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MULTI-DIMENSIONAL MODELING OF THE EFFECTS OF


SPLIT INJECTION SCHEME ON COMBUSTION AND
EMISSIONS OF DIRECT-INJECTION DIESEL
ENGINES AT FULL LOAD STATE

S. Jafarmadar*
Faculty of Engineering, University of Urmia
P.O. Box 57561-15311, Urmia, Iran
s.jafarmadar@mail.urmia.ac.ir

A. Zehni
Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, University of Tabriz
P.O. Box 57561-15311, Tabriz, Iran
alborz.zehni@gmail.com

*Corresponding Author

(Received: September 2, 2008 – Accepted in Revised Form: February 19, 2009)

Abstract One of the important problems in reducing pollutant emission from diesel engines is
trade-off between soot and NOx. Split injection is one of the most powerful tools that decrease soot
and NOx emissions simultaneously. At the present work, the effect of split injection on the
combustion process and emissions of a direct-injection diesel engine under full-load conditions is
investigated by the commercial CFD code AVL-FIRE. The study of injection timing and split
injection parameters, including the delay dwell and the fuel quantity injected between injection pulses
is carried out. Three different split injection schemes, in which 10-20-25 % of total fuel is injected in
the second pulse, have been considered. The results show that 25 % of total fuel injected in the second
pulse, reduces the total soot and NOx emissions effectively in DI diesel engines. In addition, the
optimum delay dwell between the pulses is about 25˚CA. The predicted values of combustion
process, emission and delay dwell by this CFD model show a good agreement with the corresponding
data of multi-zone phenomenological combustion model in the literature.

