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Bangladesh J. Plant Taxon.

4 (1) : 17- 36, 1997 (June)

ANGIOSPERMIC FLORA OF SITAKUND IN CHITTAGONG, BANGLADESH

M. A. RAHMAN and S.B. UDDIN


Department of Botany , University of Chittagong , Chittagong – 4331

Keywords : Angiospermic flora, Sitakund , Bangladesh

Abstract

Angiospermic flora in the area of Sitakund under Chittagong district have been
studied by conducting nine field trips in various seasons during 1994-95.A total of 203
species in 154 genera have been recognized from the area under 54 families. An
annotated list of these taxa is presented with updated nomenclature, synonyms , and local
names. Uses of plants by indigenous people are upended.

Introduction
Sitakund in Chittagong district is situated approximately between 91 east longitude and 21
north latitude. It comprises an area of 383 sq. km, and is bounded by Mirsarai thana in the north,
Sandwip channel in the west , Pahartali thana in the south and Hazarikhil forest of Fatikchari thana
and a part fo Hathazari thana in the east . Sitakund comprises hilly terrain in the eastern part
extending from north to south. Most of the hills are covered by forests dominated by grasses,
bamboos, and mixed evergreen vegetation characterized by tall trees and an undergrowth o gingers,
bryophytes and pteridophytes. The hilly forest of Sitakund is a part of flora of Chittagong which is
floristically and geographically more related to Indo – China than to any other part of the Indian
subcontinent (Khan 1991a).
Sitakund was one of the richest areas of biodiversity in Chittagong until the independence of
Bangladesh. The vegetation has largely been destroyed by logging and fire wood collection by local
people. Shrubby jungles have been cleared in many areas by both local and forestry people thus
greatly depleting the biodiversity in the area. Many rare and medicinally important plant species have
been locally threatened. Hooker and Thomson had made a number of collections from Sitakund
during their visit to Chittagong in 1851 (Khan 1991b), and recorded many species
in the flora of British India (Hooker 1872-1892).Subsequently collections of angiospermic plants
of Sitakund forest were made from time to time by teachers and students of botany from the
universities of Dhaka and Chittagong . Heinig (1925) included 36 species in 35 genera under 24
angiosperm families from Sitakund . Khan (1985) recorded eleven species of the family
Convolvulaceae from Sitakund in the Flora of Bangladesh and another 8 species were listed from the
area by Rahman (1991) and Rahman and Wilcock (1995) for the families Apocynaceae and
Aslepiadaceae. There are a good number of collections preserved in Bangladesh National
Herbarium, Dhaka from Sitakund collected by M. S. Khan and his co – workers . To the present day,
57 species in 51 genera have been recorded by various workers from the area of Sitakund under 26
18 RAHAMAN AND UDDIN

families. But there have been no intensive explorations and published reports exclusively on the flora
of Sitakund.
The present investigation is carried out for collection , identification and assessment of plant
diversity of angiosperms for the first time for Sitakund. A total of 54 families have been recognized
from the area represented by 203 species under 154 genera. An analysis of the plant diversity giving
statistics of the taxa, percentage of the various habit types and the important uses of plants by the
local people is given in Table 1.
Table 1 . An analysis of plant diversity of Sitakund .

Uses
Habit types No. of No. of No . of % of
Species Genera Famile habit Medicin Timber Others
s type e
Herbs 57 48 21 28.08 27 - 3

Shrubs/ Undershrubs 70 51 22 34.48 30 - 5

Climbers/Twiners 39 29 15 19.21 7 - 3

Epiphytes 2 2 2 0.98 2 - 1

Trees 35 33 20 17.25 10 8 30

The families have been arranged according to the system proposed by Cronquist ( 1968). The genera
and species have been arranged alphabetically under each family. The contractions ‘F1.’and ‘Fr.’
indicate the flowering and fruiting times. Local names and brief notes on uses have been shown
under each taxon.

ANNONACEAE

Annona reticulate L.

Local name: Nona.


A small tree, branches glabrous. F1.& Fr. : Sept. – Dec.
Fruits edible.
LAURACEAE
Endospermum chinensis Benth.
A small tree or large shrub. F1. & Fr. : May – Sept.
Source of fire wood.
Lindera latifolia Hook . f.
Local name: Shikoria.
An evergreen tree.
Litsea sebifera Pers.
Local name: Haluka , Bagmala.
A small or medium sized tree with large crown . F1. & Fr. : April – Nov.
ANGIOSPERMIC FLORA 19

Source of fire wood.


