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Java Identifiers

A name in a java Program is called an Identifier.Which can be used for representing


classes,methods , variables and labels.
Rules:
1.Java Identifier is composed of a sequence of charaters,Which each charater may
be a letter from a to b or A to B or digit from 0 to 9 or currency symbol ($) or
connecting symbol (_).If we use other charater we will get commpail time error
saying illegal charater.
2.No identifier starts with the digit.
3.There is no length limit for java identifier ,but SUN highly recommened upto 15
charaters .
4.Identifier in java are casesensitive.
5.we are not allowed to use reserved words as identifier.
6.All predefined java class names ,you are allowed to use as identifiers.
Examples:
Total (√)
total123 (√)
123total (×)
total$ (√)
_total (√)
total# (×)
total_numbers (√)
total-numbers (×)

Java KeyWords

Some identifiers are reserved in Java which has saparate functionality and meaning
such type of reserved indentifiers are called reserved words.
53 reserved words are there in java
50 are keywords-----------48 used keywords,2 unused keywords(goto,const)
3 reserved literals----------true,false,null
Keywords for premitive datatypes:
*byte *short *int *long
*float *double *char *boolean
Keywords for flow control:
*if *else *switch *case *default *for
*do *while *break *continue *return
Keywords for Exception Handling:
*try *catch *finally *throw *throws *assert
Keywords for modifiers:
*public *private *protected *static *abstract *strictfp
*final *transient *native *volitle *synchronised
Class related key words:
*class *interface *package
*extends *implements *import
Object related key words:
*new *instanceOf *super *this
Other:
Void
Unused keywords:
*const *goto
Example:
class KeyEx1
{
int goto=10; ←---------------here we will get identifier expected error
}
Reserved literals:
*true *flase *null
New key words in j2SE 1.5:
*enum
All the key words contains only lower case alphabate symbols

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Java Data Types
In java any variable has a type ,any express as a type and every type is strictly
defind.Compiler will check all asignments for type compatability .Hence java is
considered as strong typed language.
Java Language is not considered as pure oop language because some non-object
(primitive data types)we have to maintain in our code sun people has interduced
wrapper class to convert primitive to object form.

Data type --------------------- Wrapperclass


byte ------------------------- Byte
short ------------------------- Short
char ------------------------- Character
int ------------------------ Integer
float ------------------------ Float
double ----------------------- Double
boolean ---------------------- Boolean
long ----------------------- Long
Primitive types:
Numeric types:
Integral types for whole numbers
byte short int long

Floating point data types:


float double
char for character data type
boolean for logical values
except boolean and char the remaining data types are signed datatypes.i.e we can
represent both positive and negative numbers by using numerical datatype.

java byte Datatype :


size---------8bits or 1 byte
range------ -128 to +127
native numbers are represented in 2’s complement form
this data type is best suitable of your handling data in terms of streams from a file or
network
byte b=100; (valid)
byte b=200; (invalid)-----PLP found int required byte

short Datatype:
size------------16 bits or 2 bytes
range--------- -2 pow 15 to + 2 pow 15-1 i.e -32768 to 32767
this data type is very rarely used type in java.but best suitable for 16 bit
process(these 16 bit processer are completely out dated and hence also the short
data type is out dated now a days)

int data type:


size----------- 32 bits or 4bytes
range-------- -2 pow 31 to 2 pow 31-1 i.e -2147483648 to +2147483648
in c language the size of int is varied from platform to platform .the c program
written for 32 bit proccesser can not run on 16 bit processor.hence chance of failing
of c programe is very high .if we change plaiform. As a result c is not considered as a
robust language.
But in the case of java the size of any data type is fixed for any platform . hence
chance of failing of java program is very very lass .if we change platform. As a result
java is considered as a robust language.

Long datatype:
Size----------64 bits or 8bytes
Range------- -2 pow 63 to 2 pow 63 -1
If int is not enough to hold big values like the amount of distence trvelled by light in
1000 days,we shoud go for long datatype only.
Float datatype:
Size--------------32bits or 4 bytes
Range---------- -3.4e38 to + 3.4e38
For 6 to 7 decimal places of accuracy , we should for float data type.so this is less
accuracy.

Double datatype:
Size--------------64bits or 8 bytes
Range---------- -1.7e308 to + 1.7e308
For 14 to 15 decimal places of accuracy , we should for double data type.so this is
more accurency.

Boolean datatype:
The size of boolean is not applicable.(it is purely depend on the underlying
jvm).range not applicable.
But allowed values are true or flase. TRUE or FALSE are not allowed.

Char datatype:
Size--------------16 bits or 2 bytes.
Range----------- 0 to 65535.
This is to providing unicodes for all the worldwide charater sets.

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java Literals

A constant value which can be assigned to a variable is known as Literal.If we are


assigning any outside range value for any data type ,we will get a compile time error
saying Possible Loss of Precision found int required byte.
For the integral data types (int ,byte,short,long) :we are allowed to specify a
literal value of any any one of the following three forms.
---> Decimal literal (normal way)
--->Octa literal (prefixed with 0 )
--->Hexa decimal (prefixed with 0x )

int x=10 ------------> Decimal


int x=010 ------------>Octa
int x=0X10 -------------->Hexa
In the Hexa decimal notation for the extra digits we are allowed to specify either
small or upper case a,b,c or A,B,C (this is one of the few places where java is not
case sensitive).
Example:
class Sample {
public static void main(String add[]) {
int i = 10;
int j=010;
int k=0x10;
System.out.println( i+”….”+j+”…”+k);
}}
Output: 10,8,16
JVM gives only decimal form as output regardless of input as octa or hexa.
All the integral literals (decimal.octa,hexa) are by default int.
We can specify explicitly a long literal by suffixing l or L.
There is no direct way to specify the short,byte values.
Assigning chart (Possible assignments):
With out final compiler gives error .with final is possible because int has 4 bytes by
declaring it final and that literal (10) is with in the size of byte.

int Literal Example:


class Literalone {
public static void main(String ass[]) {
int i='a';
byte b1='b';
char ch='b';
//byte b=ch; ---------->error (PLP found : char required: byte
System.out.println(i); -------------> output is 97
//System.out.println(b);
}}

floating Point Literal:


The floating point literals by default double.
Ex: float f=123.453; ----------> is invalid
Got error as PLP required :float found:double
A floating point literal can be specified as float type by suffixing with f or F
Example:
float f=128.453f or F (valid)
float f=123.456; (not valid)
double d=123.456; (valid)
double d=123.453f; (valid)
double d=123.345d or D; (valid)
A floating point literal can be explicitly double by suffixing with D or d;
float f=123.56d; (not valid)
A floating point literals must always specify in the decimal form only .there is no
hexa decimal or octal form.
float f=123.0; (not valid)
float f=123; (valid)
float f= 0123; (valid)
float f=0x123; (valid)
We can assign an integral literal (decimal,octal,hexa) to the float data type directly
(*no need to specify the f or F).
We can’t assign a floating point literal to the integral types.
int i=123.34 (not valid)

boolean Literal:
boolean valid literals are true or flase
boolean b=10; (not valid error PLP found:int reqired :boolean)
char literals:
A char literal can be specified as a single charter in single codes.
Ex: char ch=’@’; (valid)
char ch=a; (not valid)
char ch=’ad’; (not valid) error unclosed character literal.
An integral literal which represents the Unicode value of the character.
Ex: char ch=97; output: a
The valid integral literals must be from 0 to 65535.
for the Unicode values which are not sported by the system,we get ‘?’ as output.
char ch=0x(face) (valid)
char ch=ox61; output:1
The Unicode may be in octal /hexa decimal form.
char ch=97 ;
char ch= ‘a’;
char ch= 0x61;
char ch=’\uXXXX’; --------------------->Unicode representation
Ex: char ch=’\u0061’; output=a;
Unicode representation in nothing but \u followed by 4 digit hexadecimal number .
(only small u,capital u is not allowed).
char ch=’\uface’; valid output: ?
char ch=’\ubeef’; valid
char ch=\ubeef; invalid ‘ ‘ missed.
char ch=’\ibeef’; invalid u missed.
Escape charater
Ex: char ch=’\b’; valid
char ch=’\t’; valid
char ch=’\n’; valid
char ch=’\f’; valid
char ch=’\k’; not valid
Escape sequences:
unicode value charater
\u0008 backspace
\u0009 horizental tab
\u000a new line
\u000d carriage return
\u000c form feed
\u0027 single quote
\u0022 double quote
\u005c back space

String literal:
Instead of \n and /r we are not allowed to the corresponding unicode charater
\u000a and \u000d
Validation leads to compile time error ever in the comments also.
String s=” laxman scjp”; (valid)
String s=”laxman \n scjp”; (valid)
String s=”laxman \t scjp”; (valid)
String s= “laxman \u0009 scjp”; (valid)
String s= “laxman \u000a scjp”; (not valid) gives error illegal escape character
String s=”laxman \u000d scjp”; (not valid) gives error illegal eacape chracter

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Java Variables

Depends on the content hold by the variables are divided into two categories.
1.reference variable
2.primitive variable
reference variable can be used to hold object references.
Ex: String s=”Laxman”;
Here s is a String object
Primitive variable can be used to hold primitive values.
Example: int i=10;
int[][] a={{1,2},{3,4,5},{6,7,8,9},{}};
for(int i=0;i <= a ;i++)
System.out.println(a[i].length);
}
output: 2,3 ,4,0
Depends on the position at which it is declared all the variables divided into 3
categories.
1.instance variables/attributes/member variables
2.static variables
3.local variables
Example:
class Student {
String name;
int rollno;
public static void main(String arg[]) {
Student s=new Student();
}
}

Instance variables:
If the values of the variables are varied from instance to instance3, such type of
variables are called instance variables.We can declare instance variables with in class
,but outside of any method or block.These are also known as attributes
/properties/member variables.The instance variable will create when ever an object
is created and destroyed ,whenever garbage collection destroys this object.Instance
variable will get default variable no need to perform ,explicit initialization.

Static variables:
A single copy of the static variable will maintain and shared by all instances .the
value of the static variable is the same for the instances.The static variable will
create whenever the class loaded into the memory and destroy whenever the class is
unloaded from the memory.These variables are also known as fields.
Example:
class Student {
String name;
int rollno;
static String collname;
Public static void main(String arg[]) {
Student s1=new Student();
System.out.println(s1.name); // null
System.out.println(collname); // null
}
}
With out s1 and static Compile time error
Static variables will get default values .No need to perform explicit initialization.
System.out.println(Student.collname);
System.out.println(s1.collname);
Static variables we can access by using either class name (highly recommended) or
by using object reference.

Local variables:
The variables which are declared inside a method or block or constructor or as
method argument are called local variables.Also known as temporary variables /stack
variable/automatic variables.The local variables will create as the part of the method
execution and will destroy when ever the method terminates.The local variables
never get default values and must be initialized before using that local
variable.Violation leads to CTE saying variable I might not have been initialized.

Example:
case1:
class Sample{
public static void main(String arg[]){
int i;
System.out.println(”hello”); // hello
}}
Case2: class Sample{
public static void main(String arg[]) {
int i;
System.out.println(i); // CTE variable I might not have been initialized.
}}
Case3: class Sample {
public static void main(String arg[]) {
int i=10;
System.out.println(i); // 10
}}
Case4: class Sample {
public static void main(String arg[]) {
int i;
if(arg.length>0) {
i=20;
}
System.out.println(i); // error
}}
It is not recommended to initialized local variable with in the logical blocks .(But
legal)
Case 5:class Sample {
public static void main(String arg[]) {
int i;
if(arg.length>0) {
i=20;
}
else{
i=40;
}
System.out.println(i); // valid
}}
Case6: class Sample{
int[] a;
public static void main(String arg[]) {
Sample s=new Sample();
System.otu.println(s.a); // null
System.out.println(a) // error
System.out.println(s.a[0]); //RTE ---> null pointer exception
System.out.println(a.length); // RTE ---> null pointer exception
}}
case 7: If we declare as static int [] a;
System.out.println(a) // null
System.out.println(a[0]); //RTE ---> null pointer exception
System.out.println(a.length); // RTE ---> null pointer exception
Case8: static int [] a =new int[6];
public static void main(String arg[]) {
Sample s=new Sample();
System.out.println(a) // [I@add234]
System.out.println(a[0]); //0
System.out.println(a.length); //6
}
case9: class Sample {
public static void main(String arg[]) {
int [] a;
System.out.println(a); // error
System.otu.println(a[0]);
System.out.println(a.length);
}}
case10: class Sample {
public static void main(String arg[]) {
int [] a=new int[6];
System.out.println(a); // [I@add34]
System.out.println(a[0]); // 0
System.out.println(a.length); // 6
}}
Once an array object is created its elements will always get default values.
summarization:
Instance array:
int [] a;
System.out.println(objref.a) //null
System.out.println(objref.a[0]); // null pointer exception
System.out.println(objref.a.length); //null pointer Exception
int [] a=new int[6];
System.out.println(objref.a) //[I@add234]
System.out.println(objref.a[0]); // 0 default value for int
System.out.println(objref.a.length); //6
Static array:
static int [] a;
System.out.println(objref.a); //null
System.out.println(objref.a[0]); // null pointer exception
System.out.println(objref.a.length); //null pointer Exception
static int [] a=new int[6];
System.out.println(objref.a) //[I@add234]
System.out.println(objref.a[0]); // 0 default value for int
System.out.println(objref.a.length); //6
Local array:
int [] a;
System.out.println(objref.a) //CTE
System.out.println(objref.a[0]); // CTE
System.out.println(objref.a.length); //CTE
int [] a=new int[6];
System.out.println(objref.a) //[I@add234]
System.out.println(objref.a[0]); // 0 default value for int
System.out.println(objref.a.length); / /6

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Coding Standards

Java coding standards:


Sun recommended the following for the naming conventions.

1.In case of classes:


The first letter should be capitalized and if the several words are linked together to
form the name ,the first letter of the inner words should be upper case.
For the classes the names should be nouns .
Ex:Student,Customer ,Employee etc.

2.In case of Interfaces:


For the interfaces the names should be adjective and follows camel case.
Ex:
Runnable .Serializable,cloneable,Comparable,Movable etc

3.In case of Methods:


The first letter should be lower case and then normal camel case rules should be
used.
The names should be verb –noun pairs
Ex: getBalance(); doCalculation(0;
setCustomerName();
4.In case of variables:
Like methods the camel case format should be used stating with a lower case letter.
Ex: buttonwidth;
accountBalance
mystring

5.Constants:
java constants are created by marking variables as and final.
They should be named using upper case letter with unscore (_) is the saperator.
Ex: MIN_HIGHT,MAX_HIGHT

Java Beans Naming Conventions:


Java Beans are java classes that have properties.For every property there should be
getter and setter methods.
All the properties must be declared as the private (to get security)
For every non – Boolean property will we should have public getXXX() method.
i.e the getter method is no argument method only.
For the Boolean properties we can have setter method public setXXX()

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Arrays Decleration Construction initialization

An array is a data structure that defines an indexed collection of fixed number of


homogeneous data elements.Once the size of array is fixed there is no chance of
increasing or decreasing its size.Array show wonderful performance when compared
with the collections.
Declaration of array:
Become name is clearly saperated form the type,first one is the highly recommended
way.
At the time of deceleration we are not allowed to specify the size ,violation leads to
compail time error.

Array Example:int [] a; (valid)


int[6] a; (not valid)
For deceleration of 2/3 dimensional array
int [][] a; (valid)
int [][][]a; (valid)
int a[][]; (valid)
int a[][][]; (valid)
int [] a[][]; (valid)
int [] a[][]; (valid)
int [][]a; (valid)
int [][] a[]; (valid)
int[] a. b[]; (valid)
int[] a,[]b; (not valid)
int a,b[]; (valid)
int [][]a[]; (valid)

Example:
int []a[]; ------>2 di
int []a[];-------->2di
int []a[],b[]; ------->a is 2 di,b is 2 di
int []a[],[]b[]; --------> //not valid

Construction of arrays:
At the time of construction we should specify the size ,other wise compail time error
occures.
i.e int a =new int [6]; (not valid)
int [] a=new int []; (not valid)
int s[]=new int[0]; (valid)
It is legal to have an array with size zero.

Example: int [] a=new int [-6]; (not valid)


We are not allowed to specify the size of the array as nagative number,violation
leads to runtime exception saying negative array size exception.
char/short /byte/int b=6;
int [] a=new int [b]; (valid)
long/double/float b=6;
int [] a=new int [b]; (not valid)

 If we want to specify the size of the array by using some variable ,the allowed
data type for that variable are byte,short,char,int(i.e any data type which can
be implicitly promoted to the int type).
 The maximum allowed size for java array is 2147483647.
 Once an array is created ,all the elements will assign with default values
(depends on data types)

Example:
int [] a=new int [6];
000000
Then a -------------------->For int default 0,for string it is null
int [][] a= new int [3][2];
Then a-----------------------> In java the 2 dimensional array is not implemented as
the matrix.it is simply an array of arrays.
int [][] a= new int [3][];
a[0] =new int[2];
a[1]=new int[3];
a[2]=new int[4];
so,no need to specify the second dimension in 2d,3d arrays.
Array Examples:
int [][] a=new int[3][2]; (valid)
int [][] a=new int[3][]; (valid)
int [][] a=new int[][2]; (not valid)
int [][] a=new int[][]; (not valid)
Base size should be specified mandatory.

int [][][] a new int [2][][]; (valid)


int [][][] a new int [2][3][]; (valid)
int [][][] a new int [][3][4]; (not valid)

Example:
int[] a=new int [6];
System.out.println(a[0]); -----------> output: 0
boolean[] b=new booleab[3];
System.out.println(b[0]); -------------> output: false
String s=new String [6];
System.out.println(s[0]); -------------->output: null

Example:
int [][] a=new int [2][3];
System.out.println(a[0]); -----------> output: Garbage value[I@add234]
System.out.println(a[0][0]); -----------> output: 0
int [][] a=new int [2];
System.out.println(a[0]); -----------> output: null
System.out.println(a[0][0]); -----------> output: Null Pointer Exception

Initializing an array:
int [] a=new int[3];
a[0]=20;
a[1]=30;
a[2]=40;
a[3]=50 ------> Leads to array index out of bound Exception
If you are accessing an array with invalid index or some -ve index we will get a RTE
saying array out of bound exception.
a[4.0]; ---------> leads to compail time error
Deceleration ,construction and initialization in single line:
int [] a;
a=new int [3];
Example:
char[] ch={‘l’,’a’,’x’,’m’,’a’,’n’};
String [] s= {“laxman”,”scjp”};
int [] a;
a ={10,20,30}; ----------------> Leads to compail time error illegal start expression
so Declaration,contraction,initialization must in a single Line.

length Vs length():
length:This is a variable.applicable for only for array objects represents the number
of elements or the size of the array.
Ex1:
int a=new int[6];
System.out.println(a.length); ------------------> output: 6
Can’t apply to String
Ex2:
String s=”Laxman”;
System.out.println(s.length);
Given CTE because length variable applicable only for array objects.
length(): It is a final method applicable for string objects.
It represents the number of characters present in the String Object.
Ex:
String s=”Laxman”;
System.out.println(s.length()); ---------> 4
System.out.println(s.length); ---------->error
Anonymous Arrays:
There are name less arrays.
Purpose of these anonymous arrays is just for instant use.
Example:
class Sample {
public static void main(String arg[]) {
System.out.println(sum(new int[]{10,20,30}));
}}
output: 60
While constructing anonymous arrays we are not allowed to specify the size
.violation leads to compile time error.
If we want ,we can assign anonymous array for any reference variable.
i.e int [] a=new int[] {10,20,30,40}; ----------> valid

Array Element Assignments:


As array elements we can take any values which can be implicitly promoted to
declared type.
int[] a =new int{3};
a[0]=10; -------> valid
a[0]=’a’; -------->valid because char can be implicitly promoted to int type.
a[0]=b; ---------->valid because byte can implicitly promoted to int type.
a[0]=10l; --------->CTE because long can’t be implicitly promoted to int
Here we can give only String objects.
Object[] o=new Object[b];

 If an array is declared as object reference array we are allowed to assign the


objects of either declared type or its child classes.

Array variable Assignments:


Case 1: int [] a={10,20,30};
char [] ch={‘a’,’b’,’c’};
int [] b=ch; -------------->CTE Incompatible types reqired:int[] found:char[]
A char element can be assigned in the place of int element .But we are not allowed
to give a char array in the place of int array.
But int [] b=a; ---------> valid
Case 2: int [] a={10,20,30,40};
int [] b={50,60,70};
In this case a=b and b=a, both are valid because while assigning one array to
another we have to consider only types irrespective of sizes.
Char ch={‘a’,’b’,’c’,’d’};
a=ch; --------->Incompatable not valid
case 3: int [][] a=new int[2][3];
a[0]=new int [6]; -------> valid
But a[0]=new int [2][3] -------> not valid
Int [][] a=new int[2][];
a[0]=new int[6]; -------> valid
a[0]=10; --------->CTE incompatable types reqired : int[] found : int
a[0]=new int [2][3]; -----------> CTE incompatable types reqired : int[] found : int[]
[]
case 4: int [] a=new int[6];
System.out.println(a.length); -------------> 6
Int [][] a=new int [3][4];
System.out.println(a.length); -------------> 3
System.out.println(a[0].length); -----------> 4
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Java operators

Operators&Assignments:
• increment/decrement
• shift
• arithmetic
• equality(==,!=)
• relational
• bit-wise
• short-circuit
• instanceof
• cast
• conditional(?)
• new
•[]
Increment& decrement operators:
• Post Increment ------> y=x++;
• Pre Increment ------> y=++x;
• Post Decrement ------> y=x--;
• Pre Decrement ------> y=--x;

Example: int x=4;


int y=x++;
System.out.println(y); //4 .unexpecompile time errord type.
System.out.println(x); //5

Example: int y=++4;


System.out.println(y); //Compile time error

 Increment or decrement operators, we can apply Only for variables not for
constant expressions. Violation leads to Compile time error saying
unexpecompile time errord type Required: variable but found=value.

Ex: int x=4;


int y=++(++x);
System.out.println(y); //COMPILE TIME ERROR

 we can apply increment/decrement operators for variables only one time. Ie .


nesting of increment/decrement operators are not allowed.

Ex: int x=y;


final int x=y;
x++;--- [x=x+1] x++;
System.out.println(x); //5
System.out.println(x); //COMPILE TIME ERROR

 Increment/decrement operators, we can’t apply for the final variables.


Violation leads to compile time error saying can’t assign a values to final.
Ex: double d=10.5;
d++; System.out.println (d); //1.5

 Increment/decrement operators, we can apply for floating point data types.

Ex: byte b=10;


b=b+1;
System.out.println (b); //compile time error
Possible loss of precession
found: int , required :byte

Ex: byte b=10;


b=b++;
System.out.println (b); //11
i.e automatic typecasting takes place internaly

Ex: byte a=10;


byte b=20;
byte c=a+b;
System.out.println (c); //compile time error

 if we can perform any arithmetic operation between any 2 variables a and b


the result is always max (int, type a, type b )

byte + short=int
char + char=int
int + char=int
int + long=long
doubles + byte=double

Arithmetic OPERATORS:-( + , - , * , / , % )
byte a=10
byte b=20
byte c=a+b; //compile time error plp req:byte
 If we can perform arithmetic operators b/w any two operands a and b , the
result type is, max(int, type a, type b)

Ex: int a=10+’a’ => 10+97=107


double b=10+12.5 => 10.0+12.5=>22.5;

 For representing infinity, there are no constant ; define in the integer class.
Hence 0/0 results is sum time exception saying arithmetic exception

System.out.println(10/0); //Runtime Exception by zero .


System.out.println(10.0/0); //infinity
System.out.println(10.0f/0); //infinity

 But in the float and double classes for representing infinity constants are
defined.

System.out.println (Float. POSITIVE_INFINITY); // infinity


System.out.println( Float NEGATIVE_ INFINITY); //-infinity

final float postive_ infinity ,


final float negative _ infinity are the constants contain in float class.
0/0 is undefined in the Integer class for representing undefined results there is no
constant available . Hence 0/0 results arithmetic exception.
0/0 →arithematic exception but in float and double classes for representing
undefined values there is a commands available . public static final float NaN.
NaN→not a number and public static final double NaN

Ex:System.out.println(0.0 / 0) → NaN
System.out.println(Math.sqrt(4)); → 2.0
System.out.println(Math. Sqrt(-4)); → NaN.
System.out.println(10/0)→ Arithmatic exception
System.out.println(10.0 / 0)→ infinity
System.out.println(-10.0 /0→ - infinitz
System.out.println(0/0) → Arithematic Exception.
System.out.println(0.0/0 → NaN
System.out.println(-10/0) → arithmatic exception
System.out.println(-10.0/0)→ -infinity,
System.out.println(-0.0/0)→ NaN.
Float. POSITIVE_INFINITY = = Float. POSITIVE_INFINITY; // true
Float . POSITIVE_INFINITY = =Double. POSITIVE_INFINITY. // true
Float . NaN = =Float. NaN.
Float. NaN >double. NaN }false
Float. NaN !=Float. NaN →true.

 if one are comparing NaN with any other , including NaN itself, the result is
always false, except for not equal(!=)operator.

Arithmetic exception:

1. runtime exception (unchecked)


2. only in the cone of integer arithmetic.
3. / and % only there two operators result in Arithmetic exception.
String concatenation operation:-
‘+’ is the only operator in java which in overloaded. We can one for arithmetic
addition and for string concatenation.
String a=”java”.
int b=30;
int c=20;
int d=10;
System.out.println (a+b+c+d);→java302010;
System.out.println(b+a+c+d);→ 30java2010
System.out.println(b+c+d+a); →60java
System.out.println(b+c+a+d);→50java10.

* If at least one operand is of string type then + acts as string concatenation


operator other wise + acts as arithematic operator.

SHIFT OPERATORS(1.4 ONLY):-


Left shift (<<)
Right shift ( >>)
Unsigned /zero filling right shift operator ( >>>)
In order to get high resolution of pictures
For compression of data also used these shift operators frequently use in j2me
edition.
Left Shift Operator:
a << b shift the bits of a ,b times to the left hand side.
Ex: 8 << 33 then 8 << 33 % 32 = 8 << 1 // result=16
Ex: 8 << - 31 then 8 << -31+32 = 8 << 1 // result= 16

Right Shift Operator:


a>>b shift the bits of a ,b times to the right hand side by filling the left hand side
bits with sign bit.
8 >> 1 --> 0000 …….100 = 4.
Filled with sign bit zero.
a >> b =a/2 power b for 8 >> 1 =8/2 power 1 =8/2=4.
If b < 31 then b=b+32
If b >31 then b= b% 32.
- 8 >> 1 ---> -8/2 power 1 = -8/2= -4.

Unsigned Right Shift Operator:


a>>> b , shift the bits of a, b times to the right hand side. By filling left most bits
with zero always.If a is +ve ,then there is no difference between right shift and
unsigned right shift operator.Except shift distance zero ,the result of unsigned right
shift operator is always positive.
I few are applying shift operator between a and b the result type is always max(int
type of a)

Case1: byte b=8 >>1; // valid


Case2: int a=8;
byte b=a >> 1; // invalid
Case3: final int a=8;
byte b=a>>1; // valid
Case 4:long c=1;
byte b=8>>c; //invalid (as per max(int,type of a)
In a << ,>> ,>>> b ,If a and b ,both are compile time constants then the compiler
won’t go for formula for the result type.If at least one in the variable ,either a or b
then the compiler checks the type of the result which is max(int,type of a) , the type
b never participated in the result .

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Access modifiers

class Modifiers:
Once we are writing a class the access modifier describes the properties of that
class .(creation of child class is allowed or not ,creation of object is allowed or not
,we can access this class from outside the package or not and so on).
Access specifiers or Access modifiers are same in case of java.java compiler shows
the error related to public,static,.......so on , it use the word modifier not Specifier.
The allowed modifiers for the Top level classes are :
1.public 2.default 3. final 4.abstract 5. strictfp
If we are using other then these modifiers ,compile time error saying modifier some
not allowed here.
For the inner classes the following are allowed modifiers:
1.public 2. private 3.protected 4.default 5.final 6.abstract 7.static 8.strictfp

public class:
A public class can be accessed from any where with in the package /outside the
package.
package pack1;
public class B
{
System.out.println(“hai”);
}
package pack2
{
import pack1.B;
class A
{
public static void main(String arg[])
{
B b=new B(); // we can access
}

class:
If a class declared as the default ,we are allowed to access that class only with in the
current package.If you are trying to access from outside package compilation fails.
package pack1;
class B
{
System.out.println(“hai”);
}
package pack2
{
import pack1.B;
class A
{
public static void main(String arg[])
{
B b=new B(); //we can't access
}
Here class B is is default ,but not public in pack1.So this class can’t be accessed from
outside package.
final class:
If a class declared as the final then we are not allowed to create the child class.
Advantage:
We can implement security .
Limitation:As we are not allowed to create the child class,we are missing the key
benefits of object oriented programming ,re usability and flexibility.Its not a good
programming practice to use final classes in the real time unless security is required.
final method:
If a method declared as the final ,it indicates that this implementation is final
implementation.
i.e we are not allowed to override this implementation the child class.
Observations:

 If a class declared as the abstract ,we should create the child class to provide
implementation for abstract methods.
 If a class declared as the final ,you are not allowed to create the child
class.Hence final and abstract combination is illegal for classes.

Example:
class Sample
{
void m1(); //error: missing method body or declaration missing.
public static void main(String arg[])
{
System.out.println(“hai”);
}
}

 Abstract methods should be overridden in the child class to provide


implementation.But final methods are not allowed to override .Hence abstract
and final combination is illegal for methods also.
 A final class never allowed to contain abstract methods .but a final methods is
allowed to keep inside abstract class.i,e final method in abstract class is valid
But abstract method in final class is not valid.
 Abstract is the keyword which can be applied for classes and methods only.i.e
we can’t use abstract keyword for a variable.

 final is the keyword which can be applied for classes ,methods and variables.

Strictfp: Strict floating point

 This keyword we can apply for classes and methods .i.e we can’t apply strictfp
for the variables.
 If a method declared as the strictfp all the floating point calculations inside
that method has to follow “IEEE 754” standards so that we will get platform
independent result.
 If a class declared as the strictfp ,all concrete methods in that class has to
follow IEE 754 standard for floating point calculations .
 Abstract and strictfp combination is not-valid for methods .But it is valid
combination for the classes.

Not-valid combinations:
abstract and final .
abstract and strictfp
abstract and synchronized
abstract and static
abstract and native
abstract and private.