Keywords Split injection, Combustion, Emission, NOx, Soot

‫ ﺗﻘﺎﺑﻞ ﺁﻻﻳﻨﺪﻩ ﻫﺎﻱ ﺍﮐﺴﻴﺪ ﻧﻴﺘﺮﻭﮊﻥ ﻭ‬،‫ﭼﻜﻴﺪﻩ ﻳﮑﻲ ﺍﺯ ﻣﻬﻢ ﺗﺮﻳﻦ ﻣﺴﺎﺋﻞ ﺩﺭ ﮐﺎﻫﺶ ﺁﻻﻳﻨﺪﻩ ﻫﺎﻱ ﻣﻮﺗﻮﺭﻫﺎﻱ ﺩﻳﺰﻟﻲ‬
‫ ﺩﺭ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺗﺤﻘﻴﻖ ﺑﺎ‬.‫ ﺗﺰﺭﻳﻖ ﭼﻨﺪﮔﺎﻧﻪ ﻳﮑﻲ ﺍﺯ ﻗﻮﻱﺗﺮﻳﻦ ﺍﺑﺰﺍﺭﻫﺎ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﮐﺎﻫﺶ ﻫﻤﺰﻣﺎﻥ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺩﻭ ﺁﻻﻳﻨﺪﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ‬.‫ﺩﻭﺩﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ‬
‫ ﺗﺄﺛﻴﺮ ﺗﺰﺭﻳﻖ ﭼﻨﺪﮔﺎﻧﻪ ﺑﺮ ﻓﺮﺁﻳﻨﺪ ﺍﺣﺘﺮﺍﻕ ﻭ ﺁﻻﻳﻨﺪﮔﻲ ﻣﻮﺗﻮﺭ ﺩﻳﺰﻟﻲ‬،‫ﻧﺮﻡﺍﻓﺰﺍﺭ ﺗﺠﺎﺭﻱ ﺩﻳﻨﺎﻣﻴﮏ ﺳﻴﺎﻻﺕ ﻣﺤﺎﺳﺒﺎﺗﻲ ﻓﺎﻳﺮ‬
‫ ﺯﻣﺎﻥ ﺗﺰﺭﻳﻖ ﻭ ﭘﺎﺭﺍﻣﺘﺮﻫﺎﻱ ﺗﺰﺭﻳﻖ ﭼﻨﺪﮔﺎﻧﻪ ﮐﻪ ﺷﺎﻣﻞ ﺯﻣﺎﻥ ﺗﺄﺧﻴﺮ‬.‫ﺗﺰﺭﻳﻖ ﻣﺴﺘﻘﻴﻢ ﺗﺤﺖ ﺑﺎﺭ ﮐﺎﻣﻞ ﺑﺮﺭﺳﻲ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ‬
‫ ﺳﻪ ﺍﻟﮕﻮﻱ ﻣﺘﻔﺎﻭﺕ ﺗﺰﺭﻳﻖ ﮐﻪ ﺑﻪﺗﺮﺗﻴﺐ‬.‫ ﻣﻄﺎﻟﻌﻪ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ‬،‫ﻭ ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﺳﻮﺧﺖ ﺗﺰﺭﻳﻖﺷﺪﻩ ﺩﺭﺧﻼﻝ ﭘﺎﻟﺲﻫﺎﻱ ﺗﺰﺭﻳﻖ‬
‫ ﻧﺘﺎﻳﺞ ﻧﺸﺎﻥ ﻣﻲ ﺩﻫﻨﺪ ﮐﻪ‬.‫ ﺩﺭﺻﺪ ﮐﻞ ﺳﻮﺧﺖ ﺩﺭ ﭘﺎﻟﺲ ﺩﻭﻡ ﺗﺰﺭﻳﻖ ﻣﻲ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ ﺩﺭ ﻧﻈﺮ ﮔﺮﻓﺘﻪ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ‬۲۵ ‫ ﻭ‬۲۰ ،۱۰
‫ ﺩﺭﺻﺪ ﮐﻞ ﺳﻮﺧﺖ ﺗﺰﺭﻳﻖﺷﺪﻩ ﺩﺭ ﭘﺎﻟﺲ ﺩﻭﻡ ﺁﻻﻳﻨﺪﻩﻫﺎﻱ ﺍﮐﺴﻴﺪ ﻧﻴﺘﺮﻭﮊﻥ ﻭ ﺩﻭﺩﻩ ﺑﻪﻃﻮﺭ ﭼﺸﻤﮕﻴﺮ ﻭ ﻫﻤﺰﻣﺎﻥ ﺩﺭ‬۲۵
‫ ﺩﺭﺟﻪ ﻣﻴﻞ‬۲۵ ‫ ﺯﻣﺎﻥ ﺗﺄﺧﻴﺮ ﺑﻬﻴﻨﻪ ﺩﺭ ﺧﻼﻝ ﭘﺎﻟﺲ ﻫﺎﻱ ﺗﺰﺭﻳﻖ‬،‫ ﺑﻪ ﻋﻼﻭﻩ‬.‫ﻣﻮﺗﻮﺭ ﺩﻳﺰﻟﻲ ﺗﺰﺭﻳﻖ ﻣﺴﺘﻘﻴﻢ ﮐﺎﻫﺶ ﻣﻲ ﻳﺎﺑﺪ‬
‫ ﺁﻻﻳﻨﺪﮔﻲ ﻭ ﺗﺄﺧﻴﺮ ﭘﺎﻟﺲ ﻫﺎﻱ ﺗﺰﺭﻳﻖ ﺑﺎ ﻣﺪﻝ ﺩﻳﻨﺎﻣﻴﮏ ﺳﻴﺎﻻﺕ ﻣﺤﺎﺳﺒﺎﺗﻲ‬،‫ ﻧﺘﺎﻳﺞ ﭘﻴﺸﮕﻮﻳﻲ ﺷﺪﺓ ﺍﺣﺘﺮﺍﻕ‬.‫ﻟﻨﮓ ﺍﺳﺖ‬
.‫ ﺗﻮﺍﻓﻖ ﺧﻮﺑﻲ ﺭﺍ ﺑﺎ ﻧﺘﺎﻳﺞ ﺣﺎﺻﻞ ﺍﺯ ﻣﺪﻝﻫﺎﻱ ﺷﺒﻪﭼﻨﺪﺑﻌﺪﻱ ﻣﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﺩﺭ ﺍﺩﺑﻴﺎﺕ ﻓﻦ ﻧﺸﺎﻥ ﻣﻲﺩﻫﺪ‬،‫ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩﺷﺪﻩ‬

