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Jane Austen

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Jane Austen (/ˈdʒeɪn ˈɒstɪn/; 16 December 1775 – 18 July

1817) was an English novelist known primarily for her six Jane Austen
major novels, which interpret, critique and comment upon
the British landed gentry at the end of the 18th century.
Austen's plots often explore the dependence of women on
marriage in the pursuit of favourable social standing and
economic security. Her works critique the novels of
sensibility of the second half of the 18th century and are part
of the transition to 19th-century literary realism.[2][b]

With the publications of Sense and Sensibility (1811), Pride

and Prejudice (1813), Mansfield Park (1814) and Emma
(1815), she achieved success as a published writer. She wrote
two additional novels, Northanger Abbey and Persuasion,
both published posthumously in 1818, and began another,
eventually titled Sanditon, but died before its completion.
Portrait of Austen (c. 1810) by her sister,
Her novels have rarely been out of print, although they were
published anonymously and brought her little fame during Cassandra[a]
her lifetime. Born 16 December 1775
Steventon Rectory, Hampshire,
A significant transition in her posthumous reputation England
occurred in 1833, when her novels were republished in Died 18 July 1817 (aged 41)
Richard Bentley's Standard Novels series, illustrated by
Winchester, Hampshire, England
Ferdinand Pickering, and sold as a set.[4] They gradually
Resting Winchester Cathedral, Hampshire,
gained wider acclaim and popular readership. In 1869, fifty- place
two years after her death, her nephew's publication of A England
Memoir of Jane Austen introduced a compelling version of Period 1787 to 1809–11
her writing career and supposedly uneventful life to an eager Relatives James Austen (brother)
audience. George Austen (brother)
Edward Austen Knight
Austen has inspired a large number of critical essays and (brother)
literary anthologies. Her novels have inspired many films, Henry Thomas Austen
from 1940's Pride and Prejudice to more recent productions (brother)
like Sense and Sensibility (1995) and Love & Friendship Cassandra Austen (sister)
(2016). Sir Francis Austen (brother)
Charles Austen (brother)
Jane Austen's use of biting irony, along with her realism and
Eliza de Feuillide (cousin)
social commentary have earned her great and historical
importance to critics and scholars.

1 Biographical sources
2 Life
2.1 Family
2.2 Steventon
2.3 Education
2.4 Juvenilia (1787–1793)
2.5 Tom Lefroy
2.6 Early manuscripts (1796–1798)
2.7 Bath and Southampton
2.8 Chawton
3 Published author
3.1 Illness and death
4 Posthumous publication
5 Genre and style
6 Reception
6.1 Contemporaneous responses
6.2 19th century
6.3 Modern
6.4 Adaptations
7 List of works
8 Family trees
9 See also
10 References
10.1 Notes
10.2 Citations
10.3 Sources
11 Further reading
12 External links
12.1 Museums
12.2 Fan sites and societies

Biographical sources
There is little biographical information about Jane Austen's life except the
few letters that survive and the biographical notes her family members
wrote.[5] During her lifetime Austen wrote approximately 3,000 letters but
only about 160 survive.[6] Many of the letters were written to Austen's
older sister Cassandra, who in 1843 burned the greater part of them and cut
pieces out of those she kept. Ostensibly Cassandra destroyed or censored
her sister's letters to prevent their falling into the hands of relatives and
ensuring that "younger nieces did not read any of Jane Austen's sometimes
acid or forthright comments on neighbors or family members".[7][c]
Cassandra believed that in the interest of tact and Jane's penchant for
forthrightness, these details should be destroyed. The paucity of record of
Austen's life leaves modern biographers little to work with.[8]

The situation was compounded as successive generations of the family

Last page of letter from Austen to her
expunged and sanitized the already opaque details of Austen's biography.
sister, Cassandra, 11 June 1799
The heirs of Jane's brother, Admiral Francis Austen, destroyed more
letters; details were excised from the "Biographical Notice" her brother
wrote in 1818; and family details continued to be elided or embellished in
her nephew's A Memoir of Jane Austen, published in 1869, and in William and Richard Arthur Austen-Leigh's
biography Jane Austen: Her Life and Letters, published in 1913.[9] The legend the family and relatives created
reflects their biases in favour of "good quiet Aunt Jane", portraying a woman whose domestic situation was
happy and whose family was the mainstay of her life.[5] Austen scholar Jan Fergus explains that modern
biographies tend to include details excised from the letters and family biographical materials, but that the
challenge is to avoid the polarising view that Austen experienced periods of deep unhappiness and was "an
embittered, disappointed woman trapped in a thoroughly unpleasant family."[10]


Jane Austen was born in Steventon, Hampshire, on 16 December 1775. She was born a month later than her
parents expected; her father wrote of her arrival in a letter that her mother "certainly expected to have been
brought to bed a month ago". He added that her arrival was particularly welcome as "a future companion to her
sister".[11] The winter of 1776 was particularly harsh and it was not until 5 April that she was baptised at the
local church with the single name Jane.[12]

For much of Jane's life, her father, George Austen (1731–1805) served as the rector of the Anglican parishes at
Steventon, and a nearby Deane.[13][d] He came from an old, respected, and wealthy family of wool merchants.
Over the centuries as each generation of eldest sons received inheritances their wealth was consolidated, and
George's branch of the family fell into poverty. He and his two sisters were orphaned as children and had to be
taken in by relatives. His sister Philadelphia went to India to find a husband and George entered St John's
College, Oxford on a fellowship, where he most likely met Cassandra Leigh (1739–1827).[15] She came from
the prominent Leigh family; her father was rector at All Souls College, Oxford, where she grew up among the
gentry. Her eldest brother James inherited a fortune and large estate from his great-aunt Perrot, with the only
condition that he change his name to Leigh-Perrot.[16]

George and Cassandra exchanged miniatures in 1763 and

probably were engaged around that time.[18] George received the
living for the Steventon parish from the wealthy husband of his
second cousin, Thomas Knight, who owned Steventon and its
associated farms, one of which the Austen family rented to live
in.[19] Two months after Cassandra's father died they married on
26 April 1764 at St Swithin's Church in Bath, by licence, in a
simple ceremony. They left for Hampshire the same day.[20]

Steventon Church, as depicted inA Memoir of Their income was modest, with George's small per annum living;
Jane Austen,[17] Cassandra brought the expectation of a small inheritance at the
time of her mother's death to the marriage.[21] They took up
temporary residence at the nearby Deane rectory until Steventon,
a 16th century house in disrepair, underwent necessary renovations. Cassandra gave birth to three children
while living at Deane: James in 1765, George in 1766, and Edward in 1767.[22] Her custom was to keep an
infant at home for several months and then placed it with Elizabeth Littlewood, a woman living nearby to nurse
and raise for twelve to eighteen months.[23]


In 1768 the family finally took up residence in Steventon. Henry was the first child to born there, in 1771.[24]
At about this time Cassandra could no longer ignore that George was developmentally disabled. He was subject
to seizures, may have been deaf and dumb, and she chose to send him out to be fostered.[25] In 1773, Cassandra
was born, followed by Francis in 1774, and Jane in 1775.[26]

According to Honan, life in the Austen home was lived in "an open, amused, easy intellectual atmosphere"
where the ideas of those with whom the Austens might disagree politically or socially were considered and
discussed.[27] The family relied on the patronage of their kin and hosted visits from numerous family
members.[28] Cassandra Austen spent the summer of 1770 in London with George's sister, Philadelphia and her
daughter Eliza, accompanied by his other sister, Mrs Walter and her daughter Philly.[29][e] Philadelphia and
Eliza Hancock were, according to Le Faye, "the bright comets flashing into an otherwise placid solar system of
clerical life in rural Hampshire, and the news of their foreign travels and fashionable London life, together with
their sudden descents upon the Steventon household in between times, all helped to widen Jane's youthful
horizon and influence her later life and works."[30]
Cassandra Austen's cousin Thomas Leigh visited a number of times in
the 1770s and '80s, inviting young Cassie to visit them in Bath in 1781.
The first mention of Jane occurs in family documents on her return,
"... and almost home they were when they met Jane & Charles, the two
little ones of the family, who had to go as far as New Down to meet the
chaise, & have the pleasure of riding home in it."[31] Le Faye writes
that, "Mr Austen's predictions for his younger daughter were fully
justified. Never were sisters more to each other than Cassandra and
Jane; while in a particularly affectionate family there seems to have Steventon rectory, as depicted in A
been a special link between Cassandra and Edward on the one hand, Memoir of Jane Austen, was in a valley
and between Henry and Jane on the other."[32] and surrounded by meadows.[17]

