Você está na página 1de 36

COMPARATIVE ANATOMY OF HEART, AORTIC ARCHES AND PORTAL SYSTEM

Vertebrate Circulatory Systems:


1. Transport gases, nutrients, waste products, hormones, heat, & various other materials
2. Consist of heart, arteries, capillaries, & veins:
a. Arteries
i. carry blood away from the heart
ii. have muscular, elastic walls
iii. terminate in capillary beds
b. Capillaries
i. have very thin walls (endothelium only)
ii. are the site of exchange between the blood and body cells
c. Veins
i. carry blood back to the heart
ii. have less muscle in their walls than arteries but the walls are very elastic
iii. begin at the end of capillary beds
d. Heart
i. a muscular pump (cardiac muscle)
ii. contains a pacemaker to regulate rate but rate can also be influenced by
the Autonomic Nervous System

SIMPLE CIRCULATORY SYSTEMS

The circulatory system varies from simple systems in invertebrates to more complex
systems in vertebrates. The simplest animals, such as the sponges (Porifera) and rotifers
(Rotifera), do not need a circulatory system because diffusion allows adequate exchange of
water, nutrients, and waste, as well as dissolved gases (figure a). Organisms that are more
complex, but still have only two layers of cells in their body plan, such as jellies (Cnidaria) and
comb jellies (Ctenophora), also use diffusion through their epidermis and internally through the
gastrovascular compartment. Both their internal and external tissues are bathed in an aqueous
environment and exchange fluids by diffusion on both sides (figure b). Exchange of fluids is
assisted by the pulsing of the jellyfish body.

Animals without circulatory systems

Simple animals consisting of a single cell layer, such as the (a) sponge, or only a few cell
layers, such as the (b) jellyfish, do not have a circulatory system. Instead, gases, nutrients, and
wastes are exchanged by diffusion.
For more complex organisms, diffusion is not efficient for cycling gases, nutrients, and
waste effectively through the body; therefore, more complex circulatory systems evolved. Closed
circulatory systems are a characteristic of vertebrates; however, there are significant differences
in the structure of the heart and the circulation of blood between the different vertebrate groups
due to adaptation during evolution and associated differences in anatomy.

Fish Circulatory Systems

Dr.C.V.Narasimha murthy .Associate professor (Contract), VSUPGCenter,Kavali. M.Sc.Zoology, notes-2016


Fish have a single circuit for blood flow and a two-chambered heart that has only a single
atrium and a single ventricle (figure a). The atrium collects blood that has returned from the
body, while the ventricle pumps the blood to the gills where gas exchange occurs and the blood
is re-oxygenated; this is called gill circulation. The blood then continues through the rest of the
body before arriving back at the atrium; this is called systemic circulation. This unidirectional
flow of blood produces a gradient of oxygenated to deoxygenated blood around the fish's
systemic circuit. The result is a limit in the amount of oxygen that can reach some of the organs
and tissues of the body, reducing the overall metabolic capacity of fish.

(a) Fish have the simplest circulatory systems of the vertebrates: blood flows unidirectional from
the two-chambered heart through the gills and then to the rest of the body.
(b) Amphibians have two circulatory routes: one for oxygenation of the blood through the lungs
and skin, and the other to take oxygen to the rest of the body. The blood is pumped from a three-
chambered heart with two atria and a single ventricle.
(c) Reptiles also have two circulatory routes; however, blood is only oxygenated through the
lungs. The heart is three chambered, but the ventricles are partially separated so some mixing of
oxygenated and deoxygenated blood occurs, except in crocodilians and birds.
(d) Mammals and birds have the most efficient heart with four chambers that completely
separate the oxygenated and deoxygenated blood; it pumps only oxygenated blood through the
body and deoxygenated blood to the lungs.

Amphibian Circulatory Systems


In amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals, blood flow is directed in two circuits: one
through the lungs and back to the heart (pulmonary circulation) and the other throughout the rest
of the body and its organs, including the brain (systemic circulation).
Amphibians have a three-chambered heart that has two atria and one ventricle rather than
the two-chambered heart of fish (figure b). The two atria receive blood from the two different
circuits (the lungs and the systems). There is some mixing of the blood in the heart's ventricle,
which reduces the efficiency of oxygenation. The advantage to this arrangement is that high
pressure in the vessels pushes blood to the lungs and body. The mixing is mitigated by a ridge
within the ventricle that diverts oxygen-rich blood through the systemic circulatory system and
deoxygenated blood to the pulmocutaneous circuit where gas exchange occurs in the lungs and
through the skin. For this reason, amphibians are often described as having double circulation.

