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UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPUR

MALAYSIAN INSTITUTE OF CHEMICAL & BIOENGINEERING TECHNOLOGY

CLB 21103
PROCESS INSTRUMENTATION

BACHELOR OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING


TECHNOLOGY

LEVEL MEASUREMENT 2016

GROUP MEMBER’S NAME:


THEVI PRIYA MUTHU 55217115187
SANGEETHA SEELHARAM 55216114462
PRESANTH VIJAYAKUMARAN 55213114458
MUHAMMAD HATIFI B AZIZ 55217115075

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OBJECTIVES

1. To compare between different level measurements from 700 mm down to 300 mm.
2. To study the level measurements in open and closed tank.
3. To investigate the relationship between level and temperature.

SUMMARY

This experiment’s main purposes are to compare between different level measurements
from 700 mm down to 300 mm, to study the level measurements in open and closed tank, and to
investigate the relationship between level and temperature. The variables involved are suggested
level (mm), actual level (LG) (mm), actual level (LI) (mm), temperature (TG) (°C) and the
deviation (actual level ǀLG – LIǀ) (mm). After all recordings were written down, the deviations
(actual level ǀLG – LIǀ) (mm) for all four experiments were calculated using the formula stated.
The average deviation for experiment 1 for run 1 until run 5 is 0, 1, 5, 5 and 3. Next, the average
deviation for experiment 2 for run 1 until run 5 is 4, 5, 4, 2 and 4. In addition to that, the average
deviation for experiment 3 for run 1 until run 5 is 2, 0, 4, 5 and 5. Lastly, the average deviation
for experiment 4 for run 1 until run 5 is 7, 4, 6, 7 and 4. It was observed that the rise of
temperature actually affects the accuracy of the indirect level measurement using the sight
millimetre scale and also in terms of density change and pressure change. From the results, the
objectives were not achieved fully due to some errors which were to compare between different
level measurements from 700 mm down to 300 mm, to study the level measurements in open and
closed tank, and to investigate the relationship between level and temperature.

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INTRODUCTION

This experiment is all about the measurement of distinct levels of water in or without
response to the heater and within an open or closed tank. The first step is by opening all the
needed valves in order to start up the experiment. Next, required set-ups will be made for further
experimentation like switching on the power supply, switching on the pump and indicators,
filling up tank T2 with water and more. Experiments will be conducted for both closed and open
tanks, with heater on and off labelled as experiment 1 (Tank T1 as OPEN tank, Heater OFF),
experiment 2 (Tank T1 as CLOSED tank, Heater OFF), experiment 3 (Tank T1 as OPEN tank,
Heater ON), and experiment 4 (Tank T1 as CLOSED tank, Heater OFF). Measurements and
readings will then be recorded down for different water level measurements of 700 mm, 600 m,
500 mm, 400 mm and 300 mm. Two sets of data will be recorded in obtaining an average value
for all the elements in the table like actual level (LG), actual level (LI), temperature (TG) and the
deviation. After all the measurements are acquired, the deviation will be calculated using this
formula (actual level ǀLG – LIǀ) (mm). Trend graphs will be made in order to clarify and to show
the relationship between different level measurements and the temperature.

The instrument used in this experiment is consists of several components and tools in
which aid the flow and process of the level measurements. The components are drain valve,
pump suction valve, pump discharge valves, by-pass valve (BV), vent (V) valve, overflow valve,
globe valve, gate valve, air inlet manual isolation valve, heater, pump, tanks T1 and T2, sight
glass/glass tube with millimetre scale (LG), pressure gauge (PG), temperature gauge (TG),
variable area flowmeter and temperature and level indicators (LI) on the front panel. All these
components have their own specifications in assisting the whole instrument in conducting the
experiment. As for the valves, each valve has its own function.

The purpose of by-pass valve is to prevent the injurious effects which would otherwise
result from the pumping action of the large low pressure pistons when the locomotive is drifting
[Anonymous B, 2013].A venting valve is normally used on a system where gases build up. Any

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gas, even steam, can cause problems for a system if the pressure isn't released from time to time.
This is what the venting valve is for. Opening the valve will allow the gas to escape and bring the
pressure inside the pipe or container back to a normal [Keith Dooley, 1999 – 2013].

