0 Votos favoráveis0 Votos desfavoráveis

2 visualizações14 páginasFeb 08, 2018

© © All Rights Reserved

PDF, TXT ou leia online no Scribd

© All Rights Reserved

2 visualizações

© All Rights Reserved

- Investigation of Ultimate Strength of Deck Slabs in Steel-Concrete Bridges
- How to Design a Transfer Floor
- Bending Test 1
- IS 800-1984
- Rc Design Ppt
- Analyses of the Lateral Load Tests
- Chap_6_1__comp_reinf
- structuraldesign00wams.pdf
- Couple Shear Wall
- 1-s2.0-S0045794999001157-main
- RECTBEAM (318-05)
- RCDC V6.0 Release Notes.pdf
- 248441082-PCs-corbel-EN-4-2009-1228-0.pdf
- R5210103 Strength of Materials - I
- Software_Package_Design_Expert_version_2.pdf
- STRUCTURAL DESIGN.pdf
- Memoria Viga
- 3 moment eqn
- Shear and Moment
- som 1 ut 2.doc

Você está na página 1de 14

1Departmentof Mechanical Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Rourkela, India

2Department of Mechanical Engineering, College of Engineering and Technology, Bhubaneswar, India

3Department of Mechanical Engineering, Parala Maharaja Engineering College, Berhampur, India

(Received: 11 June 2011; Received revised form: 20 June 2012; Accepted: 5 July 2012)

functionally graded sandwich (FGSW) rotating cantilever beam is carried out using

finite element method. The properties along the thickness of FGO beam and along the

thickness of the core of FGSW beam are assumed to follow power law as well as

exponential law. The increase in the parameters for rotary inertia, hub radius and

rotational speed, increase the first two mode frequencies of both the beams no matter

how the properties vary along the thickness of beams. The effect of property

distribution laws on the frequencies is found to be predominant for lower values of

rotary inertia parameter and for higher values of rotational speed parameter and hub

radius parameter. The first two mode frequencies of FGSW beam increase with

increase in the thickness of functionally graded material (FGM) core.

Key words: shear deformation, rotary inertia, power law, exponential law, FGM.

A FGM is a mixture of two or more dissimilar materials components in aforesaid sections can be modeled as

such that its properties can be designed to vary rotating beams. These rotating beam structural members

continuously with respect to spatial coordinates. The may undergo forced vibration and dynamic instability

designed material properties can be achieved by during their service period, which may even lead to their

varying the volume fractions of its constituent phases failure. So the study of effect of the system parameters

along spatial coordinates. FGMs possess higher on free vibration behavior of FGO and FGSW beams

strength, toughness and high temperature withstanding forms an important aspect of investigation.

ability. These are regarded as one of the most promising Stafford and Giurdiutiu (1975) have developed a

candidates among the advanced composites in many simplified model of helicopter blade considering shear

engineering sectors such as the aerospace, aircraft, deformation and rotary inertia corrections and

automobile, defense, electronic and the biomedical investigated the natural frequencies using transfer

sectors. FGMs ensure smooth transition of stress matrix method. The effect of rotational speed and

distributions, minimization or elimination of stress slenderness ratio on the error of the upper bound and the

concentration, and increased bonding strength along the influence of root elastic restraints on the fundamental

interface of two dissimilar materials which causes it to bending frequency of a rotating uniform Timoshenko

be preferred over traditional composites. Also, beam with general elastically restrained root is studied

improved fracture toughness can be ensured by using an by Lee and Kuo (1993) using Rayleigh’s principle. Yoo

Free Vibration of a Functionally Graded Rotating Timoshenko Beam Using FEM

and Shin (1998) have used Raleigh-Ritz method to investigated the problem of free vibration of a rotating

determine the effect of gyroscopic couple on the natural tapered beam by developing explicit expressions for the

frequencies of rotating cantilever beam. They have also mass, elastic and centrifugal stiffness matrices in terms

computed the tuned angular velocity of the beam. The of the taper ratios. Lesaffre et al. (2007) have done the

dynamic stiffness matrix of a centrifugally stiffened stability analysis of rotating beams using the Routh-

Timoshenko beam has been developed by Banerjee Hurwitz criterion. Lee and Sheu (2007) have developed

(2001) using Forbenus method of series solution with an exact power-series solution for free vibration of a

imposed boundary conditions for study of free vibration rotating inclined Timoshenko beam. It is shown that

of centrifugally stiffened Timoshenko beam. both the extensional deformation and the Coriolis force

Wittrick–Williams algorithm has been applied to find have significant influence on the natural frequencies of

the natural frequencies. Rao and Gupta (2001) have the rotating beam when the dimensionless rotating

used finite element method to study vibration of rotating extension parameter is large. Fazelzadeh et al. (2007)

Timoshenko beam. Chung and Yoo (2002) investigated have studied the vibration of rotating thin walled blades

the effect of angular speed on the natural frequency of a made of FGM operating under high temperature

rotating cantilever beam. They have used finite element supersonic gas flow using differential quadrature

method considering stretch deformation of the beam. method. The effects of Mach number, rotating speed,

Chakraborty et al. (2003) have developed a beam finite geometric parameters and material properties on the

element to study the thermoelastic behavior of natural frequencies are examined. Ouyang and Wang

functionally graded beam. Telli and Kopmaz (2004) (2007) have presented a dynamic model for the

have compared different models for investigation of vibration of a rotating Timoshenko beam subjected to a

rotating cantilever beams. Sabuncu and Evran (2005) three-directional load moving in the axial direction.

have studied static and dynamic stability of a blade Attarnejad and Shahba (2008) have studied free

having asymmetric aerofoil cross-section subjected to vibration of non-prismatic rotating Euler-Bernoulli

an axial periodic force using the finite element method. beams using differential transform method. The effects

The effects of shear deformation and rotary inertia are of rotational speed parameter and taper ratio on natural

included in the analysis. It is found that as the length of frequencies have been investigated. Lin et al. (2008)

the beam decreases, the effect of rotation on the static have modelled the blade of a horizontal-axis wind

buckling load parameters decreases and the effects of power turbine as a rotating Bernoulli-Euler beam with

coupling and the shear coefficient on the stability pre-cone angles and setting angles. The influences of the

become significant. Yoo et al. (2005) have investigated pre-cone angle, the angular speed and the setting angle

the flap-wise bending vibration analysis of a rotating on the natural frequencies of the beam are explored. The

multi-layered composite beam considering the shear phenomenon of divergence instability is also discussed.