Method level Modifiers and Variable level Modifiers:


public members:
If a member is declared as public ,we are allowed to access that member from any
where with in the package or outside the package.
package pack1;
class A
{
public void m1()
{
System.out.println(“hai”):
}
}
package pack2;
import pack1.A;
class B
{
public static void main(String arg[])
{
A a=new A(); //error
a.m1();
}
}

 The corresponding class must be visible.Before checking member visibility


,first we have to check class visibility.

 If class A is declared as public ,then the class B compiles fine and prints “Hai”.

default member:
If a member declared as the default ,that member is visible with in the current
package only.
package pack1;
public class A
{
void m1()
{
System.out.println(“hai”):
}
}
package pack2;
import pack1.A;
class B
{
public static void main(String arg[])
{
A a=new A();
a.m1(); //error
}
}
error:m1() is not public in pack1.A.

 Hence default modifier is also known as package level modifier.


private members:

 If a member declared as the private we can access with in that class only.i.e
from outside the class,you are not allowed to access.
 It is highly recommended to declare data members as private to achieve
security.

protected member:The most misunderstood modifier in java .If a member declared


as the protected with in the current package,every where we are allowed to
access,but outside the package ,we can access only in the child classes.

protected= + child classes;

Example:
package pack1;
public class A
{
protected void m1()
{
System.out.println(“hai”);
}
}
case 1:
class B
{
public static void main(String arg[])
{
A a=new A();
a.m1(); // hai
}
}
Case 2:
class B extends A
{
public static void main(String arg[])
{
B b=new B();
b.m1(); // hai
}
}
case 3:
A a1=new B();
a1.m1(); //hai
case 4:
B a=new A();
a.m1(); // error
Example:
package pack2;
import pack1.A;
class B extends A
{
public static void main(String arg[])
{
A a=new A();
a.m1();
}
case 2:
B b=new B();
b.m1(); // valid
case 3:
a a1=new B();
a1.m1(); // in-valid
conclusions:

 The protected members can be accessed with in the current package any
where either by using parent class reference or by using child class reference.
 But from outside package we can access protected member only by using
child class reference .
 If we are using parent class reference to access protected member from
outside package we will get a compile time error.

Example:
case 1:
class Sample
{
public static void main(String arg[])
{
Object o=new Object();
o.finalize(); // error
System.out.println(“hai”);
}
}
error :finalize has protected access.
Case 2:
public static void main(String arg[])throws Throwable
{
Sample s=new Sample();
o.finalize(); // valid
System.out.println(“hai”);
}
case 3:
Object o=new Sample();
o.finalize(); //in valid

final variables:
final is the keyword which can be applied for methods classes and variables.

 Instance and static variables will get default values always .There is no need
to perform explicit initialization.
 But the local variables never get any default values .Before accessing a local
variable ,we should perform initialization other wise compile time error.
final instance variables :
For the final instance variables ,we should perform initialization other wise compile
time error.
The final instance variable must be initialization before constructor compiles.i.e at
the time of declaration or inside instance initialization block or inside constructor.
Example:
final int i;
public static void main(String arg[])
{
Sample s=new Sample()
System.out.println(s.i); // invalid
}

final-static variables:-
Final static variables must be initialized before class loaded into memory. otherwise
compile time error. i.e we can perform initialization for the final static variables at
one of the following places.
1. at the time of declaration
2. inside the static initialization block
final static int I;
static
{
int i=30;
}

final-local variables:-
Local variables even though we can declared as the final must be initialized before
using.
class Sample
{
Public static void main(String args[])
{
final int I;
System.out.println(“hai”);
} // hai

 For the local variables the only allowed modifier is final.

Example:
class test
{
public static void main(String arg[])
{
final int a; //instead of final we cant write int modifier
System.out.println(“hi”);
}
}

The variables which are declared as the method arguments are simply acts as local
variables of that method .hence the only applicable modifier for the logical variables
is final. If any formal parameter declared as the final we are not allowed change its
value with in the method.
Example:
class test
{
public static void main(String arg[])
{
m1(100,200);
}
}
public static void m1(final int i, final int j)
{
i=200; //error
i=300; //error
}
}
Static Modifier:

 The keyword static can be use for classes,methods, variables


 We can not apply static keyword for the top level classes,but we can apply
inner classes.

 For every object a separate copy of instance variables will be created but in
the case of static variables a single copy will be created at the class level and
shared by all the objects of that class.

Example:
class test
{
int i=10;
static int j=20;
public static void main(string arg[])
{
Test t1=new Test();
t1.i=100;
t1.j=200;
System.out.println(t1.i+’…”+t1.j); //100,200
Test t2=new Test();
System.out.println(t2.i+’…”+t2.j); // 10,200
t2.j=2000;
System.out.println(t1.i+’…”+t1.j); //100,2000
}
}
Most of the cases the keyword static associated with final modifier for defining class
level constants.
Non static variables can not be returning form static modifier/ content:
class test
{
int i=10;
public static void main(String arg[])
{
System.out.println(i);
}
}
error: Non static variable I cant be returning static content
example:
1) int i=10;
2) static int i=10;
3)public void m1()
{
System.out.println(i);
}
4) public static void m1()
{
System.out.println(i);
}
Which of the following are not allowed simultaneously in the same class
1) & 3) instance variable can't be accessed from instance area,either instance block,
constructors or instance access block

1) & 2) compile time error.. non static variables are instance variables can not be
referenced from static constant

2) & 3) , 2) & 4)… static variables can be accessed from any where either from
instance area or static area

3)Usually static methods are utility methods and we should provide complete
implementation but for abstract methods we are not allowed to provide
implementation . Hence abstrace and static combination is illegal for the methods.

4) we can overload static methods.but we can not override


Synchronized Keyword:

 Synchronized is the keyword which can be apply for method and blocks. i.e
we can not apply synchronized keyword for classes and variables.
 If a method declared as synchronized at a time only one thread is allowed to
execute that method on the given object.

Advantages:
1) We can provide thread safety
2) We can avoid data inconsistency problems
Disadvantages:
1)synchronized keyword increases waiting time of threads and hence performance of
the system goes down.hence unless and until there is no specific requirement do not
use synchronized keyword in the coding.
Note:Synchronized is the keyword which is always talks about implementation but
abstract never talks about implementation.Hence synchronized and abstract
combination is illegal for the methods.

Native Modifier:
Native is the keyword which can be apply only for methods. i.e we can not apply
native keyword for classes and variables.
1) A native method means. The method which is implemented in non-java like c,c+
+;
2) Native methods are also known as foreign methods.
Advantages of Native method:
1) As the performance of java is low for improving the performance we can depends
on c or c++. This stage methods can be helped by native keywords
2) We can communicate legacy systems by using native keyword
Demo:
class NativeEx
{
static
{
System.loadLibraries(“path of native methods library”);
}
native void m1();
}
class Client
{
public static void main(String arg[])
{
Native n=new NativeEx();
n.m1();
}
}

 For the native methods already implementation is available but abstract


method means implementation is not available .hence abstract and native
combination is illegal for the methods
 Native methods already implementation is available we are not providing any
implementation. hence nativemethod declaration should be ends with
semicolon
 Native and strictfp combination is illegal for methods because old languages
may not fallow IEEE 754 standerd for floating point.
 We can override a native method
 We can overload a native method

Transient Keyword:
Transient is the keyword which can be applicable only for variables i.e., we are not
allowed to use transient keyword for methods and classes.
Serialization:
The process of saving an object to a file is called serialization Strictly serialization
means “The process of converting java supported format object to network
supported format object (or) file supported format object is called serialization.
1)If a variable declared as a transient, at the time of serialization JVM ignores the
values of that the transient variable. Instead of original values JVM saves default
value.
2) Hence transient means not to serialize.
Example:- While saving account information permanently to a file we are not
allowed to save passwords for security reasons such type of variables we have to
declare by transient keyword
3)We can serialize only serializable objects violation leads to runtime exception
saying not serializable exception
4)An object is said to be serializable if an only if the corresponding class implements
serializable interface

Transient Example:
import java.io.*;
class Transient Demo implements Serializable
{
int i=10;
int j-20;
public static void main(string args[])throws exception
{
Transient demo t1=new transient demo();
System.out.println(t1.i+”----“+t1.j);
file output stream fos=new file output stream(“abc.txt”);
object output stream oos=new object output stream(fos);
oos.writeobject(t1);
//t1.i=1000
//t1.j=2000
FileInputStream fis=new FileInputStream(“abc.txt”);
ObjectInputStream fis=new ObjectInputStream(fis);
Transient Demo t2=( Transient Demo)ois.writeObject(t1);
System.out.println(“t2.i+”…”+t2.j);

1).If we are not declaring implements serializable we will get a runtime exception not
serializable exception
2)if we are not keeping throws exception compile time error saying unreported
exception must be called or declared to be thrown
Note:- static variables never part of object state hence we are not participating in
the serialization process during a static variables as the transient is useless and
there is no impact.

Volatile Keyword:
Volatile is the keyword which can be applicable only for variables i.e we can not use
for classes and methods . If the value of the variable is changing frequently such tpe
of variables we have to declare with the keyword volatile.
1) For the volatile variables JVM will create a separate private copy for every
thread.After completing entire transaction but that thread the final value will be
updated in the master copy. So that the value of the volatile variable is always stable
2) At variable level we can achieve synchronization by using volatile keyword
3) For every thread maintaining a separate copy is always difficult .hence
performance of the system goes down
4) Volatile means the value keep on changing but final means the value is not
allowed to change. Hence volatile and final combination is always illegal. We are not
declaring a final variable as volatile.

class,object

class:

In object-oriented programming, a class is a programming language construct that is


used as a blueprint to create objects. This blueprint includes attributes and methods
that the created objects all share.

Usually, a class represents a person, place, or thing - it is an abstraction of a concept


within a computer program. Fundamentally, it encapsulates the state and behavior of
that which it conceptually represents. It encapsulates state through data
placeholders called member variables; it encapsulates behavior through reusable
code called methods.

More technically, a class is a cohesive package that consists of a particular kind of


meta data. It describes the rules by which objects behave; these objects are referred
to as instances of that class. A class has both an interface and a structure. The
interface describes how the class and its instances can be interacted with via
methods, while the structure describes how the data is partitioned into attributes
within an instance. A class may also have a representation (meta object) at run time,
which provides run time support for manipulating the class-related meta data. In
object-oriented design, a class is the most specific type of an object in relation to a
specific layer.

Programming languages that support classes all subtly differ in their support for
various class-related features. Most support various forms of class inheritance. Many
languages also support features providing encapsulation, such as access specifiers.

class Example:

Class java

properties(variables);

Actions(methods);

object:

In its simplest embodiment, an object is an allocated region of storage. Since


programming languages use variables to access objects, the terms object and
variable are often used interchangeably. However, until memory is allocated, an
object does not exist.

Any language present objects and this should not be confounded with the most
powerful concept of object-orientation.
In procedural programming, an object may contain data or instructions, but not
both. (Instructions may take the form of a procedure or function.) In object oriented
programming, an object may be associated with both the data and the instructions
that operate on that data.

How an object is created depends on the language. In aprototype-based language


(e.g.,JavaScript) an object can be created from nothing, or can be based on an
existing object. In a class-based language (e.g- ,Java), an object is created as an
instance (or instantiation) of a class. The class forms a specification for the object.

To give a real world analogy, a house is constructed according to a specification.


Here, the specification is a blueprint that represents a class, and the constructed
house represents the object.
Object example:
class Sam

int i=10;

void mone()

System.out.println("java");

public static void main(String arg[])

Sam s=new Sam(); //Here is the Object


}

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Abstraction

Hiding internal implementation is called Abstraction.


Advantages:
Security
Enhancement easy
we can enhance the internal implementation with out effecting outside world.

Encapsulation

Encapsulation Advantages:
Security
Easy to enhance
Maintainability
Modularity
Example:
class Sample
{
public int i=10;
public int getId()
{
return i;
}
public void setId(int x)
{
this.i=x;
}
}
The major limitations od encapsulation is,it increases the code (because we have to
getter and setter methods for the data variables )and hence slows down the
execution.

Tightly encapsulated class:


A class is said to be tightly encapsulated if and only if data members as the private
Check whether the fallowing classes are tightly encapsulated or not.
a)
class A {
private int x=10;
public void setX(int x)
{
this.x=x;
}
public int getX()
{
return x;
} ------------------//tightly encapsulated

b). class A{ private int y=10;} -----//tightly encapsulated

c). class A{ private int x=20;} ----// A is tightly encapsulated, B is not


class B extends A{ private int y=30;}

d). class A{ int y=20;}


class B extends A{ private int z=40;}
class C extends B { private int l=50; }

• If the parent class is not tightly encapsulated no child class is tightly encapsulated.

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Java Inheritance

IS-A relation:
• Also known as Inheritance
• By using extends keyword we can implement IS-A relationship.
• Re usability is the benefit of IS-A relationship
Inheritance is accepted up to certain level but after reaching problems. Because for
every child class object, internally all the parent objects will be created in the
inheritance tree.
In the real time it is recommended to have inheritance up to 8 to 10 levels only.
Beyond that it is not suggestible.
is a relation Example:
class Superclass
{
void display()
{
System.out.println("Hi");
}
}
class InheritanceExample extends Superclass
{
public static void main(String arg[])
{
InheritanceExample ie=new InheritanceExample();
ie.display();
}
}
HAS-A relation:
• Also known as composition or Aggregation.
• By using new operator we can implement HAS-A relationship.
• Reusability (CBM->Component Based Model) is the benefit of HAS–A relationship.
• The limitation of HAS-A relationship is, we are increasing the dependency between
the classes. As a result, the maintenance of the code becomes complex or costly.
has a relation Example:
class Car
{
Engine e= new Engine();
. …….
.......
}
class Engine
{
m1(){}
m2(){}
}

Car class has Engine reference. Hence Car allowed using all the features of engine.
But without Engine object we can’t create Car object.

Method Signature
Method Signature :
Example:
public void m1(int a, int b)
{
m1(int, int); -----> signature of method m1
}

Example:
public void m1(int a, float b)
{
m1(int , float); //valid
m1(float , int);//invalid
}

• In java the method signature is compiled with method name and argument list (the
order of arguments also important).
• Return type is not part of the signature.
• Compiler uses the method signature to resolve method calls.
• With in a class two methods having same the signature is not allowed, violation
needs to CTE saying method is already defined in class.

Example:
class Test
{
public int m1(int i){}//invalid, CTE: m1(int) is already defined in test
public void m1(int i){}
}

Method Overloading

Method Overloading:
Two methods having the same name are not allowed in the case of C-language, for
every data type even though the functionality in the same; we should maintain
different method names. It increases the complexity of the programming. But in
java, two methods having the same name is allowed irrespective of parameters. We
can maintain the same method name for similar type of functionality. It simplifies
the programming. Such types of methods are called Overloaded methods.
• Two methods are said to be overloaded if and only of they have the same method
name, but different parameter list(at least order).
• The signatures of the two overloaded methods must be different.
Example:
public void m1(){}
private int m1(int i){}

• Here m1() & m1(int i) are overloaded. We never consider return type, access
modifier and throws class in overloading.
Example:
class Sample
{
public void m1()
{
System.out.println(“no arg”);
}
public void m1(int i)
{
System.out.println(“ int arg”);
}
public void m1(double d)
{
System.out.println(“ double arg”);
}
public static void main(String a[])
{
Sample s=new Sample();
s.m1();
s.m1(10);
s.m1(10.5);
}
}

• In the case of overloading which overloaded method must be executed is decided


method must be executed is decided by compiler only based on reference type.
• Ie., Overloaded method resolution is the duty of compiler only. Hence Overloading
is the best
ex. of static polymorphism and some times also known as Early Binding.

s.m1(10L);//double arg
s.m1(‘a’);//int arg

i.e., Automatic Promotion in Overloading:


• If we are calling a method m1() by passing char as arg on the sample reference
then the compiler will check in the Sample class for m1(), which can take char as the
arg.
• If it finds that method, it will execute at run time.If there is no such method the
compile promotes that char arg to the int arg and checks for m1(int) method.
• If there is no such method, the compiler will check for m1(long), fallowed by
m1(float),fallowed by m1(double). Still if the compiler won’t find any such method
then only compiler will raised CTE saying ‘cannot resolve the symbol m1(char).
CASE 1:
class Sample
{
public void m1(int i,float f)
{
System.out.println(“int,float”);
}
public void m1(float i,int f)
{
System.out.println(“float,int”);
}
public static void main(String a[])
{
Sample s=new Sample();
s.m1(10,10.0f);//int,float
s.m1(10.0f,10);//float,int
s.m1(10,10);//invalid-> CTE:reference m1 is ambiguous
}
}
CASE 2:
class Sample
{
public void m1(String s)
{
System.out.println(“String version”);
}

public void m1(Object o)


{
System.out.println(“Object version”);
}
public void m1(double d)
{
System.out.println(“double version”);
}
public static void main(String a[])
{
Sample s=new Sample();
s.m1(“viswan”);// String version
s.m1(new Object());// Object version
s.m1(null);// String version
}
}
If there is Double (wrapper class) then CTE: reference to m1 is ambiguous.
CASE 3:
class Animal
{
}
class Monkey extends Animal
{
}
public class OLStaticBinding {

public void m1(Animal a)


{
System.out.println("Animal version");
}
public void m1(Monkey m)
{
System.out.println("Monkey version");
}
public static void main(String a[])
{
OLStaticBinding s=new OLStaticBinding();
Animal a1 =new Animal();
s.m1(a1); // Animal version
Monkey m =new Monkey();
s.m1(m); // Monkey version
Animal a2 =new Monkey();
s.m1(a2); // Animal version

}
}
In the case of overloading the method resolution performed by the compiler is based
on the reference type.
Method Overriding

If you don’t want parent class implementation for any method we can override in the
child class based on our child class requirement. This concept is called Overriding.
While overriding we have to fallow rules:
1. In the overriding, the method names and arg’s must be same.
Ie. In the case of the overriding the signatures of the methods must be same
Until 1.4 version, the return types must be same. But from 1.5 version onwards
covariant return types are also allowed.
Example:
class p { public Number getNumber(){} }
class c extends P{ public Number getNumber(){} }

(or)
class C extends P
{
public Byte/Short/Integer getNumber(){}
}

 For Number class Byte/Short/Integer is co-variant return types or classes.


 Hence in case of overriding as the return type we can keep child class objects
also.

Example:
import java.io.*;
class P
{
public object m1(){ return new object; }
}
class C extends P
{
public Object m1(){ return new Object; }
}
class C extends P
{
public String m1(){ return “durga”; }
}//in 1.4 CTE saying m1() in C cannot override found:string, req:object: in 1.5 ver
no CTE

2. final methods can’t be overridden.


3. private methods never participate in the in the overriding because these methods
are not visible in the child classes.
4. While overriding decreasing access specifier is not allowed. Violation leads to CTE.

class P { public int m1(){} }


class C extends P { public int m1(){} }
Parent class -------------------------------- Child class
public ----------------------------------------------- public
protected ---------------------------------------- protected, public
default ---------------------------------------- default, protected ,public
private ---------------------------------------- private, default, protected, public

* While implementing any interface method, we should declare that method as public
in the implemented class.(by default implements interface method is public and
abstract)
* An abstract method can be overridden as abstract. The child of the original child
class is responsible for the implementation.

class P{
public void m1()
{ } }//non abstract
abstract class C extends P{
public abstract m1(); }//valid abstract

5. While overriding the size of the CheckedException should not increase. There is no
rule for UnCheckedExceptions.
Example: Base or parent class :
public void m1()throws IOException
Derived or child class :

public void m1()throws FileNotfoundException //valid

public void m1()throws Exception -->CTE

public void m1()throws RunTimeException //valid

 We can override a synchronized method to non-synchronized and vice versa


 We can override native to native to non native and vice versa.
 We can override a non-final method to final method.
 We can’t override a static method to non static and a non-static method to
static violation leads to CTE .
 While overriding method has to execute will be decided by JVM based on the
Run Time Object. Hence Overriding is an example of “dynamic polymorphism”
or “LateBinding” (Dynamic Method dispatch).
 If the parent’s class reference can be used to hold child class object by using
that reference we are allowed to call only parent class methods. Child class
specific methods are not allowed to call by using parent class reference.

Method Hiding:-
This is exactly same as overriding except both parent & child class methods must be
declared as static. In the method hiding the method resolution take care by compiler
only based on the reference type.
Ex:
class P
{
static int x=10;
int y=20;
}
class C extends P
{
static int x=100;
int y=200;
}
class Sample
{
public static void main(String[] a)
{
P p=new C();
System.out.println(p.x+”,”+p.y); //10,20
C c=new C();
System.out.println(c.x+”,”+c.y); //100,200
P p1=new P();
System.out.println(p1.x+”,”+p1.y); //10,20
}
}

 We can’t override in the child class. But if define exactly same variable in
child class.
 Variable resolutions take care by compiler only based on the reference type.

Constructors
The purpose of Constructor is to perform of our creted object. Whenever we are
calling new operator for the creation of object, it calls constructor automatically to
provide initialization for the object.
class Student
{
String name; int rno;
Student(String name, int rno) ----> Constructor
{
this.name=name;
this.rno=rno;
}
public static void main(String a[])
{
Student s=new Student(“xxx”,101);
Student s1=new Student(“yyy”,102);
-------
------
}
}
Rules Of Constructor :
1. Constructor concept is applicable for every class including abstract class also.
2. Interface doesn’t have Constructor’s concept.
3. The name of the const4ructor and the name of the class must be same.
4. The allowed modifiers for the constructors are public, private, protected, and
default. If you are applying any other we will get a CTE saying “modifier xxx not
allowed her”.
5. We can’t give return type for the constructor even void also.

If we will give return type for the constructor that thing as a method instead of
constructor that thing as a method instead of constructor (so,there is no CTE). Ie., it
is legal (but stupid) to have a method whose name same as classname.
Default Constructor:-
If the programmer is not writing any constructor, then only compiler will generate a
default constructor.
Ie., either programmer written constructor or compiler generated must present in
your class but not both at a time.
Prototype of default constructor shown below:
a).Programmer written code:- class Test{}
Compiler generated code:-
class Test
{
Test()
{
super();
}
}

 The default constructor is always no argument constructor.


 The access modifier of the default constructor is sane as access modifier of
the class (public & default only).
 The default constructor contains only one statement which is ‘no arg call to
super class Constructor ‘ (super();)

b) Programmer written code:-


class Test {
Test(int i)
{
System.out.println(“constructor”);
}}
Compiler generated code:-
class Test {
Test(int i)
{
super();
System.out.println(“constructor”);
}}

c). Programmer written code:-


class Test {
Test(int i)
{
super();
System.out.println(“Hai”);
}}
Compiler generated code:- no new code is going to generate.

d). Programmer written code:-


class Test {
void Test()
{
System.out.println(“hello”);
}
}
Compiler generated code:-
class Test {
void Test()
{
System.out.println(“hello”);
}
Test()
{
super();
}}
e). Programmer written code:-
class Test {
Test()
{
this(10);
System.out.println(“hai”);
}
Test(int i)
{
System.out.println(i);
}}
Compiler generated code:-
class Test {
Test() {
this(10);
System.out.println(“hai”);
}
Test(int i) {
super();
System.out.println(i);
}}

 The first line inside a constructor must be a call to super class constructor
( by using super();) or a call to overload constructor of the same class. (by
using ‘this’ keyword).
 If you are not writing the first line as either ‘super()’ or ‘this’ then compiler
will always keep a no arg call to super class constructor (super();).

1. Allowed only in Constructors.


2. Must be first statements.
3.Either super() or this, but not both.

 We can invoke another constructor from constructor from a method violation


leads to CTE. i.e, super() or this must be used inside the constructor only not
anywhere else.

Overloaded Constructors:
We are allowed to keep more than one constructor inside a class , which are
considered as overloaded constructors. We can’t override the constructors, because
they belong to the same Ex: class Test {
Test(int i){}
Test(){} ---->Overloaded Constructors
}

 Constructors are not inherited and hence we are not allowed to override a
constructor.
 while recursive method invocation we will get stackoverflowException But in
case of constructors we will get compile time error.
 If we are writing any constructor in our class it is recommended to place
default constructor also. Otherwise we should take care while writing the
constructor child case.
 If the parent class constructor throws some Checked Exception, while writing
child class constructors we should take care.In case of unchecked exception
no rule.

Recursive Constructor invocation:


class Sample {
Sample() // This is a compile time problem
{
this(10);
}
Sample(int i)
{
this(); // Invalid, CTE: recursive constructor invocation
}
public static void main(String a[])
{
System.out.println(“hai”);
}
}
Constructing the Child class constructors:
Example:
class P {
P()
{ super(); }
}
class C extends P
{
C() {
super();
} } //valid

Example:
class P {
P(int i)
{
System.out.println(i);
}
}
class C extends P
{
C()
{
super(10); // valid (without super invalid)
}
}

Example: class P
{
P() throws Exception ----> checked exception
{}
}
class C extends P
{
C() // compile time error unhandled exception type exception
{}
}

abstract class

We can apply abstract keyword for the classes and methods .abstract keyword is not
possible for variables.If method declared as abstract we don’t know implementation
child class is responsible to provide the implementation for the parent class abstract
methods.

Abstract public void m1(); // here ; is mandatory.


Abstract method has declaration only and should not have any implementation.
This is the way of decorating abstract method .we should not keep curly braces at
end.

 If a class contain at least one abstract method we should have to declare that
class as abstract other wise compile time error.

 An abstract class is not compulsory to have an abstract method.i.e abstract


class may contain zero number of abstract methods also.this is for restricting
object creation.

 HttpServlet class doesn’t contain any abstract methods ,still the class is
declared as abstract because the methods present in HttpServlet can’t
provide any request ,response for the end user ,these methods are just for
sending error information.
 It’s a good programming practice to use abstract methods ,abstract classes
and interfaces.

Example:
class Sam
{
abstract void m1(); //error
}

Example 2:
abstract class Xy
{
abstract void m1(); // valid
}

Example 3:
abstract class X
{
void m1() // valid
{
System.out.println(“valid”);
}
}

Example 4:
abstract class X
{
abstract void m2();
}

class Y extends X // error we must provide the implementation for m2 method .


{
}

Abstract class examples

1.Abstract class with constructor.

interface

An interface defines the contract between service provider and the client without
highlighting internal implementation.
i.e Interface describes the services ,what service provider provides and what client
get.
The main advantage of interface are :
1. we never high lite our implementation to the outside world,we can achieve
security for our implementation.
2. With out effecting outside world,we can enhance our internal implementation.
Interface is considered as 100% pure abstract class because we never keep
implementation inside interface. And hence all the methods present inside an
interface are abstract methods.
For the service provider point of view an interface defines the services provided by
that person.
From the client point of view an interface describes what services he required.

Declaring an interface:
interface Interf
{
public void m1();
public void m2();
}
class Bea implements Interf
{
public void m1()
{
System.out.println(“implementation m1”);
}
public void m2()
{
System.out.println(“implementation m2”);
}
public static void main(String arg[])
{
Interf i=new Interf();
i.m1();
}
}

 If you want to provide implementation for any interface method ,it must be
declared as public .
 The first concrete class which implements an interface must provide
implementation for all the interface methods other wise the class must
declared as abstract.
 We can declare an interface (top level) with <default> and
public,abstract,strictfp modifiers.
interface methods Declarations:
All the interface methods by default abstract and public (either we are specify or not
specify) not concrete method.
Examples:
Void m1();
public void m1();
abstract void m1();
public abstract void m1();
All the above are same .
Hence the above four methods declaration are identical.
An interface method never be declared as native ,strictfp,private ,static,
synchronized and protected.

interface variables Declarations:


All the interface variable are by default public ,static and final.
Hence the following variable declaration inside an interface are identical.

interface interf
{
int x=10;
public int x=10;
public static final int x=10;
final int x=10;
static int x=0;
}
Hence an interface we never declared as private ,protected and transient.

All the interface variables must perform initialization at the time of declaration.
Hence the following code will not compile.

interface Interf
{
int x;
}
Inside implement classes we are not allowed to change the value of interface
variable violation leads to compile time error.
Class Sample implement Interf
{
public static void main(String arg[])
{
x=20; //compile time error
}
}
A class can extend only one class at a time .But can interface can extend any
number interfaces.
A class can implement any number of interfaces at a time.But interface never
implement another interface.

Naming conflicts inside interface:


Case 1:
interface Left
{
public void m1();
}
interface Right
{
public void m1();
}
class Central implement Left,Right
{
public static void main(String arg[])
{
public void m1()
{
}
}
If two interfaces have the two are more same methods ,then only one method
implementation is enough from both interfaces.

Case 2:
The interface having same method name but different arguments.
Interface Inter
{
public void m1();
public void m1(int x);
}

case 3:
Same method name,same arguments but different written types.
Interface Left
{
public void m1();
}
Interface Right
{
public int m1();
}

class Central implement Left,Right


{
public static void main(String arg[])
{
public void m1() // error
{
}
public int m1() // error
{
}
}
}
In the above class same method signature m1 is not allow .violation leads to compile
time error.

Exceptional case :
We can’t provide implementation at a time for two or more interfaces having
methods with same signature but different return type .

Variable Naming conflicts:


interface Left
{
int x=10;
}
interface Right
{
int x=100;
}
class Central implement Left,Right
{
public static void Main(String arg[]
)
{
System.out.println(x); // reference to x is ambiguous both variables
System.out.println(Right.x);
System.out.println(Left.x);
}
}
we can resolve variable naming conflicts using interface name.(i.e instead of x we
have to specify left.x or right.x).

Tag Interface Marker/Ability Interface:


If an interface is marked for some ability such type of interfaces are called maker
interfaces or tag interface or ability interface.
Example: Comparable,Serializable,Clonable
If an interface doesn’t contain any method ,it is usually marker interface.Even
though interface contains some methods still we can use the term marker interface if
this interface is marked for some ability.
Example: Comparable(contains method compareTo())
Adapter classes doesn’t contain concrete methods ,contain only empty
implementation of the methods.

Difference between abstract class and interface:


Interfaces provides more security and high performance when compare to abstract
classes.
Abstract class may contain concrete methods but an interface never contain any
concrete method.

Collection-Interface

The 1.2 release of the Java platform includes a new collections framework. A
collection is an object that represents a group of objects. A collections framework is
a unified architecture for representing and manipulating collections, allowing them to
be manipulated independently of the details of their representation. The Collection
interface is the root of the collection hierarchy. A Collection represents a group of
objects, known as its elements. Some Collection implementations allow duplicate
elements and others do not. Some are ordered and others unordered. The JDK
doesn't provide any direct implementations of this interface: It provides
implementations of more specific subinterfaces like Set and List. This interface is the
least common denominator that all collections implement.