An overflow valve is a device commonly used in plumbing, electricity generation, and


other applications in which pipes conduct pressurized materials to maintain pressure on the line
above the valve. It can also be installed as a safety device to prevent pressure build up, and when
used in combination with sensors and alarms, it can alert an operator to a problem along the line.
This valve works by sensing the pressure up pipe from itself. It has a specified pressure level,
which it maintains by use of a coil spring mechanism, which opens when the inlet, or
downstream pressure, begins to rise while the upstream pressure goes down. In an emergency
situation in which the inlet pressure is too high, some overflow valves are designed to alert
operators, while others may fail [Anonymous C, 2013].

The globe valve is used to regulate the flow of liquid in a pipeline. The most common
application of the globe valve is a standard water faucet. When the wheel (handle) is turned, a
disc is lowered or raised. When the disc is fully lowered, the water supply is shut off. When the
disc is fully raised, the water flow is at its maximum rate [Tom Raley, 1999 – 2013].The gate
valve is to ensure a straight line flow of a liquid where minimal restriction is desired. When the
valve is wide open, the gate gets fully drawn up into the valve, which leaves an opening that is
the same size as the pipe installed in the valve. This thus allows the liquid to flow since there is
little pressure or restriction in the valve [Anonymous A, 2013].

The purpose of the air inlet manual isolation valve is to provide pressure into the tank or
container. As referred to this experiment, tank T1 is filled with water. With the specific pressure
of 3psig flowing into tank T1, the tank is pressurised which in turn helps in the flow rate in
calibrating different level measurements.

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Other components are also important and much needed in conducting this level
measurement experiment.The heater helps to heat up the water in tank T2 in which is required in
doing experiments with the heater ON in determining whether a difference in water temperature
affects the water level. A pump is mechanical device using suction or pressure to raise,
compress, move or transfer liquids or fluids [Anonymous E, 2013].

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Pump

Tanks T1 and T2 act as mediums for storing water used in further experimentation.

The sight glass or glass tube with millimetre scale (LG) purpose is to give precision in
recording down the determined readings of different level measurements. Based on this
experiment, the range of level measurements are from 700 mm down to 300 mm.

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Sight Millimetre Scale

Pressure gauges (PG) are devices used for measuring the pressure of a gas or liquid
[Anonymous D, 2013]. Temperature gauges (TG) are devices used in measuring the temperature
of a liquid in a tank or container.

Pressure Gauge Temperature Gauge

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Variable area flowmeter does its job by providing manual adjustments in flowrate.
Hence, maintaining a constant flowrate throughout the whole experiment.

Variable Area Flowmeter

Temperature and level indicators (LI) on the front panel shows the detected value of the
temperature and level indicators build in the instrument used. The indications are shown on the
front panel and can be calibrated with the manually recorded values taken from measurements by
the temperature gauge (TG) and the sight glass/glass tube with millimetre scale (LG)
respectively. Theoretically speaking, with all the functions of all the components combined
together makes up the ideal level measurement instrument which was used in this water level
measurement experiment. As closure, all components definitely support in getting the most
precise and accurate recordings and has a great value and huge impact in completing this
experiment.

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RESULT & DISCUSSION

Table 1: Level Measurement (Tank T1 as OPEN tank, Heater OFF)


RUN I SET 1 SET 2 AVERAGE
A Suggested Level (mm) 700 700 700
B Actual Level (LG) (mm) 700 700 700
C Actual Level (LI) (mm) 700 700 700
D Temperature (TG) (0C) 28 28 28
E Deviation = |B-C| (mm) 0 0 0

RUN II SET 1 SET 2 AVERAGE


A Suggested Level (mm) 600 600 600
B Actual Level (LG) (mm) 600 600 600
C Actual Level (LI) (mm) 601 601 601
D Temperature (TG) (0C) 28.1 28.1 28.1
E Deviation = |B-C| (mm) 1 1 1

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RUN III SET 1 SET 2 AVERAGE
A Suggested Level (mm) 500 500 500
B Actual Level (LG) (mm) 495 495 495
C Actual Level (LI) (mm) 500 500 500
D Temperature (TG) (0C) 28.1 28.1 328.1
E Deviation = |B-C| (mm) 5 5 5