1. INTRODUCTION it seems to be very difficult to reduce NOx emission


without increasing soot emission. The reason is that
Stringent exhaust emission standards require the there always is a contradiction between NOx and
simultaneous reduction of soot and NOx. However soot emissions whenever the injection timing is

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retarded or advanced. Split injection has been Shayler, et al [7] used the KIVA-III to investigate
shown to be a powerful tool to simultaneously the influence of split main ratio and delay dwell on
reduce soot and NOx emissions when the injection NOx and soot emissions. Numerical conclusions
timing is optimized. However, an optimum injection show that when delay dwell is small, reducing ratio
scheme of split injection for DI diesel engines has spreads the heat release variation, lowering soot
been always under investigation. but raising NOx production. When delay dwell is
Li, et al [1] developed a multi-zone large, the second injection has very little influence
phenomenological combustion model, to study on soot production and oxidation associated with
split injection parameters, including delay dwell the first injection.
between injection pulses, and the fuel quantity Chryssakis, et al [8] studied the effect of
injected in the second pulse. The results predicted multiple injections on combustion and emissions of
by modeling showed that the optimum delay dwell a DI diesel engine by using experimental flame
among injection pulses for reducing soot and NOx visualization techniques and the multi-dimensional
emissions was about 25˚CA. code KIVA-III. The results show that employing a
Tow, et al [2] studied the effects of single, post-injection combined with a pilot injection
double and triple injection schemes on NOx and results in reduced soot formation from diffusion
soot emissions of a heavy duty DI diesel engine. combustion and enhances the soot oxidation
The results showed that double and triple injection process during the expansion stroke, resulting in
strategies, reduce NOx without increasing soot decreased smoke emissions, while the NOx
while injection timing is retarded. concentration is maintained in low levels.
Bakenhus, et al [3] confirmed the results of At the present work the effect of split injection
Tow, et al [2] by means of combustion visualization on combustion and pollution of a DI diesel engine
techniques. has been investigated by the commercial CFD code
With developing the numerical methods and AVL-FIRE. Study of injection timing and split
computers, it is interested to develop computational injection parameters, including the delay dwell and
models, to help understanding the detailed the fuel quantity injected between injection pulses
effects of injection parameters upon combustion is carried out. The engine tests show maximum
characteristics and emission, therefore CFD can emissions of NOx and soot at the engine speed of
greatly assist about this subject. 1400 rpm and full load state [9]. Hence, the
Patterson, et al [4] used the KIVA-II to study calculations are done for the mentioned above
the effect of injection timing, injection pressure conditions. Three different split injection schemes
and split injection on emissions for a fast rising in which 10-20-25 % of total fuel is injected in the
injection profile. The results show that when second pulse have been considered.
compared to the single injection case, an additional
high temperature region is observed between the
separate spray clouds with split injection. This
promotes local NOx formation while enhancing 2. PROBLEM STATEMENT
soot oxidation.
Bianchi, et al [5] investigated the capability of The specification and operating conditions of the
split injection in reducing NOx and soot emissions diesel engine are described in Table 1.
of HSDI Diesel engines by CFD code KIVA-III. The computational mesh was created using
Computational results indicate that split injection is AVL ESE Diesel Tool [10]. Details of the
very effective in reducing NOx, while soot computational mesh used are given in Figure 1.
reduction is related to a better use of the oxygen The computation used a 90 degree sector mesh (the
available in the combustion chamber. diesel injector has four Nozzle holes) with 25
Tatschi, et al [6] studied the impact of combustion nodes in the radial direction, 20 nodes in the
variations such as EGR, SOI and split injection on azimuthal direction and 5 nodes in the squish
a turbo-charged DI diesel engine by the CFD code region at top dead center. The ground of the bowl
FIRE. The predicted values by the modeling, showed has been meshed with two continuous layers for a
a good agreement with the experimental data. proper calculation of the heat transfer through