From 1773 until 1796, George Austen supplemented this income by

farming and by teaching three or four boys at a time, who boarded at his home.[33]


In 1783 Jane and Cassandra were sent to Oxford to be educated by Mrs

Ann Cawley who took them with her to Southampton when she moved
there later in the year. In the autumn both girls were sent home when
they caught typhus and Jane nearly died.[34] Austen was from then
home educated, until she attended boarding school in Reading with her
sister from early in 1785 at the Abbey School House, ruled by Mrs La
Tournelle, who possessed a cork leg and a passion for theatre.[35] The
school curriculum probably included some French, spelling,
needlework, dancing and music and, perhaps, drama. The sisters
returned home before December 1786 because the school fees for the
two girls were too high for the Austens family.[36] After 1786, Austen
"never again lived anywhere beyond the bounds of her immediate
family environment".[37]

The remainder of her education came from reading, guided by her

father and brothers James and Henry.[38] Irene Collins believes that
Austen "used some of the same school books as the boys" her father Silhouette of Cassandra Austen, Jane's
tutored.[39] Austen apparently had unfettered access both to her father's sister and closest friend
library and that of a family friend, Warren Hastings. Together these
collections amounted to a large and varied library. Her father was also
tolerant of Austen's sometimes risqué experiments in writing, and provided both sisters with expensive paper
and other materials for their writing and drawing.[40]

Private theatricals were an essential part of Austen's education. From her early childhood, the family and
friends staged a series of plays in the rectory barn, including Richard Sheridan's The Rivals (1775) and David
Garrick's Bon Ton. Jane's eldest brother James wrote the prologues and epilogues and Jane probably joined in
these activities, first as a spectator and later as a participant.[41] Most of the plays were comedies, which
suggests how Austen's satirical gifts were cultivated.[42] At the age of 12, Jane tried her own hand at dramatic
writing; she wrote three short plays during her teenage years.[43]

Juvenilia (1787–1793)

Beginning at age 11, perhaps earlier, Austen wrote poems and stories for her own and her family's
amusement.[44] In these works the details of daily life are exaggerated, common plot devices are parodied, and
the "stories are full of anarchic fantasies of female power, licence, illicit behaviour, and general high spirits",
according to Janet Todd.[45] Austen later compiled "fair copies" of 29 early works into three bound notebooks,
now referred to as the Juvenilia, containing work written between 1787 and 1793. She titled the three
notebooks – Volume the First, Volume the Second and Volume the Third – which preserve 90,000 words she
wrote during those years.[46] The Juvenilia are often, according to scholar Richard Jenkyns, "boisterous" and
"anarchic"; he compares them to the work of 18th-century novelist Laurence Sterne.[47]

Among these works are a satirical novel in letters titled Love and
Freindship [sic], written at age 14 in 1790,[48] where she mocked
popular novels of sensibility,[49] and The History of England, a
manuscript of 34 pages accompanied by 13 watercolour miniatures by
her sister, Cassandra. Austen's History parodied popular historical
writing, particularly Oliver Goldsmith's History of England (1764).[50]
Honan speculates that not long after writing Love and Freindship [sic]
in 1789, Austen decided to "write for profit, to make stories her central
effort", that is, to become a professional writer. Whenever she made
that decision, beginning in about 1793, Austen began to write longer,
more sophisticated works.[51]

In August 1792 she started Catharine or the Bower, which presaged her
mature work, especially Northanger Abbey; it was left unfinished and
the story picked up in Lady Susan, which Todd describes as less Portrait of Henry IV. Declaredly written
by "a partial, prejudiced, & ignorant
prefiguring than Catharine.[52] A year later, she began but abandoned a
Historian", The History of Englandwas
short play, later titled Sir Charles Grandison or the happy Man, a
illustrated by Austen's sister, Cassandra
comedy in 6 acts, which she returned to and completed around 1800.
(c. 1790).
This was a short parody of various school textbook abridgments of
Austen's favourite contemporary novel, The History of Sir Charles
Grandison (1753), by Samuel Richardson.[53]

Between 1793 and 1795 Austen wrote Lady Susan, a short epistolary novel, usually described as her most
ambitious and sophisticated early work.[54] It is unlike any of Austen's other works. Austen biographer Claire
Tomalin describes the novella's heroine as a sexual predator who uses her intelligence and charm to manipulate,
betray and abuse her lovers, friends and family. Tomalin writes:

Told in letters, it is as neatly plotted as a play, and as cynical in tone as any of the most outrageous
of the Restoration dramatists who may have provided some of her inspiration ... It stands alone in
Austen's work as a study of an adult woman whose intelligence and force of character are greater
than those of anyone she encounters.[55]

According to Janet Todd, the model for the title character may have been Eliza de Feuillide, who inspired
Austen with stories of her glamorous life and various adventures. Eliza's French husband was guillotined in
1794; she married Jane's brother Henry Austen in 1797.[28]

Austen sent short pieces of writing to her newborn nieces Fanny Catherine and Jane Anna Elizabeth.[56] There
is manuscript evidence that Austen continued to work on these pieces as late as 1809–1811, and that her niece
and nephew, Anna and James Edward Austen, made further additions as late as 1814.[57]

She also attended church regularly, socialized frequently with friends and neighbours,[f] and read novels – often
of her own composition – aloud with her family in the evenings. Socialising with the neighbours often meant
dancing, either impromptu in someone's home after supper or at the balls held regularly at the assembly rooms
in the town hall.[58] Her brother Henry later said that "Jane was fond of dancing, and excelled in it".[59]

Tom Lefroy
When Austen was twenty, Tom Lefroy, a neighbour, visited Steventon from December 1795 to January 1796.
He had just finished a university degree and was moving to London for training as a barrister. Lefroy and
Austen would have been introduced at a ball or other neighbourhood social gathering, and it is clear from
Austen's letters to Cassandra that they spent considerable time together: "I am almost afraid to tell you how my
Irish friend and I behaved. Imagine to yourself everything most profligate and shocking in the way of dancing
and sitting down together."[60]

Austen wrote in her first surviving letter to her sister Cassandra that
Lefroy was "very gentlemanlike, good-looking, pleasant young
man".[62] She called him her "friend" and explained that on this account
Cassandra must be anxious to know more about her new "friend". Five
days later in another letter, Austen wrote she expected an "offer" from
her "friend" and that "I shall refuse him, however, unless he promises to
give away his white coat", going on to write "I will confide myself in
the future to Mr Tom Lefroy, for whom I don't give a sixpence" and
refuse all others.[62] The next day, Austen wrote: "The day will come on
which I flirt my last with Tom Lefroy and when you receive this it will
be all over. My tears flow as I write at this melancholy idea".[62]

Halperin cautioned that Austen often satirised popular sentimental

Thomas Langlois Lefroy, Lord Chief
romantic fiction in her letters, and some of the statements about Lefroy
Justice of Ireland, by W. H. Mote (1855);
in old age, Lefroy admitted that he hadmay have been ironic. However, it is clear that Austen was genuinely
attracted to Lefroy and subsequently none of her other suitors ever quite
been in love with Austen: "It was boyish
love."[61] measured up to him.[62] The Lefroy family intervened and sent him
away at the end of January. Marriage was impractical, as both Lefroy
and Austen must have known. Neither had any money, and he was
dependent on a great-uncle in Ireland to finance his education and establish his legal career. If Tom Lefroy later
visited Hampshire, he was carefully kept away from the Austens, and Jane Austen never saw him again.[63] In
November 1798, Lefroy was still on Austen's mind as she wrote to her sister she had tea with one of his
relatives, wanted desperately to ask about him, but could not bring herself to raise the subject.[64]