Collection is used to pass collections around and manipulate them when maximum
generality is desired.Collection frame work define a set classes and interfaces which
can be used for representing a group of objects as single entity.In the case of c++
the corresponding collection frame work is known as STL(Standered template library)
and collection is known as container.
There are six collection interfaces. The most basic interface is Collection. Three
interfaces extend Collection: Set, List, and SortedSet. The other two collection
interfaces, Map and SortedMap, do not extend Collection, as they represent
mappings rather than true collections. However, these interfaces contain collection-
view operations, which allow them to be manipulated as collections.

Collection Interface:
It defines general methods ,which can be used for a group of individual objects.i.e a
collection represents a group of individual ibjects.
Note:
Collection is an interface to represent a group of individual objects where as
collections is an utility class for defining utility methods like sorting,searching… etc.
Collection Interface Methods:
This Interface defines general methods which can be applied on any collection object.
1.boolean add(Object obj)
2.boolean addAll(collection c)
3.boolean remove(Object o)
4.boolean removeAll(Collection c)
5.void clear()
6.boolean retainAll(Collection c)
removes all the elements in the collection except those present in c.
7.boolean contains(Object o)
8.boolean containsAll(Collection c)
9.boolean isEmpty()
10.int size()
returns the number of objects present in the collection
11.Object[] toArray()
mainly for improving the performance of the system.
12. Iterator iterator()
to return the objects one by one.

The primary advantages of a collections framework are


that it:
• Reduces programming effort by providing useful data structures and algorithms so
you don't have to write them yourself.
• Increases performance by providing high-performance implementations of useful
data structures and algorithms. Because the various implementations of each
interface are interchangeable, programs can be easily tuned by switching
implementations.
• Provides interoperability between unrelated APIs by establishing a common
language to pass collections back and forth.
• Reduces the effort required to learn APIs by eliminating the need to learn multiple
ad hoc collection APIs.
• Reduces the effort required to design and implement APIs by eliminating the need
to produce ad hoc collections APIs.
• Fosters software reuse by providing a standard interface for collections and
algorithms to manipulate them.
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SortedMap-TreeMap-Properties

SortedMap:
It is interface.If you want to store the elements based on some sorting order of keys
we should go for the SortedMap.A SortedMap is a Map that maintains its mappings in
ascending key order. It is the Map analogue of SortedSet. The SortedMap interface is
used for apps like dictionaries and telephone directories.

SortedMap Methods:
1) Object firstKey() //Returns the firstkey of the sortedset
2) Object lasKey() // Returns the last key of the sortedset
3) SortedMap headMap( Object key) //Returns the SortedMap whose keys are
smaller than or equal to specified key
4) SortedMap tailMap( Object key) // Returns the SortedMap whose keys are greater
than or equal to specified key
5) SortedMap subMap( Object key1,Object key2) // Returns a SortedMap whose keys
are greater than or equal to the key1 but less than key2
6) Comparator comparator(): //Returns Comparator Object that defines the
underlying sorting technique.If the natural sorting order is used then returns null

TreeMap:

 It implements the SortedMap interface.


 The underlying datastructure for the TreeMap is Red-Black Tree
 Insertion order is not preserved
 Duplicate keys are not allowed but values may be duplicated
 Heterogeneous objects are not allowed for the keys but values may be
heterogeneous.
 As first entry null key insertion is possible to the empty treemap but after if
you try to add any other entry we will get the NullPointerException
 If you are trying to add an entry with the null key to an already exsting
treemap we will get the NullPointerException
 There are no restriction for null values
 If natural sorting order is used then the keys must be comparable otherwise
classCastException

TreeMap Constructors:
TreeMap map=new TreeMap():
TreeMap map=new TreeMap(Comparatror c):
TreeMap map=new TreeMap(Map m):
TreeMap map=new TreeMap(SortedMap m):

TreeMap Demo program:


package myutil;

import java.util.TreeMap;

public class TreeMapEx1 {


public static void main(String[] args)
{
TreeMap map=new TreeMap();
map.put(new Integer(100),"orange");
map.put(new Integer(200) ,"apple");
map.put(new Integer(300),"grapes");
System.out.println("The TreeeMap Is "+map);
// Try to place the null you will get NullPointerException
// map.put(null,"javasun");
}
}
output:
The TreeeMap Is {100=orange, 200=apple, 300=grapes}

TreeMap Example code with Comparator:


package myutil;

import java.util.Comparator;
import java.util.TreeMap;
class Mycompare implements Comparator
{
public int compare(Object o1,Object o2)
{
Integer i1=(Integer)o1;
Integer i2=(Integer)o2;
return -i1.compareTo(i2);
}
}

public class TreeMapCom {


public static void main(String[] args)
{
TreeMap map=new TreeMap(new Mycompare());
map.put(new Integer(100),"orange");
map.put(new Integer(300),"apple");
map.put(new Integer(200),"grapes");
map.put(new Integer(400),"grapes");
System.out.println("The TreeeMap Is "+map);
// Try to place the null you will get NullPointerException
//map.put(null,"javasun");
}
}

output:
The TreeeMap Is {400=grapes, 300=apple, 200=grapes, 100=orange}

Properties:

 It is the child class of Hashtable


 For Properties both keys and values must be Strings

Propertes Constructors:
Properties props=new Properties();

Methods:
getProperty(String key);
setProperty(String key,String value);
propertyNames();
load(InputStream stream);
store(OutputStream stream,String comment);

Properties Demo Program:


import java.util.*;
public class PropertiesDemo {
public static void main(String[] args ){
Properties props=new Properties();
FileInputStream fis=new FileInputStream(“abc.properties”);
props.load(fis);//Load the file
System.out.println(props.getProperty(“orange”));
props.setProperty(“apple’,200);
FileOutputStream fos=new FileOutputStream(“abc.properties”));
}
}
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Labels: Collections(java.util) comments (0)

Map-Hashtable-HashMap-WeakHashMap-IdentityHashMap

MAP Interface:A Map is an object that maps keys to values. Maps cannot
contain duplicate keys: Each key can map to at most one value.

 Map is not the child interface of Collection interface


 If you want to store the values or objects as key value pairs we go for the the
Map interface
 Both key and values are objects
 Duplication of keys is not allowed but values may be duplicated
 Key –Value Pair is called an Entry

Methods in Map Interface:


1)Object put(Object key,Object value) //Inserts a value into the map.if the key is
already exists it will replace the old values with new one
2)Object get(Object key) // Returns the value associated with the key otherwise
returns null
3)Object remove(Object key) // It removes the entry associated with the key and
returns the corresponding value otherwise returns null
4)boolean containsKey(Object key)
5)boolean containsValue(Object key)
6)int size()
7)boolean isEmpty()
8)void clean()
9)void putAll(Map m)
10)Set keySet()
11)Collection values()
12)Set emptySet()
// The following three methods collection view of Map
13)Object getKey();
14)Object getValue();
15)Object setValue(Object obj)
//Entry is an inner interface present inside the map.It contains
the following three methods which can be applied on the entry object.
16)Object getKey();
17)Object getValue();
18)Object setValue(Object obj)

Note:
interface Map{
Interface Entry{ // inner interface entry
Object getKey();
Object getValue();
Object setValue(Object obj)
}
}

Hashtable:

 The underlying datastructure for the HashTable is the Hastable itself.


 Heterogeneous values are allowed for both keys and values
 null insertion is allowed for both keys and values for the first element
violation leads to NullPointerException
 Almost all methods or Hashtable are synchronized hence it is thread safe
 Insertion order is not preserved and the objects are arranged based on
hashcode
 Duplicate objects for values but keys are not to be duplicated

Hashtable Constructors:
Hashtable table=new Hashtable();
Hashtable table=new Hashtable(int initialCapacity);
Hashtable table=new Hashtable(int initialCapacity,float fillRatio);
Hashtable table=new Hashtable(Map m);

Hashtable Demo:
import java.util.Hashtable;

public class HashtableEx1 {


public static void main(String[] args) {
Hashtable table=new Hashtable();
table.put(new Integer(1),"xxx");
table.put(new Integer(24),"yyy");
table.put(new Integer(3),"zzz");
table.put(new Integer(8),"aaa");
table.put(new Integer(9),"bbb");
table.put(new Integer(2),"sss");
System.out.println("The Hashtable is "+table);
}
}

output:
The Hashtable is {9=bbb, 8=aaa, 3=zzz, 2=sss, 24=yyy, 1=xxx}

HashMap:

 The underlying datastructure for HashMap is Hashtable


 Duplicate keys are not allowed but values may be duplicated
 Insertion order is not preserved
 Heterogeneous key and values are allowed
 Null key is allowed only once but values are nulls for any number of times

HashMap Constructors:
1) HashMap map=new HashMap();
it Create the empty hashmap with the default initial capacity 16 and fillRatio 0.75
2) HashMap map=new HashMap(int initialCapacity);
it Create a HashMap with the specified nitialCapacity and default load factor
3) HashMap map=new HashMap(int nitialCapacity,float loadFactor);
4) HashMap map=new HashMap(Map m);

HashMapDemo Program:
import java.util.*;
public class HashMapEx1 {
public static void main(String... args) {
HashMap map=new HashMap();
map.put("orange",new Integer(1000));
map.put("apple",new Integer(2000));
map.put("banana",new Integer(3000));
map.put("grapes",new Integer(4000));
System.out.println("The Map "+map);
System.out.println(map.put(("orange"),new Integer(1001)));
System.out.println("map "+map);
Set s=map.keySet();
System.out.println("The Key Set"+s);
Collection values=map.values();
System.out.println("The Values Are "+values);
Set s1=map.entrySet();
System.out.println("The Entry Set"+s1);
}
}
output:
The Map {orange=1000, grapes=4000, apple=2000, banana=3000}
1000
map {orange=1001, grapes=4000, apple=2000, banana=3000}
The Key Set[orange, grapes, apple, banana]
The Values Are [1001, 4000, 2000, 3000]
The Entry Set[orange=1001, grapes=4000, apple=2000, banana=3000]

LinkedHashMap:
It is exactly similar to the HashMap except the following differences
HashMap:

 Underlying datastructure is Hashtable


 Insertion order is not preserved
 While iterating we can not give guarantee for processing order. Hence we can
not use it for caching

LinedHashMap:

 Underlying datastructures are hashtable and doubly linkedlist


 Insertion order of elements is preserved
 While iterating elements we can give guarantee for processing order.Hence
we can use for caching

IdentityHashMap:
In case of HashMap JVM uses the equals() method to identify the duplicate keys
But if want to use the == operator to identify the duplicates we go for the
IdentityHashMap
Incase of IdentityHashMap two key reference i1 and i2 are equal if and only if bot i1
and i2 are pointing to the same object on the heap

IdentityHashMap Demo Program:


import java.util.IdentityHashMap;
public class IdentityHashMapEx1 {
public static void main(String... args) {
IdentityHashMap map=new IdentityHashMap ();
Integer i1=new Integer(10);
Integer i2=new Integer(10);
map.put(i1,"orange");
map.put(i2,"apple");
System.out.println("The Map"+map);
}
}

WeakHashMap:

 WeakHashMap is not a child class of HashMap


 HashMap dominates the garbage collector.if any objects are associated with
the HashMap eventhough that object does not have any external
references .Garbage collector is not allowed to destroy that object
 But garbage collector dominate the WeakHashMap that is in case of hashmap
if the key is not reachable garbage collector is allowed to destroy whole entry
associated with the key

WeakHashMap Demo Program:


import java.util.WeakHashMap;
class Temp {
public void finalize() {
System.out.println("finalize() Called");
}
public String toString() {
return "Temp";
}
}
public class WeakHashMapEx1 {
public static void main(String[] args) {
WeakHashMap map=new WeakHashMap();
Temp t=new Temp();
map.put(t,"orange");
t=null;
System.gc();
System.out.println("The Map"+map);
}
}

output:
finalize() Called
The Map{}
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Collection-List-Vector-ArrayList-Stack-LinkedList

Collection Interface :
The Collection interface is the root of the collection hierarchy. A Collection represents
a group of objects, known as its elements. Some Collection implementations allow
duplicate elements and others do not. Some are ordered and others unordered. The
JDK doesn't provide any direct implementations of this interface: It provides
implementations of more specific subinterfaces like Set and List. This interface is the
least common denominator that all collections implement. Collection is used to pass
collections around and manipulate them when maximum generality is desired.

It defines general methods ,which can be used for a group of individual objects.i.e a
collection represents a group of individual ibjects.
Note: Collection is an interface to represent a group of individual objects where as
collections is an utility class for defining utility methods like sorting,searching… etc.

List Interface:

 It represents a group of individual objects where


 Insertion order is preserved via indexes
 Duplicate objects are allowed. .we can differentiate duplicate objects by using
indexes.
 A list is also known as sequence ArrayList ,LinkedList ,Vector and Stack
implement List interface.

Following are the methods list interface :


1.boolean add(Object obj)
2.boolean add(int index,Object o)
3.boolean addAll(Collection c)
4.boolean addAll(int index,Collection c)
5.boolean remove(object o)
remove the first occurrence of this object
6.boolean removeAll(Collection c)
7.int indexOf(Object o)
return the index of first occurrence
returns -1 if there is no such object
8.int lastIndexOf(Objetc o)
9.Object get(int index)
there is no get method in the collection interface
10.Object set(int index , Object o)
11.ListIterator listIterator()
12.Object remove(int index)

Vector class:

 The underlying datastructure for vector is growable array or resizable array.


 Insertion order is preserved.
 Null insertion is possible.
 Duplicate objects are allowed.
 Hetrogeneous objects are allowed.
 It implemented RandomAccess,Clonable and Serializable interfaces.
 Best choice for retrieval operation.
 Worst choice for insertion or deletion in the middle.

When compare with ArrayList,Vector is preferable when thread safety is reqired


because all the vector class methods are synchronized.

Vector methods:
For adding objects
1.add(Object o) ----> from collection
2.add(int index, Object o) ---------> from list
addElement(Object o) ---------> Vector
for removing objects
1.remove(Object o) ---------> from collection
2.remove(int index) -----------> from list
3.removeElement(Object o) ----------> Vector.
4.removeElementat(int index) -------------> Vector
5.removeAllElements()
6.clear() ------------> from collection
For accessing objects.
1.Object get(int index)
2.Object elementAt(int index)
3.Object firstElement()
4.Object lastElement();
5.int size()
6.int capacity();

Constructors of Vector:
1.Vector v=new Vector()
create an empty Vector with default initial capacity 10.
If the Vector reaches its maximum capacity a new Vector object will create with a
capacity = current capacity * 2 i.e doubles.
2.Vector v=new Vector(int initialcapacity)
Constructs an empty vector with the specified capacity.
3.Vector v=new Vector(Collection c)
4.Vector v=new Vector(int initialcapacity,int incrementalcapacity)

Vector Example:
import java.util.*;
class VectorDemo
{
public static void main(String arg[])
{
Vector v=new Vector();
v.addElement(“a”);
for(int i=0;i<10;i++)
{
v.addElement(new Integer(i));
}
System.out.println(v);
System.out.println(v.capacity()); // 10
v.add(“b”);
System.out.println(v.capacity()); // 20
}
}
Array List:

 The underlying datastructure for array List is growable array or resizable


array.
 Insertion order is preserved.
 Duplicate objects are allowed.
 Hetrogeneous objects are allowed.
 Null insertion is possible any number of times.

Constructors of ArrayList:
1.ArrayList a=new ArrayListA();
creates an empty arraylist with the default initial capacity 10.
If arraylist reaches its maximum capacity ,it creates a new arraylist object with the
new capacity as (Current capacity * 3/2 ) + 1;
2.arrayList a=new ArrayList(int initialcapacity)
creates an empty arraylist with the specified initial capacity.
3.ArrayList a=new ArrayList(Collection c)
Construct an equivalent arraylist for the given collection object.

ArrayList Example:
import java.util.*;
class ArraylistDemo
{
public static void main(String arg[])
{
ArrayList a=new ArrayList();
a.add(“aaa”);
a.add(“bbb”);
a.add(“new Integer(10)”);
a.add(null);
a.add(1,”ccc”);
System.out.println(a); // [aaa, ccc,bbb,10,null]
}
}
every collection class implemented clonable and serializable interfaces.
System.out.println(a instanceOf java.io.Serializable); // true
System.out.println(a instanceOf java.io.Clonable); // true

 ArrayList and Vector classes implemented Random Access interface.Any


element in ArrayList and Vector we can access with same speed.Hence
ArrayList is best suitable for retrivel operation.
 ArrayList is a non-synchronised one introduced in 1.2 version.It is a non-
legacy class which has high performance.But we can’t achieve security.Where
as vector is a synchronized in 1.0 version .It is a legacy class which has low
performance But we can achive security.
 In ArrayList ,there is a possibility for data corruption as it is thread
safe.ArrayList is the worrest choice,If your frequent operation is insertion or
deletion in the middle,because it reqires so many internal shift operations .

LinkedList:

 The underlying data structure for LinkedList is DoublyLinkedList.


 Insersion order is preserved.
 Duplicate objects are allowed.
 Null insertion is possible any number of times.
 Hetrogeneous objects are also allowed.
 It implemented serializable and clonable interfaces but not RandomAccess
interface.
 LinkedList is the best choice if your frequent operation is insertion or deletion
in the middle.
 LinkedList the worest choice if your frequent operation retrieval operation.

LinkedList class contain the following methods for implementing Stacks and Queues.
1.void addFirst(Object o)
2.void addLast(Object o)
3.Object removeFirst()
4.Object removeLast()
5.Object getFirst()
6.Object getLast()

Constructors of LinkedList:
1.LinkedList l=new LinkedList();
create an empty LinkedList (initial capacity is not applicable) size != capacity
2.LinkedList l=new LinkedList(Collection c)

LinkedList Example
import java.util.*;
class LinkedListDemo
{
public static void main(String arg[])
{
LinkedList l=new LinkedList();
l.add(“laxman”);
l.add(new Integer(10));
l.add(null);
l.add(“laxman”);
l.add(0,”scjp”);
l.add(“gorantla”);
l.removeLast();
l.addFirst(“ccc”);
System.out.println(l); // [ccc,gorantla,scjp,10,null]
}
}

Stack Class:
It is the child class of Vector
Contain only one constructor
Stack s=new Stack();
Methods of stack class:
1.Object push (Object obj)
It pushes an element into stack and that element also return.
2.Object pop()
removes the top of the stack and the object is returned.
3.Object peek()
returns the element present on the top of the stack.
4.boolean empty()
returns true if the stack isempty otherwise false.
5.int search(Object o)
returns the offset from the top of the stack if the Object present else return -1.
Ex: s.search(“a”);
Stack example:
Import java.util.*;
Class StackDemo
{
public static void main(String arg[])
{
Stack s=new Stack();
s.push(“a”);
s.push(“b”);
s.push(“c”);
System.out.println(s); // [a,b,c]
System.out.println(s.search(“c”)); // 1
System.out.println(s.search(“a”)); // 3
}
}
insertion order should be preserved should be not LIFO.

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treeset-Comparator

SortedSet Interface:
If you want to represent a group of individual,unique set of objects ,where all the
objects are in some sorting order (either natural sorting order or customized sorting
order) then we should go for SortedSet.
SortedSet methods:
1.Object first()
returns the first element in sortedset
2.Object last()
return the last element in sortedset.
3.SortedSet headset(Object end)
returns the sorted set containing the elements which are lessthan end.
4.SortedSet tailSet(Object begain)
returns the sorted set that includes the elements which are greaaer than or equal to
begain.
5.SortedSet subset(Object begain,Object End)
return a sortedset that includes the elements which are greater than or equal to
begain but less than end.
6.Comparator comparator()
decribes underlying sorting technique if default sorting technique is used then it
simply returns null.

TreeSet class :

 The underlying datastructure for the treeset is balancedtree.


 Duplicate objects are not allowed.
 Insertion order is not preserved ,but all the elements are arranged in some
sorting order.
 Null insersion is possible but only one.
 Hetrogeous objects are not allowed ,voialtion leads to runtime exception
saying classcast exception.

Constructors:
1.treeSet t=new TreeSet()
creates an empty TreeSet where the sorting technique is default natural order.
2.TreeSet t=new TreeSet(Comparator c)
creates an empty TreeSet ,where the sorting technique is specified by comparator
object .( this is for customized sorting).
3.TreeSet t=new TreeSet(Collection c)
4.TreeSet t=new TreeSet(SortedSet s)
reserved for future purpose.

TreeSet Example:
import java.util.*;
class TreeSetDemo
{
public static void main(String arg[])
{
TreeSet t=new TreeSet();
t.add(“z”);
t.add(“k”);
t.add(“b”);
t.add(“f”);
System.out.println(t); // [b,f,k,z]
t.add(new Integer(10)); // class cast exception
}
}
In case of integers (10,15,20) it followes ascending order.
TreeSet t=new TreeSet()
t.add(null);
System.out.println(t);
t.add(“a”);
System.out.println(t); // nullpointer exception
Null acceptance:
For the empty TreeSet as the first element we are allowed to add null.
But after adding null if we are trying to add anyother ,we will get a RTE saying
NullPointerException”.If the treeset already contains some elements,If we are trying
to add null causes once again nullpointer Exception.

In case of StringBuffer objects


t.add(new StringBuffer(‘a”));
t.add(new StringBuffer(“b”));
t.add(new StringBuffer(‘c”));
t.add(new StringBuffer(“l”));
System.out.println(t); // RTE saying classcast exception

i.e In the treeset we should add only.

 Homogeneous and comparable objects violation leads classcast Exception


 An object is said to be comparable if an only if the corresponding class
implements comparable interface.
 String and Wrapper classes already implemented comparable interface.But
StringBuffer doesn’t implemented comparable interface.

Comparator Interface:
If you want to define our own sorting we havwet to implement comparator interface.
This interface present in java.util package.
This interface contain the following two methods.
1.public int compare(Object o1,Object o2)
return –ve number if o1 comes before o2.
return +ve number If o1 comes after o2.
returns zero if o1 and o2 equal.
2.public Boolean equals(Object o)
by using comparator interface we can define our own customized sorting.

Write a program to insert integer object in the TreeSet where the Sorting
technique is descending order.
import java.util.*;
class TreeSetDemo
{
public static void main(String arg[])
{
TreeSet t=new Treeset(new MyComparator());
t.add(new Integer(20));
t.add(new Integer(10));
t.add(new Integer(30));
t.add(new Integer(100));
System.out.println(t); // 10 ,20 ,30,100
}
}
class MyComparator implements Comparator
{
public int Compare(Object o1,Object o2)
{
Integer i1=(Integer)o1;
Integer i2=(Integer)o2;
int i1=i1.intValue();
int i2=i2.intValue();
if(i1>i2)
return -1;
else
if(i1 > i2)
return +1;
else
return 0;
}
}

write a program to insert string objects into the TreeSet where the sorting
order is increasing order of String lengths.

import java.util.*;
class ComparatorDemo
{
public static void main(String arg[])
{
TreeSet t=new Treeset(new Mycomparator())
t.add(“aaaaaa”);
t.add(“bbbb”);
t.add(“ccc”);
System.out.println(t); // [ccc,bbbb,aaaaaa]
}
}
class MyComparator implements Comparator
{
public int compare(Object o1,Object o2)
{
String s1=(String)o1;
String s2=(String)o2;
if(s1.length() < s2. length())
return -1;
else
if(s1.length() > s2.length())
return +1;
else
return 0;
}
}

program to insert StringBuffer Objects in the treeSet according to dictionary


order
import java.util.*;
class ComparatorDemo
{
public static void main(String arg[])
{
TreeSet t=new TreeSet(new MyComparator());
t.add(new StringBuffer(“aaa”);
t.add(new StringBuffer(“bbb”);
t.add(new StringBuffer(“ccc”);
t.add(new StringBuffer(‘ddd”);
System.out.println(t);
}
}
class MyComparator implements Comparator
{
public int compare(Object o1,Object o2)
{
String s1=o1.toString();
String s2=o2.toString();
return s1.compareTo(s2);
//return s2.compareTo(s1);
}
}

if we return always like this:


return 0; // aaa
return +100 // bbb,ccc,aaa,ddd
return -100 // ddd,aaa,ccc,bbb

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collection-set-HashSet-LinkedHashSet

Collection Interface:
The Collection interface is the root of the collection hierarchy. A Collection represents
a group of objects, known as its elements. Some Collection implementations allow
duplicate elements and others do not. Some are ordered and others unordered. The
JDK doesn't provide any direct implementations of this interface: It provides
implementations of more specific subinterfaces like Set and List. This interface is the
least common denominator that all collections implement. Collection is used to pass
collections around and manipulate them when maximum generality is desired.

It defines general methods ,which can be used for a group of individual objects.i.e a
collection represents a group of individual ibjects.
Note:
Collection is an interface to represent a group of individual objects where as
collections is an utility class for defining utility methods like sorting,searching… etc.

Set Interface:
A Set is a collection that cannot contain duplicate elements. As you might expect,
this interface models the mathematical set abstraction. It is used to represent sets
like the cards comprising a poker hand, the courses making up a student's schedule,
or the processes running on a machine.
This interface doesn’t contain any new methods.we have to use collection interface
methods.

Hash Set:

 The underlying data structure for the set is Hashtable.


 Elements are inserted based on the hash code,hence insertion order is not
possible.
 If we are trying to add a duplicate object no chance of getting RTE or CTE
add() just simply returns false.
 Hetrogeneous objects are allowed.
 Null insertion is possible but only once.
 HashSet is the best choice for searching operations.
 Hashset implemented serializable and clonable interface.

Constructors:
1.HashSet h=new HashSet();
Creates a new empty HashSet with default initial capacity 16 and load factor or fill
ratio 0.75.
2.HashSet h=new HashSet(int initialcapacity);
Creates an empty HashSet with specified initial capacity and default fill ratio is 0.75.
3.HashSet h=new HashSet(int int itialcapacity,float fillratio)
creates an empty HashSet with the specified initial capacity and specified fill ratio.
4.HashSet h=new HashSet(Collection c)

HashSet Example:
import java.util.*;
class HashSetDemo
{
public static void main(String arg[])
{
HashSet h=new HashSet();
System.out.println(h.add(“b”); // true
h.add(“b”);
h.add(“c”);
h.add(“d”);
h.add(null);
h.add(new Integer(10));
System.out.println(h.add(“d”); // flase
System.out.println(h); // depends on hash code number insertion order.
}
}

Linked Hash Set:


The linked hash set is exactly similar to HashSet Except the following differences.

 Hashtable is the underlying data structure of hashset.Hashtable and doubly


linkedlist are the underlying datastructures for linkedhashset.

In the above demo LinkedHashSet l=new LinkedHashSet();


Then the output: [b,c,d,null,10] preceding with true and flase.i.e insertion order is
preserved.
We can use LinkedHashSet for implementing caching memory.

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Comparable Interface and clonable interface

Comparable Interface:
This is present in java.lang.package
Contains the following one method.
1.public int compareTo(Object o)
if returns –ve integer if o1 has to place before o2.
If returns +ve integer if o1 has to to place after o2.
If returns zero then o1 and o2 are equal.
All the wrapper classes and string class already implemented comparable interface. But
the StringBuffer doesn’t implement comparable interface.
Comparable Interface Example:
Interface comparable
{
public int compareTo(Object o)
{
TreeSet t=new TreeSet(0);
t.add(“a”);
t.add(‘z”);
System.out.println(t); // a,z (:: z.compareTo(“a”);)
System.out.println((“a”).compareTo(“z”)); //-25
System.out.println((new Integer(10).compareTo(new Intege(1)); // +1
}
}|
Marker or Tag Interface:
If an interface is marked for some ability such type of interfaces are called Marker
interfaces.
Ex: clonable,serializable
If an interface with out any method obviously accept ass marker interface.
Eventhough interface contains some methods,still we can consider as marker interface .If
it is marked for some ability.
Ex:Comparable interface.
Intreger i1=new Integer(10);
Integer i2=new Integer(20);
System.out.println(i2.compareTo(i1)); // -1
System.out.println(i1.compareTo(i2)); // +1
System.out.println(i1.compareTo(i1)); // 0
System.out.println(i1.compareTo(“a”)); // CTE nullpointer exception
Cloneable interface:
Uptaining exact copy of a plant ,a bird,an animal or a human being is called cloning.
Cloning in programming uptaining bit wist exact copy of an object is called cloning.
cloning Example:

Class sample implements cloneable


{
Int i=10;
Public static void main(string args[])throwsClone notSupportedEexception
{
Sample s1=new sample();
Sample s2=s1;
Sample s3=(sample)s1.clone();
S1.i=1000;
System.out.println(s3.i);
System.out.println(s1==s3);
we should type cast otherwise
CTE:in compatable types
Found: Object reqired=sample
The class must implements cloneable interface otherwise at runtime clone() results
cloneNotsupportException
Example:
Class sample implements clonable
{
Int i=10;
Public static void main(string[]args)throws cloneNot support Exception
{
Object o=new object();
Object o2=o.clone();
}
CTE:clone() has protected access in java.lang.object
The protected numbers we can access, from with in the same package or from outside
package but from outside package,the protected number can be accessed b using child
class reference only.ie we can’t use parentclass reference to access protected number
from outside package,validation leadsto CTE.

clone() method:
Protected object clone() throws clone not supported exception.
This method can used to prouduced exactly duplicate copy of an object..
All the objects can’t produce cloned object ,only clonable objects can produce duplicate
copies .
An object is said to be conable if and only if the corresponding class implements clonable
interface.
By using the folling object class clone() method we can produced cloned objects
Protected object clone() throws clone supported exception
CheckedException so we should handle by using try catch or throws to the caller by
using throws clause.
Shallow cloning Example:
Class Student implements cloneable
{
String name;
String age;
Student(String name,String age)
{
This.name;
This.age=age;
]
Public Object clone()throws cloneNotSupportedException
{
Return this;
}
}
Class Student cloneDemo
{
Student s1= new Student(“hai”,”22”);
Student s2= (Student)s1.clone();
S2.name=”abc”;
System.out.println(s1.name);
Public static void main (String ar[])
{
StudentCloneDemo s1= new Student cloneDemo();
}
}
Deep cloning example:
Class Student implements cloneable
{
String name;
String age;
}
Student(String name ,String age)
{
This.name=name;
This.age=age;
}

Public Object clone(0throws CloneNotSuport Exception


{
try
{
ByteArrayOutputStream bas=new ByteArrayOutputStream();
ObjectOutputStream oos=new ObjectOutputStream(bas);
Oos.writeObject(this);
ByteArrayInputStream bias=new ByteArrayInputStream(bas.toByteArray());
ObjectInputStream oos=new ObjectInputStream(bias);
Return ois.readObject();
}
catch(Exception e)
{
e.printStackTrace();
return null;
}
}
class DcloneDemo
{
DcloneDemo()throws CloneNotSuportException
{
Student s1=new Student(“hello”,”200”);
Student s2=(Student)s1.clone();
S2.name=”java”;
System.out.println(s1.name);
Public static void main(String[] arg)
{
new DcloneDemo();
}
}

Iterator,ListIterator,Enumeration

Enumeration:
This is cursor to retrive the objects one by one.
This interface contains the following two methods.
1.boolean hasMoreElements();
2.Object nextElement();
Enumeration Example:
Import java.util.*;
Class EnumDemo
{
public static void main(String arg[])
{
Vector v= new Vector();
For(int i=0;i<=10; i++)
{
v.addElement(new Integer(i);
}
System.out.println(v); // [0,1,2,3…….10]
Enumeration e=v.elements();
While(e.hasMoreElements())
{
Integer i=(Integer)e.nextElement();
If(i.IntValue() % 2 ==0)
{
System.out.println(i);
}
}
}
Limitations:
1. We can get Enumeration Object only for legacy classes
(Vector,Stack,Hashtable,Properties,Dictionary,Enumeration)
2. While iterating the Objects of enumeration we can get only read-access.
i.e while iterating we are not allowed to perform any remove or modify operation.
Iterator:
This can be applied for any collection implemented class (legacy and non-legacy)
While iterating the objects we are allowed to perform remove operation also, in
addition to read operation.
This interface contain the following there methods
Boolean hasNext()
Object next();
Void remove()

Iterator Example:
Import java.util.*;
Class IteratorDemo
{
public static void main(String arg[])
{
ArrayList l=new ArrayList();
for(int i=0;i<=10;i++)
{
l.add(new Integer(i);
}
System.out.println(i); // 0,1,2,3,……9
Iterator itr=l.iterator();
While(itr.hasNext())
{
Integer i=(Integer)itr.next();
If(i.intValue() % 2==0)
{
System.out.println(i);
}
else
{
itr.remove();
}
}
System.out.println(l); [0,2,4,6,8]
}
}
}

List Iterator:
List iterator is the child interface of iterator .this can be applicable only for list
implemented classes (arraylist,linkedlist,vector and stack).
This is a bidirectional cursor .we can move either to forward or backward direction
While iterating ,we are allowed to replace existing element with the new element ,we
are allowed to add new elements and still we can perform remove operation also.
ListIterator defines the following methods.
1.boolean hasNext();
2.boolean hasPrevious();
3.Object next();
4.Object previous();
5.int nextIndex();
if there is no next element it just simply return the size of the list.
6.int previousIndex()
Return -1 if there is no previous index.
7.void remove()
8.void set()
9.void add()

ListIterator Example:
Import java.util.*;
Class ListIterDemo
{
public static void main(String arg[])
{
LikedList l=new LinkedList();
L.add(“laxman”);
l.add(“chandu”);
l.add(“ravi”);
l.add(“raju”);
System.out.println(l);
ListIterator lt=l.listIterator();
While(lt.hasNext())
{
String s=(String)lt.next();
If(s.equals(“laxman”))
{
lt.remove(); or lt.set(“scjp”);
}
}
System.out.println(l);
}
}

Thread creation

Multitasking:
* Executing several tasks simultaneously is the concept of Multitasking.
* The main objective of multitasking is to decrease response time of the system, so
that the performance of the system will increase.