PIPERACEAE
Piper rhytidocarpum Hook.f.
Local name: Ban - pipul.
A climber .F1.: Feb.- Apr.
ULMACEAE
Trema orientalis (L.) Blume. Celtis orientalis L.
Local name: Jiban, Jinal.
A small branched tree. F1.& Fr.: July . - Nov.
Source of timber and fire wood.
MORACEAE
Ficus benghalensis L. F. indica L., F. cotonacifolia Vahl.
Local name: Bot.
A large evergreen tree. F1. & Fr. : Jan . - June.
Source of timber and fire wood.
F.hispida L.f. F.opposittifolia Roxb.
Local name: Dumur.
A stout branched tree. F1. & Fr.: Almost round the year but especially in March – July.
Fruits edible and used as vegetable and medicine . Branches used as fire wood.
F. lamponga Miq. F. lepidosa Wall . ex King.
A tree. Bark brownish grey. F1. & Fr.: Throughout the year.
Source of fire wood.
F. racemosa L. F. glomerata Roxb.
Local name: Jaga – dumur.
A stout branched tree. F1. & Fr.: March – July.
Source of medicine and fire wood.
F.religiosa L.
Local name: Assawth.
A large evergreen tree. F1. & Fr.:May – Sept.
Source of timber and medicine.
Streblus asper Lour.
Local name: Sheora.
A rigid, densely branched tree, F1. & Fr. March – June.
Source of medicine and fire wood.
URTICACEAE
Balanostreblus ilicfolia Kurz
Local name: Pahari sheora.
A small evergreen tree.
Source of fire wood.
20 RAHAMAN AND UDDIN

Boehmeria glomerulifera Miq. B. malabarica Wedd.


Local name: Borthurthuri.
Small tree or shrub. F1. & Fr. Jan. - March .
Source of fire wood.
Boehmeria platyphylla D. Don. B. scabrella Gaud.; Urtica scabrella Roxb.
A small tree or shrub. F1. & Fr.: Oct. – Dec.
Source of fire wood.
Elatostema integrifolium ( D. Don.) Wedd. E. sesquifolium ( Blume) Hassk,; Procris integirfolia
D. Don.; P. sesquifolia Reinw . ex Blume.
A large herb or small shrub . F1. Sept.
Pouzolzia sanguinca (B1.) Merr. Urtica sanguine B1.; P. viminea Wedd.
Shrubs or undershrubs. F1.& Fr.: Aug – March.
Sarchochlamys pulcherrima Gaud.
Local name: Brihati, Murichia.
A large woody shrub. F1.& Fr.: June. - Feb.
Source of fire wood.
NYCTAGINACEAE
Nyctanthes arbor- trists L.
Local name: Sheuli.
A shrub or small tree, leaves scabrid. F1. & Fr.: Throughout the year .
Planned for its flowers.
CHENOPODIACEAE
Chenopodium album L.
Local name: Betoshak.
An annul erect herb, stem angular. F1. & Fr. : Jan. – June.
Source of leafly vegetable.
AMARANTHACEAE
Achyranthes aspera L.
Local name: Apang.
An erect perennial herb. F1. & Fr.: April – Oct.
Source of medicine.
Alternanthera paronychioides St. Hill.
A prostrate herb. F1. & Fr. : Jan. – May.
A.sessilis (L.) R. Br. ex DC. Gomphera sessils L.; Alternanthera nodiflora auct. non. R. Br.
Local name: Chanchi , Sachishak.
A prostrate or decumbent ascending much branched herb. F1. & Fr.: Throughout the year.
Source of medicine .
Amaranthus spinosus L.
Local name : Kanta notey.
A branched , erect herb. F1. & Fr.: Throughout the year.
ANGIOSPERMIC FLORA 21

Source of forage; also as pot herb.


A.viridis L. A. gracilis Desf.
Local name: Notey.
A branched slender herb. F1.& Fr.: Throughout the year.
Source of forage and also used as pot herb.
Cyathula prostrate (L.) Blume Achyranthus prostrate L.
A slender herb. F1.: Nov.
POLYGONACEAE
Ampelygonum chinense ( L.) Lindley Polygonum chinense L., Persicaria chinensis ( L.) H.
Gross
An erect or decumbent ascending plant. F1. & Fr. : Throughout the year.
Source of medicine.
Persicaria hydropiper (L.) Spach Polygonum hydropiper L.
Local name : Pakurmul.
An erect, decumbent or ascending plant . F1. & Fr. : Throughout the year.
Source of medicine.
P.orientails (L.) Spach Polygonum orientale L.
Local name : Bara – panimarich.
An erect ascending plant. F1. & Fr.: April – Aug.
Source of medicine.

PLUMBAGINACEAE
Plumbago zeylanica L. Plumbago rosea L.
Local name : Agni- chita.
A herb. F1. & Fr.: Dec. – April.
Source of medicine.
TILIACEAE
Grewia laevigata Vahl.
A medium sized tree. F1. & Fr.: July- Dec.
Source of fire wood.
Microcos paniculata L. Grewia microcos L.
Local name: Assar , patka.
A shrub or small tree. F1. & Fr.: Jan. – Oct.
Source of medicine and fire wood.
STERCULIACEAE
Buettneria pilosa Roxb.
Local name: Jurmi.
A woody climber. F1. & Fr.: Sept. – Feb.
MALVACEAE
Abutilon indicum (L.) Sweet Sida indica L.; S. populifera Lam.
An annual or perennial herb. F1.: June – Sept.
22 RAHAMAN AND UDDIN

Fioria vitifolia (L.) Mathei Hibiscus vitifolius L.