Early manuscripts (1796–1798)

After finishing Lady Susan, Austen began her first full-length novel Elinor and Marianne. Her sister
remembered that it was read to the family "before 1796" and was told through a series of letters. Without
surviving original manuscripts, there is no way to know how much of the original draft survived in the novel
published anonymously in 1811 as Sense and Sensibility.[65]

Austen began a second novel, First Impressions, in 1796. She completed the initial draft in August 1797, aged
21, (later published as Pride and Prejudice); as with all of her novels, Austen read the work aloud to her family
as she was working on it and it became an "established favourite".[66] At this time, her father made the first
attempt to publish one of her novels. In November 1797, George Austen wrote to Thomas Cadell, an
established publisher in London, to ask if he would consider publishing First Impressions. Cadell returned Mr.
Austen's letter, marking it "Declined by Return of Post". Austen may not have known of her father's efforts.[67]
Following the completion of First Impressions, Austen returned to Elinor and Marianne and from November
1797 until mid-1798, revised it heavily; she eliminated the epistolary format in favour of third-person narration
and produced something close to Sense and Sensibility.[68] In 1797, Austen met her cousin (and future sister-in-
law), Eliza de Feullide, a French aristocrat whose first husband the Comte de Feullide had been guillotined,
causing her to flee to Britain, where she married Henry Austen.[69] The description of the execution of the
Comte de Feullide related by his widow left Austen with an intense horror of the French Revolution that lasted
for the rest of her life.[69]
During the middle of 1798, after finishing revisions of Elinor and Marianne, Austen began writing a third
novel with the working title Susan – later Northanger Abbey – a satire on the popular Gothic novel.[70] Austen
completed her work about a year later. In early 1803, Henry Austen offered Susan to Benjamin Crosby, a
London publisher, who paid £10 for the copyright. Crosby promised early publication and went so far as to
advertise the book publicly as being "in the press", but did nothing more.[71] The manuscript remained in
Crosby's hands, unpublished, until Austen repurchased the copyright from him in 1816.[72]

Bath and Southampton

In December 1800 George Austen unexpectedly

announced his decision to retire from the ministry,
leave Steventon, and move the family to 4, Sydney
Place in Bath.[73] While retirement and travel were
good for the elder Austens, Jane Austen was shocked
to be told she was moving from the only home she had
ever known.[74] An indication of her state of mind is
her lack of productivity as a writer during the time she
lived at Bath. She was able to make some revisions to
Susan, and she began and then abandoned a new
novel, The Watsons, but there was nothing like the
productivity of the years 1795–1799.[75] Tomalin
suggests this reflects a deep depression disabling her
as a writer, but Honan disagrees, arguing Austen wrote Royal Crescent in Bath, c. 1829
or revised her manuscripts throughout her creative life,
except for a few months after her father died.[76][g]

The years from 1801 to 1804 are something of a blank space for Austen scholars as Cassandra destroyed all of
her letters from her sister in this period for unknown reasons.[77] In December 1802 Austen received her only
known proposal of marriage. She and her sister visited Alethea and Catherine Bigg, old friends who lived near
Basingstoke. Their younger brother, Harris Bigg-Wither, had recently finished his education at Oxford and was
also at home. Bigg-Wither proposed and Austen accepted. As described by Caroline Austen, Jane's niece, and
Reginald Bigg-Wither, a descendant, Harris was not attractive – he was a large, plain-looking man who spoke
little, stuttered when he did speak, was aggressive in conversation, and almost completely tactless. However,
Austen had known him since both were young and the marriage offered many practical advantages to Austen
and her family. He was the heir to extensive family estates located in the area where the sisters had grown up.
With these resources, Austen could provide her parents a comfortable old age, give Cassandra a permanent
home and, perhaps, assist her brothers in their careers. By the next morning, Austen realised she had made a
mistake and withdrew her acceptance.[78] No contemporary letters or diaries describe how Austen felt about
this proposal.[79] In 1814, Austen wrote a letter to her niece, Fanny Knight, who had asked for advice about a
serious relationship, telling her that "having written so much on one side of the question, I shall now turn
around & entreat you not to commit yourself farther, & not to think of accepting him unless you really do like
him. Anything is to be preferred or endured rather than marrying without Affection".[80] The English scholar
Douglas Bush wrote that Austen had "had a very high ideal of the love that should unite a husband and wife ...
All of her heroines ... know in proportion to their maturity, the meaning of ardent love".[81] A possible
autobiographical element in Sense and Sensibility occurs when Elinor Dashwood contemplates that "the worse
and most irremediable of all evils, a connection for life" with an unsuitable man.[81]

In 1804, while living in Bath, Austen started but did not complete her novel, The Watsons. The story centres on
an invalid and impoverished clergyman and his four unmarried daughters. Sutherland describes the novel as "a
study in the harsh economic realities of dependent women's lives".[83] Honan suggests, and Tomalin agrees,
that Austen chose to stop work on the novel after her father died on 21 January 1805 and her personal
circumstances resembled those of her characters too closely for her comfort.[84]
Her father's relatively sudden death left Jane, Cassandra, and their
mother in a precarious financial situation. Edward, James, Henry, and
Francis Austen pledged to make annual contributions to support their
mother and sisters.[85] For the next four years, the family's living
arrangements reflected their financial insecurity. They spent part of the
time in rented quarters in Bath before leaving the city in June 1805 for a
family visit to Steventon and Godmersham. They moved for the autumn
months to the newly fashionable seaside resort of Worthing, on the
Sussex coast, where they resided at Stanford Cottage.[h] It was here that
Austen is thought to have written her fair copy of Lady Susan and
added its "Conclusion". In 1806 the family moved to Southampton,
where they shared a house with Frank Austen and his new wife. A large
part of this time they spent visiting various branches of the family.[86]

On 5 April 1809, about three months before the family's move to

Chawton, Austen wrote an angry letter to Richard Crosby, offering him
Watercolour of Jane Austen by her sister, a new manuscript of Susan if needed to secure the immediate
Cassandra, 1804.[82] publication of the novel, and requesting the return of the original so she
could find another publisher. Crosby replied that he had not agreed to
publish the book by any particular time, or at all, and that Austen could
repurchase the manuscript for the £10 he had paid her and find another publisher. She did not have the
resources to buy the copyright back at that time,[87] but was able to purchase it in 1816.[88]


Around early 1809 Austen's brother Edward offered his

mother and sisters a more settled life – the use of a large
cottage in Chawton village[i] that was part of Edward's
nearby estate, Chawton House. Jane, Cassandra and their
mother moved into Chawton cottage on 7 July 1809.[90]
Life was quieter in Chawton than it had been since the
family's move to Bath in 1800. The Austens did not
socialise with gentry and entertained only when family
visited. Her niece Anna described the family's life in
Chawton as "a very quiet life, according to our ideas, but
they were great readers, and besides the housekeeping our
The cottage in Chawton where Austen lived during the
aunts occupied themselves in working with the poor and in
last eight years of her life, nowJane Austen's House
teaching some girl or boy to read or write."[91] Museum

Published author
During her time at Chawton, Jane Austen published four generally well received novels. Through her brother
Henry, the publisher Thomas Egerton agreed to publish Sense and Sensibility,[j] which appeared in October
1811. Reviews were favourable and the novel became fashionable among young aristocratic opinion-
makers;[93] the edition sold out by mid-1813.[k] Austen's earnings from Sense and Sensibility provided her with
some financial and psychological independence.[95] Egerton then published Pride and Prejudice, a revision of
First Impressions, in January 1813. He advertised the book widely and it was an immediate success, garnering
three favourable reviews and selling well. By October 1813 Egerton was able to begin selling a second
edition.[96] Mansfield Park was published by Egerton in May 1814. While Mansfield Park was ignored by
reviewers, it was very popular with readers. All copies were sold within six months, and Austen's earnings on
this novel were larger than for any of her other novels.[97] Unknown to Austen, her novels were translated into
French and published in cheaply produced, pirated editions in France.[98] The literary critic Noel King
commented that given the prevailing rage in France at the time was for lush romantic fantasies, it is remarkable
that her novels with the emphasis on everyday English life had any sort of a
market in France.[99] However, King cautioned that Austen's chief translator
in France, Madame Isabelle de Montolieu, had only the most rudimentary
knowledge of English, and her translations were more of "imitations" than
translations proper, as Montolieu depended upon assistants to provide a
summary, which she then translated into an embellished French that often
radically altered Austen's plots and characters.[100] The first of the Austen
novels to be published that credited her as the author was in France, when
Persuasion was published in 1821 as La Famille Elliot ou L'Ancienne