deformation and the rotary inertia effects. Kaya (2006) A rotating beam finite element is developed by Gunda

has studied the flap-wise bending vibration analysis of a and Ganguli (2008) in which the basis functions are

rotating cantilever Timoshenko beam using differential obtained by the exact solution of the governing static

transform method. The effect of pretwist angle of an homogenous differential equation of a stiff string.

aerofoil blade simplified as a rotating Timoshenko beam Piovan and Sampaio (2009) have developed a rotating

has been investigated by Subuncu and Ervan (2006). non-linear beam model accounting for arbitrary axial

Vinod et al. (2007) have formulated an approximate deformation to study the dynamics of rotating beams

spectral element for uniform as well as tapered rotating made of FGM. Yuksel and Aksoy (2009) have studied,

Euler-Bernoulli beam in order to carry out both free bending vibrations of a radially rotating beam with end

vibration and wave propagation analysis. Das et al. mass subjected to different base excitations using the

(2007) have studied the large displacement free Lagrangian’s approach. Ahmad and Naeem (2009) have

vibration analysis of linearly tapered rotating beam. A investigated the vibration characteristics of rotating

super element having shape functions as a combination FGM cylindrical shells using Budiansky and Sanders,

of polynomials and trigonometric functions is used by thin shell theory. Hsu (2009) has investigated the

Gunda et al. (2007) to study the dynamic analysis of vibration of a pre-twisted beams using spline

rotating tapered beams. Comparable results are obtained collocation method. Hosseini and Khadem (2009) have

using one superelement with only 14 degrees of freedom used multi scale method to investigate the free vibration

compared to of simply supported rotating shaft with nonlinear

50 conventional finite elements with cubic shape curvature. Huang et al. (2009) have provided a power

functions with a total of 100 degrees of freedom for a series solution to free vibration of rotating inclined

rotating cantilever beam. Bazoune (2007) has Euler beam. Divergence instability and vibration of a

S.C. Mohanty, R.R. Dash and T. Rout

Y, M, ϕ

angles are investigated by Lee et al. (2009). Yardimoglu

(2010) has used a finite element model based on the

coupled displacement field for vibration analysis of Material-1

X, u, N

rotating Timoshenko beam of equal strength. Chhabra FGM

and Ganguli (2010) have developed a two-nodded Material-2

twelve degree of freedom finite element for study of

coupled vibration of rotating blades. Mohanty et al.

(2011) have investigated the parametric instability of (b)

Timoshenko beam on Winkler’s elastic foundation. φi φI + 1

Though the literatures on vibration of rotating beams are

ui i ui + 1

plenty, the literature on vibration of functionally graded

rotating beams reported are not enough to the best of the

authors’ knowledge. wi + 1

wi

The present work addresses to the free vibration of

rotating FGO and FGSW cantilever Timoshenko beams. Figure 2. (a) The coordinate system with generalized forces and

The effects of property distribution laws, rotary inertia displacements for the FGSW beam element; (b) Beam element

parameter, rotational speed parameter and FGM content showing generalized degrees of freedom for ith element

of the beam on the natural frequencies have been

investigated.

2.1. Shape Functions

The displacement fields according to first order

2. FORMULATION

Timoshenko beam theory is expressed as

A functionally graded sandwich (FGSW) beam with

core as FGM and surface layers as dissimilar materials

U ( x , y, z , t ) = u( x , t ) − zϕ ( x , t ),

is shown in Figure 1. The beam is clamped at one end (1)

and free at the other end. The mid-longitudinal (x-y) W ( x , y, z , t ) = w( x , t ),

plane is chosen as the reference plane for expressing the

displacements as shown in Figure 2(a). The thickness U and W are axial and transverse displacement of a

coordinate is measured as ‘z’ from the reference plane. material point respectively. The corresponding linear

The axial displacement and the transverse displacement strains are expressed as

of a point on the reference plane are, u and w

respectively and φ is rotation of cross-sectional plane ∂u ∂φ ∂w

ε xx = − z , γ xz = −φ + (2)

with respect to the un-deformed configuration. Figure 2(b) ∂x ∂x ∂x

shows a two nodded beam finite element having three

degrees of freedom per node. The element matrices for The stress-strain relation in matrix form can be given

the FGSW beam element are derived following the as

method as proposed by Chakraborty et al. (2003).

Moreover the same element can be used for the analysis σ E ( z ) 0 ε xx

of a functionally graded ordinary beam by making the {σ } = τ xx = 0

kG( z ) γ xz

(3)

thickness of the skins equal to zero. xz

~

N

and τ xz is shear stress in x-z plane, E ( z ) is Young’s

modulus, G ( z ) is shear modulus and k is shear

correction factor. The material properties of the FGM

Material-1 that varies along the thickness of the beam are assumed

FGM d h to follow exponential law given by

Material-2

L R( z ) = Rt exp(− e(1 − 2 z / h))

R (4)

e= log t , and power law given by

end free at the other 2 Rb

Free Vibration of a Functionally Graded Rotating Timoshenko Beam Using FEM

z 1 degrees of freedom u w and φ without considering Wc,

R( z ) = ( Rt n Rb ) + + Rb (5)

h 2 the work done by centrifugal force can be written as

etc., Rt and Rb denote the values of the properties at I0 2

− I1 2

− A11 2

+ B11 2

= 0,

∂t ∂t ∂x ∂x

topmost and bottommost layer of the beam respectively, ∂2 w ∂φ

∂2 w

and n is an index. The kinetic energy T and the strain I 0 2 − A55 2 − = 0 (11)

∂t ∂x ∂x

energy S of the beam element can be expressed as

∂2φ ∂ 2u ∂ 2u ∂2φ ∂w

I2 − I1 + B11 − D11 − A55 − φ =0

∂t 2

∂t 2

∂x 2

∂x2 ∂x

1

l ∂U 2 ∂W 2

T = ∫ ∫ ρ(z ) + ∂t dAdx (6)

20A ∂t where,

l A11 B11 D11 = ∫ E ( z ) 1 z z 2 dA,

S=

1

2 ∫0 ∫A xx xx

(

σ ε + τ xz γ xz dAdx) (7) A

I 0 I1 I 2 = ∫ ρ ( z ) 1 z z 2 dA , and (12)

A

Substituting Eqn 1 into Eqn 6 and Eqn 3 and Eqn 2

A55 = ∫ G ( z )dA

into Eqn 7 we get Eqn 8 and Eqn 9 respectively.

