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Energy & Forces Study Guide  

Due: Tuesday, February 13, 2018

The answer key to this study guide can be found on the class website under “8th Grade
Science” along with a blank copy for you to do this again as another way to quiz yourself.

Directions: Unless otherwise stated, all answers must be given in complete sentences. For math
problems, you will receive credit for writing the correct formula, a correct answer, correct units,
and showing your work. Calculators are permitted so long as you show the steps you took in the

Formulas: All formulas you will need are listed here. You must decide which equation to use.

1 d v f inal − v initial
W=FXd GPE=mgh KE= m(v)​2​ v= a=
2 t t

F net weight on Earth

F​net​=ma a=
m weight=
9.8 ​ g

1. What are the four types of friction? This may be a list.

a. Static
b. Sliding
c. Rolling
d. Fluid

2. Use friction to explain why cars can stop.

​While cars are driving, they have rolling friction. When a driver uses their brakes, they are
turning that rolling friction into sliding friction. This results in an increase in force between the
tires and the road, increasing friction and allowing the car to stop.

3. What determines the amount of friction between two objects?

Friction is determined by how hard objects are being pressed together and the material the
objects are made of (how many microscopic bumps are on the surfaces).

4. Name three different types of energy. This may be a list.

Any three are acceptable. Here are some examples: Light (radiant), thermal, mechanical,
potential, kinetic, electrical, chemical

5. What is energy?
Energy is the ability to make changes to matter

6. What are the two things that have to occur for work to be done? This may be a list.
a. Something must be moving
b. The movement of the object must be the same direction as the force being applied.

7. If you apply 200N of force to a car and it moves 3m, how much work was done to the
w=FXd w=200N X 3m 200X3= 600J

8. What is the law of Conservation of Energy?

The Law of Conservation of Energy states that energy cannot be created or destroyed, only
transferred to other types of energy.

9. What two things does kinetic energy depend on? This may be a list.
a. Mass
b. velocity

10. What is the difference between speed and velocity?

Speed only refers to the rate at which an object travels, but velocity includes speed and

11. Find the velocity of an object that travels south 20 miles for 1 hour.
v=d/t v= 20mi/1hr v=20mi/hr + south

12. What is the constant for gravity on Earth? (be sure to include units!)
The constant for gravity on Earth is 9.8m/s​2

13. What causes friction between objects?

Microscopic bumps on surfaces causes friction between objects

14. What do we mean when we say that something is accelerating?

When something is accelerating it can be speeding up, slowing down or changing directions

15. There is a bell at the top of a tower that is 45m high. The bell is being pulled down by
gravity with a force of 190N. What is the potential energy?
GPE= mgh GPE=190N X 9.8m/s​2.​ X 45m GPE= 83790J

16. What is the kinetic energy of a 2,000kg boat moving at 5m/s?

KE= ½ mv​2​ KE= ½(2000kg)(5m/s)​2 KE=½ (2000)(25) KE=1000X25

KE= 25,000J

17. What is the velocity of a 500kg elevator that has 4000J of kinetic energy?
KE= ½ mv​2​ 4000J=½(500kg)v​2​ 4000J= 250v​2​ 16=v​2 ​ v=4

18. What causes acceleration?

Acceleration is caused by a change in velocity

19. If an object’s acceleration is 0m/s​2​, does that mean that the object is at rest? Explain.
No. Acceleration is only represented by change in velocity. If an object is moving at constant
velocity and not changing directions, it can still be moving without accelerating.

20. How do we measure inertia?

Inertia is measured by an object’s mass. The more difficult an object is to accelerate, the more
mass it has, and therefore the more inertia.

21. Explain inertia.

Inertia is the tendency that all objects have to stay in motion or at rest unless acted on by an
external force.

Inertia is NOT a force!

22. What two things determine the amount of gravity between objects? This may be a list.
a. Mass of the objects
b. Distance between objects

23. What has gravity? Be specific!

Everything that has mass has gravity.

24. When a plane takes off from the runway, is it accelerating? Explain.
Yes, because it is speeding up and possibly changing directions.

25. If a racecar is advertised to accelerate from resting to 70km/hr in only 7 seconds, what is
the acceleration?

26. If it took Dave 6 hours to walk to Kaitlin’s house at 2km/hr, how far is it between their
houses? ​12km

27. A baseball is thrown 18m. It took 0.5s to get that far, so how fast was it traveling?


28. What is the more commonly known name for Newton’s Third Law?
Newton’s Third Law is more commonly known as the Law of Action and Reaction.

29. How does a change in mass affect the ability to accelerate an object?
An object with more mass is more difficult to accelerate, while an object with less mass is less
difficult to accelerate.

30. If your weight on Earth is 150lbs, what is your weight on the Sun if the Sun has a gravity
of 274 m/s​2​?

​4,193.87 lbs

31. What is the difference between the input and output of energy in a system?
An energy input is the energy added to a system. An output is the energy that leaves the system
by being transferred out of it to the surroundings.

32. When a planet is in orbit, is there acceleration? Explain.

Yes. A planet in orbit will always be accelerating because it is always changing directions as it

33. Explain the changes in potential and kinetic energy as a ball is being thrown into the air
and then falling back to the ground.
Holding the ball: potential energy, no kinetic.
Ball thrown: GPE transforms into KE until it reaches the highest height.
At the top of the throw: all GPE, no KE
Falling back down: GPE transforms into KE, with the greatest KE at the bottom of the fall
Ball hits ground: All KE transforms back to GPE (ball is at rest)
(​Drawing a picture for this one can help too!)

34. Draw a picture of a system of your choosing. In your drawing, label the following:
a. The input
b. The output
c. The transformations of energy

Answers will vary.

35. How do we refer to energy that results in a temperature increase to the surrounding
This is known as thermal energy.

36. If you pushed an isosceles triangle across a newly discovered planet with the same
gravitational pull as Earth with a force of 50N for 10m, how much work did you do?

37. What has GPE?

Everything has GPE.

38. How would you describe a force? List at least two forces.
A force is a push or a pull on an object. Examples include friction and gravity.

39. What three things does air resistance depend on? This may be a list.
a. Size
b. Shape
c. Speed

40. What two things does Newton’s Third Law say MUST happen in nature? This may be a
a. Force is exerted on an object by object A
b. Equal and opposite force is exerted back on object A by object B