Austen learned that the Prince Regent admired her novels and kept a set at
each of his residences.[l] In November 1815, the Prince Regent's librarian
James Stanier Clarke invited Austen to visit the Prince's London residence
and hinted Austen should dedicate the forthcoming Emma to the Prince.
Though Austen disliked the Prince Regent, she could scarcely refuse the
request.[103] Austen disapproved of the Prince Regent on the account of his
First edition title page fromSense womanising, gambling, drinking, spendthrift ways and generally
and Sensibility, Austen's first disreputable behaviour.[104] She later wrote Plan of a Novel, according to
published novel (1811) hints from various quarters, a satiric outline of the "perfect novel" based on
the librarian's many suggestions for a future Austen novel.[105] Austen was
greatly annoyed by Clarke's often pompous literary advice, and the Plan of
A Novel parodying Clarke was intended as her revenge for all of the unwanted letters she had received from the
royal librarian.[104]

In mid-1815 Austen moved her work from Egerton to John Murray, a better known London publisher,[m] who
published Emma in December 1815 and a second edition of Mansfield Park in February 1816. Emma sold well
but the new edition of Mansfield Park did poorly, and this failure offset most of the income from Emma. These
were the last of Austen's novels to be published during her lifetime.[107]

While Murray prepared Emma for publication, Austen began The Elliots, later published as Persuasion. She
completed her first draft in July 1816. In addition, shortly after the publication of Emma, Henry Austen
repurchased the copyright for Susan from Crosby. Austen was forced to postpone publishing either of these
completed novels by family financial troubles. Henry Austen's bank failed in March 1816, depriving him of all
of his assets, leaving him deeply in debt and losing Edward, James, and Frank Austen large sums. Henry and
Frank could no longer afford the contributions they had made to support their mother and sisters.[108]

Illness and death

Austen was feeling unwell by early 1816, but ignored the warning signs. By the middle of that year, her decline
was unmistakable, and she began a slow, irregular deterioration.[109] The majority of biographers rely on Dr.
Vincent Cope's 1964 retrospective diagnosis and list her cause of death as Addison's disease, although her final
illness has also been described as resulting from Hodgkin's lymphoma.[110][n] When her uncle died and left his
entire fortune to his wife, effectively disinheriting his relatives, she suffered a relapse, writing, "I am ashamed
to say that the shock of my Uncle's Will brought on a relapse ... but a weak Body must excuse weak

She continued to work in spite of her illness. Dissatisfied with the ending of The Elliots, she rewrote the final
two chapters, which she finished on 6 August 1816.[o] In January 1817 Austen began The Brothers (titled
Sanditon when published in 1925), and completed twelve chapters before stopping work in mid-March 1817,
probably due to illness.[114] Todd describes Sanditon's heroine, Diana Parker, as an "energetic invalid". In the
novel, Austen mocked hypochondriacs and though she describes the heroine as "bilious", five days after
abandoning the novel she wrote of herself that she was turning "every wrong colour" and living "chiefly on the
sofa".[112] She put down her pen on 18 March 1817, making a note of it.[112]
Austen made light of her condition, describing it as "bile" and rheumatism.
As her illness progressed, she experienced difficulty walking and lacked
energy; by mid-April she was confined to bed. In May Cassandra and Henry
brought her to Winchester for treatment, by which time she suffered
agonising pain and welcomed death.[112] Austen died in Winchester on 18
July 1817, at the age of 41. Henry, through his clerical connections, arranged
for his sister to be buried in the north aisle of the nave of Winchester
Cathedral. The epitaph composed by her brother James praises Austen's
personal qualities, expresses hope for her salvation and mentions the
"extraordinary endowments of her mind", but does not explicitly mention
her achievements as a writer.[115]

Posthumous publication
After Austen's death, Cassandra, Henry Austen and Murray arranged for the
publication of Persuasion and Northanger Abbey as a set.[p] Henry Austen House in Winchester in which
contributed a Biographical Note which for the first time identified his sister Austen lived her last days and died
as the author of the novels. Tomalin describes it as "a loving and polished
eulogy".[117] Sales were good for a year – only 321 copies remained unsold
at the end of 1818.[118]

In 1832 Richard Bentley purchased the remaining copyrights to all of her novels, and over the following winter
published five illustrated volumes as part of his Standard Novels series. In October 1833, Bentley released the
first collected edition of her works. Since then, Austen's novels have been continuously in print.[119]

Genre and style

Austen's works critique the sentimental novels of the second half of the 18th century and are part of the
transition to 19th-century literary realism.[120][q] The earliest English novelists, Richardson, Henry Fielding
and Tobias Smollett, were followed by the school of sentimentalists and romantics such as Walter Scott, Horace
Walpole, Clara Reeve, Ann Radcliffe, Laurence Sterne and Oliver Goldsmith, whose style and genre Austen
rejected, returning the novel on a "slender thread" to the tradition of Richardson and Fielding for a "realistic
study of manners".[121] In the mid-20 century, literary critics F. R. Leavis and Ian Watt placed her in the
tradition of Richardson and Fielding; both believe that she used their tradition of "irony, realism and satire to
form an author superior to both".[122]

Walter Scott noted Austen's "resistance to the trashy sensationalism of much of modern fiction – 'the ephemeral
productions which supply the regular demand of watering places and circulating libraries'".[123] Yet her
rejection of these genres is complex, as evidenced by Northanger Abbey and Emma.[123] Similar to William
Wordsworth, who excoriated the modern frantic novel in the "Preface" to his Lyrical Ballads (1800), Austen
distances herself from escapist novels; the discipline and innovation she demonstrates is similar to his, and she
shows "that rhetorically less is artistically more."[123] She eschewed popular Gothic fiction, stories of terror in
which a heroine typically was stranded in a remote location, a castle or abbey (32 novels between 1784 and
1818 contain the word "abbey" in their title). Yet in Northanger Abbey she alludes to the trope, with the
heroine, Catherine, anticipating a move to a remote locale. Rather than full-scale rejection or parody, Austen
transforms the genre, juxtaposing reality, with descriptions of elegant rooms and modern comforts, against the
heroine's "novel-fueled" desires.[124] Nor does she completely denigrate Gothic fiction: instead she transforms
settings and situations, such that the heroine is still imprisoned, yet her imprisonment is mundane and real –
regulated manners and the strict rules of the ballroom.[125] In Sense and Sensibility Austen presents characters
who are more complex than in staple sentimental fiction, according to critic Keymer, who notes that although it
is a parody of popular sentimental fiction, "Marianne in her sentimental histrionics responds to the calculating
world ... with a quite justifiable scream of female distress."[126]
Richardson's Pamela, the prototype for the sentimental novel,
The hair was curled, and the maid sent
is a didactic love story with a happy ending, written at a time
away, and Emma sat down to think and be
women were beginning to have the right to choose husbands miserable. It was a wretched business,
and yet were restricted by social conventions.[128] Austen indeed! Such an overthrow of everything
attempted Richardson's epistolary style, but found the she had been wishing for! Such a
flexibility of narrative more conducive to her realism, a realism development of every thing most
in which each conversation and gesture carries a weight of unwelcome!
significance. The narrative style utilises free indirect speech – – example of free indirect speech, Jane
she was the first English novelist to do so extensively – through Austen, Emma[127]
which she had the ability to present a character's thoughts
directly to the reader and yet still retain narrative control. The
style allows an author to vary discourse between the narrator's voice and values and those of the characters.[129]

