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Accelerated

Chemistry 11
Titration Lab Report

Suparuek Saetoen
Parinada Suriyaworakul
Phatsakorn Rodphol
Wanwarisa Krittiyasrisumet
Natanicha Sangprakai
Tanakom Kaweewuthisinp
ABSTRACT
In this experiment, we did a titration which is
the method that we add the base solution to
make the unknown solution become neutral. In
another way, we want to know the amount of the
unknown so we use the solution that we known
to measure it. The pH of the mixed solution will
be different depends on the indicator that we
use. To start the experiment, we have to clean all
of the glassware that we want to use in the
experiment. For the buret and pipette, we have to
clean it by the solution that we want to use by
them. On the other hand, the beaker and flask
that we use can be cleaned with the distilled
water. After we done with the cleaning part, we
have to do the rough titration first to estimate the
amount of base that we need to change the color
of the solution. After that, we can do the real
titration and slow down when the amount of base
we use is close to the rough titration amount.
ABSTRACT
MY SCHEDULE
The color that we want it to be is green for
the Bromophenol Blue indicator and light pink
for Phenolphthalein which means endpoint of
the solution. We have three Erlenmeyer flasks
for each indicator. Therefore, we have three
chances to do the titration. The end point is
when the color of the solution is over the
endpoint. The pH result of the Bromophenol
Blue indicator that we got is 3.64 which is the
endpoint compared to the table. 5.03 ml of
NaOH is added to make the solution with
Bromophenol blue indicator reaches the
endpoint. Also, 5.15 ml of NaOH is added, so the
pH result of the Phenolphthalein indicator of
our group is 8.19, which is also the endpoint for
this indicator.
O b j e c t i v e

- To understand more about the


acid-base, which is topic that we
study
- To apply our knowledge in class to
use in a real experiment such as the
calculation of the concentration of
the unknown acid.
- To study the pH of the endpoint of
both indicators
- To study how to conduct the
titration properly (using and cleaning
equipment).
Introduction
     Titration is a technique created for finding
the concentration of unknown concentration
solution which can be either acid or bases but
another need to be the standardized solution
that we know the concentration. Titration
process required buret to accomplish. titrant,
which is used to called solution inside the
buret, is controlled by stopcock from the drop
down into the Erlenmeyer flask, conical flask, at
a rate that experimenter want that contain the
acid solution and the indicator. The solution
inside the Erlenmeyer flask is known as titrant
which is combination of acid solution and the
indicator. The indicator in the acidic solution
will be a tool to recognize the endpoint of the
titration. By changing color through pH that is
changing.
Introduction
     Each indicator reacts differently to the same
value of pH because the chemical in each
indicator reacts differently to each level of pH.
For example, Phenolphthalein is a colorless
indicator that has a range of color between
colorless and bright pink.  In the acidic solution
to basic solution about pH of 8-9, this indicator
will remain colorless. After it reaches the
endpoint, in between 8-9 or more, the color will
start changing into pink due to the higher
amount of OH ion inside the trade. Another
indicator which is bromophenol blue will have a
lower end point. The color range is from yellow
to blue. The acidic solution will remain yellowish
until the certain amount of basic solution is
added to increase the pH value. The endpoint of
this indicator is around pH value of 3-4. The
experimenter can recognize it by the changing
of color from yellow color into green. After the
endpoint no matter if it is the acidic solution or
basic solution, the color will change into blue
and even permanently blue.
Introduction

     The strong acids will be ionized completely in the

aqueous solution to form a hydronium ion (H30+). For

instance, when the hydrochloric acid reacted with water,

they will form a hydronium cation and chloride anion. HCL +

H2O ⇋ H3O+ + Cl- The example of strong acids is


hydrochloric acids (HCl), sulfuric acid (H2SO4), and nitric

acid (HNO3). But when a weak acid reacted in the aqueous

solution, it will not dissociate completely to form a

hydronium ion (H30+). On the other hand, the strong base

will dissociate completely to form a hydroxide ion (OH-).