Reptile Circulatory Systems

Most reptiles also have a three-chambered heart similar to the amphibian heart that directs
blood to the pulmonary and systemic circuits (figure c). The ventricle is divided more effectively
by a partial septum, which results in less mixing of oxygenated and deoxygenated blood. Some
reptiles (alligators and crocodiles) are the most primitive animals to exhibit a four-chambered
heart. Crocodilians have a unique circulatory mechanism where the heart shunts blood from the
lungs toward the stomach and other organs during long periods of submergence; for instance,
while the animal waits for prey or stays underwater waiting for prey to rot. One adaptation
includes two main arteries that leave the same part of the heart: one takes blood to the lungs and
the other provides an alternate route to the stomach and other parts of the body. Two other

Dr.C.V.Narasimha murthy .Associate professor (Contract), VSUPGCenter,Kavali. M.Sc.Zoology, notes-2016


adaptations include a hole in the heart between the two ventricles, called the foramen of Panizza,
which allows blood to move from one side of the heart to the other, and specialized connective
tissue that slows the blood flow to the lungs. Together, these adaptations have made crocodiles
and alligators one of the most successfully-evolved animal groups on earth.

Mammal and Bird Circulatory Systems

In mammals and birds, the heart is also divided into four chambers:
two atria and two ventricles (figure d). The oxygenated blood is
separated from the deoxygenated blood, which improves the
efficiency of double circulation and is probably required for the
warm-blooded lifestyle of mammals and birds. The four-chambered
heart of birds and mammals evolved independently from a three-
chambered heart.

COMPARATIVE ANATOMY OF HEART

All vertebrates possess a heart – a hollow muscular organ


composed of cardiac muscle fibres. The function of the heart is to
pump oxygen to all parts of the body. The evolution of the heart is based on the separation of
oxygenated blood from deoxygenated blood for efficient oxygen transport. In fishes, the heart
was like a hollow tube. This evolved into the four-chambered heart in mammals.

Vertebrate Hearts:

Piscean heart

Fish has only two chambers in its heart – one auricle and
one ventricle. Since both the auricle and the ventricle
remain undivided, only deoxygenated blood passes
through it. The deoxygenated blood enters the gills for
oxygenation from the ventricle. It has additional
chambers such as sinus venous and conus arteriosus

Cartilaginous fishes
1. Single-circuit heart with 4 chambers: sinus
venous, atrium, ventricle, & conus arteriosus
a. the sinus venous receives blood & is
filled by suction when the ventricle
contracts & enlarges the pericardial cavity
b. the atrium is a thin-walled muscular sac; an A-V valve regulates flow between
atrium & ventricle
c. the ventricle has thick, muscular walls

Dr.C.V.Narasimha murthy .Associate professor (Contract), VSUPGCenter,Kavali. M.Sc.Zoology, notes-2016


d. the conus arteriosus leads into the ventral aorta (and a series of conal valves in the
conus arteriosus prevent the backflow of blood)

Teleosts - heart is similar to that of cartilaginous fishes, except a bulbous arteriosus (a muscular
extension of the ventral aorta) is present rather than a conus arteriosus (a muscular extension of
the ventricle)

Amphibian heart

Amphibians, such as frogs, have three-chambered


hearts, with two auricles and one ventricle. The
auricle is divided into a right and a left chamber
by an inter-auricular septum, while the ventricle
remains undivided.
Additional chambers such as sinus venous
and conus arteriosus are also present. The
oxygenated blood from the lungs enters the left auricle and simultaneously, the deoxygenated
blood from the body enters the right auricle. Both these auricles empty into the ventricle,
wherein the oxygenated and deoxygenated blood get mixed to some extent.

Lungfish & amphibians - modifications are correlated with the presence of lungs & enable
oxygenated blood returning from the lungs to be separated from
deoxygenated blood returning from elsewhere
1. Partial or complete partition within atrium (complete in anurans and
some urodeles)
2. Partial interventricular septum (lungfish) or ventricular trabeculae
(amphibians) to maintain separation of oxygenated & unoxygenated
blood
3. Formation of a spiral valve in the conus arteriosus of many dipnoans
and amphibians. The spiral valve alternately blocks & unblocks the
entrances to the left and right pulmonary arches (sending
unoxygenated blood to the skin & lungs).