Local name: Ban – kapas.
A. suffruticose herb. F1. & Fr.: Jan – June.
Sida acuta Burm. f.
Local name: Kureta.
An undershrub. F1. & Fr.: June- Dec.
S. cordata ( Burm.f.) Borssum . Melochia cordata Burm. f.
Local name: Berela, Bola.
An undershrub. F1. & Fr.: Throughout the year.
Source of medicine.
Urena lobata L.
Local name: Ban okra.
An undershrub or shrub. F1. & Fr.: Oct.- April.
PASSIFLORACEAE
Passifloria foetida L.
Local name: Jomka – lata.
A prostrate or climbing herb. F1. & Fr. : May – Dec.
Source of medicine.
CUCURBITACEAE
Gymnopetalum cochinchinensis ( Lour.) Kurz Bryonia cochinchinensis Lour.
A climber , tendrils usually simple. F1. & Fr.: May – Jan.
Source of medicine.
Thladiantha calcarata Clarke
A large climber.
Trichosanthes anguina L.
Local name: Chichinga, Hopa.
An annual climber.
Source of vegetable and medicine.
CLEOMACEAE
Cleome viscose L. C. icosandra L.; Polanisia viscose (L.) DC.; Cleome chelidonii sensu Burk.
non. L. f.
Local name. Halde hurhure.
An erect annual herb. F1.&Fr.: Jan – June.
MYRSINACEAE
Ardisia solanacea Roxb.A. humilis sensu Wight.
Local name : Ban- jam.
A shrub. F1. & Fr.: Feb. – Sept.
Source of medicine.
Maesa indica ( Roxb.) DC.
A shrub F1. & Fr. : Oct. – June.
ANGIOSPERMIC FLORA 23

ROSACEAE
Eriobotrya bengalensis Hook. f.
A large tree. F1. & Fr.: Dec.- June.
MIMOSACEAE
Albizia lebbeck (L.) Benth. Mimosa lebbeck L.
Local name: Siris, Koroi.
A large deciduous tree. F1. & Fr. : May – Feb.
Source of timber.
Mimosa pudica L.
Local name: Lajjabati.
A prickly herb. F1. & Fr.: July – Dec.
Source of medicine .
CAESALPINIACEAE
Bauhinia malabarica Roxb.
Local name: Kanchan, Phutki.
A small tree. F1. & Fr.: Aug. – May.
Caesalpinia enneaphyllum ( Lour.) Kurz
A small tree. F1.: Aug.
Source of fire wood.
Cassia fistula L.
Local name: Sonalu.
A medium tree. F1. & Fr.: May. – Aug.
Source of medicine, dye & timber.
C.occidentalis L..
Local name: . Kalkasunde
An undershrub. F1. & Fr. : Nov. – Feb.
Source of medicine.
C.sophera L.
Local name: Chottokalkasunde.
A subglabrous shrub. F1. & Fr.: Nov.- Feb.
Source of medicine.
C.tora L .
Local name: Chakunda.
A herb.
Source of medicine.
FABACEAE ( PAPILIONACEAE)
Abrus precatorius L.
Local name: Kunch.
A twiner. F1. & Fr.: Aug. – Jan.
24 RAHAMAN AND UDDIN

Source of medicine.
Alysicarpus vaginalis DC.
Local name: Pannata.
A herb. F1. & Fr.: Oct. – Dec.
Atylosia scarabaeoides Benth. Dolichos scarabaeoides Roxb.
Local name: Banurkalai.
A copiously branched , pubescent, herb . F1. & Fr.: Aug. – April.
Calliandra umbrosa Benth.
Local name: Chota – betmera.
A small tree. F1. & Fr.: March- July.
Source of fire wood.
Crotalaria indobracteata Bennet C . bracteata Roxb.
A small shrub . F1. & Fr.: June- Sept
C.calycina Schrank .
An erect herb.
C.dubia Grah.
An undershrub. F1.& Fr.: Jan. – June
C.pallida Ait.
Local name: Jhunjhuni.
An erect suffruticose herb. F1. & Fr. : June- Oct.
C.verrucosa L.
A much branched erect undershrub . F1. & Fr. : March – May.
Source of medicine.
Derris cuneifolia Benth. D. discolor Benth.
A robust climber. F1. & Fr.: May – July.
Desmodium gangeticum ( L.) DC. Hedysarum gangeticum L.
Local name: Chalani, Salpani.
An erect ascending suffruticose, perennial herb. F1. & Fr. : Throughout the year.
Source of medicine.
D.laxiflorum DC. D. diffusum DC.
A pubescent undershrub. F1. & Fr.: Sept. – Nov.
D.motorium ( Houtt.) Merr. Hedysarum motorium Houtt. Desmodium gyrans ( L. f.) DC.
A shrub . F1. & Fr. : Oct . – May.
Source of medicine.
D. pulchellum ( L.) Benth. Hedysarum pulchellum L.
Local name: Jutasalpani.
A stoutish shrub. F1. & Fr.: Oct. – Jan.
D. triangulare ( Retz.) Merr. Hedysarum triangulare Retz.
An undershrub. F1. & Fr.: Sept. – Jan.
ANGIOSPERMIC FLORA 25

D.triquetrum (L.) DC. ssp. alatum (DC.) Prain D. alatum DC.