RUN IV SET 1 SET 2 AVERAGE


A Suggested Level (mm) 400 400 400
B Actual Level (LG) (mm) 395 395 395
C Actual Level (LI) (mm) 400 400 400
D Temperature (TG) (0C) 28.1 28.1 28.1
E Deviation = |B-C| (mm) 5 5 5

RUN V SET 1 SET 2 AVERAGE


A Suggested Level (mm) 300 300 300
B Actual Level (LG) (mm) 297 297 297
C Actual Level (LI) (mm) 300 300 300
D Temperature (TG) (0C) 27.9 27.9 27.9
E Deviation = |B-C| (mm) 3 3 3

Table 2: Level Measurement (Tank T1 as CLOSED tank, Heater OFF)


RUN I SET 1 SET 2 AVERAGE
A Suggested Level (mm) 700 700 700
B Actual Level (LG) (mm) 696 690 693
C Actual Level (LI) (mm) 700 694 697
0
D Temperature (TG) ( C) 28.0 28.0 28.0
E Deviation = |B-C| (mm) 4 4 4

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RUN II SET 1 SET 2 AVERAGE
A Suggested Level (mm) 600 600 600
B Actual Level (LG) (mm) 597 597 597
C Actual Level (LI) (mm) 600 600 600
D Temperature (TG) (0C) 28 28 28
E Deviation = |B-C| (mm) 5 5 5

RUN III SET 1 SET 2 AVERAGE


A Suggested Level (mm) 500 500 500
B Actual Level (LG) (mm) 500 500 500
C Actual Level (LI) (mm) 504 504 504
D Temperature (TG) (0C) 28 28 28
E Deviation = |B-C| (mm) 4 4 4

RUN IV SET 1 SET 2 AVERAGE


A Suggested Level (mm) 400 400 400
B Actual Level (LG) (mm) 398 398 398
C Actual Level (LI) (mm) 400 400 400
D Temperature (TG) (0C) 28 28 28
E Deviation = |B-C| (mm) 2 2 2

RUN V SET 1 SET 2 AVERAGE


A Suggested Level (mm) 300 300 300
B Actual Level (LG) (mm) 296 296 296
C Actual Level (LI) (mm) 300 300 300
D Temperature (TG) (0C) 31 31 31
E Deviation = |B-C| (mm) 4 4 4

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Table 3: Level Measurement (Tank T1 as OPEN tank, Heater ON)
RUN I SET 1 SET 2 AVERAGE
A Suggested Level (mm) 700 700 700
B Actual Level (LG) (mm) 694 694 694
C Actual Level (LI) (mm) 696 696 696
D Temperature (TG) (0C) 40.2 40.2 40.2
E Deviation = |B-C| (mm) 2 2 2

RUN II SET 1 SET 2 AVERAGE


A Suggested Level (mm) 600 600 600
B Actual Level (LG) (mm) 600 600 600
C Actual Level (LI) (mm) 606 606 606
D Temperature (TG) (0C) 40.2 40.2 40.2
E Deviation = |B-C| (mm) 0 0 0

RUN III SET 1 SET 2 AVERAGE


A Suggested Level (mm) 500 500 500
B Actual Level (LG) (mm) 500 500 500
C Actual Level (LI) (mm) 504 504 504
D Temperature (TG) (0C) 39.8 39.8 39.8
E Deviation = |B-C| (mm) 4 4 4

RUN IV SET 1 SET 2 AVERAGE


A Suggested Level (mm) 400 400 400
B Actual Level (LG) (mm) 400 400 400
C Actual Level (LI) (mm) 405 405 405
D Temperature (TG) (0C) 39.8 39.8 39.8
E Deviation = |B-C| (mm) 5 5 5

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RUN V SET 1 SET 2 AVERAGE
A Suggested Level (mm) 300 300 300
B Actual Level (LG) (mm) 300 300 300
C Actual Level (LI) (mm) 305 305 305
D Temperature (TG) (0C) 39.5 39.5 39.5
E Deviation = |B-C| (mm) 5 5 5

Table 4: Level Measurement (Tank T1 as CLOSED tank, Heater ON)