Austen had a natural ear for speech and dialogue, according to scholar Mary Lascelles "Few novelists can be
more scrupulous than Jane Austen as to the phrasing and thoughts of their characters."[130] Techniques such as
fragmentary speech suggest a character's traits and their tone; "syntax and phrasing rather than vocabulary" is
utilised to indicate social variants.[131] Dialogue reveals a character's mood – frustration, anger, happiness –
each treated differently and often through varying patterns of sentence structures. When Elizabeth Bennett
rejects Darcy, her stilted speech and the convoluted sentence structure reveals that he has wounded her:[132]

From the very beginning, from the first moment I may almost say, of my acquaintance with you,
your manners impressing me with the fullest belief of your arrogance, your conceit, and your
selfish disdain of the feelings of others, were such as to form that the groundwork of
disapprobation, on which succeeding events have built so immovable a dislike. And I had not
known you a month before I felt that you were the last man in the world whom I could ever be
prevailed on to marry.[133]

Austen's plots highlight women's traditional dependence on marriage to secure social standing and economic
security.[134] As an art form, the 18th-century novel lacked the seriousness of its equivalents from the 19th
century, when novels were treated as "the natural vehicle for discussion and ventilation of what mattered in
life".[135] Rather than delving too deeply into the psyche of her characters, Austen enjoys them and imbues
them with humour, according to critic John Bayley. He believes that the well-spring of her wit and irony is her
own attitude that comedy "is the saving grace of life".[136] Part of Austen's fame rests on the historical and
literary significance that she was the first woman to write great comic novels. Samuel Johnson's influence is
evident, in that she follows his advice to write "a representation of life as may excite mirth".[137]

Her humour comes from her modesty and lack of superiority, allowing her most successful characters, such as
Elizabeth Bennet, to transcend the trivialities of life, which the more foolish characters are overly absorbed
in.[136] Austen used comedy to explore the individualism of women's lives and gender relations, and she
appears to have used it to find the goodness in life, often fusing it with "ethical sensibility", creating artistic
tension. Critic Robert Polhemus writes, "To appreciate the drama and achievement of Austen, we need to
realize how deep was her passion for both reverence and ridicule ... and her comic imagination reveals both the
harmonies and the telling contradictions of her mind and vision as she tries to reconcile her satirical bias with
her sense of the good."[137]

Contemporaneous r esponses

As Austen's works were published anonymously, they brought her little personal renown. They were
fashionable among opinion-makers, but were rarely reviewed.[93] Most of the reviews were short and on
balance favourable, although superficial and cautious.[138][139] They most often focused on the moral lessons
of the novels.[140] Sir Walter Scott, a leading novelist of the day,
of the novels.[140] Sir Walter Scott, a leading novelist of the day,
contributed one anonymously. Using the review as a platform to
defend the then-disreputable genre of the novel, he praised
Austen's realism.[141] The other important early review was
attributed to Richard Whately in 1821. However, Whately denied
having authored the review, which drew favourable comparisons
between Austen and such acknowledged greats as Homer and In 1816 the editors of The New Monthly
Shakespeare, and praised the dramatic qualities of her narrative. Magazine noted Emma's publication but chose
Scott and Whately set the tone for almost all subsequent 19th- not to review it.[K]
century Austen criticism.[142]

19th century

Because Austen's novels did not to conform to Romantic and Victorian

expectations that "powerful emotion [be] authenticated by an egregious
display of sound and colour in the writing",[144] 19th-century critics and
audiences preferred the works of Charles Dickens and George Eliot.[145] In a
rare sympathetic review, in this case of Emma in 1815, Sir Walter Scott wrote
that book displayed "the art of copying from nature as she really exists in the
common walks of life, and presenting to the reader, instead of the splendid
scenes from an imaginary world, a correct and striking representation of that
which is daily taking place around him".[146] Though Scott was positive,
Austen's work did not match the prevailing aesthetic values of the Romantic
zeitgeist.[146] Her novels were republished in Britain from the 1830s and sold
at a steady rate, but they were not bestsellers.[147] The first French critic who
paid notice to Austen was Philarète Chasles who completely dismissed her as
a writer, giving her two sentences in an 1842 essay on the influence of Sir
Walter Scott, calling her a boring, imitative writer who wrote nothing of
substance.[148] Apart from Chasles, Austen was almost completely ignored in
One of the first two published France until 1878.[148]
illustrations of Pride and
Prejudice, from the Richard Austen had many admiring readers in the 19th century who considered
Bentley edition.[143] Caption themselves part of a literary elite. Philosopher and literary critic George
reads: "She then told him [Mr Henry Lewes expressed this viewpoint in a series of enthusiastic articles
Bennett] what Mr Darcy had published in the 1840s and 1850s.[149] This theme continued later in the
voluntarily done for Lydia. He century with novelist Henry James, who referred to Austen several times with
heard her with astonishment." approval and on one occasion ranked her with Shakespeare, Cervantes, and
Henry Fielding as among "the fine painters of life".[150]

The publication of James Edward Austen-Leigh's A Memoir of Jane Austen in 1869 introduced Austen to a
wider public as "dear aunt Jane", the respectable maiden aunt. Publication of the Memoir spurred the reissue of
Austen's novels – the first popular editions were released in 1883 and fancy illustrated editions and collectors'
sets quickly followed.[151] Author and critic Leslie Stephen described the popular mania that started to develop
for Austen in the 1880s as "Austenolatry". In 1878, the French critic Léon Boucher published the essay Le
Roman Classique en Angleterre, where he called Austen a "genius", which was the first time that epithet had
been used in France to describe Austen.[152] The first proper translation of Austen into French that was
completely faithful to the original occurred in 1899 when Félix Fénéon translated Northanger Abbey into
French as Catherine Moreland.[152] Around the start of the 20th century, members of the literary elite reacted
against the popularisation of Austen. They referred to themselves as Janeites in order to distinguish themselves
from the masses who did not properly understand her works. For example, Henry James responded negatively
to what he described as "a beguiled infatuation" with Austen, a rising tide of public interest that exceeded
Austen's "intrinsic merit and interest".[153] The American literary critic A. Walton Litz noted that the "anti-
Janites" in the 19th and 20th centuries comprise a formidable literary squad of Mark Twain, Henry James,
Charlotte Bronte, D.H. Lawrence and Kingsley Amis, but in "every case the adverse judgement merely reveals
the special limitations or eccentricities of the critic, leaving Jane Austen relativity untouched".[154]


Several of Austen's works have been subject to

academic study. The first dissertation on Austen was
published in 1883, by George Pellew, a student at
Harvard University. [155] The first examination came
from a 1911 essay by Oxford Shakespearean scholar
A. C. Bradley.[156] In his essay, Bradley groups of
Austen's novels into "early" and "late" works, a
distinction still used by scholars today.[157] The first
academic books devoted to Austen in France was Jane
Austen by Paul and Kate Rague published in 1914,
where the Ragues set out to explain why French critics
and readers should take Austen seriously.[152] The
same year, Léonie Villard published Jane Austen, Sa
Vie et Ses Oeuvres, which was originally her PhD
thesis, marking the first time that Austen had Winchester Cathedral, where Austen is buried, and her
subjected to a serious academic study in France.[152] memorial gravestone in the nave of the Cathedral
The second examination in English was R. W.
Chapman's 1923 edition of Austen's collected works.
Not only was it the first scholarly edition of Austen's works, it was also the first scholarly edition of any
English novelist. The Chapman text has remained the basis for all subsequent published editions of Austen's

With the publication in 1939 of Mary Lascelles's Jane Austen and Her Art, the academic study of Austen took
hold.[159] Lascelles's innovative work included an analysis of the books Austen read and the effect of her
reading on her work, an extended analysis of Austen's style, and her "narrative art". Concern arose that
academics were taking over Austen criticism and that it was becoming increasingly esoteric, a debate that has
continued since.[160]