A shrub F1. & Fr.: Nov.- Feb.
Flemingia strobilifera (L.) Ait. Hedysarum strobiliferum L, ; H. bractetum Roxb.; Flemingia
bracteata ( Roxb.) Wight.
An undershrub. F1. & Fr.: July - Feb.
Source of medicine.
Mucuna pruriens (L.) DC. Dolichos pruriens L. M. prutita Hook.
Local name: Khamach, Alkushi.
An annual twining vine. F1.& Fr.: Jan. – April.
Pterocarpus indicus Willd.
Local name: Padouk.
A tree. F1. & Fr.: May - July.
Source of fire wood.
Pueraria tubersoa ( Roxb.ex Willd.) DC. Hedysarum tuberosum Roxb. ex Willd.
Local name: Batraj – sim.
A large deciduous climber.
Sesbania grandiflora ( L.) Poir. Robinia grandiflora L.
Local name: Bakohul.
A tree. Petals cooked and eaten . Also a source of fire wood.
Tephrosia candida Roxb.ex DC. Robinia condida Roxb.
A shrub. F1. & Fr.: June – Oct.
Teramnus labialis ( L.f.) Spreng.
A slender twiner. F1. & Fr.: Aug . – Nov.
Uraria lagopus DC. U . alopecurodies ( Roxb.) Wight
An erect, branched undershrub. F1. & Fr.: July – Oct.
U. rufescens ( DC.) Schindler U. hamosa Wall. ex Wight & Arn.
An erect, branched undershrub. F1.& Fr.: June – Nov.
MYRTACEAE
Eucalyptus citriodora Hook. f.
A tree . F1. & Fr.: Nov. – Jan.
Source of timber and fire wood.
Syzygium fruticosum ( Roxb.) DC. Eugenia fruticosum Roxb.
Local name : Banjam.
A tree. F1. & Fr.: April - Aug.
Source of timber , fruits edible.
ONAGRACEAE
Ludwigia hyssopifolia ( G. Don) Exell. Jussiaea hyssopifolia G. Don.
A branched herb. F1. & Fr.: Throughout the year.
26 RAHAMAN AND UDDIN

MELASTOMACEAE
Melastoma malabathricum L.
Local name : Datranga, Lutki.
A shrub. F1. & Fr.: Feb. – Sept.
Oxyspora cernua Trim.
A shrub.
CORNACEAE
Marlea begoniaefolia Roxb.
A small tree. F1. & Fr. : April – May .
Source of fire wood.
EUPHORBIACEAE
Acalypha indica L.
Local name: Mukta – jhuri.
An erect herb. F1. & Fr.: Nov. – April.
Source of medicine.
Antidesma ghaesembilla Gaertn.
A small tree. F1. & Fr.: March – June.
Source of medicine .
Bridelia crenulata Roxb. B. roxburghiana ( Muell.) Gehrm.
A small deciduous tree. F1.& Fr.: March – Aug.
Source of fire wood.
B.retusa ( L.) Spreng. Cluytia retusa L.
A medium sized tree. F1. & Fr.: May – Dec.
B.stipularis Bl.
A scandent shrub. F1. & Fr.: March - July.
Croton bonplandianus Baill. C . sparsiflorus Morong.
Local name: Bancroton.
A suffruticose annual herb. F1. & Fr.: Dec. – May.
C.lobatus L.
An annual herb. F1.& Fr.: Almost throughout the year.
Euphorbia hirta L. E. piluifera auct. non L.
Local name: Dudhiya.
An annual procumbent herb. F1.& Fr.: Almost throughout the year but mostly in Feb. – May.
Source of medicine.
E. hypercicifolia L. E. parviflora Prain
A decumbent glabrous herb. F1. & Fr.: Jan. – July.
Gelonium multiflorum A. Juss. G . fasciculatum.
An evergreen small tree. F1. & Fr.: Sept. – June.
Source of medicine.
ANGIOSPERMIC FLORA 27

Glochidion multiloculare Muell – Arg.