Process Based Multitasking:-

* Executing several tasks simultaneously where each task is a independent program.


* Example typing a java program in the Editor, playing MP3 player, Downloading a
file from the internet
* All the tasks are independent of each other and executes simultaneously.
* This type of multitasking is useful at OS level.
* CGI fallows process based multitasking.

Thread Based Multitasking:-

* Executing several tasks simultaneously, where each task is a separate inependent


part of the same program. That independent part is called the Thread.
* Servlets fallowThread Based MultiTasking.
* Java itself provide support for multithreading by introducing several library classes.
* We can use in games/animation programme.
* Creating a thread in two ways.

1. By extending Thread
2. By implementing Runnable

Methods used to prevent a thread from execution:

* yield()
* join()
* sleep()
* Synchronization
* InterThread communication (wait, notify, notifyAll)

Defining, Instantiating and starting Thread by extending Thread class:


class MyThread extends Thread
{
public void run()
{
System.out.println("child job”);
}
}
Here run method is the heart of thread where you have to define the job.
class Sample
{
public static void main(String a[])
{
MyThread t=new MyThread();
t.start(); //starting a thread
System.out.println(“Main thread job”);
}
}
The above program executes well.it gives the output mainthread job,child job,.........
Difference between t.start() & t.run()?
• If we call t.start(), it will create a new Thread and that thread is responsible for
execution of run().
• If we call t.run(), mo new thread will create, the main thread only will execute
run(), just like a normal method.
• In case of t.start() output we can’t expect
• In case of t.run() output Child Thread 10 times fallowed by main thread 10 times.

Thread class start():-


public void start()
{
1. Registering our thread with the thread scheduler then only thread scheduler
allocate CPU and memory type of resources for this new thread also.
2. calls run()
}
If we over ride start method in the above example:
--->public void start()
{
System.out.println(“start method”);// start method 1 time, main thread 10 times
}
--->public void start()
{
super.start();
System.out.println(“start method”);// start method child & main thread alternatively
}
class MyThread extends Thread
{
public static void main(String a[])
{
MyThread t=new MyThread();
t.start();
}
}
• Thread class run() has empty implementation that’s why we are getting no output.
Defining, Instantiating and starting Thread by implementing Runnable
Ex: class MyRunnable implemts Runnable
{
public void run()
{
for(int i=0; i<=10 ;i++)
System.out.pritnln(“child thread”);
}
}
class ThreadDemo
{
public static void main(String a[])
{
MyRunnable r=new MyRunnable();
r.start(); // compile time errror
Thread t=new Thread(r); ---> Target Runnable
for(int i=0 ; i<=10 ; i++)
{
System.out.println(“main thread”);
}
}
} In the above example instead of r.start we place r.run(); //childThread (no new
thread will create ) In the above example we place the

* t.start(); //valid (new thread will create child thread)


* t.run(); // child thread (no new thead will create)

• Among the above two probabilities of creating thread it is highly recommended to


use implements Runnable mechanism.
• In the first case ( extends thread), our thread class extends Java.Lang.Thread,
hence no chance of extending any thing else. Hence we are missing, the key benefit
of oop’s concept ie., inheritance.
Lifecycle of Thread:

• Once the thread is started, there is no chance of starting the same thread once
again.
Violation leads to RTE saying Illegal Thread State Exception”.
• Thread t= new Thread();
t.start(); //no o/p

Thread class Constructors:


1. Thread();
2. Thread(Runnable r);
3. Thread(String name);
4. Thread(Runnable r, String name);
5. Thread(ThreadGroup g, String name);
6. Thread(ThreadGroup g, Runnable r);
7. Thread(ThreadGroup g, Runnable r, String name);
Ex:- // Test king
class MyThread extends Thread
{
public void run()
{
System.out.println(“run”);
}
}
class ThreadDemo
{
public static void main(String a[])
{
MyThread t= new MyThread();
Thread t1=new Thread(t);
t1.start();
// t1.run(); ----> It is just like a method no new thread will create
}
}
Setting & getting the name of a thread:
Thread class contain the fallowing methods for setting & getting the name of the
Threads..

* public final String getName();


* public final void setName(String s);

Thread class yield , join , sleep.

Thread Priorities:
• Thread class contains the fallowing methods for setting and getting priority of a
thread.
public final int getPriority();
public final void setPriority(int i);
• The valid range for the thread priorities 1 to 10 (1 is atleast and 10 is the highest)
• Thread class contains the fallowing predefined priority constraints.
MAX-PRIORITY ----> 10
NORM-PRIORITY ----> 5 (default)
MIN-PRIORITY ----> 1
• If you are trying to set the priority as greater than 10 or lessthan1, then we will
get a RTE saying “Illegal Argument Exception”
Example:
class MyThread extends Thread
{}
class Sample
{
public static void main(String a[])
{
Thread.currentThread().setPriority(10);
System.out.pritnln(Thread.currentThread().getPriority());
MyThread t= new MyThread();
System.out.pritnln(t.getPriority());//10 10
}
}
• The default priority for the maintained is 5. But we are allowed to change the
prority by using setPriority()
• The priority of any the thread is inherited from the parent thread.
• Thread scheduler uses these proroites to allocate CPU. The thread which is having
highest priority will get executes first. t1.setPriority(10);
Yield() :

 We can prevent a thread from execution by using one of the fallowing


methods.

1. yield()
2. join()
3. sleep()
• The thread which is executing yield() causes the current thread temperarly pause and
allow other waiting threads of same or high priority to execute.
• If there is no waiting thread, the same thread will execute immediately.
• If all the remaining threads are having low priority, then the same thread once again will
execute.
Method Signature:-
public static native yield();

• If the thread calls yield(), the thread going to ready state.


yield method example:
Class MyThread extends Thread
{
public void run()
{
for(int i=0;i<10;i++)
{
System.out.pritnln(“child thread”);
Thread.yield();
}
}
}
class SampleDemo
{
public static void main (String a[])
{
MyThread t = new MyThread();
t.start();
for(int i=0;i<10;i++);
{
System.out.pritnln(“main thread”);
}
}
}

• The yield() depends upon underlying platform. Some platforms may not support .Breaks
java’s programme independency.
join:
• If any executing thread calls join method on amy thread t, the current thread will go to
the blocked state until t completes.
Method Signature:
public final void join() throws InterruptedException
public final void join(long ms)throws InterruptedException
public final void join(long ms, int nanosec)throws InterruptedException

join Example:
class MyThread extends Thread
{
public void run()
{
for(int i=0;i<10;i++)
{
System.out.println(“sita thread”);
try
{
Thread.sleep(1000);
}
catch(InterruptedException e){}
}
}
}
class JoinDemo
{
public static void main(String a[])
{
MyThread t=new MyThread();
t.start();
t.join(); //or t.join(3000);
for(int i=0;i<10;i++);
{
System.out.println(“Rama thread”);
}
}
}
sleep():-
• The thread which is executing sleep() will go to the sleep for the specified amount of
time.
MethodSignature:
public static void sleep(long ms) throws InterruptedException
public static void sleep(long ms, int nanoseconds)throws InterruptedException
sleep example:
class MyThread extends Thread
{
public void run()
{
for(int i=0;i<10;i++)
{
System.out.println(“child thread”);
try
{
Thread.sleep(1000);
}
catch(InterruptedException e){}
}
}
}
class SleepDemo
{
public static void main(String a[])
{
MyThread t=new MyThread();
t.start();
}
}
interrupt():
• The thread can interrupt any sleeping/waiting/blocked for joining by the fallowing
thread class method.
public void interrupt(); //this is instance method
interrupt example:
class MyThread extends Thread
{
public void run()
{
for(int i=0;i<10;i++)
{
System.out.println(“child thread”);
try
{
Thread.sleep(1000);
}
catch(InterruptedException e)
{
System.out.println(“I got interrupted”);
}
}
}
}
class SleepDemo
{
public static void main(String a[])
{
MyThread t=new MyThread();
t.start();
t.interrupt();
}
}

summsrization table:
Thread Synchronization

Synchronization:

 The keyword synchronized can be apply only for methods and blocks. Ie., We
can’t apply synchronized keyword for the classes and variables.
 If a method (or block) declared as the synchronized at a time only one thread
is allowed to execute that synchronized area on any given object.

Advantage: Prevent data corruption, achieve security.


Limitation: Because of synchronized keyword 2 threads are not allowed to execute
concurrently on any object, hence the waiting time of the threads will increase,
which results in low performance of the system.
A class can contain both synchronized and non synchronized methods.

 If a thread calls synchronized method on any object, first this thread got the
lock, it is allowed to any synchronized method on that object.
 If a thread executing any synchronized method on the given object at that
time no other thread is allowed to execute any synchronized method on that
object.
 If a thread executing any synchronized method the remaining threads are
allowed simultaneously to execute any non synchronized method on that
object.
 Every Object in java has a lock. At the time of synchronization only the lock
concept will come into the picture.
Synchronization example:-
class Display
{
public synchronized void show(String name)
{
for(int i=0;i<10;i++)
{
System.out.println(“Good Morning:”);
try
{
Thread.sleep(2000);
}
catch(InterruptedException e){}
System.out.println(name);
}
}
}
class MyThread extends Thread
{
Display d;
String name;
MyThread(Display d, String name)
{
this.d=d;
this.name=name;
}
public void run()
{
d.show(name);
}
}
class SynchronizedDemo
{
public static void main(String a[])
{
Display d=new Display();
MyThread t1=new MyThread(d,”java”);
MyThread t2=new MyThread(d,”Sun”);
t1.start();
t2.start();
}
}
output:
good morning : java ......10 times after good morning: sun ......10 times
If we are not putting synchronized keyword we will get some irregular output like
goodmorning :good morning:java good morning:sun..........like that

Class Level lock:


• If you want to execute any static synchronized method, first the thread should
required a class level lock.
• If a thread has class level lock, it is allowed to execute any static synchronized
method. During that time no other thread is allowed to execute any static
synchronized method. But the remaining threads are allowed to execute any static
non synchronized methods of the same class.

thread communication wait , notify , notifyall

Two threads can communicate with each other by using wait(), notify(),
notifyall()methods Signatures.
Public final void wait() throw interepedException.
Public final native void wait(longms)throws InterruptedException.
Public final void wait(long ms,int ns)throws InterruptedException.
Public final native void notify();
Public final native void notifyAll();
Why this methods are in object class instead of thread class?
Wait(),notify();notifyAll() cantain in object class, not in the thread class.because
these methods can be applied on common shared object,not on the thread.
Inorder to call wait(),notify(), notifyAll() on an object, we should be the owner of
that object.
We are allowed to call wait(),notify(),notifyAll() methods from the synchronized
context only(then only we will get the lock of that object and we will become owner
of that object )
If we call wait(),notify(),notifeAll() from non synchronized context, we will get a run
time Exception saying ”illegal monitar state Exception: not a owner”

If the thread call wait()method, first it releases the lock and then it will go for waiting
state, if the waiting thread gets ‘notification call’ or time expired’ or ’got interruption’
then it will go for another blocked state for getting lock.
Once the thread got the lock, it will go to the ready state.
After calling wait method immediately releases the lock but after giving notify call
the thread may not the lock immediately.
The only method which causes the releasing of lock is wait() method.
But in the case of sleep (), join () or yield () the thread never releases the lock.
Method results release of lock:
Wait()
Join()
Sleep()
Yield()
Notify() // releases the lock, but may not immediately
notifyAll()
A thread can acquire more then one lock at time .a thread releses the lock of an
object on which it calls the wait()method .it run releases all the locks.
Example:
Class Thread A
{
Public static void main(string[]args)throws interrupted Exception
{
ThreadB b =new threadB();
b.start();
synchronized(b)//thread got lock
{
System.out.pritnln(“iam calling wait method”);
b.wait();
System.out.pritnlnpln(“I got notification);
}
System.out.pritnlnpln(b.total);
}
}
Class ThreadB extends Thread
{
Int total=0;
Public void run()
{
Synchronized (this).//.thread got lock
{
System.out.pritnln(“iam starting calculation”);
for(int i=0;i<=1000;i++)
{
Total=total+i;
}
System.out.pritnln(“iam giving notification call”);
notify();//thread releases lock again
}
}
} //500 500.
Flow -- > 0 -->1 --> 2 --> 3 --> 4 ---> 5

Daemon Thread

The threads which are executing in the background to provide support for user
defined threads are called daemon threads.
Ex: garbage collector
Thread class contain the following method for checking whether the given thread is
daemon or not
Public final Boolean isDaemon();
Daemon thread Example:
Class DaemonThread
{
Public static void main(string []args)
{
s.o.pln(thread .currentThread().isDaemon());
}
}
Usually daemon threads running with low priority but based on our requirement we
can give high priority also, The daemon nature is inherited from the parent..ie of the
parent is the daemon thread then the child also daemon thread and the parent is the
non-daemon by default child also non-daemon.
Based on our requirement we are allowed to change the daemon nature of any
thread to the following method.
Public final setDaemon(Boolean b);
if b is true the thread will become daemon otherwise non-Daemon
Example:class sample extends thread
{
{
Public static void main(String[] a)
{
MyThread t=new MyThread();
t.start();
t.setDaemon(true);
System.out.println(t.asDaemon());
we are not allowed to change Daemon nature after starting a thread, validation leads
to RTE saying “illegal thread state Exception”
ie we are not allowed to change Daemon nature of main method it is already started
at the beginning only.
Whenever the last non-Daemon thread dead all the Daemon threads will be
terminated automatically
Class MyThread extends Thread
{
Public void run()
{
For(int i=0;i<10;i++)
{
s.o.pln(“childmethod”);
try
{
Thread.sleep(2000);
}
Catch(InterruptedException e) {}
}
}
}
Class DaemonThreadExample
{
public static void main(string[]args)threads IE
{
MyThread t=new Thread();
System.out.println(t.isDaemon());
t.setDaemon(true);
t.start();
thread.sleep(5000);
System.out.println(“end of main thread”);
}
}
After starting the thread we are allowed to change the priority of a thread but not
allowed to change the Daemon nature.

Thread DeadLock

If two threads are waiting for each other forever, that situation is considered as
deadlock. (a lock without key is the deadlock)
We can present the dead lock occurrence but we const resolve.
Dead lock Example:
Class A
{
Public synchrozied void foo(B b)
{
System.out.println(“thread t1 entered into foo”);
try
{
Thread.sleep(2000);
}
catch(IE e){}
System.out.println(“thread t1 calling B’s last method”)
b.last();
}
Public synchronized void last()
{
System.out.println(“a class last method”);
}
}
Class B
{
Public synchronized void bar(A a)
{
System.out.println(“thread t2 entered into bar”);
try
{
Thread.sleep(2000);
{
Catch(intereped Exceptiom e){}
System.out.println(“thread t2 calling Ab last method);
a.last();
}
Public synchronized void last()
{
System.out.println(“B class last method”);
}
}
class DeadlockExample
{
A a=new A();
B b=new B();
DeadLock(){
Thread.currentThread().setName("main thread");
Thread t=new Thread(this);
t.start();
b.bar();
}
Public static void main(string[]args)
{
Deadlock d=new Deadlock();
}
Public void run()
{
a.foo(b);
}
}

thread group
Every Java thread is a member of a thread group. Thread groups provide a
mechanism for collecting multiple threads into a single object and manipulating those
threads all at once, rather than individually. For example, you can start or suspend
all the threads within a group with a single method call. Java thread groups are
implemented by the thread group class in the java.lang package.

The runtime system puts a thread into a thread group during thread construction.
When you create a thread, you can either allow the runtime system to put the new
thread in some reasonable default group or you can explicitly set the new thread's
group. The thread is a permanent member of whatever thread group it joins upon its
creation--you cannot move a thread to a new group after the thread has been
created.

The Default Thread Group:

If you create a new Thread without specifying its group in the constructor, the
runtime system automatically places the new thread in the same group as the thread
that created it (known as the current thread group and the current thread,
respectively). So, if you leave the thread group unspecified when you create your
thread, what group contains your thread?

When a Java application first starts up, the Java runtime system creates
aThreadGroup named main. Unless specified otherwise, all new threads that you
create become members of the main thread group.

Creating a Thread Explicitly in a Group


A thread is a permanent member of whatever thread group it joins when its
created--you cannot move a thread to a new group after the thread has been
created. Thus, if you wish to put your new thread in a thread group other than the
default, you must specify the thread group explicitly when you create the thread.
The Thread class has three constructors that let you set a new thread's group:
public Thread(ThreadGroup group, Runnable target)
public Thread(ThreadGroup group, String name)
public Thread(ThreadGroup group, Runnable target, String name)

Each of these constructors creates a new thread, initializes it based on


the Runnableand String parameters, and makes the new thread a member of the

specified group. For example, the following code sample creates a thread group
(myThreadGroup) and then creates a thread (myThread) in that group.

ThreadGroup myThreadGroup = new ThreadGroup("My Group of Threads");

Thread myThread = new Thread(myThreadGroup, "a thread for my group");

The ThreadGroup passed into a Thread constructor does not necessarily have to be a

group that you create--it can be a group created by the Java runtime system, or a
group created by the application in which your applet is running.
Thread group Example:
public static void main(String[] args) {
new ThreadGroupDemo().work();
}

protected void work() {


ThreadGroup g = new MyThreadGroup("bulk threads");
Runnable r = new Runnable() {
public void run() {
System.out.println(Thread.currentThread().getName() + " started");
for (int i=0; i<5; i++) {
System.out.println(Thread.currentThread().getName() + ": " + i);
try {
Thread.sleep(1776);
} catch (InterruptedException ex) {
System.out.println("Huh?");
}
}
}
};
// Create and start all the Threads
for (int i = 0; i< 10; i++) {
new Thread(g, r).start();
}

// List them.
Thread[] list = new Thread[g.activeCount()];
g.enumerate(list);
for (int i=0; i) {
if (list[i] == null)
continue;
Thread t = list[i];
System.out.println(i + ": " + t);
}
}
}

object class

Java.lang.package contain several utility classes which are mandatory for writing
simple to complex programs.There is no need to import java.lang.package as by
default it is available to our program
Java.lang.object class:
It is super class of any java class .all the predefined classes are user defined classes
either directly or indirectly extends java.lang.objectclass
This class contain several utility methods which can be applied on any java object.
.for every class parent class in object class
Class A extends B
{
// code
}
Means, Ie.for B,parent is object but for A parent is B only .so java supports
multilevel inheritance
The following are the 11 methods present in object class
1).public string to string()
For string representation of object.
2)public native int hashcode()
Returns the hashcode of an object
3)public Boolean equals(object obj)
For comparing the current object with the specified object
4)protected native object clone() throws clonesoft support Exception
To produced cloned object
5)protected void finalize()throws throwable
6)public final native class getclass()
7)public final viod wait()throws interrupted exception
8)public final void wait(longms)throws interrupted exception
9)public final void wait(long ms,int ns)throws interrupted exception
10)public final native void notify()
11)public final native void notifyAll()

1.tostring():
to String Example:
Class Sample
{
String name;int rollno;
Student(string name,int rollno)
{
This.name=name;
This.name=rollno;
}
Public static void main(string[]args)
{
Student s1=new student(“visvam”,101);
System.out.println(s1);
}
Public string tostring()
{
//return get class().getName()+’@’+
Integer.toHexstring(hashcode());
//return”this is student object”;
Returnname+”……”+rollno;
}
2.Hashcode():
HashCode Example:
String s1=new string(”visvam”);
String s2=new string(“visvam”);
System.out.println(s1.hasgcode());
System.out.println(s2.hasgcode());
hashcode()---when ever an object is created jvm allocates a number for that object
which is considered as hashcode().
Most of the cases the hashcode saving is unique for every object
Jvm uses this hashcode while saving objects to hashtable,hashmap or hashset.
Hashcode never represents the address of an object.
Oppropriate way of overriding of hashCode method:
Ex: class Student
{
String name,int rollno;
Student(string name,int rollno)
{
This.name=name;
This.name=rollno;
}
Public int hashcode()
{
return rollno
}
Public string tostring()
{
return name+”-----“+rollno;
}
Public static void main(string[]args)
{
String s1=new string(“java”,101);
{
System.out.println(s1); // java ...... 101
}
Public int hashcode()
{
retuen rollno;
}
It is highly recomonded to override hashcode .In our classes.overriding hashcode is
appropriate if and only if every object we have to assign a different hashcode.This is
helpful for the jvm to save object in hashcode,hashmap,hashset and serching also.
3.Equals()
Student s1=new student(“viswam”,101);
Student s1=new student(“surya”,102);
Student s1=new student(“surya”,102);
System.out.println(s1==s2); // false
System.out.println(s1.equal(s2)); // false
System.out.println(s2==s3); // false
System.out.println(s2.equals(s3)); // false
System.out.println(s2==s2); // true
System.out.println(s2.equals(s2)); // true
= = Operator:
This is meant for reference comparision always s1==s2 is true if and only ig both s1
and s2 pointing to the same object on the heap.
Ex: string s1=”visvam”;
Thread t1=new Thread()
System.out.println(s1==t1);
we can’t apply==operator for incomparable types.validation leads to CTE saying
incomparable types.
S1==null is always “false”(no CTE&RTE)
equals()method :
The equals method available in object class meant for reference or address
comparision only(similar to==operator)but,we can override equals() in our class for
content comparision.
Overriding of .equals()
===> public Boolean equals(object o)
{
String name1=this.name;
Int rollno=this.rollno;
Student name2=s2.name;
Int rollno2=s2.rollno;
If(name1.equals(name2)&rollno1==rollno2)
Return true;
else
return false;
}
===>then System.out.println(s2.equals(s3)); //true
System.out.println(s1.equals(s2)); // false
====> in string class. .Equals() method is already overridden for context
comparision. Object class.equals method. Satisfy the following two conditions.
1.this is always for address comparision
2.it never rise CTE&RTEs even the arguments are different types.
If the arguments are different types .equals() is simply return false.
public boolean equals(object o)
{
try
{
Name 0=this.name1;
Rollno1=this.rollno1;
Student s=(student)0;
Name2=this.name2;
Rollno2=this.rollno2;
If(name1.equals(name2)&rollno1=rollno2)
return true;
else
return false;
}
Catch(classcastException e)
{
return false;
}
}
Then==>s.o.pln(s1.equals(“visvam”));
Catch(nullpointerException e)
{
Return false;
}
Then==> s.o.pln(“null”));

Comparision between==Operator &.equal :


= = Operator :
1.we can apply for both primitation and object references
2. r1= =r2 is true if and only both r1,r2 pointingly to same object on the heap. ie
==is always for reference comparision.
3.we cant’t override for context comparision.
4.we can’t apply = = operator for different tpes of objects .incomparable types.
5.s1= =null is always false
.equals()
1.we can apply only for object references
2.by default ,.equals() present in the object class is meant for address comparision
onl
3.we can override .
4..equals()never release any CTE&RTEs even the arguments are different types .in
that situation it will just simply return false.
5.s1.equals(null) gives false when handle NPE through catch
Relationship between = =and .Equals
1. if r1==r2 is true then r1.equals(r2) is always true.
2. if r2 = = is false then r1.equals(r2) may returns true.
Contract between hashcode and .equals()
If r1=equals(r2) is true,then r1.hashcode() = = r2.hashcode();
Ie .equalent objects should alwas have same hashcode.
If r1.equals(r2) is false ,then their hashcode may be same.
If R1.hashcode() = = r2.hashcode() may returns true
If R1.hashcode() = = r2.hashcode() may returns true ,then r1.equals(r2)may be
true.
If R1.hashcode() = = r2.hashcode() may returns false,then r1.equals(r2)alwas false.
In order to satisfy the above contract we have to override hashcode() whenever we
are overriding .equals()
4.clone()
Protected object clone() throws clone not supported exception.
This method can used to prouduced exactly duplicate copy of an object..
All the objects can’t produce cloned object ,only clonable objects can produce
duplicate copies .
An object is said to be conable if and only if the corresponding class implements
clonable interface.
By using the folling object class clone() method we can produced cloned objects
Protected object clone() throws clone supported exception
CheckedException so we should handle by using try catch or throws to the caller by
using throws clause.

String class

String class it is there in Java.lang package.


Immutability of the String object:
String s=”java”;
s.concat(“soft”);
System.out.println(s);
output:- jaVa
Muatability of StringBuffer object:
StringBuffer s=new StringBuffer(“java”);
s.append(“soft”);
System.out.println(s);
output:- javasoft

 Once we created a string object we are not allowed to perform any changes in
the existing String object.
 If you want to perform any changes (by using concat() or any other), with the
changes a new String object will create.
 Hence String objects are considered as Immutable
 In the case of StringBuffer, once we created a StringBuffer object, we are
allowed to perform any changes in the existing StringBuffer object only.
 Hence StringBuffer object is mutable

1. String s1=new String(“java”);


2. String s2=new String(“java”);
System.out.println(s1==s2); --> false
System.out.println(s1.equals(s2)); --> true
But
3. StringBuffer s3=new StringBuffer(“viswan”);
4. StringBuffer s4=new StringBuffer(“viswan”);
System.out.println(s1==s2); --> false
System.out.println(s1.equals(s2)); --> false

 In the String class .equals() is overridden for content comparision. Here the
content of s1 and s2 are equal, that’s why s1.equals(s2) returns true.
 In the String class .equals() is not overridden for content comparision.
whenever we calling .equals()

Method on the StringBuffer object, Object class .eqauals() method will execute,
which is meant for address comparision only.
Hence s3.equals(s4) returns false eventhough the contents of s3 and s4 are same.
Difference between the ways of creating String objects:-
1. String s1=”durga”;
2. String s2=new String(“durga”);
• In the first case, the JVM will check, is the any String object with content durga in
the “String Constant Pool”. If there is no such object then only a new String object
will create and s1 will pointed to that object.
• If the object already present then s1 will simply refers to that object instead of
creating a new object.
• In the second case, two String objects will create, one is on the heap, for the other
one in the “String Constant Pool” (If the object is not already present) and s2 will
pointing to heap object.
Ex: String s=”viswan”;
s.concat(“sw”);

* In this content, three objects are created. One is on heap and another two on
“String Constant Pool”

• “String Constant Pool” never allows Garbage Collection.