The period since World War II has seen more scholarship on Austen using a diversity of critical approaches,
including feminist theory, and perhaps most controversially, postcolonial theory. The continuing disconnection
between the popular appreciation of Austen, particularly by modern Janeites, and the academic appreciation of
Austen has widened considerably.[161] After the founding of the People's Republic of China in 1949, Austen
was in disfavor with the authorities who only wanted Western authors to be published in translation whose
work could be presented as representing the West in a negative light, and Austen was regarded as too
"frivolous" for this purpose.[162] As hostile as the treatment of Austen was in the 1950s, it paled besides the
treatment of her books during the "Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution" in China between 1966–69, when
Austen was banned as a "British bourgeois imperialist" author.[163] In the late 1970s, Austen was allowed to be
published in China, where her popularity with readers confounded the authorities who had trouble
understanding that people sometimes want to read books for enjoyment instead of dialectical purposes.[164] A
sign of the way that Austen can still spark debate can be seen when the American English professor Gene
Koppel mentioned in a lecture that Austen and her family were "Tories of the deepest dye" [the Tories were the
conservative party while the Whigs were the liberal party], a statement which greatly upset many of Koppel's
liberal students, who much to his amusement, complained to him how was it possible that Austen was a
conservative?.[165] The conservative Koppel noted several feminist authors such as Claudia Johnson and Mollie
Sandock were claiming Austen for their own cause.[165] Citing the work of Hans-Georg Gadamer, Koppel
argued that different people can and do react to the same work of literature in different ways as art is always a
subjective discipline as various people have their standards for evaluating literature.[165] As such, Koppel
argued that competing interpretations of Austen's work, provided that they are grounded in readings of her
work are all equally valid, and so it is equally possible to see Austen as a feminist critiquing Regency society
and as a conservative upholding the values of Regency society.[165]


Austen's novels have resulted in sequels, prequels and adaptations of almost every type, from soft-core
pornography to fantasy. From the 19th century, her family members published conclusions to her incomplete
novels, and by 2000 there were over 100 printed adaptations.[166] The first dramatic adaptation of Austen was
published in 1895, Rosina Filippi's Duologues and Scenes from the Novels of Jane Austen: Arranged and
Adapted for Drawing-Room Performance, and Filippi was also responsible for the first professional stage
adaptation, The Bennets (1901). [167] The first film adaptation was the 1940 MGM production of Pride and
Prejudice starring Laurence Olivier and Greer Garson.[168] BBC television dramatisations since the 1970s have
attempted to adhere meticulously to Austen's plots, characterisations and settings.[169] The British critic Robert
Irvine noted that in American film adaptations of Austen's novels, starting with the 1940 version of Pride and
Prejudice and continuing on to today, class is subtly downplayed as the United States is officially an egalitarian
nation where all people are equal and the society of Regency England depicted by Austen that is grounded in a
hierarchy based upon the ownership of land and the antiquity of the family name is one that Americans cannot
embrace in its entirety.[170]

From 1995 a large number of Austen adaptations began to appear, with Ang Lee's film of Sense and Sensibility,
for which screenwriter and star Emma Thompson won an Academy Award, and the BBC's immensely popular
TV mini-series Pride and Prejudice, starring Jennifer Ehle and Colin Firth.[171] A 2005 British production of
Pride and Prejudice, directed by Joe Wright and starring Keira Knightley and Matthew Macfadyen,[172] was
followed in 2007 by ITV's Mansfield Park, Northanger Abbey and Persuasion,[173] and in 2016 by Love &
Friendship, a film version of Lady Susan that borrowed the title of Austen's Love and Freindship [sic].[174]

On 19 July 2017 a new £10 banknote was officially issued by the Bank of England, at Winchester Cathedral,
but caused "outrage" that the portrait of Austen used on it had been "airbrushed".[175] The note features a quote
from the character Caroline Bingley in Pride and Prejudice: "I declare after all there is no enjoyment like
reading!"[176] Austen also appears as a 5mm picture on four current £5 notes, as engraved by microartist
Graham Short.[177]

List of works


Sense and Sensibility (1811)

Pride and Prejudice (1813)
Mansfield Park (1814)
Emma (1815)
Northanger Abbey (1818, posthumous)
Persuasion (1818, posthumous)
Lady Susan (1871, posthumous)

Unfinished fiction

The Watsons (1804)

Sanditon (1817)

Other works

Sir Charles Grandison (adapted play) (1793, 1800)[r]

Plan of a Novel (1815)
Poems (1796–1817)
Prayers (1796–1817)
Letters (1796–1817)

Juvenilia – Volume the First (1787–1793)[s]

Frederic & Elfrida

Jack & Alice
Edgar & Emma
Henry and Eliza
The Adventures of Mr. Harley
Sir William Mountague
Memoirs of Mr. Clifford
The Beautifull Cassandra
Amelia Webster
The Visit
The Mystery
The Three Sisters
A beautiful description
The generous Curate
Ode to Pity

Juvenilia – Volume the Second (1787–1793)

Love and Freindship

Lesley Castle
The History of England
A Collection of Letters
The female philosopher
The first Act of a Comedy
A Letter from a Young Lady
A Tour through Wales
A Tale

Juvenilia – Volume the Third (1787–1793)

Catherine, or The Bower

Family trees
Austen, her parents and her siblings

Her siblings, nieces and nephews

See also
Jane Austen's family and ancestry.


a. The original is unsigned but was believed by the family to have been made by Cassandra and remained in
the family with the one signed sketch by Cassandra until 1920. The original sketch, according to relatives
who knew Jane Austen well, was not a good likeness.[1]
b. Oliver MacDonagh says that Sense and Sensibility "may well be the first English realistic novel" based
on its detailed and accurate portrayal of what he calls "getting and spending" in an English gentry
c. Important details about the Austen family were almost certainly elided by intention, such as mention of
Austen's brother George, whose undiagnosed developmental challenges led the family to send him away
from home; the two brothers sent away to the navy at an early age; or mention of the sisters' wealthy
Aunt Leigh-Perrot, arrested and tried on charges of larceny.[8]
d. Irene Collins estimates that when George Austen took up his duties as rector in 1764, Steventon
comprised no more than about thirty families.[14]
e. Philadelphia had returned from India in 1765, taken up residence in London; when her husband returned
to India to replenish their income she stayed in England. He died in India in 1775, with Philadelphia
unaware until the news reached her a year later, fortuitously as George and Cassandra were visiting. See
Le Faye, 29–36
f. For social conventions among the gentry generally, see Collins (1994), 105
g. Doody agrees with Tomalin; see Doody, "Jane Austen, that disconcerting child", in Alexander and
McMaster 2005, 105.
h. Austen's observations of early Worthing probably helped inspire her final but unfinished novel, Sanditon,
the story of an up-and-coming seaside resort in Sussex.
i. Chawton had a population of 417 at the census of 1811.[89]
j. All of Jane Austen's novels except Pride and Prejudice were published "on commission", that is, at the
author's financial risk. When publishing on commission, publishers would advance the costs of
publication, repay themselves as books were sold and then charge a commission for each book sold,
paying the rest to the author. If a novel did not recover its costs through sales, the author was responsible
for them.[92]
k. Austen's novels were published in larger editions than was normal for this period. The small size of the
novel-reading public and the large costs associated with hand production (particularly the cost of
handmade paper) meant that most novels were published in editions of 500 copies or less to reduce the
risks to the publisher and the novelist. Even some of the most successful titles during this period were
issued in editions of not more than 750 or 800 copies and later reprinted if demand continued. Austen's
novels were published in larger editions, ranging from about 750 copies of Sense and Sensibility to about
2,000 copies of Emma. It is not clear whether the decision to print more copies than usual of Austen's
novels was driven by the publishers or the author. Since all but one of Austen's books were originally
published "on commission", the risks of overproduction were largely hers (or Cassandra's after her death)
and publishers may have been more willing to produce larger editions than was normal practice when
their own funds were at risk. Editions of popular works of non-fiction were often much larger.[94]
l. The Prince Regent's admiration was by no means reciprocated. In a letter of 16 February 1813 to her
friend Martha Lloyd, Austen says (referring to the Prince's wife, whom he treated notoriously badly) "I
hate her Husband".[102]
m. John Murray also published the work of Walter Scott and Lord Byron. In a letter to Cassandra dated
17/18 October 1816, Austen comments that "Mr. Murray's Letter is come; he is a Rogue of course, but a
civil one."[106]
n. Claire Tomalin prefers a diagnosis of a lymphoma such as Hodgkin's disease.[111]
o. The manuscript of the revised final chapters of Persuasion is the only surviving manuscript for any of her
published novels in her own handwriting.[113] Cassandra and Henry Austen chose the final titles and the
title page is dated 1818.
p. Honan points to "the odd fact that most of [Austen's] reviewers sound like Mr. Collins" as evidence that
contemporary critics felt that works oriented toward the interests and concerns of women were
intrinsically less important and less worthy of critical notice than works (mostly non-fiction) oriented
towards men.[116]
q. Oliver MacDonagh says that Sense and Sensibility "may well be the first English realistic novel" based
on its detailed and accurate portrayal of what he calls "getting and spending" in an English gentry
r. The full title of this short play is Sir Charles Grandison or The happy Man, a Comedy in 6 acts. For more
information see Southam (1986), 187–189.
s. This list of the juvenilia is taken from The Works of Jane Austen. Vol VI. 1954. Ed. R. W. Chapman and
B. C. Southam. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1988, as supplemented by additional research reflected
in Margaret Anne Doody and Douglas Murray, eds. Catharine and Other Writings. Oxford: Oxford
University Press, 1993.