Dr.C.V.Narasimha murthy .Associate professor (Contract), VSUPGCenter,Kavali. M.Sc.Zoology, notes-2016


4. Shortening of ventral aorta, which helps ensure that the oxygenated & unoxygenated
blood kept separate in the heart moves directly into the appropriate vessels

5 = ventricle, 11 = right atrium, 12 = left atrium, 13 = conus arteriosus


Amniotes:
1 - Heart consists of 2 atria & 2 ventricles &, except in adult birds & mammals, a sinus venous
2 - Complete intertribal septum
3 - Complete interventricular septum only in crocodilians, birds, & mammals; partial septum
in other amniotes

Used by permission of John W. Kimball

Reptilian heart

Dr.C.V.Narasimha murthy .Associate professor (Contract), VSUPGCenter,Kavali. M.Sc.Zoology, notes-2016


Reptiles have incomplete four-chambered hearts,
except for crocodiles, alligators, and gharials.
They have only one accessory chamber called
sinus venous. The reptilian heart also shows
mixed blood circulation.

Avian and mammalian hearts

They have two pairs of chambers for


separating oxygenated and deoxygenated bloods.
The heart is divided into four chambers. The

upper two chambers are called atria and


the lower two chambers are called ventricles. The
chambers are separated by a muscular wall that
prevents the mixing of the blood rich in oxygen
with the blood rich in carbon dioxide.

Dr.C.V.Narasimha murthy .Associate professor (Contract), VSUPGCenter,Kavali. M.Sc.Zoology, notes-2016


Dr.C.V.Narasimha murthy .Associate professor (Contract), VSUPGCenter,Kavali. M.Sc.Zoology, notes-2016
Dr.C.V.Narasimha murthy .Associate professor (Contract), VSUPGCenter,Kavali. M.Sc.Zoology, notes-2016
Comparative anatomy of Aortic Arches

Aortic arches are paired blood vessels that emerge from the ventricle of the heart which are
basically similar in number and disposition in different vertebrates during the embryonic stages.

Embryonic aortic arches: During the embryonic stages—

Dr.C.V.Narasimha murthy .Associate professor (Contract), VSUPGCenter,Kavali. M.Sc.Zoology, notes-2016


1. Six pairs of aortic arches develop in most gnathostomes and are named according to the
name of the visceral clefts.
2. These are designated by roman numerals.
3. The first aortic arch named Mandibular, proceeds upwards on either side of the pharynx.
4. Mandibular aortic arch turn backwards as lateral aorta which both join medially to form
the common dorsal aorta.
5. The second aortic arch becomes hyoid arch.
6. The third, fourth, fifth & sixth are called branchial arches.

Modification of aortic arches in different vertebrates:

1. The number of aortic arches is different in different adult vertebrates but they built on the
same fundamental plan in embryonic life.
2. The differences in number of aortic arches are due to the complexity of heart circulation
in the mode of living from aquatic to terrestrial respiration.
3. There is a progressive reduction of aortic arches in the vertebrate series during evolution.

1. Aortic arches in primitive vertebrates:

¾ Branchiostoma (amphioxus) has about 60 pairs of aortic arches, but Petromyzon has only
7 pairs and Myxine has 6 pairs of aortic arches.

2. Aortic arches in fishes:

In Elasmobranchs:

¾ The primitive elasmobranches, Heptanchus has only 7 pairs of aortic arches, where as
Selachins has only 6 pairs of aortic arches.
¾ In most sharks, Scoliodon, have 5 pairs of functional aortic arches; the first pair is
reduced or disappears or replaced by the non-functional gills.

In Teleosts:

¾ In most teleosts or bony fishes, the first and second aortic arches are tend to disappear &
thus only third, fourth, fifth & sixth pairs of aortic arches remain functional.

In Polypterus & Lungfishes (Dipnoi):

a) Due to the mode of living & respiration from aquatic to terrestrial, the first aortic arches
disappeared & thus there are third, fourth & sixth aortic arches which are functional.
b) A set of pulmonary artery arises from the sixth aortic arches, near the dorsal aorta.

Notes:

Dr.C.V.Narasimha murthy .Associate professor (Contract), VSUPGCenter,Kavali. M.Sc.Zoology, notes-2016


1. In Elasmobranchs & dipnoans, each aortic arch has one afferent artery & two efferent
arteries in each gill.
2. In teleosts, each arch has one afferent & one efferent artery in each gill.
3. In tetrapods, the arteries do not break up; as a result, the gills are situated below the
artery.

