Abstract  Highfrequency responses of HVDCMMC links are submodules (SMs) per arm and their modulation strategies,
essential to study because harmonic and resonance phenomena which is specific to the manufacturer and/or project.
may impact the AC grid. In this paper, EMTtype simulations are In HVDC projects, vendors and utilities perform harmonic
used to analyze converter station’s frequency response. Several and resonance studies. These studies are conducted in
MMC station and AC network parameters are varied to analyze frequency domain and/or using electromagnetic transient
their impact. In addition, an EMTtype test case, based on a
(EMT) tools. Frequency domain studies are used to assess
recent installed HVDC project, is used to illustrate potential
resonances that can occur between converter stations and AC
system stability [6] and are convenient for simulating a wide
networks. range of configurations and scenarios. To derive the frequency
response of a converter, analytical or small signal approaches
Keywords: EMTP, Harmonic, Resonance, Impedance Analysis, are commonly used. In [7][11] an analytical development of a
HVDC, Modular multilevel converter (MMC), Voltage source VSC station is presented. However, during real HVDC and
converter (VSC) FACTS projects, the EMTtype model provided by the
manufacturer is often hidden (or blackboxed) due to
I. INTRODUCTION intellectual property issue. Therefore, the analytical model
derivation is not possible or not sufficiently accurate. In
H igh Voltage Direct Current (HVDC) systems based on
the Modular Multilevel Converter (MMC) [1] is the
predominant topology used in recent and upcoming HVDC
addition, model linearization and derivation are challenging
and complex tasks since the MMC includes several variables
and complex control structures. In this paper, the derivation of
VSC projects. For instance, several HVDCMMC projects are
the frequency response of a converter station based on a black
currently planned or operated by RTE (French TSO), such as
box EMT model, presented in [18], is used. Since this EMT
the INELFE, FIL, IFA2, etc.
model includes the detailed representation of the converter
Harmonic emissions and resonances in a system may reduce station with its control system, this approach is more practical
the use of power and damage the insulation of the system than with an analytical model.
components if they are not limited properly. Furthermore, a This paper is an extended version of [18]. Several test cases
system malfunction may occur if the system has high voltage are performed to analyze the impact of MMC station
or current harmonic amplitudes. The harmonics which parameters (as MMC levels, control system, AC filter, etc.) on
propagate in the AC network and to power electronic the highfrequency response (i.e. harmonics and impedance).
components can cause overheating of equipment and In addition, the generic EMT test case where high frequency
interferences with communication circuits. resonances can occur between the AC network and the
Power electronic converters can cause instabilities and/or converter station presented in [18] is analyzed in this paper.
resonances when interacting with other equipment in a power Parametric sensitivity studies of the AC network is conducted
system. These phenomena can occur in a wide range of in order to assess the impact on system stability.
frequencies (up to few kHz). Low and high frequency The paper is structured as follows. Section II recalls
resonances have been registered in several power electronics
harmonics and resonance phenomena. Section III presents the
based projects: in offshore HVDC link high frequency
generic MMC401Level station and its control structure.
resonances [2] were noted. Instability with converters of a
Section IV illustrates the derivation of the frequency response
photovoltaic plant [3] and in traction applications [4] are
reported. In [5] low frequency oscillations are studied between based on the EMTtype model. Section V simulation results of
power electronic and power system devices. Power electronic the impact of converter station and ac network parameters are
converters inject harmonics in the grid mainly due to presented.
modulation and switching commutations. For a MMC station,
the injected harmonics depend mainly on the number of II. MMC STATION OVERVIEW
The generic EMT model includes the detailed
representation of the converter station with its control system,
H. Saad and Y. Fillion are with Réseau de Transport d'Electricité (RTE),
Paris, France (email: hani.saad@rtefrance.com). see Figure 1 [5]. The equivalent detailed MMC model where
each SM is represented, (i.e. Model #2 as defined in [13]) is
Paper submitted to the International Conference on Power Systems considered. The control system uses an upper level control
Transients (IPST2017) in Seoul, Republic of Korea June 2629, 2017 including inner/outer controllers and a lower level control to
regulate MMC internal variables: capacitor balancing become complex depending on the studied system and must be
algorithm (CBA) to balance SM capacitor voltages in each validated as several approximations are introduced. On the
arm, modulation to convert the reference voltage to a number other hand, the EMT simulations include the detailed models
of inserted SMs and circulating current control (CCC) to of the control system and power equipment. The obtained
regulate converter internal energy. More details can be found results are more realistic than with an analytical model,
in [17]. however simulation time constitutes the main drawback.
400 / 320 kV Larm = 0.075 pu This article uses the EMT simulation approach to derive
Ltrf = 0.12 pu C = 40 kJ / MVA Norton equivalent values at each harmonic rank h.