A

∂u 2 ∂u ∂φ

− 2 z The shape functions for the displacement field for

l ∂t ∂t ∂t

T = ∫ ∫ ρ ( z )

1 finite element formulation are obtained by solving the

20A 2 2 dAdx (8)

+ z 2 ∂φ ∂w

static part of the Eqn 11 with the following

+ consideration.

∂t ∂t

u = a1 + a2 x + a3 x 2 , w = a4 + a5 x + a6 x 2 + a7 x 3 ,

Substituting subsequently we get (13)

φ = a8 + a9 x + a10 x 2 .

l

1

20A

2

(

S = ∫ ∫ E ( z )ε xx + G ( z )γ xz

2

dAdx ) The assumed displacement field as per Eqn 13 has a

total of 10 constants to be determined. But we have six

boundary conditions (No of nodes 2 ∞ 3 degree of

∂u 2 2 freedom per node = 6) to be applied for the

2 ∂φ

l + z determination of the constants ‘a’. Therefore 4 constants

∂x ∂x

= ∫ ∫ E ( z )

1 are to be expressed in terms of the other 6 constants.

dAdx

20A

−2 z ∂u ∂ φ Substituting Eqn 13 into the static part of Eqn 11 we get

∂x ∂x the six independent constants as

{a} = [ a1 a2 a4 a5 a8 a9 ]T (14)

1

l ∂w

2

∂w

+ ∫ ∫ G ( z ) φ 2 + − 2φ dAdx (9)

20A ∂x ∂x a −a

The four dependent constants are a3 = η 8 5 ,

2

where, ρ ( z ) , l and A are density length and area of a −a

cross-section of the element respectively. By applying a6 = a9 / 2 , a7 = β 8 5 , and a10 = 3a7 and

6

Hamilton’s principle

t2 B11 A55 A11 A55

η= , β=

δ ∫ ( T − S + Wc ) dt = 0 (10) ( A11D11 − ) 2

B11 ( A11D11 − B112 ) .

(15)

t1

S.C. Mohanty, R.R. Dash and T. Rout

The displacement now can be expressed as where, ℵu ( x ) , ℵw ( x ) , ℵφ ( x ) are the shape functions

for the axial, transverse and rotational degree of freedom

respectively.

{u } = [ u w φ ]T = [ N ( x )]{a} (16)

2.2. Element Elastic Stiffness Matrix

The general force boundary conditions for the element

η 2 η 2

1 x 0 − x x 0 can be given as

2 2

β β 3 x2

[ N ( x )] = 0 0 1 x − x3

6

x

2

(17)

N x = ∫ σ xx dA = A11

∂u

− B11

∂φ

6

∂x ∂x

β 2 β A

0 0 0 − x 1 + x2 x

∂w

2 2 Vx = ∫ τ xz dA = A55 − φ (23)

∂x

A

M x = − ∫ zσ xx dA = − B11 + D11

values of displacements by substituting x =0 and x = l in A

∂ x ∂x

Eqn 16 and can be expressed as

{a} = [ G ]{uˆ} (18) where, Nx , Vx , Mx are axial force, shear force and

bending moment respectively acting at the boundary

nodes.

Such that Similarly substituting Eqn 16 into Eqn 23 we get

−1 (

[ N ( 0 )] G ( x ) {a} = { F ( x )} (24)

[G ] = (19)

[ N ( l )]

where, {F ( x )} = [ N x Vx Mx ]

T

is the element load

(

{û} = [ui wi φi ui +1 wi +1 φi +1 ] (20) vector and G ( x ) is given in appendix.

By substitution of x = 0 and x = l into Eqn 24 we can

have

is the generalized displacement vector of ith element.

Now substituting Eqn 18 into Eqn 16 we get (

G {a} = { F } (25)

The nodal load vector { F } and G are given in

appendix.

where, [ℵ( x )] = [ N ( x )][G ] , a 3 × 6 matrix is the Now substituting Eqn 16 into Eqn 20 we get

appendix. G [ G ] {uˆ } = { F } or [ ke ]{uˆ} = {F } (26)

It is seen above that unlike the conventional elements

where, [ ke ] is the required element elastic stiffness

the shape function not only depends on x but it also

depends on cross-sectional and material properties

which ensures better accuracy. Moreover better matrix.

convergence can be achieved as the shape functions are

obtained from the exact solution of static part of the 2.3. Element Mass Matrix

governing differential equation. Now the shape function The element mass matrix is derived by substituting Eqn

can be expressed as 16 into Eqn 8.

1 &

{} [ m ]{uˆ&}

T

T T= uˆ (27)

ℵ( x ) = ℵu ( x ) ℵw ( x ) ℵφ ( x ) (22) 2

Free Vibration of a Functionally Graded Rotating Timoshenko Beam Using FEM

where, [m] = [mu ] + [mw ] + [mφ ] + [muφ ] , [ m ]{u&&ˆ} + kef {uˆ} = 0 (32)

( )

l

where, mu = ∫ I 0 ℵu ℵu dx ,

T where kef = ke + kc (33)

0

where, [ ke ], [ kc ], [ m ] are element elastic stiffness

( )

l

T

mw = ∫ I 0 ℵw ℵw dx , matrix, stiffness matrix due to centrifugal force, mass

0

(28) matrix respectively. Assembling the element matrices as

l used in Eqn 32, the equation of motion for the beam in

mφ = ∫ I 2 ℵφ ℵφ dx ,

T

global matrix form, can be expressed as

0

l

( )

muφ = − ∫ I1 ℵu T ℵφ + ℵφ ℵu dx

T

{}

[ M ] U&&ˆ + K ef {Uˆ } = 0 (34)

