as exponential distribution of properties on first mode
per power law with various indices and exponential frequency remains predominant for higher values of
law. The other parameters are as considered for the hub radius parameters similar to those obtained in case
analysis of the FGO beam in the previous section. of FGO beam. But, in case of second mode frequency
Similar trends in the results are observed as in the case of FGSW beam, the property distribution according to
of FGO beam. Moreover, very negligible effect due to power law with index n = 3 remains predominant for

8 25
n=1 n=1
7 n=2 n=2
n=3 20 n=3
6
Exp law Exp law
5
η1

η2

15
4

3
10
2

1 5
0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2
r r
(a) First mode (b) Second mode

Figure 6. Variation of non-dimensional frequency with rotary inertia parameter of steel-aluminum FGSW beam for property distribution in
~
core thickness as per power law as well as exponential law (N = 344 rad/s, δ = 0.05)

4.5 19.7
n=1 n=1
n=2 n=2
4.45 n=3
n=3 19.6
Exp law
4.4 Exp law
19.5
η2

4.35
η1

19.4
4.3

4.25 19.3

4.2
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1
δ δ
(a) First mode (b) Second mode

Figure 7. Variation of non-dimensional frequency with hub radius parameter of steel-aluminum FGSW beam for property distribution in
~
core thickness as per power law as well as exponential law (N = 344 rad/s, r = 0.1)

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all the values of hub radius parameter in the range zero predominant for higher values of hub radius
to one. The first and second mode frequencies of parameters. The frequencies corresponding to any
FGSW beam corresponding to any hub radius rotational speed parameter in the range 0 to 2.0
parameter in the range 0 to 1.0 increase with increase increase with increase of power law index. This result
of power law index. This is in contrast to the result of is different from the corresponding result of FGO
FGO beam which can be observed from Figure 4 and beam presented Figure 5. The effect of FGM content
Figure 7. The reason may be attributed to the fact that (d/h) on first two mode frequencies of the rotating
the higher order changes in beam having property as FGSW beam is studied with hub radius parameter and
per power law is more than that in beam having rotational speed 0.3 and 344 rad/s respectively and
exponential distribution of properties. The effect of shown in Figures 9 to 11. The variation of first two
rotational speed parameter on first and second mode mode frequencies with FGM content is shown in
frequency of FGSW beam is shown in Figures 8(a) and Figure 9, Figure 10 and Figure 11 for property
8(b) respectively. The first two mode frequencies distribution in the core according to power law with
increase with increase in the rotational speed n = 1, with n = 2, and exponential law respectively.
parameter for both the cases of property distribution in The values of rotary inertia parameters considered for
core. The effect of exponential distribution of comparison are 0.057 and 0.086. It is observed that the
properties on first two mode frequencies remains first two mode frequencies of FGSW beam increase

5.5 21
n=1 n=1
n=2 n=2
n=3 n=3
20.5
5 Exp law Exp law
η1

η2

20

4.5
19.5

4 19
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 0 0.5 1 1.5 2
ν ν
(a) First mode (b) Second mode

Figure 8. Variation of non-dimensional first mode frequency with rotational speed parameter of steel-aluminum FGSW beam for property
distribution in core thickness as per power law as well as exponential law (δ = 0.05, r = 0.1)

4 19

3.8
r = 0.057 18
r = 0.057
r = 0.086 r = 0.086
3.6
17
3.4
η1

η2

16
3.2
15
3

2.8 14

2.6 13
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1
d/h d/h
(a) First mode (b) Second mode

Figure 9. Variation of non-dimensional first mode frequency with FGM content (d/h) of steel-aluminum FGSW beam for property
~
distribution in core thickness as per power law (index n = 1) (N = 344 rad/s, δ = 0.3)

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S.C. Mohanty, R.R. Dash and T. Rout

4 19

3.8 r = 0.057 18
r = 0.086 r = 0.057
3.6 r = 0.086
17
3.4
η1

η2
16
3.2
15
3

2.8 14

2.6 13
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1
d /h d/h
(a) First mode (b) Second mode

Figure 10. Variation of non-dimensional first mode frequency with FGM content (d/h) of steel-aluminum FGSW beam for property
~
distribution in core thickness as per power law (index n = 2) (N = 344 rad/s, δ = 0.3)

4.2 19

4
18
r = 0.057 r = 0.057
3.8 r = 0.086 r = 0.086
17
3.6
η1

η2

3.4 16
3.2
15
3
14
2.8

2.6 13
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1
d/h d/h
(a) First mode (b) Second mode

Figure 11. Variation of non-dimensional first mode frequency with FGM content (d/h) of steel-aluminum FGSW beam for property
~
distribution in core thickness as per exponential law (N = 344 rad/s, δ = 0.3)

with increase of FGM content for both the cases of frequencies of the beam no matter how the properties
property distribution in core as shown in Figure 9, vary along thickness of beam.
Figure 10, and Figure 11. Moreover, increase in rotary The effect of exponential distribution of properties is
inertia parameter increases both the first mode and predominant for lower values of rotary inertia parameters
second mode frequencies. and for higher values of rotational speed parameters.