3. Aortic arches in amphibians:

Due to presence of lung as the main respiratory organ, the importance of gills is diminished.

In urodeles:

1. Four pairs of aortic arches (third to sixth) are functional in general.


2. The fifth pair is absent in Siren, Amphiuma.
3. The third pair forms the carotid artery & the fourth pair forms the systemic arches.
4. The radix or lateral aorta between third & fourth arches may persist as a vascular
connection called ductus caroticus.
5. The sixth pair forms the pulmonary arteries which supply blood to skin and lungs.
6. It retains connection with radix aorta, called ductus arteriosus.

In anurans:

1. At metamorphosis, with loss of gills, first, second & fifth aortic arches disappear
altogether.
2. Thus three pairs of aortic arches (third, fourth & sixth) are functional in general.
3. Carotid arch takes oxygenated blood to head region.
4. Systemic arch on each side continues to dorsal aorta to distribute blood elsewhere except
head & lung.
5. Pulmonary arch supplies venous blood exclusively to lungs for purification.
6. The ductus caroticus & ductus arteriosus are usually absent.

Notes:

• According to Kent & Miller (1997) the adult anurans have three pairs of aortic arches
(third, fourth & sixth) which are also retained by the amniotes or higher vertebrates.

Dr.C.V.Narasimha murthy .Associate professor (Contract), VSUPGCenter,Kavali. M.Sc.Zoology, notes-2016


4. Aortic arches in reptiles:

Reptiles are fully terrestrial vertebrates in which gills disappear altogether and replaced by
lungs.

1. Only three functional arches (third, fourth & sixth) are present.
2. Right systemic arch (fourth) arises from left ventricle carrying oxygenated blood to the
carotid arch (third) to be sent into head.
3. Left systemic arch (fourth) leads from right ventricle carrying deoxygenated or mixed
blood to the body through dorsal aorta.
4. Pulmonary trunk (sixth) arises from right ventricle carrying deoxygenated blood to the
lungs for purification.
5. Generally ductus caroticus
& ductus arteriosus are
absent but in certain
snakes & lizards
(Uromasitx) the ductus
caroticus is present and in
some turtle & Sphenodon,
the ductus arteriosus is
present.

5. Aortic arches in birds &


mammals:

Birds & mammals are warm-


blooded because in both the
ventricle is completely divided so
that there is no mixing of
oxygenated & deoxygenated
bloods.

1. 6 arches develop in embryo, but only 3 arches (third, fourth & sixth) persist in the adult.
2. Single systemic aorta, right in birds & left in mammals, emerging from left ventricle and
carrying oxygenated blood.
3. Systemic aorta unites with the radix aorta to form dorsal aorta.
4. Subclavian artery present on the left side in birds & on the right side in mammals.
5. Third arch represents carotid arteries, which arise from systemic aorta.
6. Sixth arch arises from a single pulmonary trunk taking deoxygenated blood from right
ventricle to the lung.
7. Embryonic ductus caroticus & ductus arteriosus also disappear.

Dr.C.V.Narasimha murthy .Associate professor (Contract), VSUPGCenter,Kavali. M.Sc.Zoology, notes-2016


Conclusion: Discussing the aortic arches in these vertebrate groups, it is clear that they are
originated from a common ancestral stock and their embryonic condition of aortic arches
supports the ‘recapitulation theory’ of Haeckel. (Kent & Miller, 1997)

Dr.C.V.Narasimha murthy .Associate professor (Contract), VSUPGCenter,Kavali. M.Sc.Zoology, notes-2016


Dr.C.V.Narasimha murthy .Associate professor (Contract), VSUPGCenter,Kavali. M.Sc.Zoology, notes-2016
Dr.C.V.Narasimha murthy .Associate professor (Contract), VSUPGCenter,Kavali. M.Sc.Zoology, notes-2016
PORTAL VENOUS SYSTEM

In the circulatory system of animals, a portal venous system occurs when a capillary bed
pools into another capillary bed through veins, without first going through the heart. Both
capillary beds and the blood vessels that connect them are considered part of the portal venous
system.

They are relatively uncommon as the majority of capillary beds drain into veins which then drain
into the heart, not into another capillary bed. Portal venous systems are considered venous
because the blood vessels that join the two capillary beds are either veins or venules.

Portal circulatory systems differ from the typical circulatory route in that the blood passes
through two sets of smaller vessels before returning to the heart. Blood from the first set of
capillaries collects in portal vessels (sometimes called portal veins) which then begin to branch
again to supply a capillary network to a second location before entering a series of veins which
will lead to the heart.