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TABLE 1. Engine Specifications [1]. 2.1. Spray and Combustion Models The
standard WAVE model, described in [13] was used
Engine: OM-355 Piston Shape: for the primary and secondary atomization modeling
Diesel Cylindrical Bore of the resulting droplets. In this model the growth of
Make and Model: No. of Nozzles/Injector: an initial perturbation on a liquid surface is linked to
Mercedes–Benz 4 its wave length and to other physical and dynamic
Type: Heavy Duty D.I Nozzle Opening parameters of the injected fuel and the domain
Diesel Engine Pressure: 195 (bar) fluid. Drop parcels are injected with characteristic
Cylinders: 6, in-Line- IVC: 61˚C A After size equal to the nozzle exit diameter (blob
Vertical BDC injection). The injection rate profile is rectangular
Bore Stroke: 128 EVO: 60˚CA Before type and consists of four injection schemes, i.e.
(mm) 150 (mm) BDC single injection and three split injection cases.
Max. Power: 240 (HP) The Dukowicz model was applied for treating
Capacity: 11.58 (lit) the heat-up and evaporation of the droplets, which
at 2200 (rpm)
is described in [11,14]. This model assumes a
Compression Ratio: Max. Torque: 824 N m
uniform droplet temperature. In addition, the rate
16.1:1 at 1400 (rpm)
of droplet temperature change is determined by the
heat balance, which states that the heat convection
from the gas to the droplet either heats up the
droplet or supplies heat for vaporization.
A stochastic dispersion model was employed to
take the effect of interaction between the particles
and the turbulent eddies into account by adding a
fluctuating velocity to the mean gas velocity [11].
This model assumes that the fluctuating velocity
has a randomly Gaussian distribution. The spray-
wall interaction model used in the simulations was
based on the spray-wall impingement model
described in [15]. This model assumes that a
droplet, which hits the wall is affected by rebound
or reflection based on the Weber number.
Figure 1. Computational mesh with diesel spray drops at The Shell auto-ignition model was used for
350˚CA, single injection case. modeling of the autoignition [11,16,17]. In this
generic mechanism, 6 generic species for hydrocarbon
fuel, oxidizer, total radical pool, branching agent,
intermediate species and products were involved. In
addition the important stages of autoignition such as
the piston wall. The final mesh consists of a initiation, propagation, branching and termination
hexahedral dominated mesh. Number of cells in were presented by generalized reactions, described
the mesh was about 64,000 and 36,000 at BDC and in [11,16,17].
TDC, respectively. The present resolution was The Eddy Break-up model (EBU) based on the
found to give adequately grid independent results. turbulent mixing was used for modeling of the
The governing equations for unsteady, combustion in the bowl [11]. This model assumes
compressible, turbulent flow and thermal fields that in premixed turbulent flames, the reactants
were solved from IVC to EVO by the commercial (fuel and oxygen) are contained in the same eddies
CFD code AVL-FIRE [11]. The k-ε model was and are separated from eddies containing hot
used for taking the turbulence field into account. combustion products. The rate of dissipation of
Details about the in-cylinder flow in a DI engine these eddies determines the rate of combustion.
with the similar specifications to OM-355 diesel In other words, chemistry occurs fast and the
engine have been studied in the reference [12]. combustion is mixing controlled.