N = 400 SM
vPCC j Rtrf = 0.001 pu
1 2
+ IV. FREQUENCY RESPONSE BASED ON EMT SIMULATION
Vdc = 640 kV
ij The derivation of the equivalent Norton circuit (Figure 2)
Start Point

Reactor
measurements
based on time domain EMT simulation is briefly described in
gate signal
this section. The circuit setup is shown in Figure 3 and the
+
filters, delays, etc. Resonances have usually higher order of
magnitude than harmonics but their time intervals are
shorter since system protection is used to trip network Figure 3: Model setup to derive the equivalent Norton
devices. circuit
Figure 2 illustrates these two different aspects. The voltage
source ( vconvh ) or current source ( iconvh ) represents the Time Measure Compute Frequency
domain domain
+ iinjh vPCCh & ih iconvh & Zh studies
harmonic emissions and the impedance Z(f) (where f stands for
frequency) depends on control loops and physical equipment
which includes system resonances [14]. Since a converter Figure 4: Block diagram, Norton equivalent computation
station with its control system, is a nonlinear system,
equivalent circuit values depend on the setpoint operation of The derivation of the Norton equivalent circuit is also
the system and will vary when the converter configuration useful for frequency domain studies in power grid systems,
changes. since the computation time is much faster than with the
detailed EMTmodel.
It should be highlighted that this approach can be also used
+
Z ( s) vconvh
vconv Z (s) iconvh iconv1 in realtime simulators with hardwareintheloop simulation
vconv1 including the realphysical control system (or replicas). Such
+
vCi (pu)
filter will be installed at the converter station in order to limit 1
0.6 1.1
MMC 401L
vCi (pu)
0.4
1
0.2
0.9
0
0.91 0.915 0.92 0.925 0.93 0.935
Time (s) 0.8
0.6 0.61 0.62 0.63 0.64 0.65 0.66
15 Time (sec)
b) CBA#2 and C=25 kJ/MVA
MMC 11L
10 Figure 6: CBA impact, Capacitor voltages of SMs
i conv (A)
MMC 401L 8
5
CBA #2
6
iconv (A)
0 4
100 400 700 1000 1300 1600 1900 2200 2500 2800
Frequency (Hz) 2 CBA #1
2000
0
1500 100 300 500 700 900 1100 1300 1500 1700 1900 2100
MMC 401L
Z (ohm)
Frequency (Hz)
1000 2000
500 1500
MMC 11L
Z (ohm)
0 1000
100 400 700 1000 1300 1600 1900 2200 2500 2800 CBA#1
Frequency (Hz) CBA#2
500
Figure 5: Impact of MMC levels
0
100 400 700 1000 1300 1600 1900 2200 2500 2800
2) CBA impact Frequency (Hz)
In this section, the impact of the CBA over the frequency Figure 7: CBA impact, frequency response ( iconvh and Z )
response is investigated. The capacitor value and the threshold
activation [15] of the CBA are varied to get the extreme cases:
3) CCC impact
 CBA #1: threshold is set at 1% and C= 45 kJ/MVA
To analyze the circulating current control impact, the
 CBA #2: threshold is set at 50% and C =25 kJ/MVA
reference value of the second harmonic circulating current
Similar test case as in [18] has been used, however, a MMC control is varied between 0 and 0.1 pu, for CCC #1 and CCC
including 401Level is simulated instead of MMC11Level. #2 respectively. Similar test case as in [18] has been used,
however, a MMC including 401Level is simulated in this
paper, instead of MMC 11Level. Figure 8 shows the 2000
circulating current variation impact. Figure 9 shows the results without AC filter
1500
of iconvh and Z(f). Since the frequency response of both CCC
Z (ohm)
1000
configurations are close, it can be concluded that the
with AC filter
circulating current has a minor impact on the frequency 500
response from the AC side (as highlighted in [16]).
0
100 400 700 1000 1300 1600 1900 2200 2500 2800
0.1
Frequency (Hz)
CCC #2 CCC #1 100
0.2
Current (pu)
50
∠Z (deg)
0.3 without AC filter
0
0.4 with AC filter
50
0.5
0.6 0.61 0.62 0.63 0.64 0.65 0.66
100
Time (sec) 100 400 700 1000 1300 1600 1900 2200 2500 2800
6
VI. STABILITY ANALYSIS
iconv (A)
CCC #1
4 In [12] and [18], it has been shown that lowpass filters and
CCC #2
2 delays in converter station control can lead to negative
resistance in high frequency range. Therefore, this negative
0
100 300 500 700 900 1100 1300 1500 1700 1900 2100 resistance can lead to resonances or instability depending on
Frequency (Hz) the AC network configuration and parameters.
2000 To analyze the stability of a system, the considered circuit
CCC#1
1500 CCC#2
can be represented as a feedback loop system in the small
Z (ohm)
Z grid ( s )
0 iPCC ( s ) = vconv ( s ) (1)
1 + Z grid ( s ) / Z ( s )
100 400 700 1000 1300 1600 1900 2200 2500 2800
Frequency (Hz)
Figure 9: CCC impact, frequency response ( iconvh and Z ) where Z grid ( s ) is the equivalent impedance of the AC grid.