Local name: Aniatory.
An evergreen small tree or shrub. F1. & Fr. : July – Oct.
Source of medicine and fire wood.
Phyllanthus fraternus Webster P . niruri sensu Hook. f.
Local name : Bhui – amla .
An erect annual . F1.& Fr.: March – June.
Source of medicine .
P. reticulates Poir. Kirganalia reticulate ( Poir ) Bull.
A large glabrous shrub. F1. & Fr.: March - June.
Source of medicine .
Ricinus communis L.
Local name: Bheranda, Reri.
An soft wooded shrub. F1. & Fr.; Almost throughout the year.
Source of oil and medicine.
Sapium indicum Willd. Excoecaria indica Bedd.
Local name: Haruna, Bolas.
A small tree. F1.& Fr.: April – July.
Source of medicine.
S. insigne ( Royle ) Benth . ex. Hook . f. Falconeria insigne Royle
Local name : Goma , Pahari – Goan .
A large deciduous tree.
Source of fire wood.
Tragia involucrate L.
Local name: Bichuti.
A suberect hispid shrub. F1. & Fr.: Oct. – Jan.
RHAMNACEAE
Zizyphus oenoplea ( L.) Mill. Rhamnus oenoplea L.
Local name : Bankul.
A straggling or semi scandent prickly shrub. F1. & Fr.: Sept. – Jan.
Fruits edible.
LEEACEAE
Leea crispa Royen ex. L.
Local name: Banchalita, Mach .
An annual undershrub. F1.& Fr.: March – Aug.
VITACEAE
Cayratia pedata ( Lam.) Juss. ex Gagnep. Cissus pedata Lam., Vitis pedata ( Lam. ) Wall . ex
Wightt. & Arn.
Local name : Goali – lata.
A . pubescent climber . F1. & Fr.: May- Sept.
28 RAHAMAN AND UDDIN

SAPINDACEAE
Aphania danura ( Roxb. ) Radlk. Sapindus danura Roxb.
Local name: Gota- horina, Oboni, Nancha.
A small tree.
Source of fire wood.
Cardiospermum halicacabum L.
Local name: Sibjhul, Putka.
A herb. F1.& Fr.: Dec. – May.
ANACARDIACEAE
Holigarna longifolia Roxb.
Local name: Barola.
A tall tree.
Source of timber and fire wood.
MELIACEAE
Walsura robusta Roxb.
A large evergreen tree. F1. & Fr. : March – April.
Source of timber.
RUTACEAE
Citrus medica L.
Local name: Pani lebu, Bura lebu.
A shrub or small tree. F1. & Fr.: Throughout the year.
Source of medicine.
Glycosmis pentaphylla ( Retz.) Correa G. arborea ( Roxb.) DC. : Limonia arborea Roxb.; L.
pentaphylla Retz.
Local name : Datmajan.
A shrub or small tree. F1.& Fr.: Throughout the year.
Source of medicine .
OXALIDACEAE
Biophytum senstivum ( L.) DC. Oxalis sensitive L.
Local name: Jhalai.
An annual herb. F1. & Fr.: In winter .
Source of medicine.
GENTIANACEAE
Canscora diffusa ( Vahl.) R. Br. Gentiana diffusa Vahl.; Exacum diffusa Willd.; Casnscora
tenella Wight.
An annual dichotomously branched herb. F1. & Fr.: Oct.- April.
Source of medicine .
APOCYNACEAE
Aganosma marginata ( Roxb.) G. Don. A . acuminate G. Don.; Echites marginata Roxb.; E.
acuminate Roxb.
ANGIOSPERMIC FLORA 29

Local name: Chotta kuruz.


A strong woody twiner. F1. & Fr.: Jan.- June.
Catharanthus roseus ( L.) G. Don. Vinca rosea L.; Lochnera rosea ( L.) Pn.
Local name: Nayantara.
A small evergreen undershrub. F1.& Fr.: Throughout the year.
Source of medicine.
Holarrhena antidysenterica ( L. ) Wall. ex. DC. Nerium antidysentericum L.
Local name: kurchi.
A large shrub. F1. & Fr.: April – Oct.
Source of medicine.
Ichnocarpus frutescens ( L.) R.Br. Apocyanm frutescens L.
Local name: Dudhia lata.
A climber . F1.&Fr.: Sept.- April.
Source of medicine.
Plumeria rubra L. P. acuminate Ait. nom. nud.; P. acutifolia Poir.
Local name: Katgolap.
A small tree. F1.& Fr.: May – Sept.
Planted as an ornamental.
Rauvolfia serpentine ( L.) Benth. ex Kurz Ophioxlon serpentinum L.
Local name : Sharpagandha.
Glabrous undershrubs. F1.& Fr.: April – Oct.
Source of medicine.
Tabernaemontana divaricata ( L.) R. Br. Nerium divaricatum L.
A slender glabrous shrub or small tree. F1. & Fr.: May – Jan.
Planted in gardens.
Thevetia peruviana ( Pers. ) K. Schum. Cerbera peruviana Pers.
A large shrub or small tree. F1.& Fr.: Throughout the year.
Planted as an ornamental tree.
PERIPLOCACEAE
Hemidesmus indicus ( L.) R. Br.
Local name: Anantamul.
A perennial climber or an undershrub. F1. & Fr.: July- Dec.
Source of medicine.
Myriopteron extensum (Wight) K . Schum.
A large , woody, twiner . F1. & Fr.: June- Dec.
ASCLEPIADACEAE
Asclepias curassavica L.
Local name : Moricha.
A perennial erect herb. F1. & Fr.: Almost throughout the year.
Source of medicine.
30 RAHAMAN AND UDDIN

Calotropis gigantean ( L.) R. Br. Asclepias gigantean L.