0

kef = ke + kc (35)

mu, mw, mφ represent the contribution of u, w, φ degree

of freedom to the mass matrix and muφ represents the

mass matrix arising due to the coupling between u and [ M ] , [ K e ] , [ K c ] are global mass, elastic stiffness,

φ. Though the mass matrix is not derived from the exact stiffness matrix resulting from centrifugal force

solution of the governing differential equation, it respectively and Û is global displacement vector.

includes the effect of rotary inertia as seen above (Eqn 28)

Eqn 34 represents a system of second order differential

which definitely improves the accuracy of the solution.

equations. The eigen solution to the Eqn 34 is given as

2.4. Element Centrifugal Stiffness Matrix

The centrifugal force on ith element of the beam can be K ef − ω 2 [ M ] = 0 (36)

expressed as

The solution of Eqn 36 gives the value of natural

xi + l

h

2 frequencies {ω } .

Fc = ∫ ∫ bρ ( z ) N% 2 ( R + x ) dzdx (29)

xi − h 4. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

2 4.1. Validation of the Formulation

In the present formulation the FGSW beam becomes

where xi is the distance of ith node from axis of rotation, functionally graded ordinary (FGO) beam when the

N% (rad/s) is angular velocity of beam and R is the radius thickness of the skins are made equal to zero and the FGO

of hub. beam reduces to a homogeneous beam when the power

Work done by the centrifugal force is given by law index (n) for the property distribution is made equal

to zero. In order to establish the correctness of

l 2

1 dw 1 calculation, the fundamental non-dimensional natural

Wc = ∫ Fc dx = {uˆ } [ kc ] {uˆ } (30)

2 0 dx 2 frequencies of a homogenous rotating steel beam

clamped at one end and free at other end are calculated for

various rotational speed parameters and compared with

Here, the centrifugal element stiffness matrix is those given by Gunda and Ganguli (2008), Bazoune

(2007) and Attarnejad and Shahba (2008).

l

The length of the beam is denoted by L.

[ kc ] = ∫ Fc [ℵ′w ]T [ℵ′w ] dx (31) R

0 Hub radius parameter δ = ,

L

1 I

Rotary inertia parameter r =

3. GOVERNING EQUATION OF MOTION L A

Substituting Eqns 27, 26, and 30 into Eqn 10 the

equation of motion for the beam element is obtained as ρ AL4ω n2

Frequency parameter ηn =

follows EI

S.C. Mohanty, R.R. Dash and T. Rout

Table 1. Variation of fundamental natural frequency of Timoshenko cantilever beam for different rotational

speed parameters (δ = 0, r = 1/30, E/kG = 3.059)

v Present Ganguli (2008) Bazoune (2007) Shahba (2008)

0 3.4798 3.4798 3.4798 3.4798

1 3.6460 3.6445 3.6445 3.6452

2 4.1025 4.0971 4.0971 4.0994

3 4.7617 4.7516 4.7516 4.7558

4 5.5462 5.5314 5.5314 5.5375

5 6.4048 6.3858 6.3858 6.3934

10 11.0971 11.0643 – –

I is the area moment of inertia of the cross section aluminum at bottom. The material properties of the

about the centroidal axis. ωn is the nth mode frequency constituent phases of the beam are as follows.

of the beam and ηn is the nth mode frequency Properties of steel: Es = 2.1 × 1011 Pa, Gs = 0.8 ×

parameter. 10 Pa, ρs = 7.85 × 103 kg/m3.

11

The present results are found to be in good agreement Properties of aluminum: Ea = 0.7 × 1011 Pa, Ga =

as shown in Table 1. 0.2697 × 1011 Pa, ρa = 2.707 × 103 kg/m3.

The following additional non-dimensional The shear correction factor is chosen as k = 0.8667.

parameters are chosen for the analysis of the beam. The variation of non-dimensional frequency with

rotary inertia parameter is shown in Figures 3(a) and

%2

ρ AL4 Ν 3(b) for first and second mode respectively. The

Rotational speed parameter ν =

EI property distribution along the thickness is assumed to

follow exponential as well as power law with indices

E, G and ρ are the Young’s modulus, shear modulus n = 1, 2 and 3. The hub radius parameter and angular

and mass density of steel respectively and their values velocity are 0.05 and 344 rad/s respectively. The

are given in the following section. frequencies for both the modes increase with rotary

inertia parameter in all the cases of property

4.2. Functionally Graded Ordinary Beam distribution. The beam having properties according to

A steel-aluminum functionally graded ordinary (FGO) exponential law has distinctly the highest frequency

rotating cantilever beam of length 1 m and width 0.1 m among all the cases for lower values of r, where as there is

is considered for the analysis of free vibration. The no noticeable difference in frequencies for higher values

thickness of the beam is h. The beam is rich in of r. The increase in rotary inertia parameter increases

8 22

n=1 n=1

7 n=2 20 n=2

n=3 n=3

18

Exp law Exp law

6

16

η2

5 14

η1

12

4

10

3

8

2 6

0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2

r r

(a) First mode (b) Second mode

Figure 3. Variation of non-dimensional first mode frequency with rotary inertia parameter of steel-aluminum FGO beam with Al-rich

~

bottom for property distribution along thickness as per power law as well as exponential law (N = 344 rad/s, δ = 0.05)

Free Vibration of a Functionally Graded Rotating Timoshenko Beam Using FEM

5 20.4

n=1 n=1

4.9 n=2 n=2

20.2

4.8 n=3 n=3

Exp law Exp law

4.7 20

η1

4.6

η2

4.5 19.8

4.4

19.6

4.3

4.2 19.4

0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1

δ δ

(a) First mode (b) Second mode

Figure 4. Variation of non-dimensional frequency with hub radius parameter of steel-aluminum FGO beam with Al-rich bottom for