• Heap durgasw
String Constant Pool software
• I the object does not have any references in the “String Constant Pool”, still this is
not eligible for the Garbage Collection.
• All the objects present in the “String Constant Pool” destroy, whenever the JVM
restarted.
What is the output and how many String objects are created.
String s1=”spring”;
String s2=s1+”summer”;
s1.concat(“fall”);
s2.covcat(“s1”);
s1+=”winter”;
System.out.println(s1+ “,”+s2);
output: spring , springsummer
string constant pool: spring, summer, fall, winter
Heap: springsummer, springfall, springwinter, springsummerspring
Advantage Of StringConstantPool:
String s1=”you can’t change me”;
String s2=”you can’t change me”;
System.out.println(s1==s2); // true
System.out.println(s1.equals(s2)); //true
String s3=new String(“you cannot change me”);
System.out.println(s1==s3);//false
System.out.println(s1.equals(s3)); //true
String s4=”you can’t” + “change me”;
System.out.println(s1==s4);
String s5=”you can’t”;
String s6=s5+”change me”;
System.out.println(s1==s6); //false
If final String s7=”you can’t”
System.out.println(s1==s7); //true
String s8= s7+”change me”;
s1==s8; //true.
• In our programme., if any String object is repeatedly going to use, we can keep
only one copy in the String Constant Pool and shared by several required references.
Instead of creating several same content object, we are creating only one object,
this is very efficient w.r.t to memory point of view.
• As several refernces pointing to the same object in the StringConstantPool, by
using any references , if you allowed to use the content of that object, the remaining
references have to suffer.
• Hence once we created a string object we are not allowed to change content.
• If you want to perform any changes, with those changes a new String Object wil
create . Hence the String Objects are declared as the Immutable.
• StringConstantPool ---> Performance is improved. (advantages)
----> Immutability ( disadvantages)
Interning Of Strings:
String s1=new String(“viswan”);
String s2=s1;
String s3=s1.intern();
S1==s3; //false
String s4=”viswan”;
s4==s3; //true
• Intern() method used to point the String constant pool object instead of heap
object.
String Class Constructors:
1. String s=new String(String s);
2. String s=new String();
3. String s=new String(StringBuffer s1);
4. StringBuffer s1=new StringBuffer(“xxx”);
5. String s=new String(byte[]);
Ex: byte[] b={100,101,102,102}
String s=new String(b);
System.out.println(s); //”defg”
6. String s=new String(char[]);
Ex: Char[] ch={a,b,cd};
String s=new String(ch);
System.out.println(ch); // abcd
String Class Methods (only some imp):
1. public char charAt(int index):
This method returns the character located at the string’s specified index. Remember
that String indexes are zero based.
2. public String concat(String s):
This method returns a string with the value of the String passed into the method
appended to the end of the String used to invoke the method.
The overloaded + and += operators perform the same function of concat() method.
Ex: String s=”durga”;
s=s.concat(“sw”);
s=s+”sw”;
s+=”sw”;
System.out.println(s); //durgasw
3. public Boolean equals IgnoreCase(String s):
This method returns Boolean value ie., true or false depending on whether the value
of the string in the argument is the same as the value of the String used to invoke
the method.
Ex: String s=”DURGA”;
System.out.println(s.equalIgnoreCase(“Durga”); //true
s.equals(“Durga”); //false
4. public int length():
length() is the method in the case of String objects where as ‘length’ is the variable
in the case of Arrays.
Ex: String s= “durga”;
System.out.println(s.length); //CTE
System.out.println(s.length());// 5
5. public String replace(char old, char new):
String x=”ababab”;
System.out.println(x.replace(‘a’,’b’); //bbbbbb
6. a). public String substring(int begin):
String x=”0123456789”;
System.out.println(s.subString(6)); //6789
b). public String substring(int begin, int end):
System.out.println(s.subStrin(5,8)); //567

* End is not included in o/p.


* This is already overloaded method.
* It considers the index only.

String s=”abcdefgh”;
System.out.println(s.subString(3)); //defgh
System.out.println(s.subString(4,7)); //efg
7. public String toUpperCase():
String s= “ A New Moon”;
System.out.println(s.toUpperCase()); // A New Moon
8. public String toLowerCase()
String s= “ A New Moon”;
System.out.println(s.toLowerCase()); // A New Moon
9. public String trim()
String s=”viswan”;
System.out.println(s.trim()); //viswan
---> Leading or trailing blackspaces removed but not in the middle.
10. public int indexOf(char ch)
---> Returns the index of the first occurance of the specified character.
---> Returns -1, if there is no such character.
String s=”durgascjp”;
s.indexOf(d); //0
11. public int lastIndexOf(char ch)
---> Returns the last occurrence index of the specified character.
String s=”durga”;
String y=s.toUpperCase();
String s=s.toLowerCase();
System.out.println(s==x);//true
System.out.println(s==y); // false

s,x ---> durga y---> durga

• After applying any method of the contest of the String has to change then only a
new String object will create with the corresponding changes.

Ex1:
String s1=”abc”; s1 ---> abc
String s2=”def”; s2 ---> def <--- s3
String s3=”s2”; s2 ---> ghi
String s2=”ghi”;
S.o.p(s1+s2+s3); //abcghidef
Ex 2:
String x=new String(“xyz”);
y=”abc”;
x=x+y;
total objects are 4 ---> 2 on heap, 2 on string constant pool

* String objects as well as wrapper class objects are immutable.


* String, StringBuffer, wrapper, Math, StringBuilder classes are the final classes. So,
we are not allowed to create the child classes.

StringBuffer , StringBuilder

StringBuffer:
String objects are immutable where as StringBuffer objects are mutable.
Ex: String s=”viswan”;
s.concat(“sw”); -----> Immutability
System.out.println(s);//viswan

But StringBuffer s=new StringBuffer(“viswan”);


s.append(“sw”); -----> Mutability
System.out.println(s); // viswansw

String s1=new String(“java”);


String s2=new String(“java”);
s1==s2; //false
s1.equals(s2); //false

 Because in StringBuffer class .equals() method is not overridden for content


comparision. It is meant for address comparision only.

Constructors Of StringBuffer:
StringBuffer s= new StringBuffer();
---> Creates an empty StringBuffer object with default initial capacity 16.
class SBDemo
{
public static void main(String a[])
{
StringBuffer s=new StringBuffer();
s.append(“abcdefghijklmnop”);
System.out.println(a.capacity());
}
}
---> If we add q then //34=(16+1)*2
• When ever StringBuffer reaches its max capacity a new StringBuffer object is
created with the new capacity is (current capacity + 1)*2 ---> (16+1)*2=34
• First time only this can be valid. Afterwards the capacity increases with the
increase of characters only.
StringBuffer sb=new StringBuffer(int initialcapacity)
• Creates an empty StringBuffer object with the specified capacity.
StringBuffer sb=new StringBuffer(String s);
• Creates an equivalent StringBuffer object for the given String and with a capacity
equal to (length of String + 16).
Ex: StringBuffer s=new StringBuffer(“durga”);
System.out.println(s.capacity()); // 5+16=21
Length of the string “durga” =5

important methods of the StringBuffer :


1. public int length() ---> returns the length of the StringBuffer.
2. public int capacity() --->returns the capacity of the StringBuffer
3. public char charAt(int index)
Ex: StringBuffer s=new StringBuffer(“durga”);
char ch= s.charAt(3); //g
char ch=s.charAt(10); //invalid index
i.e., If the index is invalid we will get a RTE saying “String index of bounds
Exception”.
4. public void setCharAt(int index, char ch)
Constructing String from the given StringBuffer Object:
String s= bew String(StringBuffer s)
String s= StringBuffer.toString();
5. public synchronized StringBuffer append(String s); or (int i) or (char ch) or
(float f) or (double d) or (char[] ch) or (Boolean b) or (byte[] b)….
Ex: StringBuffer s= new StringBuffer(“PI”);
s.append(3.14 f);
System.out.println(s); //pi=3.14
6. public synchronized StringBuffer insert(int offset, String s) or
int/char/float/Boolean etc.,
Ex: StringBuffer s= new StringBuffer(“durga”);
s.insert(2,”012”);
System.out.println(s); //du012rga
7. public synchronized StringBuffer delete(int start, int end)

* delete the substring present in start to end – 1 position.


8. public synchronized stringBuffer delete charAt(int index)

* For deleting the character located at specified index.


9. public synchronized StringBuffer reverse()
Ex: StringBuffer sb= new StringBuffer(“madam”);
System.out.println(s.reverse()); //madam
10. public void setLength(int new length)

* This operation can result in the StringBuffer with the specified length. The Extra
characters will be removed.

If the StringBuffer is lessthan the specified length padded or appended with space
characters to the required length.
Ex: StringBuffer s=new StringBuffer(“viswan”);
s.length(3);
System.out.println(s); //vis
Chaining Of Methods :
• In the case of String and StringBuffer, the return type of most of the methods are
String or StringBuffer only, on that return type we are allowed to call another
method, as a result chaining of methods is possible, in the case of String and
StringBuffer.
Ex: StringBuffer sb= new StringBuffer(“durga”);
s1.m1().m2().m3().m4().m5().m6();

* All the method calls will execute left to right.


sb.append(“software”).insert(2,”xxx”).delete(4,7).reverse();
System.out.println(sb); // durgasw
--> duxxxrgasw ---> duxxasw
---> erawtfosaxxud
StringBuilder :

 It is exactly similar to StringBuffer except all the methods are


nonsynchronized methods.
 When compared with StringBuffer the fallowing are the advantages of
StringBuilder.high performance and the operation are fast.
 Data corruption is possible in the StringBuilder which is the major drawback
of StringBuilder, when compared with StringBuffer.

Example:
class Sample
{
public static void main(String a[])
{
StringBuilder sb=new StringBuilder(“surya”);
s.append(“software”);
s.reverse();
s.delete(3,5);
System.out.println(s);
}
}
//surya //suryasw
//erawtfosayrces //erafosayrces

Wrapper Class

The Wrapper classes have introduced for the fallowing two purposes by SUN people.
1. To wrap primitives into object form so that we can handle primitives also just like
objects.
2. We can get several utility functions for primitives.
• The fallowing are the wrapper classes.
Type --------- Class
byte ---------> Byte
short ---------> Short
int ---------> Integer
long ----------> Long
float ----------> Float
double ----------> Double
char ----------> Character
boolean ----------> Boolean

Constructors of the Wrapper classes :


• Integer class contains the fallowing two constructors.
Integer i= new Integer(int i);
Integer i= new Integer(String s);
Ex: Integer i= new Integer(10);
Integer i= new Integer(“10”);
Integer i=new Integer(“ten”); x given
RTE: NumberFormatException
I.e., If the String is unable to convert into a number then we will get a RTE saying
“NumberFormantException”.
---> Byte b=new Byte(byte b);
---> Byte b=new Byte(String s);
Wrapper Class --------- Constructor Arguments
1. Byte --------------------> byte or String
2. Short --------------------> short or String
3. Integer ---------------------> int or String
4. Long ---------------------> long or String
5. Float ---------------------> float or String or double
Ex: float f= new Float(float f); //10.0f //valid
float f= new Float(String s); //”10.0f” //valid
float f= new Float(double d);//10.0 //valid
6. Double ----------------------> double
7. Character ------------------> char
Ex: Character c=new Character(char c);
Character c=new Character(‘d’); //valid
Character c=new Character(“d”); //invalid
8. Boolean ---------------------> Boolean or String
Ex: Boolean b=new Boolean(true); //valid
(false); //valid
(TRUE); //invalid
(FALSE); //invalid
Boolean b=new Boolean(“viswan”); //false
(“yes”); //false
(“no”); //false
Note: Other than “true” everything should return ‘false’.
Which of the fallowing are valid Boolean declarations?
1. boolean b=true; //valid
2. boolean b=false; //valid
3. boolean b=TRUE; //invalid
4. boolean b=FALSE; //invalid
5. Boolean b=new Boolean(“true”); //valid
6. Boolean b=new Boolean(“false”); //valid
7. Boolean b=new Boolean(“yes”); //valid //false
8. Boolean b=new Boolean(“NO”); //valid // false
9. boolean b=yes; //invalid //Compile time error
10. boolean b=NO; //invalid // Compiletime error
valueOf() method:
• Except character class every wrapper class contain a static valueOf() which can be
used for converting a String object to corresponding wrapper object.
Ex: Integer i=Integer.valueOf(“10”); //valid
Integer i=Integer.valueOf(“ten”); //invalid // RTE :NumberFormatException
Boolean b= Boolen.valueOf(“xxx”); //false
valueOf(String):
String object ----------to------------> Wrapper Object
• This is a static method.
• The argument is String only.
• Throws NumberFormatException, if we are unable to convert the String to number.
Ex: Integer i= Integer.valueOf(10); //invalid
Argument is not String ,the Second version of valueOf() method:
• Byte. Short, Integer, Long classes contain second version of valueOf() method
which can take a String and radix as arguments.
• First the String converted into decimal form and then that decimal value will be
stored in the wrapper object.
Ex1: Integer i=Integer.valueOf(”101100”,2) ;
System.out.println(i);//44 base=radix
Signatures:
1. public static wrapper valueOf(String s)
object
2. public static wrapper valueOf(String s, int radix)
object
Ex2: Long l=Long.valueOf(“12”,5);
System.out.println(l); //7
* totally “36” bases or radixes are valid
xxxValue() methods:-
• All the numeric wrapper classes contains the fallowing methods for “converting
wrapperclass object to primitive”.
intVlaue(); byteVlaue(); shortVlaue(); longVlaue(); floatVlaue(); doubleVlaue();
• Each wrapper class contains the above six methods, in total 36 xxxValue()
methods are possible.
• These xxxValue() methods are instance methods and no arg methods.
Ex: Double d =new(150,263);
System.out.println(d.byteValue()); // -106
System.out.println(d.shortValue()); //150
System.out.println(d.intValue()); //150
System.out.println(d.longValue()); // 150
System.out.println(d.floatValue()); // 150.263
System.out.println(d.doubleValue()); // 150.263

• Character class contains charValue() method for converting character object to


primitive.
Ex: Character ch= new Character(‘a’) ;
Char c=ch.charValue();
System.out.println(c); // a
• Boolean class contain booleaValue() method for converting a Boolean object to
Boolean primitive.
Ex: Boolean B=new Boolen(“viswan”);
boolean b=B.charValue();
System.out.println(b); //false
parseXxx() methods:

• Every wrapper class except Character class contain parseXxx() for converting a
String object to corresponding primitive.
Ex: String s=”10”;
int i=Integer.parseInt(s);
double d=Double.parseDouble(s); //10.0
long l=Long.parseLong(s);
Wrapperclass--------- parseXxx()
Byte ------------> parseByte(String s)
Short -------------> parseShort(String s)
Integer -------------> parseInt(String s)
Long -------------> parseLong(String s)
Float -----------> parseFloat(String s)
Double ------------> parseDouble(String s)
• Boolean class contain a static method getBoolean() method for converting a string
to Boolean primitive.. -----> 1.4 version
String s=”123”;
int i=Integer.parseInt(s);
double d=Double.parseDouble(s);
System.out.println(i); //123
System.out.println(d); //123.0
Boolean b=getBoolean(“viswan”);
System.out.println(b); //false
Second version of parseXxx() :-
• All the integral wrapper classes (byte, short, integer, long) contains second version
of parseXxx().
public static primitive parseXxx(String s,int radix)
Ex: int i=Integer.parseInt(“10101100”,2);
System.out.println(i); //172
long l=Long.parseLong(“12”,8);
System.out.println(l); //10
• java support max – radix is 36(base)
System.out.println(Character.MAX-RADIX); //036
toString() method:
1st version:-
• All the wrapper classes contains an instance toString() method for converting
wrapper class object to corresponding String object.
• public String toString();
Integer i=new Integer(10);
String s= i.toString();
System.out.println(s); // 10
Boolen B=new Boolean(“surya”);
String s=B.toString();
System.out.println(s);//false

2nd Version:

• Every wrapper class contain a static toString() method for converting a primitive to
String object.
• This is available in all wrapper classes and object class also includes Boolean and
Character classes.
• public static String toString(10);
Ex: String s1=Integer.toString(10);
System.out.println(s);
String s1=Boolean.toString(true);
String s1=Integer.toString(‘a’);
System.out.println(s1);
System.out.println(s2);
3rd Version:

• Integer and Long classes contain the 3rd version of the toString() method for
converting given primitive to String of sprcified radix.
• public satic String toString(30,2);
Ex: String s= Integer.toString(30,2);
System.out.println(s); //”11110”
toString(primitive, int radix)
4th version:
• public static String to xxxString(primitive) //int/long
• The version of toString() is available in the Integer and Long classes only. The
possible to xxxString() methods are, toBinaryString, toHexString and tooctalString
for converting the given primitive to the corresponding String form.
String s=Integr.toBinaryString(100); //1100100
String s=Integr.toOctalString(100); //144
String s=Integr.toHexString(100); //64
• All the wrapper class objects are immutable and all the wrapper classes are final
classes.
• ‘void’ is also one type of wrapper class.
• String class and all the wrapper classes are immutable.
• The fallowing are the final classes.
-->String
--> StrringBuffer
--->Math

AutoBoxing , AutoUnBoxing

AutoBoxing:
• Automatic conversion by the compiler from primitive type to the corresponding object
form is called AutoBoxing.
Ex: int i=10; //Compile time error in 1.4 but valid in 1.5
Integer I=i;
• Compiler first constructs the integer object and then assigned that object to the variable.
AutoUnBoxing:
• Automatic conversion from wrapper class object to primitive type by the compiler is
called AutoUnBoxing.
Ex: Integer I= new Integer(10);
int i= I; //CTE :1.4
// valid in 1.5

* The compiler coverts Integer object to primitive and that primitive value will assign to
variable i.

* Because of these new autuboxing or auto unboxing features, the importance of wrapper
classes is not that much in the 1.5 version.
AutoBoxing in expressions:
Integer y=10;
Integer x=y;
Y++;
System.out.println(x); // 10
System.out.println(y); // 11
System.out.println(x==y); // flase
Wapper class objects are immutable .if you want to perform any changes with those
changes a new wrapper class object will create.
Special cases:
case1:
Integer i1=new Integer(10);
Integer i2=new Integer(10);
System.out.println(i1==i2); //false
Case2:
Integer i1=new Integer(10);
Integer i2=10;
System.out.println(i1==i2); //false
Case3:
Integer i1=100;
Integer i2=100;
System.out.println(i1==i2); //true
Case4:
Integer i1=1000;
Integer i2=1000;
System.out.println(i1==i2); //false
In the case of autoboxing compalier won’t create any new object If an existing already
created object mapped with the reqired one . the existing object should be created bt the
autoboxing only.
This poosibility will occur in the following cases.
1.By using autoboxing. If it is required to create a new wrapper object, other wise
compiler won’t create any new object, if already an object is present in the fallowing
cases. these Objects are Boolean and Byte.
2. Character object ranges from 0 to 127 ------> (‘\u0000’ to ‘\u0007f’).
3. For the integer and short if the value is less than or equal to 127.
4. For the long of the value is less than or equal to 127 L .
But Long l=10; //invalid
CTE: incompatable types
Found:int , req: java.lang.Long
Similarly Float f= 10; //invalid - CTE: incompatable types
Found: int, req: java.lang.Float
Case5:
Boolean b1=true;
Boolean b2=true;
System.out.println(b1==b2); // true
Case6:
Boolean b3=flase;
Boolean b4=flase;
System.out.println(b3==b4); // true

Special case:
Example:
class Sample
{
static Integer I1=10; ---->I1: Initialized
public static void main(String a[])
{
m1(I1); ---> I1 : auto unboxing
}
public static void m1(int i)
{
Integer I2=i; ----> I2: auto boxing
System.out.println(I2); //10
}
}
above example executes fine.
But
class Sample
{
static Integer I1; // not Initialized
public static void main(String a[])
{
m1(I1); // null pointer exception
}
public static void m1(int i)
{
Integer I2=i;
System.out.println(I2);
}
}
Static variables by default initialized with null, which can’t be
autoboxing/autounboxing.Hence Run time exception.

overloading when combining with widening and Autoboxing:


class Text
{
static void m1(Integer x)
{
System.out.println(“integer”);
}
static void m1(long l)
{
System.out.println(“long”);
}
public static void main(String arg[])
{
int i=5;
m1(i); //long
}
}
when comparing widening with autoboxing compiler always prefers widening in order to
provide the sport for legacy code.
Over loading in case of widening with var-arg method:
Class sample
{
static void m1(int I,int j)
{
System.out.println(“int, int”);
}
static void m1(byte… b)
{
System.out.println(“byte arg”);
}
public static void main(String arg[])
{
byte b=5;
m1(b,b);
}
} // in tint
widening dominates var-arg method .compiler will give the precedence for widening over
var-arg method.
Autoboxing vs var-args:
Class Sample
{
static void m1(Byte b)
{
System.out.println(“byte”);
}
static void m1(byte… b)
{
System.out.println(“byte arg”);
}
public static void main(String arg[])
{
byte b=5;
m1(b);
}
}
the compiler prefers autoboxing over var-args
If there is no other method matched,then only var-arg method always seeks to least
priority.
Conclusion:
The compiler always gives the precedence in the following order for resolving over
loading methods.
1.wid4ening
2.auto boxing & unboxing
3.var- args
Special cases:
Class Sampe
{
public static void m1(Long l)
{
System.out.println(“long”);
}
public static void main(String arg[])
{
byte b=5;
m1(b);
}
}

In java widening followed by autoboxing is not allowed.Hence the above code raise a
CTE saying m1(java.lang.long) in sample can not be applied to (byte).
i.e Byte --------> Long is not possible.
But byte ----->long is possible.
Widening followed by autoboxing is not allowed. But the reverse is allowed in java i.e
autoboxing follwed by widening is possible.
Class Sample
{
static void m1(Object o)
{
System.out.println(“object”);
}
public static void main(String arg[])
{
byte b=5;
m1(b); // object
}
}
i.e byte -----> Byte -----> Object
i.e Here autoboxing is followed by widening .

class Samle
{
static void m1(byte… b)
{
System.out.println(“byte……”);
}
static void m1(byte b,byte… b1)
{
System.out.println(“byte, byte….”);
}
public static void main(String arg[])
{
byte b=5;
m1(b); // CTE saying reference to m1 is ambiguous.
}
}
Here both methods are matched because of var-args feature.Hence compailer can’t give
any precedence results in CTE
Static variable by default initialized with null,which can’t be autoboxing /autounboxing

enum

It defines a list of named constants.This is interdused in 1.5 version.


Java enum is powerful than c,c++ enums because java enum may contain
methods ,constructors and instance variables in addition to constants.But c,c++
enum contain only constants.
Example:
enum Month
{
Jan,Feb,Mar,Apr…….;
}
Example:
enum Beer
{
KF,RC,H5,H2,…….;
}
No variables in enum.At the end ( ; ) no need to specify (optional)
Use:we can reduce the number of bugs by using enumeration because We are
providing a set of predefined values for the variables.
Enum Example code:
enum Month
{
Jan,Feb,Mar,Apr;
}
class Sample
{
public static void main(String arg[])
{
Month m=Month.Mar;
System.out.println(m); // Mar
}
}

 We can keep enum outside the class or inside the class.If we are declaring
enum outside the class,the allowed modifiers are public ,<default>.we can
declare enum with in a class the allowed modifiers are public
,<default>,protected,private.
 We never allowed to declare enum inside a method,violation leads to compile
time error saying enum type must not be local.
 Enum types is allowed to used as argument for the switch statement.

Example:
Enum Beer
{
KF,RC,H5;
}
class Sample
{
public static void main(String arg[])
{
Beer b= Beer.KF;
Switch(b)
{
case KF:
System.out.println(“too Bitter”);
break;
case RC:
System.out.println(“too Hot”);
break;
case H5:
System.out.println(“too strong”);
break;
}
}
}
until 1.4 version the allowed arguments for the switch statement are
byte,short,int,char.But 1.5 version onwords in addition to these arguments
Byte,Short,Character,Integer and enum also.
Values() method:
Enum contains a predefined method values to list the constants available in that
enum.
Example :
enum Month
{
Jan,Feb,Mar,Apr;
}
class Client
{
public static void main(String arg[])
{
Month[] m=Month.values();
for(Month m1:m)
{
System.out.println(m1); // Jan,Feb,Mar,Apr
}
}
enum never participated in inheritance hierarchy because every enum class implicitly
extends java.lang .enum .Thats why we never allowed to create a child classfor the
enum.As Month enum already extends java.lang.enum hence it never allowed to
extend any other.
Enum Month extends Some ---> not possible
If we are writing any enum it is extending java.lang.enum class.Hence it never
extends any thing else.So inheritance concept not applicable for enums.
Example:
Enum Beer
{
KF(65),RC(50),H5(100),KO;
int price;
Beer(int price)
{
this.price=price;
}
public int getPrice()
{
return price;
}
Beer()
{
this.price=100;
}
}
class Sample
{
public static void main(String arg[])
{
Beer b=Beer.KF;
System.out.println(b); //KF
System.out.println(Beer.KF.ordinal());
System.out.println(b.price); //65
System.out.println(b.getPrice()); //65
Beer[] s=Beer.values();
for(Beer s1:s)
{
System.out.println(s1+”……….”+s1.getPrice());
}
}
}
• When ever enum is loaded into the memory, all the enum constants will be
assigned and JVM calls Constructor automatically. The programmer is not allowed to
call enum constructor explicitly.
• The Constructors of enum can be overloaded if the enum contain both enum
constants, instance variables, the first line should be enum constants and ends with
semicolon.
i.e.
enum Beer
{
KF, RC //invalid ; missing
int price;
}
enum Beer
{
int price; //invalid because the 1st stmt should be enum constants.
KF, RC;
}
enum Beer
{
KF, RC;
int price; //valid
}

Ordinal Value

• The position of enum constant is important and indicated by their ordinal values.
We can ordinal value for any enum constant by the fallowing method.

Public final int ordinal();


Ordinal value starts from zero(0).
Enum Month
{
JAN,FEB;
public static void main(String a[])
{
Month[] m=Month.values();
for(Month m1:m)
System.out.println(m1);//JAN,FEB
}
}//Save:Month.java, Run:Java Month

 So just like a normal class, we can run enum also.

System.out.println(Month.JAN==Month.FEB); //false

 So we can compare the constants declared in enum. Otherthan ‘=


=’operators, remaining <=, >=,<,> will gave CTE.
 Duplicate constants can’t be declared. So, constants are unique.

enum Month
{
Jan,Feb,Jan; //invalid,CTE:Jan already defined
}

But

enum Month
{
Jan,Feb,JAN; //valid, due to case sensitive jan!=JAN
}
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Labels: java.lang comments (0)

Comparable Interface and clonable interface


Comparable Interface:
This is present in java.lang.package
Contains the following one method.
1.public int compareTo(Object o)
if returns –ve integer if o1 has to place before o2.
If returns +ve integer if o1 has to to place after o2.
If returns zero then o1 and o2 are equal.
All the wrapper classes and string class already implemented
comparable interface. But the StringBuffer doesn’t implement
comparable interface.
Comparable Interface Example:
Interface comparable
{
public int compareTo(Object o)
{
TreeSet t=new TreeSet(0;
t.add(“a”);
t.add(‘z”);
System.out.println(t); // a,z (:: z.compareTo(“a”);)
System.out.println((“a”).compareTo(“z”)); //-25
System.out.println((new Integer(10).compareTo(new Intege(1)); // +1
}
}|
Marker or Tag Interface:
If an interface is marked for some ability such type of interfaces are
called Marker interfaces.
Ex: clonable,serializable
If an interface with out any method obviously accept ass marker
interface.
Eventhough interface contains some methods,still we can consider as
marker interface .If it is marked for some ability.
Ex:Comparable interface.
Intreger i1=new Integer(10);
Integer i2=new Integer(20);
System.out.println(i2.compareTo i1); // -1
System.out.println(i1.compareTo i2); // +1
System.out.println(i1.compareTo i1); // 0
System.out.println(i1.compareTo(“a”)); // CTE nullpointer
exception

Cloneable interface:
Uptaining exact copy of a plant ,a bird,an animal or a human being
is called cloning.
Cloning in programming uptaining bit wist exact copy of an object is
called cloning.
cloning Example:

Class sample() implements cloneable


{
Int i=10;
Public static void main(string args[])throwsClone
notSupportedEexception
{
Sample s1=new sample();
Sample s2=s1;
Sample s3=(sample)s1.clone();
S1.i=1000;
System.out.println(s3.i);
System.out.println(s1==s3);
we should type cast otherwise
CTE:in compatable types
Found: Object reqired=sample
The class must implements cloneable interface otherwise at runtime
clone() results cloneNotsupportException
Example:
Class sample implements clonable
{
Int i=10;
Public static void main(string[]args)throws cloneNot support
Exception
{
Object o=new object();
Object o2=o.clone();
}
CTE:clone() has protected access in java.lang.object
The protected numbers we can access, from with in the same
package or from outside package but from outside package,the
protected number can be accessed b using child class reference
only.ie we can’t use parentclass reference to access protected
number from outside package,validation leadsto CTE.

clone() method:
Protected object clone() throws clone not supported exception.
This method can used to prouduced exactly duplicate copy of an
object..
All the objects can’t produce cloned object ,only clonable objects can
produce duplicate copies .
An object is said to be conable if and only if the corresponding class
implements clonable interface.
By using the folling object class clone() method we can produced
cloned objects
Protected object clone() throws clone supported exception
CheckedException so we should handle by using try catch or throws
to the caller by using throws clause.
Shallow cloning Example:
Class Student implements cloneable
{
String name;
String age;
Student(String name,String age)
{
This.name;
This.age=age;
]
Public Object clone()throws cloneNotSupportedException
{
Return this;
}
}
Class Student cloneDemo
{
Student s1= new Student(“hai”,”22”);
Student s2= (Student)s1.clone();
S2.name=”abc”;
System.out.println(s1.name);
Public static void main (String ar[])
{
StudentCloneDemo s1= new Student cloneDemo();
}
}
Deep cloning example:
Class Student implements cloneable
{
String name;
String age;
}
Student(String name ,String age)
{
This.name=name;
This.age=age;
}

Public Object clone(0throws CloneNotSuport Exception


{
try
{
ByteArrayOutputStream bas=new ByteArrayOutputStream();
ObjectOutputStream oos=new ObjectOutputStream(bas);
Oos.writeObject(this);
ByteArrayInputStream bias=new
ByteArrayInputStream(bas.toByteArray());
ObjectInputStream oos=new ObjectInputStream(bias);
Return ois.readObject();
}
catch(Exception e)
{
e.printStackTrace();
return null;
}
}
class DcloneDemo
{
DcloneDemo()throws CloneNotSuportException
{
Student s1=new Student(“hello”,”200”);
Student s2=(Student)s1.clone();
S2.name=”java”;
System.out.println(s1.name);
Public static void main(String[] arg)
{
new DcloneDemo();
}
}
Java DefaultExceptionHandler

An Exception is an abnormal and unexpected and also unwanted event that disturbs
the normal flow of the program.
Ex: FileNotFoundExceptionArithmaticException etc..
Default Exception Handling Mechanism in JAVA:
class Sample
{
public static void main(String a[])
{
doStuff();
}
public static void doStuff()
{
doMoreStuff();
}
public static void doMoreStuff()
{
System.out.println(“hai”);
System.out.println(10/0);
}
}
RTE: Exception in thread “main” Java.Lang.Arithematic Exception: /by zero
At Sample . doMoreStuff(Sample.java)
At Sample . doStuff(Sample.java:9)
At sample . main(Sample. java :5)
• If an exception is raised inside any method is r3esponsible for the creation of
exception object. (here doMoreStuff() is responsible )
• The Exception object must contain the fallowing information.
1. Name of the Exception(Java.Lang.ArithematicException)
2. Description of the Exception (/ by zero)
3. The position at which the exception raised. (stack trace).
• Now the method handover that exception object to the JVM. JVM will come with
that exception object and it will check, is there any exception object and it will check
is there any exception handler inside that method abnormally and removes the
corresponding entry from the stack.
• Now the method handover that exception object to the JVM. JVM will come with
that exception object and it will check, is that any exception handler inside that
method. If there is no exception handler then JVM blindly terminate that method
abnormally and removes the corresponding entry from the stack.
• JVM will check for the caller(doStuff()) containing any exception handling code. If
the caller also doesn’t contain any exception handling code, then JVM simply
terminate that method also and remove the corresponding entry from the stack.
• This process will continue, until main() method. If the main() also doesn’t have any
exception handling code then JVM terminates main() abnormally and handover the
responsibility of the exception handling to default exception handler.
• Now Default Exception handler print the exception information to the end user
CommonExceptions and Errors:
Exceptions or errors may be thrown by either JVM(JVM Exceptions) or thrown
explicitly by application developers or API programmers(programmatic exception).
1. NULLPOINTER EXCEPTION:
Class Sample
{
Static int[] a;
Static String name;
public static void main(String a[])
{
System.out.println(a.length);
}
}
System.out.println(a[o]); // null pointer exception (NPE)
System.out.println(name.length); //NPE
This is child class of RuntimeException. It is unchecked exception.
This is thrown by JVM when attempting to acess an object with a reference variable
whose current value is null.
Ie., on null if we are applying any operation we will get NullPointerException.
2. STACK OVERFLOW ERROR:-
• This is child class of virtual machine error.
• It is unchecked
Throwable ----> Error ---> VMError ---> StackOverFlowError
Ex:class Sample
{
public static void m1()
{
m1();
}
public static void main(String a[]){ m1(); } // stack overflow error
}
StackOverflow error is thrown by JVM when a method recurses too deeply.
class Sample
{
Sample() { new Sample(); }
public static void main(String a[]) { Sample s= new Sample(); }//Exception in main
thread stack overflow error
}
3. ARRAY INDEXOUTOF BOUNDS EXCEPTION:
• This is a child class of IndexOutOfBoundsExcption.
Throwable ---> Exception ---> RunTimeException ---->
IndexOutOfBoundsException---> ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException,
StingIndexOutOfBoundsException
• It is an unchecked exception thrown by JVM when we are accessing an array
element with
Invalid index.
Ex:
class Sample
{
public static void main(String a[])
{
Int[] a=new int[6];
System.out.println(a[5]); //0
System.out.println(a[7]); //RTE: ArrayIndexOutOfException
System.out.println(a[-2]); //----do----
System.out.println(a[-2.5]); //CTE: PLP req: int found:double
}
}
4. CLASS CAST EXCEPTION:
Class Sample
{
public static void main(String a[]))
{
String s=”anu”;
Object o=(Object)s;
String s1=(String)O;
System.out.println(“hai”);
}
}
• It is the child class of RTE
• It is unchecked exception, thrown by JVM when attempting to cast a reference
variable to a type the fails to cast a reference variable to a type the faith the IS- A
test.
----> Object o=new Object();
String s=(String)o; // Class Cast Exception
----> StringBuffer s1= (StringBuffer)s;

5. NOCLASS DEF FOUND ERROR:

 It is the child class of error and it is unchecked one and unreachable.