1. Kirkham (2005), 68–72.
2. Grundy (2014), 195–197
3. MacDonagh (1991), 65, 136–137.
4. Looser, Devoney (2017). The Making of Jane Austen. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.
ISBN 1421422824.
5. Fergus (2005), 3–4
6. Le Faye (2005), 33
7. Le Faye (2004), 270; Nokes (1998), 1; Le Faye (2005), 33
8. Nokes (1998), 1–2; Fergus (2005), 3–4
9. Nokes (1998), 2–4; Fergus (2005), 3–4; Le Faye (2004), 279
10. Fergus (2005), 4
11. Le Faye (2004), 27; Nokes (1998), 51
12. Le Faye (2004), 27
13. Todd (2015), 2
14. Collins (1994), 86
15. Le Faye (2004), 3–5, 11
16. Le Faye (2004), 8; Nokes (1998), 51
17. Le Faye (2004), 20
18. Le Faye (2004), 11
19. Le Faye (2004), 6
20. Le Faye (2004), 11; Nokes (1998), 24, 26
21. Le Faye (2004), 12; Nokes (1998), 24
22. Le Faye (2004), 11, 18, 19; Nokes (1998), 36
23. Le Faye (2004), 19
24. Nokes (1998), 37; Le Faye (2004), 25
25. Le Faye (2004), 22
26. Nokes (1998), 37; Le Faye (2004), 24–27
27. Honan (1987), 211–212
28. Todd (2015), 4
29. Nokes (1998), 39; Le Faye (2004), 22–23
30. Le Faye (2004), 29
31. Le Faye (2004), 46
32. Le Faye (2004), 26
33. Honan (1987), 14, 17–18; Collins (1994), 54.
34. Le Faye (2004), 47–49; Collins (1994), 35, 133.
35. Todd (2015), 3
36. Tomalin (1997), 9–10, 26, 33–38, 42–43; Le Faye (2004), 52; Collins (1994), 133–134
37. Le Faye (2004), 52
38. Grundy (2014),192–193; Tomalin (1997), 28–29, 33–43, 66–67; Honan (1987), 31–34; Lascelles (1966),
39. Collins (1994), 42
40. Honan (1987), 66–68; Collins (1994), 43
41. Le Faye (2014), xvi–xvii; Tucker (1986), 1–2; Byrne (2002), 1–39; Gay (2002), ix, 1; Tomalin (1997),
31–32, 40–42, 55–57, 62–63; Honan (1987), 35, 47–52, 423–424, n. 20.
42. Honan (1987), 53–54; Lascelles (1966), 106–107; Litz (1965), 14–17.
43. Tucker (1986), 2
44. Le Faye (2004), 66; Litz (1986), 48; Honan (1987), 61–62, 70; Lascelles (1966), 4; Todd (2015), 4
45. Todd (2015), 4–5
46. Southam (1986), 244
47. Jenkyns (2004), 31
48. Todd (2015), 5; Southam (1986), 252
49. Litz (1965), 21; Tomalin (1997), 47; Honan (1987), 73–74; Southam (1986), 248–249
50. Honan (1987), 75
51. Honan (1987), 93
52. Todd (2015), 5; Southam (1986), 245, 253
53. Southam (1986), 187–189
54. Honan (1987), 101–102; Tomalin (1997), 82–83
55. Tomalin (1997), 83–84; see also Sutherland (2005), 15
56. Le Faye (2004), 84.
57. Sutherland (2005), 14; Doody (2014) 87–89
58. Tomalin (1997), 101–103, 120–123, 144; Honan (1987), 119.
59. Quoted in Tomalin (1997), 102; see also Honan (1987), 84
60. Quoted in Le Faye (2004), 92.
61. Tomalin (1997), 118.
62. Halperin (1985), 721
63. Le Faye (2014), xviii; Fergus (2005), 7–8; Tomalin (1997), 112–120, 159; Honan (1987), 105–111.
64. Halperin (1985), 722
65. Sutherland (2005), 16–18; LeFaye (2014), xviii; Tomalin (1997), 107, 120, 154, 208.
66. Le Faye (2004), 100, 114.
67. Le Faye (2004), 104; Sutherland (2005), 17, 21; quotations from Tomalin (1997), 120–122.
68. Le Faye (2014), xviii–xiv; Fergus (2005), 7; Sutherland (2005), 16–18, 21; Tomalin (1997), 120–121;
Honan (1987), 122–124.
69. King, Noel "Jane Austen in France" Nineteenth-Century Fiction, Vol. 8, No. 1, June 1953 page 2.
70. Litz (1965), 59–60.
71. Tomalin (1997), 182.
72. Le Faye (2014), xx–xxi, xxvi; Fergus (2005), 8–9; Sutherland (2005), 16, 18–19, 20–22; Tomalin (1997),
199, 254.
73. hubbard, susan. "Bath" (http://www.seekingjaneausten.com/bath.html). www.seekingjaneausten.com.
74. Collins (1994), 8–9.
75. Sutherland (2005), 21.
76. Le Faye (2014) xx–xxii; Fergus (2005), 8; Sutherland (2005), 15, 20–22; Tomalin (1997), 168–175;
Honan (1987), 215.
77. Halperin (1985), 729
78. Le Faye (2014), xxi; Fergus (2005), 7–8; Tomalin (1997), 178–181; Honan (1987), 189–198.
79. Le Faye (2005), 51.
80. Letter dated 18–20 November 1814, in Le Faye (1995), 278–282.
81. Halperin (1985), 732
82. Kirkham (2005), 68–72; Auerbach (2004), 19.
83. Sutherland (2005), 15, 21.
84. Le Faye (2014) xxii; Tomalin (1997), 182–184; Honan (1987), 203–205.
85. Honan (1987), 213–214.
86. Tomalin (1997), 194–206.
87. Tomalin (1997), 207.
88. Le Faye (2014), xx–xxi, xxvi; Fergus (2005), 8–9; Sutherland (2005), 16, 18–19, 20–22; Tomalin (1997),
182, 199, 254.
89. Collins (1994), 89.
90. Le Faye (2014), xxii; Tomalin (1997), 194–206; Honan (1987), 237–245; MacDonagh (1991), 49.
91. Grey, J. David; Litz, A. Waton; Southam, B. C.; Bok, H.Abigail (1986). The Jane Austen companion.
Macmillan. p. 38.
92. Fergus (2014), 6; Raven (2005), 198; Honan (1987), 285–286.
93. Honan (1987), 289–290.
94. For more information and a discussion of the economics of book publishing during this period, see
Fergus (2014), 6–7, and Raven (2005), 196–203.
95. Honan (1987), 290, Tomalin (1997), 218.
96. Sutherland (2005), 16–17, 21; Le Faye (2014) xxii–xxiii; Fergus (2014), 10–11; Tomalin (1997), 210–
212, 216–220; Honan (1987), 287.
97. Le Faye (2014), xxiii; Fergus (1997), 22–24; Sutherland (2005), 18–19; Tomalin (1997), 236, 240–241,
315, n. 5.
98. King, Noel "Jane Austen in France" from Nineteenth-Century Fiction pages 1–28, Vol. 8, No. 1, June
1953 pages 1–2.
99. King, Noel "Jane Austen in France" from Nineteenth-Century Fiction pages 1–28, Vol. 8, No. 1, June
1953 page 2.
100. King, Noel "Jane Austen in France" from Nineteenth-Century Fiction pages 1–28, Vol. 8, No. 1, June
1953 pages 5–6.
101. King, Noel "Jane Austen in France" from Nineteenth-Century Fiction pages 1–28, Vol. 8, No. 1, June
1953 page 5.
102. Le Faye (1995), 207–208.
103. Austen letter to James Stannier Clarke, 15 November 1815; Clarke letter to Austen, 16 November 1815;
Austen letter to John Murray, 23 November 1815, in Le Faye (1995), 296–298.
104. Halperin (1985), 734
105. Litz (1965), 164–165; Honan (1987), 367–369, describes the episode in detail.
106. Honan (1987), 364–365; Le Faye (1995) 291.
107. Le Faye (2014), xxv–xxvi; Sutherland (2005), 16–21; Fergus (2014), 12–13, 16–17, n.29, 31, n.33;
Fergus (2005), 10; Tomalin (1997), 256.
108. Le Faye (2014), xx, xxvi; Fergus (2014), 15; Tomalin (1997), 252–254.