RUN I SET 1 SET 2 AVERAGE
A Suggested Level (mm) 700 700 700
B Actual Level (LG) (mm) 700 700 700
C Actual Level (LI) (mm) 707 707 707
D Temperature (TG) (0C) 40.2 40.2 40.2
E Deviation = |B-C| (mm) 7 7 7

RUN II SET 1 SET 2 AVERAGE


A Suggested Level (mm) 600 600 600
B Actual Level (LG) (mm) 598 598 598
C Actual Level (LI) (mm) 602 602 602
D Temperature (TG) (0C) 40.2 40.2 40.2
E Deviation = |B-C| (mm) 4 4 4

RUN III SET 1 SET 2 AVERAGE


A Suggested Level (mm) 500 500 500
B Actual Level (LG) (mm) 500 500 500
C Actual Level (LI) (mm) 506 506 506
0
D Temperature (TG) ( C) 39.8 39.8 39.8
E Deviation = |B-C| (mm) 6 6 6

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RUN IV SET 1 SET 2 AVERAGE
A Suggested Level (mm) 400 400 400
B Actual Level (LG) (mm) 400 400 400
C Actual Level (LI) (mm) 407 407 407
D Temperature (TG) (0C) 39.8 39.8 39.8
E Deviation = |B-C| (mm) 7 7 7

RUN V SET 1 SET 2 AVERAGE


A Suggested Level (mm) 300 300 300
B Actual Level (LG) (mm) 300 300 300
C Actual Level (LI) (mm) 304 304 304
D Temperature (TG) (0C) 39.5 39.5 39.5
E Deviation = |B-C| (mm) 4 4 4

The objective of this experiment firstly is to differentiate the reading of the direct
measurement and indirect measurement. Then to compare this two type of measurement between
open and closed tank. For this particular experiment, there are four conditions to compare the
reading between the direct and indirect measurement. These conditions are tank T1 as open tank
heater on and lastly T1 as closed tank and heater on. Each condition is run 5 times with each run
having two sets of reading to obtain an average reading.

Based on the result, looking at only run 1 table 1, 2, 3, and 4 it shows that the condition
where tank T1 as closed tank and heater on has the highest reading difference between the level
indicator of the front panel(LI) which is the direct measurement with the sight glass with
millimeter scale (LG) which is indirect measurement. The difference error is about an average of
7. The condition where tank T1 as closed tank and heater off is come second place with error 4.
When heater is off, there is pressure in tank still exist but is not in excited state. Differ from

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when heater is on, the heat helps to make the pressure excited resulting in greater difference of
LG and LI, whereas tank T1 as open tank and heater off have no error.

The theory that if it is a closed tank, changes of gas pressure will cause a charge in
transmitter output, pressure exerted by the gas phase maybe so high that the hydrostatic pressure
become insignificants. From the result it shows that the two condition which T1 as closed tank
gives larger difference that T1 as open tank because of pressure rise. This is due to atmospheric
pressure in open tank while in closed tank only pressure exists inside the tank. In open tank, the
vapour being released from the chamber while closed tank is vapours being released and
maintains its pressure. There are some errors in this experiments which are, the reading were not
accurately recorded. The next error is, the time taken for next reading are not constant, and the
temperature is affected by surrounding temperature.

CONCLUSION AND RECOMMANDATIONS

The conclusion of this experiment is where tank T1 as closed tank and heater on has the
highest reading difference between the level indicator of the front panel(LI) which is the direct
measurement with the sight glass with millimeter scale (LG) which is indirect measurement. The
difference error is about an average of 7. The condition where tank T1 as closed tank and heater
off is come second place with error 4. T1 as closed tank gives larger difference that T1 as open
tank because of pressure rise. This is due to atmospheric pressure in open tank while in closed
tank only pressure exists inside the tank. Recommendation for this experiment would be, the
sight glass level indicator should calibrate regularly to avoid huge difference between sight glass
and level indicator in the front panel. The air pressure regulator has to check frequently so that
the pressure will not fluctuate and affect the reading.

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TUTORIAL

1. Level is measured in many of the processes in the industry. List and explain the most
common reasons for measuring level.

Level is measured in many of the processes in the industry mostly to know the amplitude
or height of something with regard to other point of reference.

The water level in a tank could be the difference between some reference point like
empty or full, in meters, or maybe litres. This is so we know how full it is, and can work out
other things about usage.