 It is thrown by JVM. If the JVM or class loader tries to load the definition of
the class and no definition of the class could be found.

6. EXCEPTION IN INITIALIZER ERROR:


class Sample
{
Static String s;
String s1=new String(s);
public static void main(String a[])
{
System.out.println(“hai”);
}
}//Exception in initializer error caused by java.lang.NullPointerException.
Thrown by the JVM to indicate that an exception is occur during initialization of static
variable or initialization block.
7. ILLEGAL ARGUMENT EXCEPTION:

 It extends RTE and unchecked.


 Thrown by aPI developer to indicate that a method has been passed an illegal
or inappropriate argument.
Ex: Thread class setPriority() and sleep() methods throw this exception.
class Sample
{
p s v m(String a[])
{
Thread.currentThread().setPriority(15);
}
}//CTE: Illegal Argument exception
8. NumberFormatException:
Integer i=new Integer(“10”);//valid
Integer i=new Integer(“ten”);//invalid
CTE: NumberFormateException
int i=Integer.parseInt(arg[0]);
In commandline if we give “10” is valid. But “ten” is invalid.
It is the direct child class of illegal argument exception and thrown programmatically
to indicate the application has attempted to convert a string to the number, but the
string doesn’t have appropriate format.
9. IllegalStateException:
It extends RTE and indicates that a method has been invoked at an illegal or
inappropriate time.
Ex: PrintWriter out=res.getWriter();
Out.println(…);
Out.close();
Out.println(“…”); ---> this is not appropriate time to call print() on out object and
hence throws IllegalStateException.
10. Assertion Error:
It is the child class of error throws programatically when assert statement when
Assert statement fails.
Summarization:
Exception or error --------------------- thrown by
1. NullPointerException ------------------ JVM
2. StackOverFlowErrorException --------------- JVM
3. ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException ------------- JVM
4. ClassCastException ------------------------- JVM
5. NoClassDefFoundError -------------------- JVM
6. ExceptionInIntializerError -------------------- JVM

thrown by programmatically by programmer API developer:


7. IllegealArgumentException
8. NumberFormatException
9. IllegalStateException
10. Assertion Error

Checked , Unchecked Exceptions

Checked vs Unchecked Exceptions :


• The Exceptions which are checked by the compiler for smooth execution of program at
Runtime are called checked Exceptions.
• The Exceptions which are unable to check by the compiler are called Unchecked
Exceptions.
• Runtime Exception and its child classes: Error and its child classes are Unchecked
Exceptions. While the remaining all are Unchecked Exceptions.

Partially
Checked vs Fully Checked :
A Checked Exception is said to be Fully Checked Exception if and only if all its child
classes are also checked. Otherwise it is Partially Checked Exception.
Ex: IOException is Fully Checked Exception
Exception is Partially Checked
Throwable is Partially Checked

try , catch , finally

finally block:
try
{
System.out.println(10/0);
}
catch(AE e)
{
System.out.println(“catch”);
}
finally
{
System.out.println(“catch”);
}
• The cleanup code, we have to keep inside finally block because irrespective of
exception occurred or not occurred or handled or not handled, the finally block will
always execute.

Q: Difference between final, finally and finalize?


• It is highly recommended to keep cleanup code inside finally block instead of
finalize().
• The finally block will always execute except the place where the JVM got shutdown.
We can shutdown the JVM by calling /using System.exit(0).

Example:
try
{
System.out.println(“hai”);
}
catch( NULL pointer exception e)
{
System.out.println(“catch”);
}
finally
{
System.out.println(“finally”);
}
output:
hai
finally

Samples:
1. try{} catch(X e){} -->valid
2. try{}catch(X e){}finally{} -->valid
3. try{}finally{}catch(X e){} --> invalid
4. try{}finally{} -->valid
i.e , try --> catch --> finally is the only order.
Only try{} ---> invalid,
Only catch{} ----> invalid
Only finally{} ----> invalid
Note: try without catch & catch with out try invalid

Example:
catch(..){}
finally{}
CTE: catch with out try

Control Flow in try, catch, finally block :


try
{
Stmt1;
Stmt2;
Stmt3;
}
catch(XException e)
{
Stmt 4;
}
finally
{
Stmt 5;
}
Stmt 6;

See the below cases:


Case 1:- If there is no exception then 1,2,3,5,6 and normal termination.
Case 2:- If an exception raised at stmt2 and the corresponding catch block found
1,4,5,6 and normal termination.
Case 3:- If an exception raised at stmt2 and the corresponding catch block not
matched 1,5 and abnormal termination.

Control Floe in the Nested try, catch, finally blocks:


try
{
Stmt1;
Stmt2;
Stmt3;
try
{
Stmt4;
Stmt5;
Stmt6;
catch(XException e)
{
Stmt 7;
}
finally
{
Stmt 8;
}
Stmt 9;
}
catch(YException e)
{
Stmt 10;
}
finally
{
Stmt 11;
}
Stmt 12;

Case 1: If there is no exception 1,2,3,4,5,6,8,9,11,12 and normal termination.


Case 2: If an exception raised at stmt 2 and the corresponding catch block found
then 1,10,11,12 and normal termination.
Case 3: If an exception raised at stmt2 and the corresponding catch block has not
matched then 1,11 and abnormal termination.
Case 4: If an exception raised at stmt5 and the corresponding catch block has
matched then 1,2,3,4,7,8,9,11,12 and normal termination.
Case 5: If an exception raised at stmt5 and the corresponding catch block has not
matched but the outer catch has matched then 1,2,3,4,8,10,11,12 and normal
termination.
Case 6: If an exception raised at stmt5 but the inner and outer catch blocks are not
matched then 1,2,3,4,8,11 and abnormal termination.

‘Throw’ keyword:
public static void main(String a[])
{
try
{
Throw new AithmeticException()
}
}
By using ‘throw ‘ keyword, over created customized exception objects are handed
over to JVM.

Example:
class Sample
{
public static void main (String a[])
{
throw new ArithmeticException();
System.out.println(“hai”);
}// CTE: Unreachable statement
}
After throw we are not allowed to keep any statement, violation leads to CTE saying
“unreachable statement”.

Example:
class Sample
{
static ArithmeticException e;
public static void main(String[] a)
{
throw e; //invalid
}
}
output: NullPointerException
‘e’(is in instance area) is not pointing “ArithmeticException’ here.
static ArithmeticException e=new ArithmeticException();
Example:
class Sample
{
public static void main(String a[])
{
Throw new Exception(); //invalid
}
}//CTE: “Unreported Exception Java.lang.Exception must be caught” or declared to
be thrown.
• Inside a program if there is any chance of throwing a checked exception explicitly
or implicitly we have to handle that checked exception by using try - catch or we
have to delegate the responsibility or exception handling to the caller. Violation leads
to CTE saying Unreported Exception xxx; must be caught or declared to be thrown.

throws , throw

“throws” Keyword :We can ‘throws’ keyword for delegating the responsibility of
the Exception handling to the caller.
Ex:
class Sample
{
public static void main(String a[])throws InteruptedException
{
doStuff();
}
public static void doStuff()throws IE
{
doMoreStuff();
}
public static void doMoreStuff()
{
System.out.println(“hai”);
Thread.sleep(1000);
}
}
without ‘throws’ CTE: Unreported Exception java.lang.interuptedException ; must be
caught or declared to be thrown. To avoid CTE(compile time error) another way in
using try ---> catch block.
Ex:
class Sample
{
public static void main(String a[])
{
try
{
System.out.println(“hello”);
}
catch(IOException e){} --->CTE (fullychecked exception)
}
}
CTE: exception java.io.IOException is never thrown in the body of the corresponding
try statement.

 If we are keeping the catch block for fully checked exception there should
may be a chance of raising exception in the corresponding try block otherwise
CTE saying XXXException is never thrown in the body of corresponding try
statement.

Case 1:
try
{
System.out.println(“hai”);
}
catch(ArithematicException e) //valid no CTE(compile time error)
{ //unchecked exception }
Case 2: try
{
System.out.println(“hai”);
}
catch(Exception e) //valid no CTE
{
//Partially checked exception
}
Case 3:
try
{
System.out.println(“hello”);
}
catch(IOException e) //invalid CTE
{
// fully checked exception
}

Throw keyword:By using ‘throw ‘ keyword, over created customized exception


objects are handed over to JVM.

Example:
class Sample
{
public static void main (String a[])
{
throw new ArithmeticException();
System.out.println(“hai”);
}// CTE: Unreachable statement
}
After throw we are not allowed to keep any statement, violation leads to CTE saying
“unreachable statement”.

Customized Exceptions :
Based on the programming required sometimes we have to design our own
Customized Exceptions.
Ex: Insufficient funds Exception
too young Exception
too old Exception
throw Example:
class TooYoungException extends RunTimeException
{
TooYoungException(String s)
{
super(s);
}
class Sample
{
public static void main(String a[])
{
int i=Integer.parseInt(arg[0]);
if(i>85)
throw new TooYoungException(“please wait some more time, you eill get married”);
else if(i<10)
throw new TooYoungException(“ur age is already crossed”);
else
throw new TooYoungException(“very soon you will get match”);
}
}
java File

File:
A File Object is an abstract representstion of name of a file or directory.

File f=new File(“abc.txt”);


Ststem.out.println(f.exits()); ------------>output: false
F represents a file abc.txt only
File f=new File(“Laxman”);
F represents a diretory ‘Laxman’.
.java file object represents both files and diretory(unix terminology).
Constructors of the File class:
--> File f=new File (String name)
create a file instance that represents the name of the file or directory.
--> File f =new File(String diretory,string name)
creates a file instance that represents a diretory or file name in the specified
directory.
---> File f=new File(File dir,String name)
create a new file instance that represents a file or diretory name in the specified
directory.
If the specified is not exists we will find an exception saying IOException system
can’t find the specified diretory.
Methods of the File class:
1.boolean exists()
return true if the file or diretory exists,otherwise false.
2.boolean createNewFile()
returns true if it will create a new file otherwise false.
3.boolean mkdir()
create the new diretory and returns true if the directory already present returns
false.
4.boolean isFile()
return true if the file object represents File
5.boolean isDirectory()
Inorder to check whether the file object represents,physical file name or directory.
6.String[] list()
returns the files/directory name present in the directory.
7.boolean delete()
delete the file or directory represented by file object.
8.boolean renameTo(File destination)
1)Write a program(WAP) to create a file named with “xyz.txt” in the current
directory.
2)WAP for createing a directory laxman123 in the current working directory and in
that create a file named with file1.txt.
3.WAP a program to list all the files and directories present in directory laxman123.
File Example :
1. Class Sample
{
public static void main(String add[])
{
File f=new File(“xyz.txt”);
If (!f.exists())

f.createNewFile();

System.out.println(f.exists());
}
}
2. class Sample
{
public static void main(String aff[])
{
File f=new File(“laxman.txt”);
If(!f.exists())
f.mkdir();
File f1=new File(“laxman”,”laxman txt”);
F1.createNewFile();
System.out.println(f1.exists());
}
}
3. Class Samle
{
public static void main(String ah[])
{
File f=new File (“laxman123”); ------------->already exists
String[] s=f.list();
for(String s1:s)
{
System.out.println(s1);
}
}
With the same name there may be a chance of a file or a directory .From java code
creating the file followed by creating the directory with the same name allowed and
File object represents a file only.
After creating the directory ,if we are creating file with tha same name we will get
RTE saying IOException:Access is denied
File f=new File(“dir1”,”file1.txt”);
This file object represents a file named with file1.txt which will present in the
directory
f.writeNewFile();
If the directory is not present then f.createNewFile() results a RTE saying
IOException:The system can not find the path specified.
If we call list() method on java file object which represents a physical file instead of
directory.it just simply return null.
If applied on directory it returns the content of the directory.

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java All Reader classes

FileReader class:
If is the child class of abstract class reader this can be used for reading charater data
from a file.
FileReader Constructors:
1.FileReader fr=new FileReader(String fname)
2.FileReader fr=new FileReader (Filename f)
if the file is not found these constructors raise RTE saying FileNotFound Exception
Methods:
1. int read()throws IOException
return the Unicode of the next charater if it is exists else---1.
2.int read(char[] ch)
returns the number of charaters from the file and populated in the specified array.
3.void close()
the flushing is not reqired while reading data .so MISSING
File Reader Examples:
FileReader fr=new FileReader(“laxman.txt”);
System.out.println(“fr.read());
Char[] ch =new char[200];
Fr.read(ch);
For(char c1:ch)
System.out.println(c1);
Fr.close();

BufferedReader:
By using this we can improve the performance.It contain a separate method readLine() to read
single line at a time instead of single charater.
So this is the more convenient class for reading charater data from a file
Constructors:
1.BufferedReader br=new BufferedReader(Reader r)
2.BufferedReader br=new BufferedReader(Reader r,int size)
Methods:
1.int read()throws IOException
to read a single character
2.int read(char[] ch)throws IOException
to read an array of character
3.String readLine()
to read nextline a single line.
If there is no next line return null
BufferedReader Example:
FileReader fr=new FileReader(“laxman.txt”);
BufferedReader br=new BufferedReader(fr);
String s=br.readLine();
While(s!=null)
{
System.out.println(s);
S=br.reaadLine();
}
br.close();
}

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java All writer classes

FileWriter:
This is a child class of writer .this class can be used for writing charater data.
FileWriter constructors:
1.FileWriter fw=new FileWriter(Filename)
create a filewriter object to the given file if the file having this name ,doesn’t exists
this constructor automatically creates the corresponding file also.But this is not
possible in the case of File constructor.
2.FileWriter fw=new FileWriter(File f)
create FileWriter object for the specified File f .if the file is not already present this
constructor wilol create automatically the file also.
3.FileWriter fw=new FileWriter(String file name,Boolean append)
If the second argument is true the data append to the existing content .If it is false
,then the old data is over ridden by new data.
4.FileWriter fw =new FileWriter (File f, boolean append) ------>By default flase.
Methods of FileWriter:
1.void write(int ch)throws IOException
the Corresponding character can be written to the file.
2.void write(String s)throws IOException
writes a String to the file
3.void write(char[] ch)throws IOException
writes a charater array data ti the file
4.void flush()
to guarented that the last character of the data should be written to the file
5.void close()
To the close file writer object
6.void write(int unicodevalue)throws IOException
File writer Example:
Import java.io.*;
Class Sample
{
public static void main(String aff[])
{
File f=new File(“file1.txt”);
System.out.println(f.exists());
FileWriter fw =new FileWriter(f);
System.out.println(f.exists());
Fw.write(100);
Fw.write(“laxman software”);
Char[] ch={‘L’,’a’,’x’,’m’,’a’,’n’};
Fw.write(ch);
Fw.close();
Fw.flush();
}
}

 while inserting the data ,the programmer is responsible to insert separately


the line separator(\n).
 When we are reading the data ,we have to put inside the char array.
 we should know the size of the array in advance otherwise it will be a
probleam .
 we have to read the data charater by charater which increase the number of
IO operations and decreses the performance of the system.

To overcome this ,SUN people has introduced buffered reader and bufferwriter class
BufferedWriter:
we can create a bufferedwriter object over any writer object.
Construtors:
BufferedWriter bf=new BufferedWriter(Writer w);
BufferedWriter bw=new BufferedWriter(Writer w,int size);
Where size is the size of the buffer
Methods:
1.void write(int i)throws IOException
To write one charater
2.void write(String s)throws IOException
to write the given string
3.void write(char[] ch)throws IOException
4.void newLine()
to insert a new line character
5.void flush()
6.void close()
Q.when compare with java.io.BufferedWriter to java.io.FileWriter which capability
exists as a method in only one of .
a.closing system
2b.flushing the stream
c.writng to the stream
d.marking the location in the stream
e.writing the line separator to the string (valid)
Buffered Writer Example:
Class Sample
{
public static void main(String args[])
{
FileWriter fw=new FileWriter(“laxman.txt”);
BufferedWriter bw=new BufferedWriter(fw);
Bw.write(100);
Bw.write(“laxman”);
Bw..newLine();
Bw.write(“scjp”);
Bw.newLinw();
Bw.write(“srnagar”);
Bw.flush();
Bw.close();
Fw.close();
}
}

When ever we are closing the BufferedWriter autpmaticaly the stream opened by
fileWriter is also closed.

PrintWriter:
The most convenient class for writing any kind of text data .It has enhanced in 1.5
version.
Constructors:
1.PrintWriter p=new PrintWriter(String name)
2.PrintWriter p=new PrintWriter(File name)
3.PrintWriter p=new PrintWriter(Writer w)
Methods:
1.void write(int ch)------> to write character
2.void write(String s)-----> to write String
3.void write(char[] ch)-----to write character
4.void print(int i) -----directory add the int
5.void print(String s)
6.void print(char[] ch)
7.void print(boolean b)
8.void print(char ch)
9.void print(long l)
10.void println(int i) -----directory add the int
11.void println(String s)
12.void println(char[] ch)
13.void println(boolean b)
14.void println(char ch)
15.void println(long l)
PrintWriter Example:
Import java.io.*;
Class Sample
{
public static void main(String add[])throws IOException
{
PrintWriter pw=new PrintWriter(“laxman.txt”);
Pw.write(100);
Pw.print(100);
Pw.print(true);
Pw.print(“laxman”);
Pw.print(“scjp”);
Pw.print(“Hyderabad”);
Pw.flush();
Pw.close();
}
}
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Sunday, February 15, 2009


Serialization

Java Serialization(serializable):
The process of saveing an object data to a file is called serialization.
writeObject(o)
The process of retrieving an object data from the file is called deserialization.
By using read object method of ObjectInputStream we can achieve deserialization.
ObjectInputStream ----->FileInputStream------>abc.txt
serialization Example:
class Dog implements Serializable
{
int i=10;
int j=20;
transient int k=30;
}
public class Myser1 {
public static void main(String arg[])throws Exception

{
Dog d1=new Dog();
FileOutputStream fos=new FileOutputStream("abc.txt");
ObjectOutputStream oos=new ObjectOutputStream(fos);
oos.writeObject(d1);

FileInputStream fis=new FileInputStream("laxman.txt");


ObjectInputStream ois=new ObjectInputStream(fis);
Dog d2=(Dog)ois.readObject();
System.out.println(d2.i+"......"+d2.j);
}
}

It is suggestable our java bean classes should implements serialization.


Ois.readObject() method returns an object in the java.lang.Object form .we should
perform the type casting.
 All the Objects doesn’t have the capability of saving to the file
.Only serializableObjects having this capability.
 An object is said to be serializable if and only if the corresponding class
implements serializable interface(directly or indirectly).
 The serializable interface doesn’t contain any method and it is an example of
marker interface.
 If an object is non-serializable then we are not allow to save this object to the
file.vilation leads to RTE saying java.io.net.serializableException.
 All the wrapper classes,collection classes and arrays of primitives already
implemented serializable interface.Hence these are serializable objects.
 If you don’t want to save ,the value of a particular instance variable while
performing serialization ,then we have to declare those variable as transient.
 If we are declearing a variable as the transient ,while saving an object to the
file JVM ignores ,the value of this variable ,instead of saving original value
,JVM stores default value for the transient variables.Hence transient means
‘not to serializable”.
 Static variables are not part of object state hence they never participated in
the serialization process.A single copy of the static variable will exist and all
the objects will share that copy.
 Final variable also never participated in the serialization.there is no effect of
declearing a final or a static variable as transient.

Object Graphs:
When ever we are saving an objects to the file all the objects which are reachable
from that object by default saving to the file.This group of object is called
ObjectGraph.
Example:
import java.io.FileInputStream;
import java.io.FileOutputStream;
import java.io.ObjectInputStream;
import java.io.ObjectOutputStream;
import java.io.Serializable;

class Dog1 implements Serializable


{
Cat c=new Cat();
}
class Cat implements Serializable
{
int i=10;
Rat r=new Rat();
}
class Rat implements Serializable
{
int j=20;
}

class SerDemo2
{
public static void main(String arg[])throws Exception
{
Dog1 d=new Dog1();
FileOutputStream fos=new FileOutputStream("abc1.txt");
ObjectOutputStream oos=new ObjectOutputStream(fos);
oos.writeObject(d);
FileInputStream fis=new FileInputStream("abc1.txt");
ObjectInputStream ois=new ObjectInputStream(fis);
Dog1 d1=(Dog1)ois.readObject();
System.out.println(d1.c.i);
System.out.println(d1. c.r.j);
}
}
When ever we are saving an object to the file.All the object present in its objects
graph by default will save to the file .Hence all the objects present in the object
graph also must be serializable .voilation leads to RTE saying NotSerializable
Exception”.
Example:
class Dog implements serializable
{
Cat c=new Cat();
}
Class Cat
{
Int j=20;
}
Class SerialDemo
{
public static void main(String arg[])
{
Dog d=new Dog();
FileOutputStream fos=new FileOutputStream(“abc.txt”);
ObjectOutputStream oos=new ObjectOutputStream(fos);
Oos.writeObject(d);
FileInputStream fis=new FileInputStream(“abc.txt’);
ObjectInputStream ois=new ObjectInputStream(fis);
Dog d1=(Dog)ois.readObject();
System.out.println(d1.c.j);
System.out.println(d1. c.j);
}
}
Customized Serialization:
During default serialization there may be a chance of loss of information .To over
come these problems ,we can perform customized serialization .
We can perform customized serialization by using the following two call back
methods.
1.private void writeObject(OutputStream os)
JVM calls this writeObject method at the time of serialization.
2.private void readObject(inputStream is)
the JVM calls this method at the time of deserialization automatically.
The above two methods are called by JVM automatically at the time of serialization
and deserialization .Hence these methods are considered as call back methods.
Customized Serialization Example:
import java.io.FileInputStream;
import java.io.FileOutputStream;
import java.io.ObjectInputStream;
import java.io.ObjectOutputStream;
import java.io.Serializable;

class Dog2 implements Serializable


{
transient Cat1 c=new Cat1();
private void writeObject(ObjectOutputStream os)throws Exception
{
os.defaultWriteObject();
int i=c.j;
os.writeInt(i);
}
private void readObject(ObjectInputStream is)throws Exception
{
is.defaultReadObject();
int i=is.readInt();
c=new Cat1();
c.j=i;
}
}
class Cat1
{
int j=20;
}
public class SerDemo3
{
public static void main(String arg[])throws Exception
{
Dog2 d=new Dog2();
FileOutputStream fos=new FileOutputStream("abc.txt");
ObjectOutputStream oos=new ObjectOutputStream(fos);
oos.writeObject(d);
FileInputStream fis=new FileInputStream("abc.txt");
ObjectInputStream ois=new ObjectInputStream(fis);
Dog2 d1=(Dog2)ois.readObject();
System.out.println(d1.c.j);
}
}

Date Format

Before going learn about Date Format We have to know the Locale class.

DateFormat:
The representation of date is varied from location to location ,we can format the date for a specific
locale by using date format class.It is available in java.text.package.It is an abstract class we are
not allowed to create an instance of date format by using constructor.
DateFormat d=new DateFormat() -------->not valid
Getting DateFormat object for the default locale:
public static DateFormat getInstance();
public static DateFormat getDateInstance();
public static DateFormat getDateinstance(int style);
the allowed styles are :
DateFormat.FULL(0);
DateFormat.LONG(1);
DateFormat.MEDIUM(2);
DateFormat.SHORT(3);
Getting DateFormat Object for the specific locale:
public static DateFormat getDateInstance(int style,Locale l)
Formating and parsing date:
Public String format(Date d) ----->from java date format to locale specific date format
Public Date parse(String s) throws parseException //from locale specific format to date format.

Example Date Format:


Import java.text.*;
Import java.util.*;
Class DateFormatDemo
{
public static void main(String arg[])
{
DateFormat d=DateFormat.getDateInstance(0);
System.out.println(“Full form is:”+d.format(new date());
System.out.println(“lond form;”+(DateForamt.getDateInstance(1)).format(new Date());
System.otu.println(“medium is:”); //Feb 3, 2008
System.out.println(“short is”); // 2/3/08
System.otu.println(“Full is:”); //Sunday,febravary3, 2008
System.out.println(“Long is”); // Febravary 3 ,2008
}

Demo:
For India,italy
DateFormat in=DateFormat.getDateInstance(0,new Locale(‘pa”,”In”);
DateFormat us=DateFormat.getDateInstance(0);
DateForamt it=DateFormat.getDateInstance(0,new Locale.ITALY);
System.out.println(“India style:”+in.format(new Date()); // Sunday,febravary 3,2008
System.out.println(“us style:”+us.format(new Date()); // Sunday Febravary 3, 2008
System.out.println(“Italy style:”+it.format(new Date()); // dominica 3,febravary 2008.
Getting DateFormat object for representing both date and time.
Public static DateFormat getDateTimeInstance();
Public static DateFormat getDateTimeInstance(int date style, int time style);
Public static DateForamt getDateTimeInstance(int date style, int time style, locale l);

Demo:
DateFormat in=DateFormat.getDateTimeInstance(0,0,Locale.UK);
System.out.println(in); // 03 , febravary 2008 12:10:50 0’clock IST
Us: Sunday febravary 3,2008 12:10:50 pm IST

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Number Format class

Before Going to learn about Number Format Batter know about Locale Class

Number Format:
By using number format object we can represent the number specific to a particular
region (a particular locale).This class present in java .text package.It is an abstract
class we are not allowed to create object by using constractor.
i.e NumberFormat nf=new NumberFormat() -----> not valid

Getting NumberFormat object for defaultLocale using factory method:


static NumberFormat getInstance();
static NumberFormat getNumberInstance();
static NumberFormat getCurrrencyInstance();
static NumberFormat getPercentInstance();
return NumberFormat object for representing currency and percentage.

Getting NumberFormat object for a particular Locale:


static NumberFormat getInstance(Locale l);
static NumberFormat getNumberInstance(Locale l);
static NumberFormat getCurrencyInstance(Locale l);
static NumberFormat getPercentInstance(Locale l);
Methods of the NumberFormat class:
String format (long l);
String format(double d);
Number parse(String s)throws parseException ---->This method is for converting
locale specific to java number form.It throws a checked exception parseException.

Example to Display the currency value 1234.343 for locations India .Italy
and us:
Import java.text.NumberFormat;
Import java.util.*;
Class NFDemo
{
Public staic void main(String arg[])
{
double d=123456.789;
Locale India=new Locale(“pa”,”IN”);
NumberFormat nf=NumberFormat.getCurrencyInstance(India);
String s=nf.format(d);
Systm.out.println(“india notation is:”+s);
NumberFormat nf=NumberFormat.getCurrencyInstance(locale.ITALY);
String s=nf.format(d);
Systm.out.println(“india notation is:”+s);
NumberFormat nf=NumberFormat.getCurrencyInstance(locale.UNITEDSTATES);
String s=nf.format(d);
Systm.out.println(“india notation is:”+s);
}
}
}
output:
INR123,456.789
C1 123.456.789
$123,456.789
we can set the maximam and minimum number of digits for integer and fractional
parts.For this we can use the following methods of NumberFormat class.
public void setMaximumFractionalDigits(int n);
public void setMinimumFractionalDigits(int n);
public void setMaximumIntegerDigits(int n);
public void setMinimumIntegerDigits(int n);

Example:
Import java.text.*;
Import java.util.*;
Class NFDemo
{
public static vopid main(String arg[])
{
double d=123.456;
NumberFormat nf=NumberFormat.getInstance();

Systm.out.println(nf.format(d)); //123.456
nf. setMaximumFractionalDigits(2);
System.out.println(nf.format(d)); //123.46

nf.setMinimumFractionalDigits(5);
System.out.println(nf.format(d)); //123.45600
nf.setMaximumIntegerDigits(2);
System.out.println(nf.format(d)); //23.456
The most significant bits will be lost
nf.setMinimumIntegerDigits(6);
System.out.println(nf.format(d)); //000123.456
}
}

Constructors
The purpose of Constructor is to perform of our creted object. Whenever we are
calling new operator for the creation of object, it calls constructor automatically to
provide initialization for the object.
class Student
{
String name; int rno;
Student(String name, int rno) ----> Constructor
{
this.name=name;
this.rno=rno;
}
public static void main(String a[])
{
Student s=new Student(“xxx”,101);
Student s1=new Student(“yyy”,102);
-------
------
}
}
Rules Of Constructor :
1. Constructor concept is applicable for every class including abstract class also.
2. Interface doesn’t have Constructor’s concept.
3. The name of the const4ructor and the name of the class must be same.
4. The allowed modifiers for the constructors are public, private, protected, and
default. If you are applying any other we will get a CTE saying “modifier xxx not
allowed her”.
5. We can’t give return type for the constructor even void also.