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2.2. Emission Models The Zeldovitch mechanism 1.40E+03

[11] was used for prediction of NOx formation. 1.20E+03


The soot formation rate [11] is described as a 1.00E+03
model which is based on the difference between

NOx (ppm)
soot formation and soot oxidation. 8.00E+02 ■ measured
- - calculated
6.00E+02

4.00E+02

3. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 2.00E+02

0.00E+00
Figure 2 shows the cylinder pressure and the rate 350 370 390 410 430 450 470 490
of heat release for the single injection case. As can Crank Angle (Deg)

be seen from HRR curve, the peak of the heat


release rate occurs at 358˚CA (2˚CA before TDC). Figure 3. Comparison of calculated and measured [9] NOx
emission, single injection case.
The premixed combustion occurs with a steep
slope and it can be one of the major sources of
NOx formation. The good agreement of predicted
in-cylinder pressure with the experimental data [9] 1.00E+01
can be observed. 9.00E+00
Figures 3 and 4 imply that the predicted total in- 8.00E+00
■ measured
cylinder NOx and soot emissions for the single 7.00E+00 - - calculated
injection case, agree well with the engine-out
Soot (mg/lit)

6.00E+00
measurements [9]. 5.00E+00
Figure 5 shows the trade-off between NOx and 4.00E+00

soot emissions at EVO when the injection timing is 3.00E+00

varied. As indicated, the general trends of reduction 2.00E+00

in NOx and increase in soot when injection timing 1.00E+00

is retarded can be observed and it is independent 0.00E+00


350 370 390 410 430 450 470 490
on injection strategy. The reason is that it causes Crank Angle (Deg)
the time residence and ignitions delay to be
shorter, resulting in a less intense premixed burn Figure 4. Comparison of calculated and measured [9] soot
and soot formation increases; in addition, the emission, single injection case.
less temperature in different parts of combustion
chamber keeps the soot oxidation low but decreases
1.6 1400

1.4 1200
140 8
1.2
■ measured 7 1000
C ylin d er P re ss u re (M p a )

120
- - calculated
Soot (mg/lit)

1
6 800
100
H R R (J/D e g )

Speed = 1400 rpm 5 0.8


80
Inj Timing = 342ºCA 4
600
0.6
60 Intake Temperature = 300k
3 400
0.4 Soot NOx
40
2
0.2 200
20 1
0 0 0 0
300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19

Crank Angle (Deg) Fuel Injection Timing (CA, BTDC)

Figure 2. HRR and comparison of calculated and measured Figure 5. The effect of injection timing on NOx and Soot
[9] in-cylinder pressure, single injection case. trade-off, single injection case.

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the formation of thermal NOx. 1.20E+00


First pulse 90% second pulse10%
1.80E+03
To simulate the split injection, the original 1.00E+00
1.60E+03
single injection profiles are divided into two 1.40E+03

S o o t (m g /lit)
injection pulses without altering the injection 8.00E-01 1.20E+03

N O x (p p m )
1.00E+03
profile and magnitude. In order to obtain the 6.00E-01
8.00E+02
optimum dwell time between the injections, three
4.00E-01 Soot 6.00E+02
different schemes including 10 %, 20 % and 25 %
NOx 4.00E+02
of the total fuel injected in the second pulse are 2.00E-01
2.00E+02
considered. 0.00E+00 0.00E+00
Figure 6 shows the effect of delay dwell 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35
between injection pulses on soot and NOx Delay Dwell (CA)
emissions for the three split injection cases. For all
the cases, the injection timing of the first injection (a)
pulse is fixed at 342˚CA.
The variation trend of curves in Figure 6 is very 1.20E+00
First pulse 80% second pulse20%
1.80E+03

similar to the numerical results obtained by Li, et 1.00E+00


1.60E+03
1.40E+03
al [1]. As can be seen, the optimum delay dwell
S o o t (m g /lit)
8.00E-01 1.20E+03
between the injection pulses for reducing soot with