From equ. (1), the system is stable if the expression
B. Impedance studies
Z grid ( s ) / Z ( s ) is lower than one at each frequency. However,
In this section, the impact of control system parameters on
Z(f) is studied. if the Nyquist criterion is not met, and in addition, the angle
1) Inner control loop and time delay ∠Z grid ( s ) / Z ( s ) is higher than ±1800, then the system
Inner control loop dynamic and time delay have an impact becomes unstable or sustained resonances will occur.
on Z(f). Results and analysis are provided in [18]: The impact Using the EMT time domain simulation, both Z ( s ) and
of the inner control is increased when the dynamic response of
Z grid ( s) can be computed, and system stability tools can be
the control loop is fast.
used.
2) Impact of AC filter at PCC The generic EMT test case where resonances can occur
Depending on Manufacturers and project specifications, AC between the AC network and the converter station presented in
filter equipment can be installed at PCC. To show the impact
[18] is analyzed in this section. Parametric sensitivity studies
of this device over the frequency response, in this section a
of the AC network is conducted, in order to assess the impact
lowpass filter is added at PCC to the MMC station model.
on system stability. The HVDCMMC 401 Level link is
Parameters of the lowpass filter are based on [19]. Note, that
in practice, this lowpass filter will be tuned according to connected to an AC network (Figure 11). Network 1 includes:
project specification, however, the scope of this section is only AC overhead lines, AC breaker “BRK”, shunt compensator of
to illustrate the impact of such equipment. Result comparisons 400 MVar and an equivalent Thevenin source with SCL equal
between converter station with and without the installation of to 20 GVA. Active power of 1,000 MW is transmitted from
the AC filter is depicted in Figure 10. It can be noticed that the Grid 1 to 2. The outer control strategy considers a DC
Z(f) is mainly affected by the AC filter installation for voltage/reactive power control on Station 2 and active/reactive
frequencies above 400 Hz. power control on Station 1.
2
10
800MVar 400MVar
HVDCMMC link Network 1
Zgrid/Z (ohm)
100MVar
Station 2 Station 1 PCC1 50km 0MVar
0
Overhead line 10
Grid 1
Grid 2
+
+
Cshunt 10
2
100 400 700 1000 1300 1600 1900 2200 2500 2800
Frequency (Hz)
Figure 11: EMT test case 140
∠(Zgrid/Z) (degree)
100
60 100MVar
In the following subsections, the impact of AC network 20
400MVar 0MVar
parameters is elaborated. 20
60 800MVar
100
A. Impact of AC line length 140
The impact of the line length parameter on the system 180
100 400 700 1000 1300 1600 1900 2200 2500 2800
stability is analyzed. AC overhead line length is varied ±10% Frequency (Hz)
from the initial 50km value. Figure 12 shows the EMT Figure 13: Impact of Cshunt
simulation results of the Z grid ( s) / Z ( s) amplitude and angle.
Line length has mainly an impact on the frequency C. Impact of shortcircuit level
resonance value. However, the frequency bandwidth that
exceeds the amplitude of one (threshold that guaranties the Shortcircuit level (SCL) of the Thevenin source (Grid 1) is
stability) is the same. In addition, the phase margin varied in this subsection. Figure 14 shows the result of
∠Z grid ( s) / Z ( s ) is close (and even slightly higher) to 1800, Z grid ( s) / Z ( s) for three different values: 50, 20 and 5 GVA.
which shows that resonances can occur in this specific Based on this result, it can be concluded that for high
frequency range. Indeed, in [18], time domain waveforms frequency resonances (>1 kHz), the short circuit level has a
illustrate such resonances. minor impact on the stability of the system.
2
2 10
10 SCL=5GVA
ACline=50km
Zgrid/Z (ohm)
SCL=20GVA
Zgrid/Z (ohm)
ACline=55km ACline=45km
0 SCL=50GVA
0 10
10
2
2 10
10 100 400 700 1000 1300 1600 1900 2200 2500 2800
100 400 700 1000 1300 1600 1900 2200 2500 2800
Frequency (Hz)
Frequency (Hz)
140
140
∠(Zgrid/Z) (degree)
100
∠(Zgrid/Z) (degree)
100
60
60
20
20
20
20 SCL=50GVA
ACline=50km 60
60
100 SCL=20GVA
100 ACline=55km ACline=45km 140
140 SCL=5GVA
180
180
100 400 700 1000 1300 1600 1900 2200 2500 2800
100 400 700 1000 1300 1600 1900 2200 2500 2800
Frequency (Hz)
Frequency (Hz)
Figure 12: Impact of AC line length Figure 14: Impact of SCL
2 AC lines IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, vol. 54, no. 6, pp. 3323
0 3334, Dec. 2007
10
[8] M. Cespedes and J. Sun, "Impedance Modeling and Analysis of Grid
Connected VoltageSource Converters," in IEEE Transactions on
3 AC lines Power Electronics, vol. 29, no. 3, pp. 12541261, March 2014
2
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100 400 700 1000 1300 1600 1900 2200 2500 2800 modeling of modular multilevel converters for system stability analysis,"
Frequency (Hz) Energy Conversion Congress and Exposition (ECCE), 2015 IEEE,
140 Montreal, QC, 2015, pp. 58225829
∠(Zgrid/Z) (degree)
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