Introduction
     For instance, NaCl ⇋ Na+ + Cl -. But when the weak
base didn’t dissociate completely to form hydroxide ions
(OH-) in the aqueous solution. The example of a strong
base is sodium hydroxide (NaOH), potassium hydroxide
(KOH), and lithium hydroxide (LiOH).
     While two solution is reacting with each other along
with the titration process, the pH value increase due to
Hydroxide ion from the basic solution that is dropped
down along with basic. At the point, that pH value reach
number of 7, the acidic solution and basic solution in
the Erlenmeyer flask is equal which made it all turn into
a product, water, and salt. The point that all of the
reactants is used and turned into water and salt is called
equivalent point or equilibrium point.
     The equivalent point is the objective that
experimenter wanted in chemical reaction process
called neutralization reaction. The neutralization
reaction is the process that the acid is being reacted
with the basic solution and from water and salt. The
hydrogen ion and hydroxide ion will generate the water.
The neutralization of a strong acid and base solution will
have pH around 7. But the neutralization of strong acid
and weak base will have a pH less than 7.  
Introduction
     Furthermore, the neutralization of weak acid
and the strong base will have a pH more than 7.
The salt is formed from an equal weight of acids
and base when the solution was neutralized.
During the neutralization process, the amount
of acid that is used in the process will use to
produce one mole of protons (H+) and the
amount of base that is used in the process will
be used to produce one mole of (OH-). The salt
that is formed from the neutralization reaction
with being equivalent to the concentration of
acid and base mass because the A part of acid
are always neutralized A parts of the base. For
instance, the neutralization of a strong acid and
base
                  HCL + NaOH ⇋ NaCl + H2O  

     In the lab, the hydrochloric acid is used as an


acid solution. The sodium hydroxide is used as a
base solution. In addition, the 10 mL of
hydrochloric acid is put into a 6 the Erlenmeyer
flask. 
Introduction
     Then, the indicator (Phenolphthalein) are
drop into first 3 Erlenmeyer flask and the
indicator ( Bromophenol blue ) are drop into last
3 Erlenmeyer flask. Then, the sodium hydroxide
is poured into the buret and the Erlenmeyer
flask are put under the buret. During the
titration process, the stopcock of the buret is
opened in order to make the sodium hydroxide
drop into the acidic solution in the Erlenmeyer
flask until the indicator in the acidic solution
changes their color. Furthermore, this is mean
that the solution is reached the end point of the
titration. The Phenolphthalein will change their
color from colorless to light pink when the
solution has reached the endpoint. The
Bromophenol blue will change their color from
yellow into green when it reached the endpoint.
  
    
Materials

Bromophenol Blue  Phenolphthalein

Distilled water Sodium Hydroxide (NAOH)


Materials

Hydrochloric acid(HCl) pH meter

PPE (Goggle lab, coat, Pipette


gloves)
Materials

Buret, stand, and clamp 6 Erlenmeyer flasks

Pipette gun Funnel


Materials

Three way bulb 250 mL beaker

1250 mL beaker 1500 mL beaker


PROCEDURE
1.Record the molarity of Sodium Hydroxide(NaOH)
2. Obtain 100 mL of Sodium Hydroxide in a clean
beaker
3. Rinse the buret by adding 5 mL of Sodium
Hydroxide in the buret using funnel. Rotate until
chemical cover all of the inside surface of buret and
drain it out. (repeat 3 times)
4. Poor Sodium Hydroxide into buret, and open the
stop cock to release the air inside then record the
initial value
5. Rinse the pipette by using 5 mL of HCL acid. Rotate
until chemical cover all of the inside surface and
release it into a waste beaker.(repeat 3 times)
6. Use pipette to draw 10.00 mL of acid into the
erlenmeyer flask.
7. Add 2-3 drop of indicator.
8. Place the flask under buret and start titration
process by turn the stop cock on and let the base
dron down slowly while swirling the flask. The
process will finish when the color didn’t disappear
anymore.
9. Record the buret value and measure the pH value
using pH meter. Then wash the flask
10. Repeat step 6-9 2 times with phenolphthalein
indicator and another 3 times with bromophenol
blue indicator.
11. Complete the data sheet, Question and answer.
Result Pre-lab
1. How will you know when your titration is finished?
- We will know it when the color is started to change which
means the system reaches the endpoint.