N O x (p p m )
1.00E+03
low NOx emissions is about 25˚CA. The results of 6.00E-01
8.00E+02
reference [1], which has used a phenomenological 4.00E-01 6.00E+02
combustion model, confirm this conclusion. Soot 4.00E+02
Table 2 compares Exhaust NOx and soot 2.00E-01 NOx
2.00E+02
emissions for the single injection and optimum 0.00E+00 0.00E+00
split injection cases for the optimum delay dwell. 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35
As shown, for the 7 5 % (25) 25 % case, NOx and Delay Dwell (CA)
soot emissions are lower than the other cases. It is
due to the fact that the premixed combustion (b)
which is the main source of the NOx formation is
1.20E+00 1.80E+03
relatively low. Higher amounts of the second First pulse 75% second pulse25%
1.60E+03
injection pulse into the lean and hot combustion 1.00E+00
1.40E+03
zones cause the newly injected fuel to burn rapidly
S o o t (m g /lit)

8.00E-01 1.20E+03

N O x (p p m )
and efficiently at high temperatures, resulting in 1.00E+03
high soot oxidation rates. In addition, the heat 6.00E-01
8.00E+02
released by the second injection pulse is not 4.00E-01 6.00E+02
sufficient to increase the NOx emissions. Figures7 Soot 4.00E+02
2.00E-01
and 8 confirm the explanations. NOx 2.00E+02
Figure 7 shows the cylinder pressure and heat 0.00E+00 0.00E+00
release rates for the three split injection cases in 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35
the optimum delay dwell i.e. 25˚CA. As shown, Delay Dwell (CA)
split injection reduces the amount of premixed
burn compared to the single injection case in (c)
Figure 2. The second peak which appears in heat Figure 6. The variation of soot and NOx at different delay
release rate curves of split injection cases indicates dwells, split injection cases.
that a rapid diffusion burn is realized at the late
combustion stage and it affects the in-cylinder
pressure and temperature. The calculated results of
the cylinder pressure and HRR for the optimum the single injection and optimum split injection
split injection cases show very good similarity with cases. For the split injection cases, two peaks due
the results of the reference [1]. to the first and second injection pulses in contrast
Figure 8 indicates the cylinder temperature for with the one peak in the single injection case can

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TABLE 2. Comparison of NOx and Soot Emissions Among 140 8


the Single Injection and Optimum Split Injection Cases for 120 7
90% (25) 10%

C y lin d e r P re s s u re (M p a )
the Optimum Delay Dwell (25˚CA).
6
100

H H R (J /D e g )
5
NOx Soot 80
Case
(ppm) (mg/lit) 60
4
3
Single Inj 1220 0.82 40
2
Split Inj - 90 % (25) 10 % 1250 0.697 20 1

Split Inj - 80 % (25) 20 % 1230 0.614 0 0


300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480
Split Inj - 75 % (25) 25 % 1180 0.541 Crank Aangle (Deg)

(a)
140 8
be observed. As shown, for the 75 % (25) 25 % 120 7

C y lin d e r P re s s u re (M p a )
80% (25) 20%
case, the first and second peaks which are related 6
100
to the premixed combustion and NOx formation
H R R (J /D e g )
5
are lower than the other cases. In addition, after the 80
4
second peak, the cylinder temperature tends to 60
3
increase more in comparison with the other cases 40
2
and causes more soot oxidation. Hence, for the 75 %
20 1
(25) 25 % case, NOx and soot emissions are lower
than the other optimum cases. 0 0
300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480
Figure 9 shows the isothermal contour plots at
Crank Angle (Deg)
different crank angle degrees for the 75 % (25) 25 %
case at a cross-section just above the piston bowl.
(b)
The rapid increase in temperature due to the
stoichiometric combustion can be observed at 140 8
355˚CA. The injection termination and maximum 120 7

C ylinder P ressure (M pa)


cylinder temperature can be observed at 360˚CA. 75% (25) 25%
6
100
At 370˚CA, the fuel injection has been cut off and
H R R (J/D eg)