~

property distribution along thickness as per power law as well as exponential law (N = 344 rad/s, r = 0.1)

the thickness of beam thereby increasing the stiffness of increase in hub radius parameter increases the

beam. As a result the frequencies increase with the centrifugal force on beam, which in turn increases the

increase in aforesaid parameter. The effect of hub radius stiffness of beam. Additionally, exponential distribution

parameter on first mode frequency of beam is as compared to power law distribution of properties

determined and shown in Figure 4(a). The rotary inertia makes the beam richer in steel-content thereby making

parameter and angular velocity are 0.1 and 344 rad/s the beam stiffer. The effect of rotational speed

respectively. The beam having properties as per parameter (ν) on the non-dimensional frequency for first

exponential law has the highest first mode frequency for and second mode is shown in Figures 5(a) and 5(b)

all the values of hub radius parameters. Moreover, the respectively. The hub radius parameter and rotary

effect of exponential property distribution on the inertia parameter are 0.05 and 0.1 respectively. The

frequency becomes predominant as the hub radius frequencies for both the modes increase with rotational

parameter approaches one. Contrary to the first mode, speed parameter. It is observed that the effect of

the power law with index n = 1 is predominant for exponential law on the frequencies is predominant for

second mode frequency in case of smaller hub radius higher values of rotational speed parameter. This may

parameter, whereas the exponential law is predominant be due to the fact that the increase in rotational speed

for the frequency in case of larger hub radius parameter parameter increases the centrifugal force at increasing

as shown in Figure 4(b). This is due to the fact that rate that increases the stiffness matrix accordingly.

7 22

n=1 n=1

6.5 n=2 21.5 n=2

n=3 n=3

6 Exp law 21 Exp law

η2

η1

5.5 20.5

5 20

4.5 19.5

4 19

0 0.5 1 1.5 2 0 0.5 1 1.5 2

ν ν

(a) First mode (b) Second mode

Figure 5. Variation of non-dimensional frequency with rotational speed parameter of steel-aluminum FGO beam with Al-rich bottom for

property distribution along thickness as per power law as well as exponential law (δ = 0.05, r = 0.1)

S.C. Mohanty, R.R. Dash and T. Rout

4.3. Functionally Graded Sandwich Beam the property distributions are observed while studying

A steel-aluminum functionally graded sandwich the effect of rotary inertia parameter on the first two

(FGSW) rotating cantilever beam of length 1 m and mode frequencies of the FGSW beam. The effect of

width 0.1 m is considered for the analysis of free hub radius parameter on first and second mode

vibration. The bottom and top skin of the beam are frequency of FGSW beam is shown in Figures 7(a) and

aluminum and steel respectively, whereas the core is 7(b) respectively. The rotary inertia parameter and

the mixture of aluminum and steel with bottom layer angular velocity are 0.1 and 344 rad/s respectively. A

rich in aluminum. Both the top and bottom skin are of different trend of variation from that of FGO beam is

same thickness. The thickness of the core (d) is one obtained in this case. The first two mode frequencies

fourth of total thickness (h) Figure 6 shows the effect increase with the hub radius parameter for both the

of rotary inertia parameter (r) on first two mode cases of property distribution in core. The effect of

frequencies of the beam having properties in core as exponential distribution of properties on first mode

per power law with various indices and exponential frequency remains predominant for higher values of

law. The other parameters are as considered for the hub radius parameters similar to those obtained in case

analysis of the FGO beam in the previous section. of FGO beam. But, in case of second mode frequency

Similar trends in the results are observed as in the case of FGSW beam, the property distribution according to

of FGO beam. Moreover, very negligible effect due to power law with index n = 3 remains predominant for

8 25

n=1 n=1

7 n=2 n=2

n=3 20 n=3

6

Exp law Exp law

5

η1

η2

15

4

3

10

2

1 5

0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2

r r

(a) First mode (b) Second mode

Figure 6. Variation of non-dimensional frequency with rotary inertia parameter of steel-aluminum FGSW beam for property distribution in

~

core thickness as per power law as well as exponential law (N = 344 rad/s, δ = 0.05)

4.5 19.7

n=1 n=1

n=2 n=2

4.45 n=3

n=3 19.6

Exp law

4.4 Exp law

19.5

η2

4.35

η1

19.4

4.3

4.25 19.3

4.2

0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1

δ δ

(a) First mode (b) Second mode

Figure 7. Variation of non-dimensional frequency with hub radius parameter of steel-aluminum FGSW beam for property distribution in

~

core thickness as per power law as well as exponential law (N = 344 rad/s, r = 0.1)

Free Vibration of a Functionally Graded Rotating Timoshenko Beam Using FEM

all the values of hub radius parameter in the range zero predominant for higher values of hub radius

to one. The first and second mode frequencies of parameters. The frequencies corresponding to any

FGSW beam corresponding to any hub radius rotational speed parameter in the range 0 to 2.0

parameter in the range 0 to 1.0 increase with increase increase with increase of power law index. This result

of power law index. This is in contrast to the result of is different from the corresponding result of FGO

FGO beam which can be observed from Figure 4 and beam presented Figure 5. The effect of FGM content

Figure 7. The reason may be attributed to the fact that (d/h) on first two mode frequencies of the rotating

the higher order changes in beam having property as FGSW beam is studied with hub radius parameter and

per power law is more than that in beam having rotational speed 0.3 and 344 rad/s respectively and

exponential distribution of properties. The effect of shown in Figures 9 to 11. The variation of first two

rotational speed parameter on first and second mode mode frequencies with FGM content is shown in

frequency of FGSW beam is shown in Figures 8(a) and Figure 9, Figure 10 and Figure 11 for property

8(b) respectively. The first two mode frequencies distribution in the core according to power law with

increase with increase in the rotational speed n = 1, with n = 2, and exponential law respectively.

parameter for both the cases of property distribution in The values of rotary inertia parameters considered for

core. The effect of exponential distribution of comparison are 0.057 and 0.086. It is observed that the

properties on first two mode frequencies remains first two mode frequencies of FGSW beam increase

5.5 21

n=1 n=1

n=2 n=2

n=3 n=3

20.5

5 Exp law Exp law

η1

η2

20

4.5

19.5

4 19

0 0.5 1 1.5 2 0 0.5 1 1.5 2

ν ν

(a) First mode (b) Second mode

Figure 8. Variation of non-dimensional first mode frequency with rotational speed parameter of steel-aluminum FGSW beam for property

distribution in core thickness as per power law as well as exponential law (δ = 0.05, r = 0.1)