Local name: Akand.
An erect shrub. F1. &Fr.: Almost throughout the year especially in the hot season.
Source of medicine.
Cosmostigma racemosa (Roxb.) Wight & Arn. Asclepias racemosa Roxb.
A large twiner. F1.&Fr.: Jan. – May.
Hoya globulosa Hook.f.
A stout epiphytic climber. F1.: March – May.
Pentabothra nanaHook.f. Cynanchum nanum F. Ham. ex Wight
A dwarf erect herb. F1.: May.
Tylophora hirsute ( Wall.) Wight. Gymnema hirsute Wall.
A twining shrub. F1. :June- July.
T. indica var. intermedia Rahman & Willcock
A tall twiner. F1. & Fr.: June- Feb.
Source of medicine .
T. tenuissima ( Roxb.) Wight. & Arn. Asclepias tenuissima Roxb., Tylophora tenuis Blume, T.
carnosa Wall . ex Wight .
A large twiner. F1. & Fr.: Jan.- March.
SOLANACEAE
Physalis minima L.
Local name: Ban- Tipari, Tiparia.
A small herb.F1.&Fr.: Almost throughout the year.
Solanum nigrumL.
Local name: Phutibegun.
A glabrose annual herb. F1 & Fr.: Throughout the hotter part of the year.
Source of medicince.
S . sisymbrifolium Lam.
Local name: Kantabegun.
An undershrub. F1. & Fr.: Sept. – Oct.
Source of medicine.
S. torvum Sw.
Local name: Gothbegun.
Suffrutscent shrub.F1.&Fr.: Sept. – Oct.
Source of medicine.
Solanum violaceum Ortega S. indicum sensu Clarke, non L.
Local name: Putki – begun.
A shrub . F1. & Fr.: June- Feb.
Source of medicine.
S. virginianum L. S. surattense Burn. f. S. xanthocarpum Sch. & Wend.
Local name: Kantakari.
A perennial herb. F1. & Fr.: Throughout the year.
ANGIOSPERMIC FLORA 31

Source of medicine.
CONVOLVULACEAE
Argyreia argentea( Roxb.) Choisy . Lettsomia argentea Roxb. Argyreia speciosa Roxb.
Local name: Guguli .
Climber. F1. & Fr.: July – Nov.
Calystegia hederacea Wall.
A prostrate or twining herb. F1. & Fr.: Dec. – Feb.
Evolvlus nummularius ( L.) L. Convolvulus nummularius L.
A perennial prostrate herb. F1. & Fr.: Throughout the year.
Ipomoea alba L. Convolvulus aculeatus L., grandidlorus Moon.
A lofty climber. F1.& Fr.: Almost throughout the year.
Source of medicine.
I.aquatic Forsk.l. reptans sessu auct. Mull.
Local name: Kalmishak.
A floating aquatic herb. F1&Fr.: Nov.- April.
A pot herb and source of medicine.
I.fistulosa Mart. ex Choisy. Batatus crassicaulis Benth., Ipomoea craisicaulis ( Benth.)B. L.
Robinson.
Local name: Dholkalmi.
A . shrub with milky juice . F1. & Fr. : Throughout the year.
a hedge plant.
I.hederifolia L. I . coccinea Clarke, I. angulata Lam.
An annual herb, glabrous to sparsely pubescent. F1. & Fr.: March- May.
I.pes- tigridis L.
An annual twiner.F1. &Fr.: Sept. – Jan.
Source of medicine.
I.yomae Kurz 1.trichosperma sensu Clarke, proparte, non. B1.
A large climber . F1. & Fr.: Oct. – Jan.
Jaquemontia paniculata ( Burn. f. ) Hall. I. paniculata Burn. f.
A twiner. F1. & Fr.: Nov. – Jan.
Merremia hederacea ( Burn.f.) Hallier f. Evovulus hederacea Burn.f.
A twiner. F1. & Fr.: Oct. – Jan.
CUSCUTACEAE
Cuscuta reflexa Roxb.
Local name: Swarna lata.
A twinning parasitic herb. F1. & Fr. : Mostly during cold weather.
Source of medicine.
BORAGINACEAE
Heliotropium indicum L.
Local name: Hatisur.
32 RAHAMAN AND UDDIN