2. Label the pH scale below with acid, base, and neutral,


indicating numbers for each
3. On the scale above, use an arrow to show where your
equivalence point is located.
Result Pre-lab
4. Write the neutralization reaction that occurs between
the hydrobromic acid (HBr) and lithium hydroxide (LiOH).
                 HBr(aq) + LiOH(aq) -> LiBr(aq) + H2O(l)

5. What is the concentration of 10.00 mL of HBr if it takes


16.73 mL of a 0.253 M LiOH solution to neutralize it?
Sol1: (C1)(V1) = (C2)(V2)
       (C1)(10.00) = (0.253)(16.73)
        C1 = 0.4233 M
Sol2:   __ M     0.253 M
         10 mL   16.73 mL
M = mol/L
0.253 = mol/0.01673
mol = 0.00423

M = mol/L
M = 0.00423 / 0.01
M = 0.423 M
DATA&
CALCULATION
DATA&
CALCULATION
Phenolphthalein
Trial 1:
NaOH: HCl:
Amount = 5.30 mL = 0.0053 L Amount = 10 mL = 0.01 L
Molarity = 0.1 M Molarity = ______ M

M = mol/L Mol = 0.00053


Mol = MxL M = mol/L
= 0.00053/0.01= 0.053 M

Mol = 0.1x0.0053 = 0.00053

Trial 2:
NaOH: HCl:
Amount = 5.15 mL = 0.00515 L Amount = 10 mL = 0.01 L
Molarity = 0.1 M Molarity = ______ M

M = mol/L Mol = 0.000515


Mol = MxL M = mol/L
= 0.000515/0.01= 0.0515 M

Mol = 0.1x0.00515 = 0.000515


DATA&
CALCULATION
Bromophenol Blue
Trial 1:
NaOH: HCl:
Amount = 5.65 mL = 0.00565 L Amount = 10 mL = 0.01 L
Molarity = 0.1 M Molarity = ______ M

M = mol/L Mol = 0.000565


Mol = MxL M = mol/L
= 0.000565/0.01= 0.0565 M

Mol = 0.1x0.00565= 0.000565

Trial 2:
NaOH: HCl:
Amount = 5.03 mL = 0.00503 L Amount = 10 mL = 0.01 L
Molarity = 0.1 M Molarity = ______ M

M = mol/L Mol = 0.000503


Mol = MxL M = mol/L
= 0.000503/0.01= 0.0503 M

Mol = 0.1x0.00503 = 0.000503


DISCUSSION
POST-LAB

1. How would it affect your results if you used a

beaker with residual water in it to measure out

your standardized sodium hydroxide solution?

The experiment would be inaccurate because the

residual water in the beaker can make the

concentration of measured sodium hydroxide

lower, as it diluted the sodium hydroxide. The pH

of the solution might also be changed because

water has the pH of 7 and that it changed the

concentration of the solution, so when we use the

concentration of OH- to calculate the pOH, it will

not be the same. The solution may become

contaminated because the residual water in the

beaker is not distilled water, so there might be

some contaminants in the liquid, which will then

make our NaOH solution become contaminated.


DISCUSSION
POST-LAB

2. How would it affect your results if you used a

wet Erlenmeyer flask instead of a dry one when

transferring your acid solution from the volumetric

pipette?

We do not know which kind of the solution that is

in the wet Erlenmeyer-flask. So, we do not know if

that solution is base or acid. In this experiment, we

want to find the amount of base that we use to

changed the solution. Therefore, the wet

Erlenmeyer flask might affect the result of our

experiment which means that it may affect the

amount of base that we used. However, if it is a

normal water, it also affects the concentration of

the resultant solution as it is diluting the

concentration.
DISCUSSION
POST-LAB

3. How do you tell if you have exceeded the

equivalence point in your titration?

The equivalent point of most solutions is pH 7.

Therefore, we have to use the indicator to see the

changes in color. However, in our experiment, we

can’t really detect the equivalent point using

bromophenol blue and phenolphthalein indicator

because bromophenol blue changes color from

yellow at pH 3.0 to blue at pH 4.6, and

phenolphthalein changes color from clear to pink in

the range between pH 8.2 - pH 10.0 (which is

already exceeded pH7). If we use bromothymol blue

instead, then we can notice the equivalent point.