4 19

3.8

r = 0.057 18

r = 0.057

r = 0.086 r = 0.086

3.6

17

3.4

η1

η2

16

3.2

15

3

2.8 14

2.6 13

0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1

d/h d/h

(a) First mode (b) Second mode

Figure 9. Variation of non-dimensional first mode frequency with FGM content (d/h) of steel-aluminum FGSW beam for property

~

distribution in core thickness as per power law (index n = 1) (N = 344 rad/s, δ = 0.3)

S.C. Mohanty, R.R. Dash and T. Rout

4 19

3.8 r = 0.057 18

r = 0.086 r = 0.057

3.6 r = 0.086

17

3.4

η1

η2

16

3.2

15

3

2.8 14

2.6 13

0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1

d /h d/h

(a) First mode (b) Second mode

Figure 10. Variation of non-dimensional first mode frequency with FGM content (d/h) of steel-aluminum FGSW beam for property

~

distribution in core thickness as per power law (index n = 2) (N = 344 rad/s, δ = 0.3)

4.2 19

4

18

r = 0.057 r = 0.057

3.8 r = 0.086 r = 0.086

17

3.6

η1

η2

3.4 16

3.2

15

3

14

2.8

2.6 13

0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1

d/h d/h

(a) First mode (b) Second mode

Figure 11. Variation of non-dimensional first mode frequency with FGM content (d/h) of steel-aluminum FGSW beam for property

~

distribution in core thickness as per exponential law (N = 344 rad/s, δ = 0.3)

with increase of FGM content for both the cases of frequencies of the beam no matter how the properties

property distribution in core as shown in Figure 9, vary along thickness of beam.

Figure 10, and Figure 11. Moreover, increase in rotary The effect of exponential distribution of properties is

inertia parameter increases both the first mode and predominant for lower values of rotary inertia parameters

second mode frequencies. and for higher values of rotational speed parameters.

The free vibration analysis of FGO and FGSW rotating The effect of the parameters for rotary inertia, hub

cantilever beams is carried out using finite element radius and rotational speed are similar as found in case

method. The effect of rotary inertia, hub radius and of FGO beam.

rotational speed on first two mode frequencies are The beam having properties in its core according to

investigated and outlined as follows. the exponential law has higher first mode frequency

corresponding to lower values of rotary inertia

5.1. FGO Beam parameter. The beam with FGM core properties as per

The increase in the parameters for rotary inertia, hub exponential law has maximum frequency magnitudes

radius and rotational speed increase the first two mode for larger values of rotational speed parameter.

Free Vibration of a Functionally Graded Rotating Timoshenko Beam Using FEM

First and second mode frequencies increase with Huang, C.L., Lin, W.Y. and Hsiao, K.M. (2009). “Free flapping

increase in FGM content in all the cases of property vibration of rotating inclined Euler beams”, Engineering and

distributions considered. Technology, Vol. 56, pp. 604–610.

Kaya, M.O. (2006). “Free vibration analysis of a rotating

REFERENCES Timoshenko beam by differential transform method”, Aircraft

Ahmad, M. and Naeem, M.N. (2009). “Vibration characteristics of Engineering and Aerospace Technology, Vol. 78, No. 3,

rotating FGM circular cylindrical shells using wave propagation pp. 194–203.

method”, European Journal of Scientific Research, Vol. 36, No. 2, Lee, S.Y. and Kuo, Y.H. (1993). “Bending frequency of a rotating

pp. 184–235. Timoshenko beam with general elastically restrained root”,

Attarnejad, R. and Shahba, A. (2008). “Application of differential Journal of Sound and Vibration, Vol. 162, No. 2, pp. 243–250.

transform method in free vibration analysis of rotating non- Lee, S.Y. and Sheu, J.J. (2007). “Free vibration of an extensible

prismatic beams”, World Applied Sciences Journal, Vol. 5, No. 4, rotating inclined Timoshenko beam”, Journal of Sound and

pp. 441–448. Vibration, Vol. 304, No. 3–5, pp. 606–624.

Banerjee, J.R. (2001). “Dynamic stiffness formulation and free Lee, S.Y., Lin, S.M. and Lin, Y.S. (2009). “Instability and

vibration analysis of centrifugally stiffened Timoshenko beams”, vibration of a rotating Timoshenko beam with precone”,

Journal of Sound and Vibration, Vol. 247, No. 1, pp. 97–115. International Journal of Mechanical Sciences, Vol. 51, No. 2,

Bazoune, A. (2007). “Effect of tapering on natural frequencies of pp. 114–121.

rotating beams”, Shock and Vibration, Vol. 14, No. 3, Lesaffre, N., Sinou J.J. and Thouverez, F. (2007). “Stability analysis

pp. 169–179. of rotating beams rubbing on an elastic circular structure”,

Chakraborty, A., Gopalakrishnan, S. and Reddy, J.N. (2003). “A Journal of Sound and Vibration, Vol. 299, No. 4–5,

new beam finite element for the analysis of functionally graded pp. 1005–1032.

materials”, International Journal of Mechanical Science, Vol. 45, Lin, S.M., Lee, S.Y. and Lin, Y.S. (2008). “Modeling and bending

No. 3, pp. 519–539. vibration of the blade of a horizontal-axiswind power turbine”,

Chhabra, P.P.S. and Ganguli, R. (2010). “Superconvergent finite CMES Computer Modeling in Engineering and Science, Vol. 23,

element for coupled torsional-flexural-axial vibration analysis of No. 3, pp. 175–186.

rotating blades”, International Journal for Computational Methods Mohanty, S.C., Dash, R.R. and Rout, T. (2011). “Parametric

in Engineering Science and Mechanics, Vol. 11, No. 1, pp. 48–69. instability of a functionally graded Timoshenko beam on

Chung, J. and Yoo, H.H. (2002). “Dynamic analysis of rotating Winkler’s elastic foundation”, Nuclear Engineering and Design,

cantilever beams by using the finite element method”, Journal of Vol. 241, No. 8, pp. 2698–2715.