If we will give return type for the constructor that thing as a method instead of
constructor that thing as a method instead of constructor (so,there is no CTE). Ie., it
is legal (but stupid) to have a method whose name same as classname.
Default Constructor:-
If the programmer is not writing any constructor, then only compiler will generate a
default constructor.
Ie., either programmer written constructor or compiler generated must present in
your class but not both at a time.
Prototype of default constructor shown below:
a).Programmer written code:- class Test{}
Compiler generated code:-
class Test
{
Test()
{
super();
}
}

 The default constructor is always no argument constructor.


 The access modifier of the default constructor is sane as access modifier of
the class (public & default only).
 The default constructor contains only one statement which is ‘no arg call to
super class Constructor ‘ (super();)

b) Programmer written code:-


class Test {
Test(int i)
{
System.out.println(“constructor”);
}}
Compiler generated code:-
class Test {
Test(int i)
{
super();
System.out.println(“constructor”);
}}

c). Programmer written code:-


class Test {
Test(int i)
{
super();
System.out.println(“Hai”);
}}
Compiler generated code:- no new code is going to generate.

d). Programmer written code:-


class Test {
void Test()
{
System.out.println(“hello”);
}
}
Compiler generated code:-
class Test {
void Test()
{
System.out.println(“hello”);
}
Test()
{
super();
}}
e). Programmer written code:-
class Test {
Test()
{
this(10);
System.out.println(“hai”);
}
Test(int i)
{
System.out.println(i);
}}
Compiler generated code:-
class Test {
Test() {
this(10);
System.out.println(“hai”);
}
Test(int i) {
super();
System.out.println(i);
}}

 The first line inside a constructor must be a call to super class constructor
( by using super();) or a call to overload constructor of the same class. (by
using ‘this’ keyword).
 If you are not writing the first line as either ‘super()’ or ‘this’ then compiler
will always keep a no arg call to super class constructor (super();).

1. Allowed only in Constructors.


2. Must be first statements.
3.Either super() or this, but not both.

 We can invoke another constructor from constructor from a method violation


leads to CTE. i.e, super() or this must be used inside the constructor only not
anywhere else.

Overloaded Constructors:
We are allowed to keep more than one constructor inside a class , which are
considered as overloaded constructors. We can’t override the constructors, because
they belong to the same Ex: class Test {
Test(int i){}
Test(){} ---->Overloaded Constructors
}
 Constructors are not inherited and hence we are not allowed to override a
constructor.
 while recursive method invocation we will get stackoverflowException But in
case of constructors we will get compile time error.
 If we are writing any constructor in our class it is recommended to place
default constructor also. Otherwise we should take care while writing the
constructor child case.
 If the parent class constructor throws some Checked Exception, while writing
child class constructors we should take care.In case of unchecked exception
no rule.

Recursive Constructor invocation:


class Sample {
Sample() // This is a compile time problem
{
this(10);
}
Sample(int i)
{
this(); // Invalid, CTE: recursive constructor invocation
}
public static void main(String a[])
{
System.out.println(“hai”);
}
}
Constructing the Child class constructors:
Example:
class P {
P()
{ super(); }
}
class C extends P
{
C() {
super();
} } //valid

Example:
class P {
P(int i)
{
System.out.println(i);
}
}
class C extends P
{
C()
{
super(10); // valid (without super invalid)
}
}

Example: class P
{
P() throws Exception ----> checked exception
{}
}
class C extends P
{
C() // compile time error unhandled exception type exception
{}
}

Java Generics

The problems of legacy collections:

 There is no type safety for the collection objects.


 Suppose we are constructing array list object to that we can add any kind of
object.
 Suppose if our requirement is to add only String objects,by mistake if we are
adding any non string objects,still the compiler compiles the code without
raise any problem.
 But at the time of retrieving these objects we may get class cast exception.

Example:
ArrapList l=new ArrayList();
l.add(“laxman”);
l.add(new Integer(10));
String n1=(String)l.get(0);
String n2=(String)l.get(1);

 Hence these is no type safety for the collection objects.


 While retrieving the elements from the collection object we should explicitly
perform type casting even though we know the type of elements present in
the collection.

To resolve the above two problems Sun people provided generics concept in the 1.5
version.
Hence by using generic we can provide type safely for the collection objects and we
can resolve explicit type casting problems.
i.e no need to type cast at the time of retrieving elements from the collection.

ArrayList <String > l= new ArrayList <String >();

 This ArrayList can accept only string objects.This is declaring a generic


collection object .
 By mistake of we are adding any non string object .it will results in the
compail time problem.Hence by using generics we can provide the type safety
for the collection objects.
 At the time of retrieving we can directly assign to the String type no need to
problem explicit typecasting.

ArrayList <String> l=new ArrayList<String>();


l.add(“laxman”);
l.add(“scjp”);
l.add(10); // compile time error (CTE)
String n1=l.get(0);

i.e no need to perform explicit type casting so,generics are nothing


but parametrized collections because by using this we can define the
type parameter.

program to define ArrayList of String objects and display the contents of


ArrayList by using some method:
import java.util.*;
class GenericDemo
{
public static void main(String arg[])
{
ArrayList<String> l=NEW ArrayList <String >();
l.add(“a”);
l.add(“b”);
l.add(“c”);
show(l);
}
public static void show(ArrayList<String> l)
{
System.out.println(l);
}
}

To add any kind of objects to the ArrayList we can declare generic


arraylist as follows

ArrayList<Object> l=new ArrayList<Object>(); is equal to


List<Object> l=new ArrayList<Object>(); (valid)
List<Object> l=new ArrayList<String>(); (not valid)
Because polymorphism can be applicable for the base type not for the
parameter type.

ArrayList<Integer> l=new ArrayList<Integer>(); (valid)


Object<Integer> l=new ArrayList<Integer>(); (valid)
Object<number> l=new ArrayList<integer>(); (not valid)
ArrayList<int> l=new ArrayList<int>(); (not valid)

Since parameter must not be primitive type .


We can’t define primitive type as the parameter of collection
classes.violation leads to compail time error.
Saying unexpected type found:int required:reference
java net package

INTRODUCTION TO NETWORKING:
The Java execution environment is designed so that applications can be easily
written to efficiently communicate and share processing with remote systems. Much
of this functionality is provided with the standard Java API within the java.net
package.

TCP/IP Protocols:
Three protocols are most commonly used within the TCP/IP scheme and a closer
investigation of their properties is warranted. Understanding how these three
protocols (IP, TCP, and UDP) interact is critical to developing network applications.

Internet Protocol (IP):

IP is the keystone of the TCP/IP suite. All data on the Internet flows through IP
packets, the basic unit of IP transmissions. IP is termed a connectionless, unreliable
protocol. As a connectionless protocol, IP does not exchange control information
before transmitting data to a remote system—packets are merely sent to the
destination with the expectation that they will be treated properly. IP is unreliable
because it does not retransmit lost packets or detect corrupted data. These tasks
must be implemented by higher level protocols, such as TCP.

IP defines a universal-addressing scheme called IP addresses. An IP address is a 32-


bit number and each standard address is unique on the Internet. Given an IP packet,
the information can be routed to the destination based upon the IP address defined
in the packet header. IP addresses are generally written as four numbers, between 0
and 255, separated by period. (for example, 124.148.157.6)

While a 32-bit number is an appropriate way to address systems for computers,


humans understandably have difficulty remembering them. Thus, a system called the
Domain Name System (DNS) was developed to map IP addresses to more intuitive
identifiers and vice-versa. You can use www.netspace.org instead of 128.148.157.6.

It is important to realize that these domain names are not used nor understood by
IP. When an application wants to transmit data to another machine on the Internet,
it must first translate the domain name to an IP address using the DNS. A receiving
application can perform a reverse translation, using the DNS to return a domain
name given an IP address. There is not a one-to-one correspondence between IP
addresses and domain names: A domain name can map to multiple IP addresses,
and multiple IP addresses can map to the same domain name.
Java provides a class to work with IP Addresses, InetAddress.

THE INETADDRESS CLASS:


This class represents an Internet Protocol (IP) address. Applications should use the
methods getLocalHost, getByName, or getAllByName to create a new InetAddress
instance. Transmission Control Protocol (TCP)

Most Internet applications use TCP to implement the transport layer. TCP provides a
reliable, connection-oriented, continuous-stream protocol. The implications of these
characteristics are:

 Reliable. When TCP segments, the smallest unit of TCP transmissions, are
lost or corrupted, the TCP implementation will detect this and retransmit
necessary segments.

 Connection-oriented. TCP sets up a connection with a remote system by


transmitting control information, often known as a handshake, before
beginning a communication. At the end of the connect, a similar closing
handshake ends the transmission.

 Continuous-stream. TCP provides a communications medium that allows for


an arbitrary number of bytes to be sent and received smoothly; once a
connection has been established, TCP segments provide the application layer
the appearance of a continuous flow of data.

Because of these characteristics, it is easy to see why TCP would be used by most
Internet applications. TCP makes it very easy to create a network application, freeing
you from worrying how the data is broken up or about coding error correction
routines. However, TCP requires a significant amount of overhead and perhaps you
might wish to code routines that more efficiently provide reliable transmissions given
the parameters of your application. Furthermore, retransmission of lost data may be
inappropriate for your application, because such information's usefulness may have
expired.
An important addressing scheme which TCP defines is the port. Ports separate
various TCP communications streams which are running concurrently on the same
system. For server applications, which wait for TCP clients to initiate contact, a
specific port can be established from where communications will originate. These
concepts come together in a programming abstraction known as sockets.

User Datagram Protocol (UDP) :

UDP is a low-overhead alternative to TCP for host-to-host communications. In


contrast to TCP, UDP has the following features:

 Unreliable. UDP has no mechanism for detecting errors nor retransmitting


lost or corrupted information.

 Connectionless. UDP does not negotiate a connection before transmitting


data. Information is sent with the assumption that the recipient will be
listening.

 Message-oriented. UDP allows applications to send self-contained messages


within UDP datagrams, the unit of UDP transmission. The application must
package all information within individual datagrams.

For some applications, UDP is more appropriate than TCP. For instance, with the
Network Time Protocol (NTP), lost data indicating the current time would be invalid
by the time it was retransmitted. In a LAN environment, Network File System (NFS)
can more efficiently provide reliability at the application layer and thus uses UDP.

As with TCP, UDP provides the addressing scheme of ports, allowing for many
applications to simultaneously send and receive datagrams. UDP ports are distinct
from TCP ports. For example, one application can respond to UDP port 512 while
another unrelated service handles TCP port 512.

Uniform Resource Locator (URL):


While IP addresses uniquely identify systems on the Internet, and ports identify TCP
or UDP services on a system, URLs provide a universal identification scheme at the
application level. Anyone who has used a Web browser is familiar with seeing URLs,
though their complete syntax may not be self-evident. URLs were developed to
create a common format of identifying resources on the Web, but they were
designed to be general enough so as to encompass applications that predated the
Web by decades. Similarly, the URL syntax is flexible enough so as to accommodate
future protocols.
URL Syntax :
The primary classification of URLs is the scheme, which usually corresponds to an
application protocol. Schemes include http, ftp, telnet, and gopher. The rest of the
URL syntax is in a format that depends upon the scheme. These two portions of
information are separated by a colon to give us:
scheme-name:scheme-info

Thus, while mailto:dwb@netspace.org indicates "send mail to user dwb at the


machine netspace.org," ftp://dwb@netspace.org/ means "open an FTP connection to
netspace.org and log in as user dwb."

General URL Format:


Most URLs used conform to a general format that follows the following pattern:
scheme-name://host:port/file-info#internal-reference

Scheme-name is a URL scheme such as HTTP, FTP, or Gopher. Host is the domain
name or IP address of the remote system. Port is the port number on which the
service is listening; since most application protocols define a standard port, unless a
non-standard port is being used, the port and the colon which delimits it from the
host is omitted. File-info is the resource requested on the remote system, which
often times is a file. However, the file portion may actually execute a server program
and it usually includes a path to a specific file on the system. The internal-reference
is usually the identifier of a named anchor within an HTML page. A named anchor
allows a link to target a particular location within an HTML page. Usually this is not
used, and this token with the # character that delimits it is omitted.
Java and URLs:
Java provides a very powerful and elegant mechanism for creating network client
applications allowing you to use relatively few statements to obtain resources from
the Internet. The java.net package contains the sources of this power, the URL and
URLConnection classes.

THE URL CLASS :

Class URL represents a Uniform Resource Locator, a pointer to a "resource" on the


World Wide Web. A resource can be something as simple as a file or a directory, or it
can be a reference to a more complicated object, such as a query to a database or to
a search engine.

In general, a URL can be broken into several parts. The previous example of a URL
indicates that the protocol to use is http (HyperText Transport Protocol) and that the
information resides on a host machine named www.ncsa.uiuc.edu. The information
on that host machine is named demoweb/url-primer.html. The exact meaning of this
name on the host machine is both protocol dependent and host dependent. The
information normally resides in a file, but it could be generated on the fly. This
component of the URL is called the file component, even though the information is
not necessarily in a file.

A URL can optionally specify a "port", which is the port number to which the TCP
connection is made on the remote host machine. If the port is not specified, the
default port for the protocol is used instead. For example, the default port for http is
80. An alternative port could be specified as:
http://www.ncsa.uiuc.edu:8080/demoweb/url-primer.html

A URL may have appended to it an "anchor", also known as a "ref" or a "reference".


The anchor is indicated by the sharp sign character "#" followed by more characters.
For example,
http://java.sun.com/index.html#chapter1

This anchor is not technically part of the URL. Rather, it indicates that after the
specified resource is retrieved, the application is specifically interested in that part of
the document that has the tag chapter1 attached to it. The meaning of a tag is
resource specific.

An application can also specify a "relative URL", which contains only enough
information to reach the resource relative to another URL. Relative URLs are
frequently used within HTML pages.

For example, if the contents of the URL:


http://java.sun.com/index.html

contained within it the relative URL:


FAQ.html

it would be a shorthand for:


http://java.sun.com/FAQ.html

The relative URL need not specify all the components of a URL. If the protocol, host
name, or port number is missing, the value is inherited from the fully specified URL.
The file component must be specified. The optional anchor is not inherited.

Example for URL :

GetURLApp.java

import java.net.URL;
import java.net.MalformedURLException;
import java.io.*;
public class GetURLApp
{
public static void main(String args[])
{
try
{
if(args.length!=1) error("Usage: java GetURLApp URL");
System.out.println("Fetching URL: "+args[0]);
URL url = new URL(args[0]);
BufferedReader inStream = new BufferedReader(
new InputStreamReader(url.openStream()));
String line;
while ((line = inStream.readLine())!= null)
{
System.out.println(line);
}
inStream.close();
}
catch (MalformedURLException ex)
{
error("Bad URL");
}
catch (IOException ex)
{
error("IOException occurred.");
}
}

public static void error(String s){


System.out.println(s);
System.exit(1);
}
}
THE URLCONNECTION CLASS :
The abstract class URLConnection is the superclass of all classes that represent a
communications link between the application and a URL. Instances of this class can
be used both to read from and to write to the resource referenced by the URL. In
general, creating a connection to a URL is a multistep process:
openConnection()
connect()

Manipulate parameters that affect the connection to the remote resource.


Interact with the resource; query header fields and contents.

1. The connection object is created by invoking the openConnection method on a


URL.
2. The setup parameters and general request properties are manipulated.
3. The actual connection to the remote object is made, using the connect method.
4. The remote object becomes available. The header fields and the contents of the
remote object can be accessed.
The setup parameters are modified using the following methods:
• setAllowUserInteraction
• setDoInput
• setDoOutput
• setIfModifiedSince
• setUseCaches
and the general request properties are modified using the method:
setRequestProperty
Default values for the AllowUserInteraction and UseCaches parameters can be set
using the methods setDefaultAllowUserInteraction and setDefaultUseCaches. Default
values for general request properties can be set using the setDefaultRequestProperty
method.

Each of the above set methods has a corresponding get method to retrieve the value
of the parameter or general request property. The specific parameters and general
request properties that are applicable are protocol specific.

The following methods are used to access the header fields and the contents after
the connection is made to the remote object:

 getContent
 getHeaderField
 getInputStream
 getOutputStream

Certain header fields are accessed frequently. The methods:

 getContentEncoding
 getContentLength
 getContentType
 getDate
 getExpiration
 getLastModified

provide convenient access to these fields. The getContentType method is used by the
getContent method to determine the type of the remote object; subclasses may find
it convenient to override the getContentType method.

In the common case, all of the pre-connection parameters and general request
properties can be ignored: the pre-connection parameters and request properties
default to sensible values. For most clients of this interface, there are only two
interesting methods: getInputStream and getObject, which are mirrored in the URL
class by convenience methods.
More information on the request properties and header fields of an http connection
can be found at:
http://www.w3.org/hypertext/WWW/Protocols/HTTP1.0/draft-ietf-http-spec.html

TCP Socket Basics:


Sockets were originally developed at the University of California at Berkeley as a tool
to easily accomplish network programming. Originally part of UNIX operating
systems, the concept of sockets has been incorporated into a wide variety of
operating environments, including Java.
What is a Socket?
A socket is a handle to a communications link over the network with another
application. A TCP socket is one that utilizes the TCP protocol, inheriting the behavior
of that transport protocol. Four pieces of information are needed to create a TCP
socket:

• The local system's IP address


• The TCP port number which the local application is using
• The remote system's IP address
• The TCP port number to which the remote application is responding

Sockets are often used in client-server applications: A centralized service waits for
various remote machines to request specific resources, handling each request as it
arrives. In order for clients to know how to communicate with the server, standard
application protocols are assigned well-known ports. On UNIX operating systems,
ports below 1024 can only be bound by applications with super-user (for example,
root) privileges, and thus for control, these well-known ports lie within this range, by
convention. Some well known ports are shown in the following table.

Well-known TCP ports and services

Port
Service
21 FTP
23 Telnet
25 SMTP (Internet Mail Transfer)
79 Finger
80 HTTP
For many application protocols, you can merely use the Telnet application to connect
to the service port and then manually emulate a client. This may help you
understand how client-server communications work.

Client applications must also obtain, or bind, a port to establish a socket connection.
Because the client initiates the communication with the server, such a port number
could conveniently be assigned at runtime. Client applications are usually run by
normal, unprivileged users on UNIX systems, and thus these ports are allocated from
the range above 1024. This convention has held when migrated to other operating
systems, and client applications are generally given a dynamically-allocated port
above 1024.

Because no two applications can bind the same port on the same machine
simultaneously, a socket uniquely identifies a communications link. Realize that a
server may respond to two clients on the same port, since the clients will be on
different systems and/or different ports; the uniqueness of the link's characteristics
are preserved.

JAVA TCP SOCKET CLASSES :

Java has a number of classes, which allow you to create socket-based network
applications. The two classes you use include java.net.Socket and
java.net.ServerSocket.

THE SERVERSOCKET CLASS

public class ServerSocket extends Object

This class implements server sockets. A server socket waits for requests to come in
over the network. It performs some operation based on that request, and then
possibly returns a result to the requester.

The actual work of the server socket is performed by an instance of the SocketImpl
class. An application can change the socket factory that creates the socket
implementation to configure itself to create sockets appropriate to the local firewall.

Example for ServerSocket:

ServerExample.java

import java.io.*;
import java.net.*;
import java.util.Date;

public class ServerExample


{
public static void main(String args[])
{
ServerSocket server = null;
Socket socket = null;
BufferedOutputStream send = null;
try
{
server = new ServerSocket(3000);
System.out.println("server started");
while(true)
{
socket = server.accept();
send = new BufferedOutputStream(socket.getOutputStream());
String date = (new Date()).toString();
byte data[] = new byte[date.length()];
data = date.getBytes();
send.write(data,0,data.length);
send.flush();
System.out.println("data flushed");
send.close();
socket.close();
}
}
catch(Exception err) {
System.out.println("Exception in transferring data to client");
}
}
}

THE SOCKET CLASS :

This class implements client sockets (also called just "sockets"). A socket is an
endpoint for communication between two machines. The actual work of the socket is
performed by an instance of the SocketImpl class. An application, by changing the
socket factory that creates the socket implementation, can configure itself to create
sockets appropriate to the local firewall.

Example for Socket :

import java.io.*;
import java.net.*;

public class ClientExample {


public static void main(String args[]) {
Socket socket = null;
BufferedInputStream receive = null;
if(args.length == 0){
System.out.println("Usage : java ClientExample ");
System.exit(0);
}
String ser_address = args[0];
try {
socket = new Socket(InetAddress.getByName(ser_address),3000);
receive = new BufferedInputStream(socket.getInputStream());
System.out.println("socket created");
byte data[] = new byte[100];
receive.read(data,0,data.length);
String date = new String(data);
System.out.println("Date from server : "+date);
receive.close();
socket.close();
} catch(Exception err){
System.out.println("Exception in accessing file");
}
}
}

Overview of UDP Messaging :


Programming with UDP has significant ramifications. Understanding these factors will inform
your network programming. UDP is a good choice for applications in which communications can
be separated into discrete messages, where a single query from a client invokes a single response
from a server. Time-dependent data is particularly suited to UDP. UDP requires much less
overhead, but the burden of engineering any necessary reliability into the system is your
responsibility. For instance, if clients never receive responses to their queries—perfectly possible
and legitimate with UDP—you might want to program the clients to retransmit the request or
perhaps display an informative message indicating communication difficulties.

UDP Socket Characteristics :

UDP is described as unreliable, connectionless, and message-oriented. A common analogy that


elucidates UDP is that of communicating with postcards. A dialog with UDP must be quanticized
into small messages that fit within a small packet of a specific size, although some packets can
hold more data than others. When you send out a message, you can never be certain that you will
receive a return message. Unless you do receive a return message, you have no idea if your
message was received—your message could have been lost en route, the recipient’s confirmation
could have been lost, or the recipient might be ignoring your message. The postcards you will be
exchanging between network programs are referred to as datagrams. Within a datagram, you can
store an array of bytes. A receiving application can extract this array and decode your message,
possibly sending a return datagram response. As with TCP, you will program in UDP using the
socket programming abstraction. However, UDP sockets are very different from TCP sockets.
Extending the analogy, UDP sockets are much like creating a mailbox. A mailbox is identified by
your address, but you don't construct a new one for each person to whom you will be sending a
message. Instead, you place an address on the postcard that indicates to whom the message is
intended. You place the postcard in the mailbox and it is (eventually) sent on its way.

When receiving a message, you could potentially wait forever until one arrives in your mailbox.
Once one does, you can read the postcard. Meta-information appears on the postcard that
identifies the sender through the return address. As the previous analogies suggest, UDP
programming involves the following general tasks:
• Creating an appropriately addressed datagram to send.
• Setting up a socket to send and receive datagrams for a particular application.
• Inserting datagrams into a socket for transmission.
• Waiting to receive datagrams from a socket.
• Decoding a datagram to extract the message, its recipient, and other meta-information.

Java UDP Classes :


The java.net package has the tools that are necessary to perform UDP communications. For
working with datagrams, Java provides the DatagramPacket and DatagramSocket classes. When
receiving a UDP datagram, you also use the DatagramPacket class to read the data, sender, and
meta-information.

THE DATAGRAMPACKET CLASS

This class represents a datagram packet. Datagram packets are used to implement a
connectionless packet delivery service. Each message is routed from one machine to another
based solely on information contained within that packet. Multiple packets sent from one
machine to another might be routed differently, and might arrive in any order.
Example for DatagramPacket :

import java.net.*;
import java.io.*;

public class DatagramClient


{
public static void main(String args[])
{
if(args.length == 0)
{
System.out.println("Usage : java DatagramClient ");
System.exit(0);
}
String address = args[0];
DatagramPacket dgp = null;
DatagramSocket dgs = null;
byte receive[] = new byte[50];
try
{
dgs = new DatagramSocket(5000,InetAddress.getByName(address));
dgp = new DatagramPacket(receive,receive.length);
dgs.receive(dgp);
System.out.println("data received : "+(new String(receive)));
dgs.close();
}
catch(Exception err) {
System.out.println("Exception in client");
}
}
}

THE DATAGRAMSOCKET CLASS :


This class represents a socket for sending and receiving datagram packets. A datagram socket is
the sending or receiving point for a connectionless packet delivery service. Each packet sent or
received on a datagram socket is individually addressed and routed. Multiple packets sent from
one machine to another may be routed differently, and may arrive in any order.
My own ConnectionPool implementation

By seeing this example we can get the two things

1- how to implement our own connection


2-why sun gives wait , notify methods in object class.

import java.sql.Connection;
import java.sql.DriverManager;
import java.util.Vector;
public class MyConnectionPool {
Vector connections= null;
static MyConnectionPool instance=null;
public static final int MAX_CONNECTIONS=10;

//removeAllConnections objects
public synchronized void removeAllConnections() {
if (connections==null) {
return;
}
try {
int sz= connections.size();
for (int i=0; i < sz/2; i++) {
Connection c= (Connection) connections.elementAt(i);
c= null;
connections.remove(i);
}
if (connections!= null && connections.size() > 0) {
connections.removeAllElements();
}
connections= null;
}catch (Exception e) {
System.out.println( "Error "+ e);
}
instance =null;
}

//getInstance...
public static MyConnectionPool getInstance() {
if (instance ==null)
instance= new MyConnectionPool();
return instance;
}

//initializing all connections upto max limit i.e upto 10 connections...


public synchronized void initialize() {
if (connections ==null) {
try {
Class.forName(" com.mysql.jdbc.Driver ");
connections= new Vector();
int count =0;
while (count < MAX_CONNECTIONS) {
Connection
connection=DriverManager.getConnection("jdbc:oracle:thin:@localhost:1521:xe","scott","tiger");
connections.addElement(connection);
count++;
}
System.out.println( "total connections created r:" + count);
} catch (Exception e) {
System.out.println( "initialise:Exception ");
e.printStackTrace();
instance.removeAllConnections();
initialize();
}
}
}
//getting connection....
public synchronized Connection getConnection() {
System.out.println( "getConnection ");
Connection c =null;
System.out.println("connections"+connections.size());
if (connections== null)
return null;
if (connections.size() > 0) {
System.out.println("i am in if");
c =(Connection) connections.elementAt(0);
connections.removeElementAt(0);
}else
{
System.out.println("i am in else");
try {
wait();
c =(Connection) connections.elementAt(0);
connections.removeElementAt(0);
} catch (InterruptedException e) {
e.printStackTrace();
}
}
return c;
}
//put connection obj into vector.
public synchronized void putConnection(Connection c) {
if (c != null) {
connections.addElement(c);
notifyAll();
}
}
}

arithmetic operators byte short datatypes

package funds;

public class DiffOpera {

public static void main(String ar[])


{
/* If we apply arithmetic operation between two operands a and b
the result is always max(int,type of a,type of b) */
// using arithmetic operation
byte b=10;
b=b+1; // error because max(int,short,int)

short s=40;
s=s+1; // error because max(int,short,int)

// The above error in case of byte and short only we will get

int i=20;
i=i+1; // no error because max(int,type of a,type of b)

// using increment decrement


byte b1=++b; // no error because It perform like this (type b1)b1+1;
short s1=++s; // no error
int i1=++i1; // no error
}
}
example code abstract class constructor

package funds;

abstract class AbstractDemo {


AbstractDemo()
{
System.out.println("this is abstruct class constructor");

}
abstract void m1();
}
public class AbstractConst extends AbstractDemo
{
public void m1()
{
System.out.println("m1 implementation");
}
public static void main(String arg[]){
AbstractConst a=new AbstractConst();
}
}

output:
this is abstruct class constructor
abstract class with out abstract methods

package funds;
// abstract class with out any abstract method
/* Sun people flow the same thing In case of Servlet API HttpServlet
is abstract class but there is no abstract methods in that class */

abstract class Absclass {


void m1()
{
System.out.println("this m1 impl");
}
void m2()
{
System.out.println("this m2 imple");
}
}

public class WithoutAbstract extends Absclass


{
public static void main(String arg[])
{
WithoutAbstract w=new WithoutAbstract();
w.m1();
w.m2();
}
}

output:
this m1 impl
this m2 imple
with out main with out static block

package something;

public class Withoutmain {


static int i=m1();
public static int m1()
{
System.out.println("hi I can print");
return 10;
}
}

output:
hi I can print
Exception in thread 'main' java.lang.NoSuchMethodError:main
Method Overloading

Method Overloading:
Two methods having the same name are not allowed in the case of C-language, for
every data type even though the functionality in the same; we should maintain
different method names. It increases the complexity of the programming. But in
java, two methods having the same name is allowed irrespective of parameters. We
can maintain the same method name for similar type of functionality. It simplifies
the programming. Such types of methods are called Overloaded methods.
• Two methods are said to be overloaded if and only of they have the same method
name, but different parameter list(at least order).
• The signatures of the two overloaded methods must be different.
Example:
public void m1(){}
private int m1(int i){}

• Here m1() & m1(int i) are overloaded. We never consider return type, access
modifier and throws class in overloading.
Example:
class Sample
{
public void m1()
{
System.out.println(“no arg”);
}
public void m1(int i)
{
System.out.println(“ int arg”);
}
public void m1(double d)
{
System.out.println(“ double arg”);
}
public static void main(String a[])
{
Sample s=new Sample();
s.m1();
s.m1(10);
s.m1(10.5);
}
}

• In the case of overloading which overloaded method must be executed is decided


method must be executed is decided by compiler only based on reference type.
• Ie., Overloaded method resolution is the duty of compiler only. Hence Overloading
is the best
ex. of static polymorphism and some times also known as Early Binding.

s.m1(10L);//double arg
s.m1(‘a’);//int arg

i.e., Automatic Promotion in Overloading:


• If we are calling a method m1() by passing char as arg on the sample reference
then the compiler will check in the Sample class for m1(), which can take char as the
arg.
• If it finds that method, it will execute at run time.If there is no such method the
compile promotes that char arg to the int arg and checks for m1(int) method.
• If there is no such method, the compiler will check for m1(long), fallowed by
m1(float),fallowed by m1(double). Still if the compiler won’t find any such method
then only compiler will raised CTE saying ‘cannot resolve the symbol m1(char).
CASE 1:
class Sample
{
public void m1(int i,float f)
{
System.out.println(“int,float”);
}
public void m1(float i,int f)
{
System.out.println(“float,int”);
}
public static void main(String a[])
{
Sample s=new Sample();
s.m1(10,10.0f);//int,float
s.m1(10.0f,10);//float,int
s.m1(10,10);//invalid-> CTE:reference m1 is ambiguous
}
}
CASE 2:
class Sample
{
public void m1(String s)
{
System.out.println(“String version”);
}

public void m1(Object o)


{
System.out.println(“Object version”);
}
public void m1(double d)
{
System.out.println(“double version”);
}
public static void main(String a[])
{
Sample s=new Sample();
s.m1(“viswan”);// String version
s.m1(new Object());// Object version
s.m1(null);// String version
}
}
If there is Double (wrapper class) then CTE: reference to m1 is ambiguous.
CASE 3:
class Animal
{
}
class Monkey extends Animal
{
}
public class OLStaticBinding {

public void m1(Animal a)


{
System.out.println("Animal version");
}
public void m1(Monkey m)
{
System.out.println("Monkey version");
}
public static void main(String a[])
{
OLStaticBinding s=new OLStaticBinding();
Animal a1 =new Animal();
s.m1(a1); // Animal version
Monkey m =new Monkey();
s.m1(m); // Monkey version
Animal a2 =new Monkey();
s.m1(a2); // Animal version

}
}
In the case of overloading the method resolution performed by the compiler is based
on the reference type.