An annual erect herb. F1. & Fr. : Almost throughout the year.
Source of medicine.
VERBENACEAE
Clerodendrum indicum ( L.) Kuntze Siphonanthus indica L.
Local name: Bamanhati.
A glabrous sparingly branched shrub.F1. & Fr.: June – Nov.
Source of medicine.
C.viscosum Vent . C. infortunatum Willd. ex Pers.
Local name : Bhant, Gheta.
A softly tomentose woody herb. F1. & Fr.: Dec.- June.
Source of medicine.
C.wallichii Merr. C. nutans Wall. ex D. Don.
Local name:Malbong.
A shrub. F1. & Fr.: Nov. – March.
Duranta repens L. D. plumeri Jacq.
Local name: Kantamehdi.
A small shrub. F1. & Fr.: Throughout the year but mostly March – July.
A large plant and source of medicine.
Lantana camara L . L.aculeate L., Camara aculeata ( L.) Kuntze.
Local name: Lantana.
An erect or straggling shrub. F1. & Fr.: Almost throughout the year but mostly in July – October.
An ornamental and hedge plant.
Lippia alba ( Mill.) N.E. Br. ex Brit & Wilson . Lantana alba Mill., Lippia geminate Kunth
A small shrub. F1. & Fr.: March- July.
Premna esculenta Roxb.
Local name: Lalang, Lelena.
A small shrub. F1.& Fr.: April – July.
Vitex peduncularis Wall. ex Schauer .
A shrub. F1.& Fr.: March – May.
Source of Medicine.
V. trifolia L. f. V. incise Wall .
A slender bushy shrub. F1. & Fr.: March – May.
Source of medicine.
LAMIACEAE
Anisomeles indica ( L.) Kuntz
Local name: Gobura.
An annual or perennial bushy undershrub. F1 . & Fr.: Oct. – July.
Source of medicine.
Dysophylla auricularia Blume
A small herb. F1. & Fr.: March – May.
ANGIOSPERMIC FLORA 33

Gomphostemma parviflorum Wall.


Local name: Tori – Boromala.
An undershrub. F1. & Fr.: Aug.- Nov.
Hyptis brevipes Poit.
An erect annual herb. F1. : May – August .
Source of medicine.
H.suaveolens (L.) Poit. Ballota suaveolens L.
Local name: Tokma.
A tall aromatic herb. F1.& Fr.: Nov. – April.
Source of medicine.
Leucas aspera (Willd.) Link. L. pulkenetii ( Roth. ) Spreng.
A stout, annual herb. F1. & Fr.: Throughout the year.
Source of Medicine.
L. lavendulifolia Sm. L. linifolia Sprang.
An annual herb. F1. & Fr.: Throughout the year.
Source of medicine.
Ocimum americanum L. O. canum Sims.
Local name: Ramtulsi.
A much branched undershrub or shrub .F1. &Fr.: Mostly in Oct. – Jan.
Source of medicine.
Orthosiphon rubikundus ( D. Don. ) Benth. Plectranthus rubikundus D. Don.
A herb. F1.: Jan.
Teucrium viscidum B1. T. stoloniferum Ham.ex Benth.
An erect perennial herb. F1. : Oct. – Dec.
SCROPHULARIACEAE
Lindernia antipoda ( L.) Alston. Ruellia antipoda L.
An annual herb. F1. & Fr.: Nov. – March.
Scoparia dulcis L. S. grandiflora Nash
Local name : Bandhaney.
An erect perennial herb. F1. & Fr.: Throughout the year.
Source of medicine.
OLEACEAE
Jasminum scandens Vahl.
A woody climber . F1. & Fr. : April – Aug.
Source of medicine.
OROBANCHACEAE
Aeginetia indica L.
Local name: Min- muki.
A leafless root parasite.
34 RAHAMAN AND UDDIN

GESNERIACEAE
Rhynchotechum ellipticum ( Wall. ex Dietr.) DC. Croisonthera elliptica Wall .ex Dietr.
An erect undeershrub. F1. & Fr.: Oct. – Nov.
ACANTHACEAE
Adhatoda zeylanica Medic. Justicia adhatoda L., Adhatoda vasica Nees.
Local name: Basak, Adulsa.
A shrub. F1. & Fr.: Nov. – March.
Source of medicine.
Andrographis paniculata ( Burm.f.) Wall .ex Nees Justicia paniculata Burm.f.
Local name: Kalo megh.
An erect, much branched herb. F1.&Fr.: Nov. – May.
Source of medicine.
A.laxiflora ( B1.) Lindau. A . tenuiflora T. Ander.
An erect herb. F1. & Fr.: Sept. – Jan.
Barleria polytricha Wall.
A small shrub. F1. : Sept .- Nov.
Eranthemum purpurescens Nees Daedalacanthus purpurascens ( Nees) T. And.
An annual herb.F1 : April – July .
Hemigraphis hirta ( Vahl.) T. Anders. Ruellia hirta Vahl.
Prostrate herb. F1. & Fr.: March – July.
Lepidagathis incurve Buch. – Ham. ex G. Don . L. hyaline Nees
A perennial herb. F1. & Fr.: Mar.- May.
Rungia pectinata ( L.) Nees . Justicia pectinata L.
A much branched herb. F1. &Fr.: Nov. – May.
Thunbergia grandifloria ( Roxb.ex Rottler ) Roxb. Flemingia grandiflora Roxb. ex Rottler.
Local name: Nilata.
A climber.
Ornamental.
CAMPANULACEAE
Codonopsis lancifolia ( Roxb.) Moeliono. Campanula lancifolia Roxb.; Campanumoea celebica
auct. non Blume
A herb or shrub.
RUBIACEAE
Borreria articularis (L.f.) Williams. Spermacoce articularis L. f., Borreria hispida (L.)
Schumann
A procumbent scabrid herb. F1. & Fr.: Aug.- Dec.
Coffea benghalensis Roxb.
Local name: Bankafi, Bannary kafi.
A small shrub. F1. & Fr.: Feb. - May.
ANGIOSPERMIC FLORA 35