Sound and Vibration, Vol. 249, No. 1, pp. 147–164. Ouyang, H. and Wang, M. (2007). “A dynamic model for a rotating

Das, D., Sahoo, P. and Saha, K.N. (2007). “Large displacement free beam subjected to axially moving forces”, Journal of Sound and

vibration analysis of rotating beam”, Proceedings of the Vibration, Vol. 308, No. 3–5, pp. 674–682.

International Conference on Mechanical Engineering, Dhaka, Piovan, M.T. and Sampaio, R. (2009). “A study on the dynamics of

Bangladesh. rotating beams with functionally graded properties”, Journal of

Fazelzadeh, S.A., Malekzadeh, P., Zahedinejad, P. and Hosseini, M. Sound and Vibration, Vol. 327, No. 1–2, pp. 134–143.

(2007). “Vibration analysis of functionally graded thin-walled Rao, S.S. and Gupta, R.S. (2001). “Finite element vibration analysis

rotating blades under high temperature supersonic flow using the of rotating Timoshenko beams”, Journal of Sound and Vibration,

differential quadrature method”, Journal of Sound and Vibration, Vol. 242, No. 1, pp. 103–124.

Vol. 306, No. 1–2, pp. 333–348. Stafford, R.O. and Giurdiutiu, V. (1975). “Semi-analytic methods

Gunda, J.B., Singh, A.P., Chhabra, P.S. and Ganguli, R. (2007). “Free for rotating Timoshenko beam”, International Journal of

vibration analysis of rotating tapered blades using Fourier-p Mechanical Science, Vol. 17, No. 11–12, pp. 719–727.

superelement”, Structural Engineering and Mechanics, Vol. 27, Sabuncu, M. and Evran, K. (2005). “Dynamic stability of a rotating

No. 2, pp. 243–258. asymmetric cross-section Timoshenko beam subjected to an axial

Gunda, J.B. and Ganguli, R. (2008). “Stiff-string basis functions for periodic force”, Finite Elements in Analysis and Design, Vol. 41,

vibration analysis of high speed rotating beams”, Journal of No. 11–12, pp. 1011–1026.

Applied Mechanics, Vol. 75, No. 2, pp. 1–5. Sabuncu, M. and Evran, K. (2006). “Dynamic stability of a rotating

Hosseini, S.A.A. and Khadem, S.E. (2009). “Free vibrations analysis pre-twisted asymmetric cross-section Timoshenko beam

of a rotating shaft with nonlinearities in curvature and inertia”, subjected to an axial periodic force”, International Journal of

Mechanism and Machine Theory, Vol. 44, No. 1, pp. 272–288. Mechanical Sciences, Vol. 48, No. 6, pp. 579–590.

Hsu, M.H. (2009). “Vibration analysis of pre-twisted beams using Telli, S. and Kopmaz, O. (2004). “On the mathematical modelling of

the spline collocation method”, Journal of Marine Science and beams rotating about a fixed axis”, Mathematical and

Technology, Vol. 17, No. 2, pp. 106–115. Computational Application, Vol. 9, No. 3, pp. 333–347.

S.C. Mohanty, R.R. Dash and T. Rout

Vinod, K.G., Gopalakrishnan, S. and Ganguli, R. (2007). “Free Yoo, H.H. and Shin, S.H. (1998). “Vibration analysis of cantilever

vibration and wave propagation analysis of uniform and tapered beams”, Journal of Sound and Vibration, Vol. 212, No. 5,

rotating beams using spectrally formulated finite elements”, pp. 807–828.

International Journal of Solids and Structures, Vol. 44, No. Yoo, H.H., Lee, S.H. and Shin, S.H. (2005). “Flapwise bending

18–19, pp. 5875–5893. vibration analysis of rotating multi-layered composite beams”,

Yardimoglu, B. (2010). “A novel finite element model for vibration Journal of Sound and Vibration, Vol. 286, No. 4–5, pp. 745–761.

analysis of rotating tapered Timoshenko beam of equal strength”, Yuksel, S. and Aksoy, T.M. (2009). “Flexural vibrations of a rotating

Finite Elements in Analysis and Design, Vol. 46, No. 10, beam subjected to different base excitations”, G.U. Journal of

pp. 838–842. Science, Vol. 22, No. 1, pp. 33–40.

APPENDIX-A

6η x ( x − l ) 3η x ( x − l ) 6η x ( x − l ) 3η x ( x − l )

1− x x

−

l (

l β l + 12

2

) β l + 12

2 l l β l + 12

2

( )

β l 2 + 12

12 x − β x 2 (2 x − 3l ) β xl ( x − l ) − 6 x ( x − l ) 12 x − β x 2 (2 x − 3l ) β xl ( x − l ) − 6 x ( x − l )

2 2

ℵ( x ) = 0 1− 0

(

l β l 2 + 12 ) (

l β l 2 + 12 ) l β l 2 + 12 ( )

l β l 2 + 12 ( )

6β x(x − l) β xl ( 3x + 4 l ) + 12 x 6β x(x − l) β xl ( 3x − 2l ) + 12 x

0 1− 0 −

(

l β l + 12

2

) l β l + 12

2

( ) l β l + 12

2

( )

l β l 2 + 12 ( )