5. CONCLUSION 5.2. FGSW Beam


The free vibration analysis of FGO and FGSW rotating The effect of the parameters for rotary inertia, hub
cantilever beams is carried out using finite element radius and rotational speed are similar as found in case
method. The effect of rotary inertia, hub radius and of FGO beam.
rotational speed on first two mode frequencies are The beam having properties in its core according to
investigated and outlined as follows. the exponential law has higher first mode frequency
corresponding to lower values of rotary inertia
5.1. FGO Beam parameter. The beam with FGM core properties as per
The increase in the parameters for rotary inertia, hub exponential law has maximum frequency magnitudes
radius and rotational speed increase the first two mode for larger values of rotational speed parameter.

Advances in Structural Engineering Vol. 16 No. 2 2013 415


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APPENDIX-A
 6η x ( x − l ) 3η x ( x − l ) 6η x ( x − l ) 3η x ( x − l ) 
 1− x x
− 
 


l (
l β l + 12
2
) β l + 12
2 l l β l + 12
2
( )
β l 2 + 12 

 
12 x − β x 2 (2 x − 3l ) β xl ( x − l ) − 6 x ( x − l ) 12 x − β x 2 (2 x − 3l ) β xl ( x − l ) − 6 x ( x − l )
2 2
 
ℵ( x ) =  0 1− 0 

 (
l β l 2 + 12 ) (
l β l 2 + 12 ) l β l 2 + 12 ( )
l β l 2 + 12 ( ) 

 
 6β x(x − l) β xl ( 3x + 4 l ) + 12 x 6β x(x − l) β xl ( 3x − 2l ) + 12 x 
 0 1− 0 − 



(
l β l + 12
2
) l β l + 12
2
( ) l β l + 12
2
( )
l β l 2 + 12 ( ) 

(
 0 A11 0 ( B11β − A11η ) x ( A11η − B11β ) x − B11 
G ( x )  =  0 0 0 A55 − A55 0 

 0 − B11 0 ( D11β − B11η ) ( B11η − D11β ) D11 

{F } =  − N x (0) − Vx (0) − M x (0) N x (l ) Vx (l ) M x (l ) 


T

 0 − A11 0 0 0 B11 
0 0 0 − A55 A55 0 
 
(  0 B11 0 0 0 − D11 
G  = 
 0 A111 0 ( B11β − A11η ) l ( A11η − B11β ) l − B11 
0 0 0 A55 − A55 0 
 
 0 − B11 0 ( B11η − D11β ) ( D11β − B11η ) D11 

NOTATION h beam thickness


A cross-sectional area of beam k shear correction factor
L length of the beam l element length
R hub radius n index of power law variation
S element strain energy u axial displacement of reference plane
T element kinetic energy w transverse displacement of reference
I moment of inertia of cross-section plane
b beam width r rotary inertia parameter
d thickness of FGM core A11, B11, D11 stiffness coefficients
e exponent I0, I1, I2 mass moments

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Nx, Vx, Mx axial force shear force and bending σxx axial stress
moment τxz shear stress
Rb material property at the bottommost layer ρ(z) density of material
Rt material property at topmost layer η1, η2 first mode, second mode non-
Wc work done by centrifugal force dimensional frequencies
E(z) young’s modulus {F} element load vector
G(z) shear modulus [Ke],[M] global elastic stiffness and mass matrices
R(z) a material property [Kef] global effective stiffness matrix
ω natural frequency [ℵ(x)] shape function matrix
φ rotation of cross-section plane about Y- {u–} element displacement vector
axis {û} nodal displacement vector
v rotational speed parameter {Û} global nodal displacement vector
δ hub radius parameter [ke],[m] element elastic stiffness and mass
η, β shear-bending axial-bending coupling matrices
parameters [kc] element matrix due to centrifugal force
εxx axial strain ( resulting from rotation.
γxz shear strain [G ] material constant matrix

418 Advances in Structural Engineering Vol. 16 No. 2 2013