5
the cylinder temperature tends to become lower. 80
4
As described, injection termination and resumption 60
3
prevents not only fuel rich combustion zones but 40
2
also causes more complete combustion due to 20 1
better air utilization. The resumption of the
0 0
injection can be observed at 380˚CA, which causes
300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480
diffusion combustion and increases the temperature Crank Angle (Deg)
in the cylinder. At 390˚CA, the increase in cylinder
temperature creates bony shape contours and soot (c)
oxidation increases.
Figure 10 compares the contour plots of NOx, Figure 7. Cylinder HRR and pressure curves, optimum split
injection cases.
temperature, equivalence ratio and soot for the
single injection and 75 % (25) 25 % cases in a
plane through the center of the spray at 380˚CA.
As explained above, 380˚CA corresponds to a time
when the second injection pulse has just started for 2000 K is the NOx formation area. In addition, the
the 75 % (25) 25 % case. For the two described cases, area which the equivalence ratio is higher than 3
it can be seen that the area in which the equivalence and the temperature is approximately between
ratio is close to 1 and the temperature is higher than 1600 K and 2000 K is the soot formation area.

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1800

1600

Cylinder Temperature (K)


1400

1200

1000
Single Inj
800 90% (25) 10%
80% (25) 20%
600
75% (25) 25%
400

200

0
300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480
Crank Angle (Deg)

Figure 8. Comparison of cylinder temperature among the single injection


and optimum split injection cases.

(a) (b) (c)

(d) (e) (f)

Figure 9. Isothermal contour plots of 75 % (25) 25 % case at different crank angle degrees,
(a) 345˚CA, (b) 355˚CA, (c) 360˚CA (d) 370˚CA, (e) 380˚CA and (f) 390˚CA.

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(a) (b)
Figure 10. contour plots of NOx, temperature, equivalence ratio, and soot with fuel droplets at380˚CA for the single injection
and 75 % (25) 25 % cases, (a): Single injection case and (b): Split injection case-75 % (25) 25 %.

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A local soot-NOx trade-off is evident in these quantity of the second injection into the lean
contour plots, as the NOx formation and soot and hot combustion zones, leads to high soot
formation occur on opposite sides of the high oxidation rates. In addition, the heat released
temperature region. It can be seen that for the 75 % by the second injection pulse is not
(25) 25 % case, NOx and soot mass fractions are sufficient to increase the NOx emissions.
lower in comparison with the single injection case. • Contour plots of NOx, temperature,
Because of the optimum delay dwell, the second equivalence ratio and soot for the single
injection pulse, maintains the low NOx and soot injection and 75 % (25) 25 % cases at
emissions until EVO. 380˚CA show that the area which the
equivalence ratio is close to 1 and the
temperature is higher than 2000 K is the
NOx formation area. In addition, the area
4. CONCLUSION which the equivalence ratio is higher than 3
At the present work, the effects of split injection on and the temperature is approximately
combustion and pollution of a DI diesel engine between 1600 K and 2000 K is the Soot
have been investigated using multi-dimensional formation area.
CFD code AVL-FIRE. The study of injection
timing and split injection parameters, including the
delay dwell between injection pulses and the fuel
quantity injected in the second pulse were carried 5. NOMENCLATURE
out. Hence, three different split injection schemes, BDC Bottom Dead Center
in which 10-20-25 % of total fuel was injected in CA Crank Angle (Deg)
the second pulse, were considered. Because of the DI Direct Injection
maximum emissions of NOx and soot at the engine EGR Exhaust Gas Recirculation
speed of 1400 rpm and full load state, the EVO Exhaust Valve Opening
calculations were based on the described conditions. HSDI High Speed Direct Injection
It was concluded that: IVC Inlet Valve Closure
• A good agreement among predicted in- SOI Start of Injection
cylinder pressure and exhaust NOx and soot TDC Top Dead Center
emissions with the experimental data can be HRR Heat Release Rate
observed.
• Advancing or retarding the injection timing
can not decrease the soot and NOx trade-off
by itself. Hence split injection is needed. 6. REFERENCES
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