(

0 A11 0 ( B11β − A11η ) x ( A11η − B11β ) x − B11

G ( x ) = 0 0 0 A55 − A55 0

0 − B11 0 ( D11β − B11η ) ( B11η − D11β ) D11

T

0 − A11 0 0 0 B11

0 0 0 − A55 A55 0

( 0 B11 0 0 0 − D11

G =

0 A111 0 ( B11β − A11η ) l ( A11η − B11β ) l − B11

0 0 0 A55 − A55 0

0 − B11 0 ( B11η − D11β ) ( D11β − B11η ) D11

A cross-sectional area of beam k shear correction factor

L length of the beam l element length

R hub radius n index of power law variation

S element strain energy u axial displacement of reference plane

T element kinetic energy w transverse displacement of reference

I moment of inertia of cross-section plane

b beam width r rotary inertia parameter

d thickness of FGM core A11, B11, D11 stiffness coefficients

e exponent I0, I1, I2 mass moments

Free Vibration of a Functionally Graded Rotating Timoshenko Beam Using FEM

Nx, Vx, Mx axial force shear force and bending σxx axial stress

moment τxz shear stress

Rb material property at the bottommost layer ρ(z) density of material

Rt material property at topmost layer η1, η2 first mode, second mode non-

Wc work done by centrifugal force dimensional frequencies

E(z) young’s modulus {F} element load vector

G(z) shear modulus [Ke],[M] global elastic stiffness and mass matrices

R(z) a material property [Kef] global effective stiffness matrix

ω natural frequency [ℵ(x)] shape function matrix

φ rotation of cross-section plane about Y- {u–} element displacement vector

axis {û} nodal displacement vector

v rotational speed parameter {Û} global nodal displacement vector

δ hub radius parameter [ke],[m] element elastic stiffness and mass

η, β shear-bending axial-bending coupling matrices

parameters [kc] element matrix due to centrifugal force

εxx axial strain ( resulting from rotation.

γxz shear strain [G ] material constant matrix

- Investigation of Ultimate Strength of Deck Slabs in Steel-Concrete BridgesEnviado porProfessor Dr. Nabeel Al-Bayati-Consultant Engineer
- How to Design a Transfer FloorEnviado poreplim60
- Bending Test 1Enviado porAman Bansal
- IS 800-1984Enviado porقاسم ابرار محمد
- Rc Design PptEnviado porRamilArtates
- Analyses of the Lateral Load TestsEnviado porAngela Briggs
- Chap_6_1__comp_reinfEnviado porRenxiang Lu
- structuraldesign00wams.pdfEnviado porAmirHGh
- Couple Shear WallEnviado porBhushan Raisinghani
- 1-s2.0-S0045794999001157-mainEnviado poranandarya
- RECTBEAM (318-05)Enviado porronald_gapuz8596
- RCDC V6.0 Release Notes.pdfEnviado porManolito Jr. Garcia
- 248441082-PCs-corbel-EN-4-2009-1228-0.pdfEnviado porJoseph Booker
- R5210103 Strength of Materials - IEnviado porsivabharathamurthy
- Software_Package_Design_Expert_version_2.pdfEnviado porOctavian Cicu
- STRUCTURAL DESIGN.pdfEnviado porHeronijosh Dg
- Memoria VigaEnviado porKarina Manjarres Vergara
- 3 moment eqnEnviado porRahul Gaikwad
- Shear and MomentEnviado portarick223
- som 1 ut 2.docEnviado porAinnar Kesavan
- Training ReportEnviado porKaushal Patel
- criticalthinkingphysicsproblems-140308223506-phpapp01Enviado pormineasaroeun
- IS_800Enviado porDeepakSinghavi
- TheeffectofrotatoryinertiaonthenaturalfrequenciesofcompositebeamsEnviado porrahulbqa
- Isolated sloped footing SpreadsheetEnviado porarif_rubin
- 2-TVGovindrajuEnviado porvijaynagathan
- Design CaculationsEnviado pormkpasha55mp
- Design Combined FootingEnviado porankurshah1986
- Design of Steel Structure beamEnviado porShahrah Man
- Dynamics_13esi_solutions_manual_c19.pdfEnviado porNkoshiEpaphrasShoopala

- pd.4536.pdfEnviado portengzc
- Vibration of rotating functionally graded Timoshenko nano beams with nonlinear thermal distribution.pdfEnviado portengzc
- gy7777Enviado portengzc
- Op 00000Enviado portengzc
- br5555.pdfEnviado portengzc
- Numerical simulation on coupling behavior of Terfenol-D rods[2006].pdfEnviado portengzc
- p187_chap01Enviado porMahmud Muhammad
- ioi80225_858_866.pdfEnviado portengzc
- ppl1713.pdfEnviado portengzc
- obr1053.pdfEnviado portengzc
- jomms-v10-n5-p02-p.pdfEnviado portengzc
- Free Vibration of Piezoelectric Annular PlateEnviado portengzc
- jomms-v4-n4-p05-pEnviado portengzc

- Ex 10Enviado por3a2d
- New Scudoart EnEnviado porVictor Omotoriogun
- 3-IJTPE-Issue6-Vol3-No1-Mar2011-pp19-23.pdf-9.pdfEnviado porbetzabe
- LightingEnviado porHAFIZ IMRAN AKHTER
- Failure.pptEnviado porQaz Zaq
- Diffraction (Revision)Enviado porMaruf Hassan
- Design and Calculation ShaftEnviado porDavid Lambert
- problems on MechanismEnviado porsushil.vgi
- Low Cycle Fatigue AnalysisEnviado porChirag Sanghani
- Specification Final bEnviado porKoushik Saha
- polarisation.docxEnviado porrisham
- 4pointEnviado porFaiz Hashim
- ANSYS Mechanical APDL Thermal Analysis GuideEnviado porMarcelo Amaral
- Physics of Thin FilmsEnviado pordaljot
- Material HardnessEnviado porArun Kumar
- Magnetism Part 1Enviado porBernadine Jacob Trinidad
- Langmuir_1Enviado porMichael Dang
- FHN 0916 D Ceiling ExposedEnviado porJeghi
- Irwin KiesEnviado porDeepak Kumar Behera
- NORMA API 1104Enviado porJuan Ayala Valdebenito
- Syllabus - 2nd Six WeeksEnviado porApple Tiongco Santos
- Flyer Wind January2012Enviado porCarl Crow
- alumiinium_AL6005T5Enviado porjalilemadi
- Diesel Cycle AnalysisEnviado porSarah Asghar
- STPM Baharu Chemistry SyllabusEnviado porChung Chee Yuen
- HPLC and Column Liquid ChromatographyEnviado porDaniel Moreno Ramírez
- CH7-1.pptEnviado porNikola Trnavac
- Thermodynamics TemperatureEnviado porRamdhan Hidayat
- BEM Dec08-Feb09 (Environment)Enviado porHazim Mohamad
- MicroscopyEnviado porSuresh Mg

## Muito mais do que documentos

Descubra tudo o que o Scribd tem a oferecer, incluindo livros e audiolivros de grandes editoras.

Cancele quando quiser.