Hedyotis scandens Roxb.


A climber. F1. & Fr.: Mostly during cold weather.
Source of medicine.
Mussaenda corymbosa Roxb. M. roxburghii Hook . f.
Local name: Silchari
An erect or climbing shrub. F1. & Fr. : Throughout the year.
Ornamental shrub.
ASTERACEAE
Ageratum conyzoides L.
Local name: Fulkuri.
A strong smelling annual herb. F1. & Fr.: Throughout the year, mostly in March – June.
Source of medicine.
Blumea lacera ( Burm. f.) DC. Conyza lacera Burm. f.
Local name: Kukursunga
An erect herb. F1.& Fr.: Jan. – May.
Source of medicine.
Chromolaena odorata ( L.) King & Robinson. Eupatorium odoratum L.
Local name: Assamlata.
A scandent herb or shrub . F1.& Fr.: March – June.
Source of medicine.
Crassocephalum crepidiodes ( Benth. ) S. Moore. Gynura crepidiodes Benth.
An annual herb.
Eclipta prostrate ( L.) L. Verbesina prostratra L., V. alba L., Eclipta alba ( L.) Hassk.
An erect or prostrate annual herb. F1.& Fr.: Throughout the year .
Source of medicine.
Elephantopus scaber L.
Local name: Gojalata.
An erect perennial herb. F1.& Fr.: Nov.- Jan.
Source of medicine.
Mikania cordata ( Burn.f.) Robinson. M. scandens auct. non ( L.) Willd . Eupatorium cordatum
Burm.f.
Local name: Tufanilata, Rifuji lata.
A twiner. F1.& Fr.: Oct. – Feb.
Source of medicine and fodder.
Picris hieractioides L.
A herb.
Synedrella nodiflora ( L.) Gaertn. Verbesina nodiflora L.
An erect herb. F1. & Fr.: May- July.
Tridax procumbens L.
Local name: Tridhara.
36 RAHAMAN AND UDDIN

A hirsute perennial with procumbent stems. F1. & Fr.: Throughout the year.
Source of medicine.
Vernonia cinerea ( L.) Lees. Conyza cinerea L., Vernonia patula ( Dry.) Merr.
An erect annual herb. F1. &Fr.: Throughout the year .
Souce of medicine .
References
Cronquist , A. 1968.An integrated system of classification of flowering plants . Columbia Univ.
Press, New York.
Heinig, R.L.1925. List of plants of Chittagong Collectorate and Hill Tracts. Darjeeling.
Hooker, J.D. ( 1872 – 1892) , Flora of British India. Vol. 1 – 7 . Reeve & Co., Kent , England .
Khan, M.S. 1985. Convolvulaceae. In Khan, M. S. (ed.) : Flora of Bangladesh . 30: 1- 59.
Bangladesh National Herbarium , BARC complex , Farmagate , Dhaka , Bangladesh.
Khan, M. S.1991a. The vegetation of Bangladesh . In: S.I.Ali & Ghaffar, A . ( eds.) Plant life of
South Asia, pp. 185- 192.
Khan, M.S. 1991b. Angiosperms . In : Islam , A K.M. N. ( ed.). Two Centuries of Botanical
Studies in Bangladesh and neighbouring regions. Asiatic Soc. of Bangladesh pp. 175-
194.
Rahman, M. A. 1991. Periplocaceae. In : Khan, M.S. and Rahman, M. M. ( eds.) Flora of
Bangladesh , 47 : 1 – 16 Bangladesh National Herbarium, BARC complex, Farmgate,
Dhaka.
Rahman, M. A. and Wilcock, C. C. 1995 . Asclepiadaceae. In : Khan , M. S. and Rahman, M. M.
( eds) Flora of Bangladesh , 48 : 1 – 71 Bangladesh National Herbarium , BARC complex,
Farmgate, Dhaka, Bangladesh.