The ground level across a field on a farm may be adjusted by making a specific slope to
provide a controlled flow of runoff water.

Signal level might be in a radio receiver or a sound recording studio - the receiver level
can be an indication that the system is working properly, as the level (strength) of the signal is
"normal". The sound studio, the level (strength) of the signal is adjusted so it won't overload the
recording media. If it is too weak background noise becomes an issue, too strong and distortion
follows.

2. Name the two methods of level measurement used in the experiment.

a) Manual level measurement method: sight glass with millimetre.


b) Electrical level measurement method: differential pressure/level transmitter.

3. How does the depth of a liquid correspond to changes in liquid pressure? Can a pressure
transmitter be used to measure level.
Water pressure is the result of the weight of all the water above pushing down on the
water below. As you go deeper into a body of water, there is more water above, and therefore a
greater weight pushing down. This is the reason water pressure increases with depth. The
pressure depends only upon the depth, and is the same anywhere at a given depth and in every
direction. Yes, a pressure transmitter can be used to measure level by simply connecting the high
side connection of the transmitter to the bottom of the tank and leave the low side open to the
atmosphere.

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4. The differential pressure transmitter is used to measure level in an open tank or closed
tank system. Discuss how this is done.

Open tank:

The high pressure side of the level transmitter is connected at the base of the tank
whereas the low pressure side of the level transmitter is vented to the atmosphere. The tank is
open to the atmosphere; therefore, it is necessary to use only the high pressure connection on the
transmitter. The low pressure side is vented to the atmosphere; therefore, the pressure differential
is the hydrostatic head, or weight, of the liquid in the tank. The maximum level that can be
measured by the level transmitter is determined by the maximum height of the liquid above the
transmitter. The minimum level that can be measured by the level transmitter is determined by
the point where the transmitter is connected to the tank.

Closed tank:

The high pressure connection of the level transmitter is connected to the tank at or below
the lower range value to be measured. The low pressure side of the level transmitter is connected
to a "reference leg" that is connected at or above the upper range value to be measured. The
liquid in the reference leg applies a hydrostatic head to the high pressure side of the transmitter,
and the value of this level is constant as long as the reference leg is maintained full. When the
high pressure side of the level transmitter is exposed to the hydrostatic head of the liquid plus the
gas or vapor pressure exerted on the liquid's surface, the gas or vapor pressure is equally applied
to the low and high pressure sides of the level transmitter. Therefore, the output of the transmitter
is directly proportional to the hydrostatic head pressure which is, the level in the tank.

5. Discuss briefly the possible errors affecting the accuracy in pressure / level measurement
as observed in the experiment.

Change in the fluid temperature, fluid density, fluid pressure, concentration and
composition change.

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6. What are the main objectives of a wet leg calibration?

To adjust the transmitter output at its minimum value when it measures differential
pressure produced by the liquid level at its minimum minus the wet leg pressure. While the
transmitter output at its maximum value when it measures differential pressure produced by the
liquid level at its maximum minus the wet leg pressure.

REFERENCES
1. [Anonymous A, 2013]
http://www.ask.com/question/what-is-the-function-of-a-gate-valve
[23rd March 2016]
2. [Keith Dooley, 1999 – 2013]
http://www.ehow.com/how-does_5009378_venting-valve-work.html
[23rd March 2016]
3. [Anonymous B, 2013]
http://www.nwhs.org/qna/BypassValves.html
[23rd March 2016]
4. [Anonymous C, 2013]
http://www.wisegeek.com/what-is-an-overflow-valve.htm
[23rd March 2016]
5. [Tom Raley, 1999 – 2013]
http://www.ehow.com/facts_4967838_what-globe-valve.html
[23rd March 2016]
6. [Anonymous D, 2013]
http://www.omega.com/prodinfo/pressuregauges.html
[23rd March 2016]
7. [Anonymous E, 2013]
http://www.thefreedictionary.com/pump
[23rd March 2016]
http://www.ehow.com/about_6556057_water-pressure-increase-depth_.html
[23rd March 2016]

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APPENDIX

Sample calculation

Example:-
Refer from the table result:
Deviation =│B - C│(mm)
=│700 – 700│(mm)
= │0│(mm)
Average = set 1 + set 2
= 0+0/2
=0

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