Example code for method overloading

package oops;

public class OverLoadingDemo {


public void m1()
{
System.out.println("no arg");
}
public void m1(int i)
{
System.out.println(" int arg");
}
public void m1(String i)
{
System.out.println(" String arg");
}
public static void main(String a[])
{
OverLoadingDemo s=new OverLoadingDemo();
s.m1();
s.m1(10);
s.m1("sun");
}

}
Code to demonstrate method overloading by extending
another class.

package oops;

class Superclass
{
public void m1()
{
System.out.println("no arg");
}
}

public class OLSuperSub extends Superclass {


public void m1(int i)
{
System.out.println("one arg");
}
public static void main(String a[])
{
OLSuperSub s=new OLSuperSub();
s.m1(); // no arg
s.m1(10); // one arg
}
}
sample code method overloading with implicit casting

package oops;

public class OverloadingImplicitCasting {

public void m1(double d)


{
System.out.println(" double arg");
}

public static void main(String a[])


{
OverloadingImplicitCasting s=new OverloadingImplicitCasting();

s.m1(10); //int
s.m1(10.5); // double
s.m1('a'); // char

}
sample code method overloading abiguous problem

package oops;

public class OLAmbiguousProblem {

public void m1(int i,float f)


{
System.out.println("int,float");
}
public void m1(float i,int f)
{
System.out.println("float,int");
}
public static void main(String a[])
{
OLAmbiguousProblem s=new OLAmbiguousProblem();
s.m1(10,10.0f); //int,float
s.m1(10.0f,10); //float,int
// s.m1(10,10); //invalid-> error:reference m1 is ambiguous
}

}
method overloading by passing objects

package oops;

public class OLbyPassingObject {

public void m1(String s)


{
System.out.println("String version");
}
public void m1(Object o)
{
System.out.println("Object version");
}
public void m1(double d)
{
System.out.println("double version");
}

public static void main(String a[])


{
OLbyPassingObject s=new OLbyPassingObject();
s.m1("java"); // String version
s.m1(new Object()); // Object version
s.m1(null); // String version
// if Double wrapper version is there we will get compile time error shows
abiguous
}

}
example code static binding

//In the case of overloading the method resolution performed by the compiler is
based on the reference type.

package oops;

class Animal
{
}

class Monkey extends Animal


{
}

public class OLStaticBinding {


public void m1(Animal a)
{
System.out.println("Animal version");
}
public void m1(Monkey m)
{
System.out.println("Monkey version");
}
public static void main(String a[])
{
OLStaticBinding s=new OLStaticBinding();
Animal a1 =new Animal();
s.m1(a1); // Animal version
Monkey m =new Monkey();
s.m1(m); // Monkey version
Animal a2 =new Monkey();
s.m1(a2); // Animal version
//Here method execute based on the reference a2 type

}
}
variable argument method vs normal method

class VarargNor
{
static void m1(int i)
{
System.out.println("Int");
}
static void m1(int... i)
{
System.out.println("var-arg int");
}
public static void main(String a[])
{
int i=10;
m1(i); //int
m1(i,i); //var-arg int
}
}
widening autoboxing

/*Widening always beats autoboxing ie., compiler will


give priority to widening than autounboxing(1.5 version) */
class Wautobox
{
public static void m1(Integer i)
{
System.out.println("Integer");
}
public static void m1(long l)
{
System.out.println("long");
}
public static void main(String a[])
{
int i=5;
m1(i); //long
}
}
widening ,variable argument method

//widening always beats var arg


class WvsV
{
static void m1(int i, int j)
{
System.out.println("Int,int");
}
static void m1(byte... i)
{
System.out.println("byte var arg");
}
public static void main(String a[])
{
byte b=5;
m1(b,b); //int,int
}
}
Autoboxing , variable argument method

//Auto boxing beats var-arg


class AvsV
{
public static void m1(Byte b1, Byte b2)
{
System.out.println("Byte, Byte");
}
static void m1(byte... i)
{
System.out.println("byte var arg");
}
public static void main(String a[])
{
byte b=5;
m1(b,b); //Byte ,Byte
}
}

Method Overloading

Method Overloading:
Two methods having the same name are not allowed in the case of C-language, for
every data type even though the functionality in the same; we should maintain
different method names. It increases the complexity of the programming. But in
java, two methods having the same name is allowed irrespective of parameters. We
can maintain the same method name for similar type of functionality. It simplifies
the programming. Such types of methods are called Overloaded methods.
• Two methods are said to be overloaded if and only of they have the same method
name, but different parameter list(at least order).
• The signatures of the two overloaded methods must be different.
Example:
public void m1(){}
private int m1(int i){}

• Here m1() & m1(int i) are overloaded. We never consider return type, access
modifier and throws class in overloading.
Example:
class Sample
{
public void m1()
{
System.out.println(“no arg”);
}
public void m1(int i)
{
System.out.println(“ int arg”);
}
public void m1(double d)
{
System.out.println(“ double arg”);
}
public static void main(String a[])
{
Sample s=new Sample();
s.m1();
s.m1(10);
s.m1(10.5);
}
}

• In the case of overloading which overloaded method must be executed is decided


method must be executed is decided by compiler only based on reference type.
• Ie., Overloaded method resolution is the duty of compiler only. Hence Overloading
is the best
ex. of static polymorphism and some times also known as Early Binding.

s.m1(10L);//double arg
s.m1(‘a’);//int arg

i.e., Automatic Promotion in Overloading:


• If we are calling a method m1() by passing char as arg on the sample reference
then the compiler will check in the Sample class for m1(), which can take char as the
arg.
• If it finds that method, it will execute at run time.If there is no such method the
compile promotes that char arg to the int arg and checks for m1(int) method.
• If there is no such method, the compiler will check for m1(long), fallowed by
m1(float),fallowed by m1(double). Still if the compiler won’t find any such method
then only compiler will raised CTE saying ‘cannot resolve the symbol m1(char).
CASE 1:
class Sample
{
public void m1(int i,float f)
{
System.out.println(“int,float”);
}
public void m1(float i,int f)
{
System.out.println(“float,int”);
}
public static void main(String a[])
{
Sample s=new Sample();
s.m1(10,10.0f);//int,float
s.m1(10.0f,10);//float,int
s.m1(10,10);//invalid-> CTE:reference m1 is ambiguous
}
}
CASE 2:
class Sample
{
public void m1(String s)
{
System.out.println(“String version”);
}

public void m1(Object o)


{
System.out.println(“Object version”);
}
public void m1(double d)
{
System.out.println(“double version”);
}
public static void main(String a[])
{
Sample s=new Sample();
s.m1(“viswan”);// String version
s.m1(new Object());// Object version
s.m1(null);// String version
}
}
If there is Double (wrapper class) then CTE: reference to m1 is ambiguous.
CASE 3:
class Animal
{
}
class Monkey extends Animal
{
}
public class OLStaticBinding {

public void m1(Animal a)


{
System.out.println("Animal version");
}
public void m1(Monkey m)
{
System.out.println("Monkey version");
}
public static void main(String a[])
{
OLStaticBinding s=new OLStaticBinding();
Animal a1 =new Animal();
s.m1(a1); // Animal version
Monkey m =new Monkey();
s.m1(m); // Monkey version
Animal a2 =new Monkey();
s.m1(a2); // Animal version

}
}
In the case of overloading the method resolution performed by the compiler is based
on the reference type.

Example code to demonstrate method overriding


// simple example to demonistrate method overriding
package oops;

class Baseclass
{
public void sm()
{
System.out.println("super class");
}
}

public class OverridingDemo extends Baseclass{


public void sm()
{
System.out.println("sub class");
}
public static void main(String a[])
{
OverridingDemo s=new OverridingDemo();
s.sm(); // sub class
}
}
source code to demonstrate covariant returntype in
overriding

// sample application to show covariant return types


package oops;

class P
{
public Object m1()
{
System.out.println("super");
return new Object();
}
}

public class OverridingCovariant extends P{

public String m1()


//here m1 different return types valid in 1.5 version
// but return types must parent to child relation.
{
System.out.println("sub");
return "sun";
}
public static void main(String a[])
{
OverridingCovariant s=new OverridingCovariant();
s.m1(); // sub
}
}
source code to demonstrate method overroding issues
package oops;
class Pc
{
public void m1(){
System.out.println("parent");
}
public void m2(){
System.out.println("parent m2");
}
}
class C extends Pc
{
public void m1(){
System.out.println("child");
}
public void m3() {
System.out.println("child m3");
}
}
public class Sample {
public static void main(String[] a)
{
Pc p1=new Pc();
p1.m1(); //parent
p1.m2(); //parent m2
p.m3(); //error(can’t find symbol.symbol:method m3()

C c=new C();
c.m1(); //child
c.m2(); //parent m2
c.m3(); //child m3
Pc p2=new C();
p2.m1(); //child
p2.m2(); //parent m2
p2.m3(); //error
}
}
instance methods ,static methods overriding issues

DEMO 1:
// Super class instance method,sub class static method
package oops;

import java.io.FileNotFoundException;
import java.io.IOException;
class Parentclass
{
public void sm()
{
System.out.println("super class");
}
}
public class OREx extends Parentclass{

public static void sm() // compile time error


//static method cannot hide the instance method
{
System.out.println("sub class");
}
public static void main(String a[])throws Exception
{
OREx s=new OREx();
s.sm();
}
}

Demo 2:
// super class static method sub class instance method
package oops;

import java.io.FileNotFoundException;
import java.io.IOException;
class Parentclass
{
public static void sm()
{
System.out.println("super class");
}
}
public class OREx extends Parentclass{

public void sm() // compile time error


//This instancemethod cannot override the static method
{
System.out.println("sub class");
}
public static void main(String a[])
{
OREx s=new OREx();
s.sm();
}
}
source code to demonstrate method hiding

// super class ,sub class static methods


package oops;
class Pc
{
static void m1(){
System.out.println("parent");
}
}
class C extends Pc
{
static void m1(){
System.out.println("child");
}
}
public class Sample {
public static void main(String[] ar)
{
Pc p=new C();
p.m1(); //parent m1
// method execution based on the reference type in method hiding
// method execution based on the object type in method overriding
}
}
public, private,default,protected in case of method overriding

package oops;
class Superclass
{
// super class default m1 method
void m1()
{
System.out.println("Super class method");
}
// super class private m2 method
private void m2()
{
System.out.println("Super class method");
}
// super class public m3 method
public void m3()
{
System.out.println("Super class method");
}
// super class protected m4 method
protected void m4()
{
System.out.println("Super class method");
}
}
public class Subclass extends Superclass {
//If not provide proper allowed modifiers it leads compiler error
//cannot reduce the visibility of the inherited method from super
class

//sub class default m1 method allowed default,public,protected


void m1()
{
System.out.println("Super class method");
}
//sub class private m2 allowed private,default,protected,public
private void m2()
{
System.out.println("Super class method");
}
//super class public m3 method allowed modifiers public only
public void m3()
{
System.out.println("Super class method");
}
// super class protected m4 method protected,public
protected void m4()
{
System.out.println("Super class method");
}
public static void main(String[] args) {
Subclass s=new Subclass();
s.m1();
s.m2();
s.m3();
s.m4();
}

output:
Super class method
Super class method
Super class method
Super class method
checked exception issues in method overriding Examples
Demo1:
// super class method throws unchecked exception
// sub class method no throws
package oops;

class Parentclass
{
public void sm()throws Exception
{
System.out.println("super class");
}
}
public class OREx extends Parentclass{
public void sm() // valid
{
System.out.println("sub class");
}
public static void main(String a[])
{
OREx s=new OREx();
s.sm(); // sub class
}
}

Demo2:
// super class ,Sub class methods throws unchecked exception
package oops;

class Parentclass
{
public void sm()throws Exception
{
System.out.println("super class");
}
}
public class OREx extends Parentclass
//Super ,Sub classes throws same exception noerror
public void sm()throws Exception
{
System.out.println("sub class");
}
public static void main(String a[])throws Exception
{
OREx s=new OREx();
s.sm(); // sub class
}
}

Demo3:
// super class method no throws
// sub class method throws unchecked exception
package oops;

class Parentclass
{
public void sm()
{
System.out.println("super class");
}
}
public class OREx extends Parentclass{

public void sm()throws Exception // compile time error


//saying Exception Exception is not compatible with throws clause
{
System.out.println("sub class");
}
public static void main(String a[])throws Exception
{
OREx s=new OREx();
s.sm();
}
}
parent child relation checked exceptions issues in overriding
//In Exception Hierarchy IOException super class,FileNotFoundException subclass .
/* While overriding the size of the CheckedException
should not increase */

DEMO 1:
package oops;

import java.io.FileNotFoundException;
import java.io.IOException;

class Parentclass
{
public void sm()throws IOException
{
System.out.println("super class");
}
}
public class OREx extends Parentclass{

public void sm()throws FileNotFoundException // no error


{
System.out.println("sub class");
}
public static void main(String a[])throws Exception
{
OREx s=new OREx();
s.sm(); // sub class
}
}

Demo 2:
package oops;
import java.io.FileNotFoundException;
import java.io.IOException;

class Parentclass
{
public void sm()throws FileNotFoundException
{
System.out.println("super class");
}
}
public class OREx extends Parentclass{

public void sm()throws IOException // compile time error


// Exception IOException is not compatible with throws clause
{
System.out.println("sub class");
}
public static void main(String a[])throws Exception
{
OREx s=new OREx();
s.sm();
}
}

DEMO 3:
package oops;

import java.io.FileNotFoundException;
import java.io.IOException;

class Parentclass
{
public void sm()throws FileNotFoundException
{
System.out.println("super class");
}
}
public class OREx extends Parentclass{

public void sm()throws RuntimeException // no error


{
System.out.println("sub class");
}
public static void main(String a[])throws Exception
{
OREx s=new OREx();
s.sm(); // sub class
}
}
unchecked Exception no issues in method overriding

//source code unchecked exceptions in method overriding


package oops;

class Parentclass
{
public void sm()
{
System.out.println("super class");
}
}
public class OREx extends Parentclass{

public void sm()throws RuntimeException //no error


// In case of unchecked exceptions no issues
{
System.out.println("sub class");
}
public static void main(String a[])throws Exception
{
OREx s=new OREx();
s.sm(); // sub class
}
}
final method issues in overriding

Demo 1:
// super class final method sub class non-final method

package oops;
class Superclass
{
final void m1()
{
System.out.println("Super class method");
}
}
public class Subclass extends Superclass {

void m1() // compile time error


//can not overide the final method from superclass
{
System.out.println("Sub class method");
}
public static void main(String[] args) {
Subclass s=new Subclass();
s.m1();
}
}

Demo 2:
// super class non-final method, sub class final method

package oops;
class Superclass
{
void m1()
{
System.out.println("Super class method");
}
}
public class Subclass extends Superclass {

final void m1() //no error

{
System.out.println("Sub class method");
}
public static void main(String[] args) {
Subclass s=new Subclass();
s.m1(); // sub class

}
we can override synchronized method

package mythread;

// we can override synchronized method with non-synchronized vice-verse

class Baseclass
{
public synchronized void sm()
{
System.out.println("super class");
}
}

public class SyncOverriding extends Baseclass{


public void sm()
{
System.out.println("sub class");
}
public static void main(String a[])
{
SyncOverriding s=new SyncOverriding();
s.sm(); // sub class
}
}

java super-java this

super:
super is a keyword which is used to refer the super class from a sub class .It means
super can refer the super class instance variables ,super class constructors and also
super class methods(instance ,static).super keyword never use in static area like
static methods,static blocks.....Because instance variables,constructors ,instance
methods these things we will get when the object is created then only we will get.
Example code super:

class One
{
int i;
One()
{
System.out.println("no arg constructor");
}

One(int i)
{
this.i=i;
}
void show()
{
System.out.println("super class method"+i);
}
}
class Two extends One
{
int i;
Two()
{
super();
}
Two(int x,int y)
{
super(x); //calling super class constructor

i=y;
}
void show()
{
System.out.println("sub class method");
super.show(); // calling super class method
System.out.println("super class variable"+super.i); //get super class variable
}
}
class Const
{
public static void main(String arg[])
{
Two t1=new Two();
Two t=new Two(100,200);
t.show();
}
}

this:
this is used to call the present class parameter constructor,present class
methods(instance,static),present class instance variables.this keyword never use in
static area like static methods,static blocks.....Because instance
variables,constructors ,instance methods these things we will get when the object is
created then only we will get.
Example code this:

class Sample
{
int n;
Sample()
{
this(100); // this class constructor
this.display(); // this class method
}
Sample(int n)
{
this.n=n; // this class instance variable

}
void display(){
System.out.println("n="+n);
}
}
class ThisDemo
{
public static void main(String arg[])
{
Sample s=new Sample();
}
}

core java Faqs

JRE vs JVM vs JDK

Java Runtime Environment (JRE)


A subset of the Java Development Kit (JDK) for end-users and developers who want
to redistribute the runtime environment alone.The Java runtime environment
consists of the Java virtual machine1, the Java core classes, and supporting files.
JDK
Java Development Kit. A software development environment for writing
applets and application in Java .
JVM
A software "execution engine" that safely and compatibly executes the
byte codes in Java class files on a microprocessor
Bite code: Is a optimized set of instructions designed to be executed by Java-run
time system, which is called the Java Virtual machine (JVM), i.e. in its standard form,
the JVM is an Interpreter for byte code.
JIT- is a compiler for Byte code, The JIT-Complier is part of the JVM, it complies
byte code into executable code in real time, piece-by-piece on demand basis.

variable:An item of data named by an identifier.Each variable has a type,such as int


or Object,and a scope
class variable :A data item associated with a particular class as a whole--not with
particular instances of the class. Class variables are defined in class definitions. Also
called a static field. See also instance variable.
Instance variable :Any item of data that is associated with a particular object.
Each instance of a class has its own copy of the instance variables defined in the
class. Also called a field. See also class variable.
local variable :A data item known within a block, but inaccessible to code outside
the block. For example, any variable defined within a method is a local variable and
can't be used outside the method.
class method :A method that is invoked without reference to a particular object.
Class methods affect the class as a whole, not a particular instance of the class. Also
called a static method. also instance method.

instance method :Any method that is invoked with respect to an instance of a


class. Also called simply a method. See also class method.

Interface: Interfaces can be used to implement the Inheritance relationship


between the non-related classes that do not belongs to the same hierarchy, i.e. any
Class and any where in hierarchy. Using Interface, you can specify what a class must
do but not how it does.

 A class can implement more than one Interface.


 An Interface can extend one or more interfaces, by using the keyword
extends.
 All the data members in the interface are public, static and Final by default.
 An Interface method can have only Public, default and Abstract modifiers.
 An Interface is loaded in memory only when it is needed for the first time.
 A Class, which implements an Interface, needs to provide the implementation
of all the methods in that Interface.

 If the Implementation for all the methods declared in the Interface are not
provided , the class itself has to declare abstract, other wise the Class will not
compile.
 If a class Implements two interface and both the Intfs have identical method
declaration, it is totally valid.
 If a class implements tow interfaces both have identical method name and
argument list, but different return types, the code will not compile.

An Interface can’t be instantiated. Interfaces Are designed to support dynamic


method resolution at run time.

 An interface can not be native, static, synchronize, final, protected or private.


 The Interface fields can’t be Private or Protected.
 A Transient variables and Volatile variables can not be members of Interface.
 The extends keyword should not used after the Implements keyword, the
Extends must always come before the Implements keyword.
 A top level Interface can not be declared as static or final.
 If an Interface species an exception list for a method, then the class
implementing the interface need not declare the method with the exception
list.
 If an Interface can’t specify an exception list for a method, the class can’t
throw an exception.
 If an Interface does not specify the exception list for a method, he class can
not throw any exception list.

The general form of Interface is


Access interface name {
return-type method-name1(parameter-list);
type final-varname1=value;
}

Marker Interfaces : Serializable, Clonable, Remote, EventListener,

Java.lang is the Package of all classes and is automatically imported into all Java
Program
Interfaces: Clonable , Comparable, Runnable

Abstract Class: Abstract classes can be used to implement the inheritance


relationship between the classes that belongs same hierarchy.
 Classes and methods can be declared as abstract.
 Abstract class can extend only one Class.
 If a Class is declared as abstract , no instance of that class can be created.
 If a method is declared as abstract, the sub class gives the implementation of
that class.
 Even if a single method is declared as abstract in a Class , the class itself can
be declared as abstract.
 In abstract Class the keyword abstract must be used for method.
 Abstract classes have sub classes.

Combination of modifiers Final and Abstract is illegal in java.

Abstract Class means - Which has more than one abstract method which doesn’t
have method body but at least one of its methods need to be implemented in derived
Class.

The general form of abstract class is :


abstract type name (parameter list);

The Number class in the java.lang package represents the abstract concept of
numbers. It makes sense to model numbers in a program, but it doesn't make sense
to create a generic number object.

Difference Between Interfaces And Abstract class ?

 All the methods declared in the Interface are Abstract, where as abstract
class must have atleast one abstract method and others may be concrete.
 In abstract class keyword abstract must be used for method, where as in
Interface we need not use the keyword for methods.
 Abstract class must have Sub class, where as Interface can’t have sub
classes.
 An abstract class can extend only one class, where as an Interface can extend
more than one.
What are access specifiers and access modifiers ?

Accesss specifiers
Public
Protected
Private
Access modifiers
Public
Abstract
Final
Static
Volatile
Synchronized
Transient
Native

• Public : The Variables and methods can be access any where and any package.
• Protected : The Variables and methods can be access same Class, same Package &
sub class.
• Private : The variable and methods can be access in same class only.

Same class --------------------------- Public, Protected, and Private


Same-package & subclass ----------- Public, Protected
Same Package & non-sub classes ---- Public, Protected
Different package & Sub classes ------ Public, Protected
Different package & non- sub classes -- Public
Identifiers : are the Variables that are declared under particular Datatype.
Literals: are the values assigned to the Identifiers.
Static : access modifier.
Signature: Variable-Static int b; Method- static void meth(int x)
 When a member is declared as Static, it can be accessed before any objects
of its class are created and without reference to any object. Eg : main(),it
must call before any object exit.
 Static can be applied to Inner classes, Variables and Methods.
 Local variables can’t be declared as static.
 A static method can access only static Variables. and they can’t refer to this
or super in any way.
 Static methods can’t be abstract.
 A static method may be called without creating any instance of the class.
 Only one instance of static variable will exit any amount of class instances.
 Final : access modifier
 All the Variables, methods and classes can be declared as Final.
 Classes declared as final class can’t be sub classed.
 Method ‘s declared as final can’t be over ridden.
 If a Variable is declared as final, the value contained in the Variable can’t be
changed.
 Static final variable must be assigned in to a value in static initialized block.

Transient : access modifier


Transient can be applied only to class level variables.
Local variables can’t be declared as transient.
During serialization, Object’s transient variables are not serialized.
Transient variables may not be final or static. But the complies allows the declaration
and no compile time error is generated.

Volatile: access modifier


Volatile applies to only variables.
Volatile can applied to static variables.
Volatile can not be applied to final variables.
Transient and volatile can not come together.
Volatile is used in multi-processor environments.

Native : access modifier


Native applies to only to methods.
Native can be applied to static methods also.
Native methods can not be abstract.
Native methods can throw exceptions.
Native method is like an abstract method. The implementation of the abstract class
and native method exist some where else, other than the class in which the method
is declared.
Synchronized : access modifier
Synchronized keyword can be applied to methods or parts of the methods only.
Synchronize keyword is used to control the access to critical code in multi-threaded
programming.

Declaration of access specifier and access modifiers :

Class ------------- Public, Abstract, Final


Inner Class ------- Public, Protected, Private, Final, Static,
Anonymous ------- Public, Protected, Private, Static
Variable ---------- Public, Protected, Private, Final, Static, Transient, Volatile, Native
Method ----------- Public, Protected, Private, Final, Abstract, Static, Native,
Synchronized
Constructor -------- Public, Protected, Private
Free-floating code block ----- Static, Synchronized

Package : A Package is a collection of Classes Interfaces that provides a high-level


layer of access protection and name space management.
Finalize( ) method:

 All the objects have Finalize() method, this method is inherited from the
Object class.
 Finalize() is used to release the system resources other than memory(such as
file handles& network connec’s.
 Finalize( ) is used just before an object is destroyed and can be called prior to
garbage collection.
 Finalize() is called only once for an Object. If any exception is thrown in the
finalize() the object is still eligible for garbage collection.
 Finalize() can be called explicitly. And can be overloaded, but only original
method will be called by Ga-collect.
 Finalize( ) may only be invoked once by the Garbage Collector when the
Object is unreachable.

The signature finalize( ) : protected void finalize() throws Throwable { }

Constructor( ) :A constructor method is special kind of method that determines


how an object is initialized when created.

 Constructor has the same name as class name.


 Constructor does not have return type.
 Constructor cannot be over ridden and can be over loaded.
 Default constructor is automatically generated by compiler if class does not
have once.
 If explicit constructor is there in the class the default constructor is not
generated.
 If a sub class has a default constructor and super class has explicit
constructor the code will not compile.

Object : Object is a Super class for all the classes. The methods in Object class as
follows.
Object clone( )
final void notify( )
Int hashCode( )
Boolean equals( )
final void notify( )
Void finalize( )
String toString( )
Final Class getClass( )
final void wait( )
Class : The Class class is used to represent the classes and interfaces that are
loaded by the JAVA Program.

String: String is Immutable and String Is a final class. The String class provides for
strings whose value will not change.
One accessor method that you can use with both strings and string buffers is the
length() method, which returns the number of characters contained in the string or
the string buffer. The methods in String Class:-
toString( )
equals( )
indexOff( )
LowerCase( )
charAt( )
compareTo( )
lastIndexOff( )
UpperCase( )
getChars( )
subString( )
trim( )
getBytes( )
concat( )
valueOf( )
toCharArray( )
replace( )
ValueOf( ) : converts data from its internal formate into human readable formate.
String Buffer : Is Mutable , The StringBuffer class provides for strings that will be
modified; you use string buffers when you know that the value of the character data
will change.
In addition to length, the StringBuffer class has a method called capacity, which
returns the amount of space allocated for the string buffer rather than the amount of
space used.
The methods in StringBuffer Class:-
length( )
append( )
replace( )
charAt( )
setCharAt( )
capacity( )
insert( )
substring( )
getChars( )
ensureCapacity( )
reverse( )
setLength( )
delete( )

Wraper Classes : are the classes that allow primitive types to be accessed as
Objects.
These classes are similar to primitive data types but starting with capital letter.
Number
Byte
Boolean
Double
Short
Character
Float
Integer
Long
primitive Datatypes in Java :
According to Java in a Nutshell, 5th ed boolean, byte, char, short, long float, double,
int.

Float class : The Float and Double provides the methods isInfinite( ) and isNaN( ).
isInfinite( ) : returns true if the value being tested is infinetly large or small.
isNaN( ) : returns true if the value being tested is not a number.
Character class : defines forDigit( ) digit( ) .
ForDigit( ) : returns the digit character associated with the value of num.
digit( ) : returns the integer value associated with the specified character (which is
presumably) according to the specified radix.

String Tokenizer : provide parsing process in which it identifies the delimiters


provided by the user, by default delimiters are spaces, tab, new line etc., and
separates them from the tokens. Tokens are those which are separated by
delimiters.

Observable Class: Objects that subclass the Observable class maintain a list of
observers. When an Observable object is updated it invokes the update( ) method of
each of its observers to notify the observers that it has changed state.
Observer interface : is implemented by objects that observe Observable objects.

Instanceof( ) :is used to check to see if an object can be cast into a specified type
with out throwing a cast class exception.

IsInstanceof( ) : determines if the specified Object is assignment-compatible with


the object represented by this class. This method is dynamic equivalent of the Java
language instanceof operator. The method returns true if the specified Object
argument is non-null and can be cast to the reference type represented by this Class
object without raising a ClassCastException. It returns false otherwise.

Garbage Collection : When an object is no longer referred to by any variable, java


automatically reclaims memory used by that object. This is known as garbage
collection.
System.gc() method may be used to call it explicitly and does not force the garbage
collection but only suggests that the JVM may make an effort to do the Garbage
Collection.

• this() : can be used to invoke a constructor of the same class.


• super() :can be used to invoke a super class constructor.

Inner class : classes defined in other classes, including those defined in methods
are called inner classes. An inner class can have any accessibility including private.

Anonymous class : Anonymous class is a class defined inside a method without a


name and is instantiated and declared in the same place and cannot have explicit
constructors.
What is reflection API? How are they implemented
Reflection package is used mainlyfor the purpose of getting the class name. by
useing the getName method we can get name of the class for particular application.
Reflection is a feature of the Java programming language. It allows an executing
Java program to examine or "introspect" upon itself, and manipulate internal
properties of the program.

What is heap in Java


JAVA is fully Object oriented language. It has two phases first one is Compilation
phase and second one is interpratation phase. The Compilation phase convert the
java file to class file (byte code is only readable format of JVM) than Intepratation
phase interorate the class file line by line and give the proper result.

main( ) : is the method where Java application Begins.


String args[ ] : receives any command line argument during runtime.
System : is a predefined Class that provides access to the System.
Out : is output stream connected to console.
Println :displays the output.

Downcasting : is the casting from a general to a more specific type, i.e casting
down the hierarchy. Doing a cast from a base class to more specific Class, the cast
does;t convert the Object, just asserts it actually is a more specific extended Object.

Upcasting : byte can take Integer values.