Because of the color of bromothymol blue changes

between pH 6.0 - pH 7.6, we can see the changes in

color from yellow in an acidic solution to blue in

basic, and green in neutral (equivalence point).


DISCUSSION
POST-LAB

4. Vinegar is a solution of acetic acid (CH3COOH)

in water. For quality control purposes, it can be

titrated using sodium hydroxide to assure a specific

% composition. If 25.00 mL of acetic acid is

titrated with 9.08 mL of a standardized 2.293 M

sodium hydroxide solution, what is the molarity of

the vinegar?

NaOH + CH3COOH ---------> NaCH3COO + H2O

        NaOH:                                CH3COOH:

 Amount = 9.08 mL               Amount = 25.00 mL

 Molarity = 2.293 M              Molarity = ______ M

               M = mol/L              Mol = 0.021

               Mol =  MxL             M = mol/L= 0.0210.025

               = 2.2930.00908     M = 0.84 M

                                  Mol = 0.021
Error
We found the error in both indicator group. In
the first group that uses Bromophenol Blue as
an indicator found that we drop the base
solution too fast. In the second titration after the
rough titration, we drop base solution to the
point that we have to slow down. However, the
record of the amount of solution that we use in
rough titration is not clear. Also, we did not pay
as much attention as we should to it. So, we did
not slow down the drop to one drop or half
dropper time that make our color changed to
purple. We tried to shake it but the color does
not change. However, we got the perfect titrate
for the third trial.
For phenolphthalein titration, our solution
turned pale pink once, so we thought that it had
reached the endpoint. However, after we swirled
it for several times, the color disappeared.
CONCLUSION
This lab report is discussing the titration. Titration
is used to calculate the concentration of the
unknown solution. In the experiment, approximately
0.515 mL (0.000515 mol) of NaOH is used to turn
unknown- concentration HCl with Phenolphthalein
indicator from clear color into a light pink, implying
there are 0.000515 moles of H+. The concentration of
acid can be calculated using this the concentration
of H+ that we get, and it is around 0.0515 M. For
Bromophenol Blue, around 0.53 mL (0.00053 mol) of
NaOH is used to change unknown-concentration HCl
mixed with Bromophenol Blue from yellow to light
green, which means there are 0.000503 moles of H+
and its concentration is about 0.0503 M. According to
the experiment and calculation, the concentration of
acid solution - HCl - is roughly the same, even
though, the different volume of basic is added.
This lab report is discussing the titration. Titration
is used to calculate the concentration of the
unknown solution. In the experiment, approximately
0.515 mL (0.000515 mol) of NaOH is used to turn
unknown- concentration HCl with Phenolphthalein
indicator into a light pink, implying there are
0.000515 moles of H+. The concentration of acid can
be calculated using this the concentration of H+ that
we get, and it is around 0.0515.
SUGGESTION
In the next experiment, our group
suggests doing the titration slower
and more carefully even in the first
rough titration, because it provides
us with the more accurate amount of
the titrant needed for the next rough
titration. Another suggestion is to
ensure that the solution completely
reaches the endpoint. In some case,
the solution that seems to already
reach the endpoint and change the
colour of the indicator will restore its
original colour after resting or
shaking for a while, because the
reaction needs time, be patient!
REFERENCE
- Acid - Base Indicators and Titrations. (n.d.)
Retrieved 27 January 2018, from:
http://www.ch.ic.ac.uk/vchemlib/course/indi/

- vlab.amrita.edu,. (2011). Acid Base Titration.


Retrieved 1 February 2018, from:
http://vlab.amrita.edu/?
sub=2&brch=193&sim=352&cnt=1

- The Editors of Encyclopædia Britannica. (2017,


October 06). Titration. Retrieved 1 February 2018,
from:
https://www.britannica.com/science/titration

- L. (2016, July 21). Titration of A Strong Acid With


A Strong Base. Retrieved 1 February 2018, from:
https://chem.libretexts.org/Demonstrations_and
_Experiments/Basic_Lab_Techniques/Titration/T
itration_Of_A_Strong_Acid_With_A_Strong_Base
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