109. Honan (1987), 378–379, 385–395
110. For detailed information concerning the retrospective diagnosis, its uncertainties and related
controversies, see Honan (1987), 391–392; Le Faye (2004), 236; Grey (1986), 282; Wiltshire, Jane
Austen and the Body, 221.
111. Tomalin (1997), Appendix I, 283–284; see also A. Upfal, "Jane Austen's lifelong health problems and
final illness: New evidence points to a fatal Hodgkin's disease and excludes the widely accepted
Addison's" (http://mh.bmj.com/cgi/content/full/31/1/3), Medical Humanities, 31(1),| 2005, 3–11.
doi:10.1136/jmh.2004.000193 (https://doi.org/10.1136%2Fjmh.2004.000193)
112. Todd (2015), 13
113. Tomalin (1997), 255.
114. Tomalin (1997), 261.
115. Le Faye (2014), xxv–xxvi; Fergus (1997), 26–27; Tomalin (1997), 254–271; Honan (1987), 385–405.
116. Honan (1987), 317.
117. Tomalin (1997), 272.
118. Tomalin (1997), 321, n.1 and 3; Gilson (1986), 136–137.
119. Gilson (1986), 137; Gilson (2005), 127; Southam (1986), 102.
120. Litz (1965), 3–14; Grundy (2014), 195–197; Waldron (2005), 83, 89–90; Duffy (1986), 93–94.
121. Grundy (2014), 196
122. Todd (2015), 21
123. Keymer (2014), 21
124. Keymer (2014), 24–25
125. Keymer (2014), 29
126. Keymer (2014), 32
127. qtd. in Lodge (1986), 175
128. Lodge (1986), 165
129. Lodge (1986), 171–175
130. Lascelles (1966) 101
131. Lascelles (1966), 96, 101
132. Baker (2014), 177
133. qtd in Baker (2014), 177
134. MacDonagh (1991), 66–75; Collins (1994), 160–161.
135. Bayley (1986), 24
136. Bayley (1986), 25–26
137. Polhemus (1986), 60
138. Fergus (2014), 10; Honan (1987), 287–289, 316–317, 372–373.
139. Southam (1968), 1.
140. Waldron (2005), 83–91.
141. Scott (1968), 58; Waldron (2005), 86; Duffy (1986), 94–96.
142. Waldron (2005), 89–90; Duffy (1986), 97; Watt (1963), 4–5.
143. Gilson (2005), 127.
144. Duffy (1986), 98–99; MacDonagh (1991), 146; Watt (1963), 3–4.
145. Southam (1968), 1; Southam (1987), 2.
146. Litz, A. Walton "Recollecting Jane Austen" pages 669–682 from Critical Inquiry, Vol. 1, No. 3, March
1975 page 672.
147. Johnson (2014), 232; Gilson (2005), 127.
148. King, Noel "Jane Austen in France" from Nineteenth-Century Fiction pages 1–28, Vol. 8, No. 1, June
1953 page 23.
149. Southam (1968), 152; Southam (1987), 20–21.
150. Southam (1987), 70.
151. Southam (1987), 58–62.
152. King, Noel "Jane Austen in France" from Nineteenth-Century Fiction pages 1–28, Vol. 8, No. 1, June
1953 page 24.
153. Southam (1987), 46–47, 230 (for the quote from James); Johnson (2014), 234.
154. Litz, A. Walton "Recollecting Jane Austen" pages 669–682 from Critical Inquiry, Vol. 1, No. 3, March
1975 page 670.
155. Devoney Looser, The Making of Jane Austen (Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2017),
156. Trott (2005), 92.
157. Southam (1987), 79.
158. Southam (1987), 99–100; see also Watt (1963), 10–11; Gilson (2005), 149–50; Johnson (2014), 239.
159. Southam (1987), 107–109, 124.
160. Southam (1986), 108; Watt (1963), 10–11; Stovel (2014), 248; Southam (1987), 127
161. Rajan (2005), 101–110
162. Zhu Hong "Nineteenth-Century British Fiction in New China: A Brief Report" pages 207–213 from
Nineteenth-Century Fiction, Volume 37, No. 2. September 1982 page 210.
163. Zhu Hong "Nineteenth-Century British Fiction in New China: A Brief Report" pages 207–213 from
Nineteenth-Century Fiction, Volume 37, No. 2. September 1982 page 212.
164. Zhu Hong "Nineteenth-Century British Fiction in New China: A Brief Report" pages 207–213 from
Nineteenth-Century Fiction, Volume 37, No. 2. September 1982 page 213.
165. Koppel, Gene (2 November 1989). "Pride and Prejudice: Conservative or Liberal Novel – Or Both? (A
Gadamerian Approach)" (http://www.jasna.org/persuasions/printed/number11/koppel.htm). Jane Austen
Society of North America. Retrieved 2016-10-25.
166. Lynch (2005), 160–162.
167. Devoney Looser, The Making of Jane Austen (Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2017),
168. Brownstein (2001), 13.
169. Troost (2007), 79.
170. Irvine, Robert Jane Austen, London: Routledge, 2005 pages 158–159
171. Troost (2007), 82–84.
172. Carol Kopp, "The Nominees: Keira Knightley" (http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2006/02/15/oscar/main
1321171.shtml), CBS News, 20 October 2008.
173. Julia Day, "ITV falls in love with Jane Austen" (https://www.theguardian.com/media/2005/nov/10/broadc
asting.ITV?INTCMP=SRCH), The Guardian, 10 November 2005.
174. Alonso Duralde, Alonso, "'Love & Friendship' Sundance Review: Whit Stillman Does Jane Austen – But
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175. "Jane Austen airbrushed on new £10 note, campaigners complain" (http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/201
7/05/21/jane-austen-airbrushed-new-10-note-campaigners-complain/). Retrieved 21 July 2017.
176. "buk - the publishers’ platform" (https://buk.io/@1342/3/2472~2527?t=2CK). buk.io. Retrieved 21 July
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-notes-which-serial-numbers-are-valuable). Retrieved 21 July 2017.

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Further reading
Gubar, Susan and Sandra Gilbert. The Madwoman in the Attic: The Woman Writer and the Nineteenth
Century Literary Imagination. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1984 [1979]. ISBN 0-300-02596-3.

External links
Works by Jane Austen at Project Gutenberg
Works by or about Jane Austen at Internet Archive
Works by Jane Austen at LibriVox (public domain audiobooks)
Jane Austen's Fiction Manuscripts Digital Edition, a digital archive from the University of Oxford
A Memoir of Jane Austen by James Edward Austen-Leigh
Jane Austen at the British Library


Jane Austen's House Museum in Chawton

The Jane Austen Centre in Bath

Fan sites and societies

The Republic of Pemberley

The Jane Austen Society of Australia
The Jane Austen Society of North America
The Jane Austen Society of the United Kingdom

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