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Chapter 3 Research Design and methodology

Research Design, refers to the overall blue print of your studies

Quantitative Research Design

- Descriptive Research – WH QUESTIONS
- Correlational – Relationship
- Causal Comparative – Cause and effect
- Quasi experimental – “Almost experimental
Experimental – True experimentation/scientific method.

Types of qualitative designs

Phenomenological studies – Examines Human Experiences
Ethnographic studies – Cultures, tradition, behavior
Grounded Theory – Theory – inductive and deductive approaches.
Historical Studies – History, the beginning to the last of your studies
Case Study Research – group of persons, qualities.

Sampling Procedure

Population – Kabuuang category ng respondents.

Sample – Out of population

Two types of sampling

Non- probability sampling – more on qualitative , We are being bias
Probability – Random Selection of respondents

Convenience Sampling – Process of picking out people in fastest way.
Quota sampling – Specified numbers of persons of certain types are included in the sample.
Snowball sampling – Respondence are hard to find.
Purposive sampling – Most easy, Non-probability sample that is selected based on characteristics of a
population and the objective of the study. purposive sampling is also known as judgmental, selective or
subjective sampling.

Probability sampling
Simple Random sampling – Lottery or raffle type of sampling, randomly selected.
Systematic sampling – Complete list of population, we’ll use intervals
Stratified Random Sampling – Divided by group, any member
Cluster Random Sampling – Divided by group and get the group
Participants of the study
IV. Data gathering procedures.
- this section is the “how to” of the study.
-Commonly used data gathering procedures
- interview
- Participants observations

Key informant Interview (KII) , Right person to interview. right person to give the idea
Focus Group Discussion (FGD) – Gather respondents, round table

Structured: Each participant is asked similar set of questions in a predetermined format.

Unstructured: Unrehearsed and free flowing.

General open-ended questions are asked to allow the participants to:

Open-ended : Respondents ang bahala mag sagot
Create, explore options for responding
Voice their firsthand experiences and perspective

Closed: Magchecheck ka nalang

During the interview, information is recprded.

Information is then transcribed for analysis.

FGD: a small group interview (5-7 participants + 1 moderator); can be face to face or online
- advantages
Participants might be more willing to discuss the topic in front of their peers.
Participants answers can inform others and group ideas might be generated for a more
comprehensive results.
Time constraints, accessibility and money matters will no longer be an issue.

Participant Observation – allows the researcher to immerse himself into a social setting, enabling him to
learn firsthand how:
- The actions of participants are compatible with their words
- Patterns of behaviors exist
- Expected and unexpected experiences occur
- trust, relationships, and obligations with others are developed.

open-ended: Gives participants the opportunity to express their opinions and give detailed answers
Close-ended: Gives the participants a set of response choices.
V. Research instruments
Questionnaire (survey)
Key informant (Interview)

- Should be based on the research paradigm and statement of the problem.

Research Matrix

Statistical Treatment
Descriptive Research
- mean
- Weighted mean
- Percentage
- Standard Deviation
- Variance

Comparative Research
Paired ( 2 dependent variable)
Unpaired (2 independent variables)

ANOVA ( Analysis of variance)

Correlational Research