HYPOPHYSCEAL PORTAL SYSTEM

Dr.C.V.Narasimha murthy .Associate professor (Contract), VSUPGCenter,Kavali. M.Sc.Zoology, notes-2016


The hypophysial portal system is a system of blood vessels in the brain that connects the
hypothalamus with the anterior pituitary. Its main function is the transport and exchange of
hormones to allow a fast communication between both glands. The fenestrated structure of
capillaries in the hypophysial portal system facilitates a rapid exchange between the
hypothalamus and the pituitary, with only a small amount of hormones needed to stimulate an
accurate effect in the respective target organs in the body.

The pituitary gland is also supplied with a portal vessel. This small and short portal system
carries hormones directly from capillaries in the hypothalamic region of the brain to the target
tissues in the anterior pituitary.

RENAL PORTAL SYSTEM

A renal portal system which delivers portal blood to the kidneys is present in fish,
amphibians, and reptiles. Birds and crocodilians have a similar system, but the would-be portal
vessel forms a bypass around the second capillary bed, keeping the renal portal vein from acting
as a true portal system.

Origin:
The femoral and sciatic vein united together to form renal portal vein this vein open into kidney
and breaks into capillaries.

Destination: Kidney

Function: By the system filtration of metabolic


waste and excretion of these materials of the blood
by the kidney is done.

Significance: To separate the waste materials from


the blood before entering the heart while brings into
the kidney to filter and purify.

HEPATIC PORTAL SYSTEM

Dr.C.V.Narasimha murthy .Associate professor (Contract), VSUPGCenter,Kavali. M.Sc.Zoology, notes-2016


Humans, and most other vertebrates, have a portal system which supplies the liver. The hepatic
portal system carries blood from the stomach, intestines, pancreas, and spleen through the
hepatic portal vein to the liver. In the liver the portal vessels begin to branch and supply blood to
the liver sinusoids, a form of liver capillary.

Origin: Different parts of the digestive system such as stomach , intestine, pancreas„ spleen etc
and wins come from hind limb are united together and enters into liver and breaks into capillaries
instead open to heart

Destination: Liver

Function: Absorbed food of alimentary canal and transport into liver. This food is differentiated
into the liver and sends them to the place of necessary and store the excess food.

Significance: The absorbed food is stored into liver not circulated meaning lastly into the body
and food is distributed when in need metabolized by the liver before reaching general circulation.

Blood flow to the liver is unique in that it receives both oxygenated and (partially)
deoxygenated blood. Blood passes from branches of the portal vein through cavities between
"plates" of hepatocytes called sinusoids. Blood also flows from branches of the hepatic artery
and mixes in the sinusoids to supply the hepatocytes with oxygen. This mixture percolates
through the sinusoids . A liver sinusoid is a type of sinusoidal blood vessel (with fenestrated,
discontinuous endothelium) that serves as a location for the oxygen-rich blood from the hepatic
artery and the nutrient-rich blood from the portal vein. Hepatocytes are separated from the
sinusoids by the space of Disse. Kupffer cells are located inside the sinusoids and can take up
and destroy foreign material such as bacteria. This blood then collects in a central vein which
drains into the hepatic vein. The hepatic vein subsequently drains into the inferior vena cava. The
hepatic artery provides 30 to 40% of the oxygen to the liver, while only accounting for 25% of
the total liver blood flow. The rest comes from the
partially deoxygenated blood from the portal vein.
Interestingly, the liver consumes about 20% of the
total body oxygen when at rest. That is why the total
liver blood flow is quite high, at about 1 liter a
minute and up to two liters a minute. That is on
average one-fourth of the average cardiac output at
rest.

COMPARATIVE ANATOMY OF HEART,


AORTIC ARCHES AND PORTAL SYSTEM

Vertebrate Circulatory Systems:


3. Transport gases, nutrients, waste products, hormones, heat, & various other materials

Dr.C.V.Narasimha murthy .Associate professor (Contract), VSUPGCenter,Kavali. M.Sc.Zoology, notes-2016


4. Consist of heart, arteries, capillaries, & veins:
a. Arteries
i. carry blood away from the heart
ii. have muscular, elastic walls
iii. terminate in capillary beds
b. Capillaries
i. have very thin walls (endothelium only)
ii. are the site of exchange between the blood and body cells
c. Veins
i. carry blood back to the heart
ii. have less muscle in their walls than arteries but the walls are very elastic
iii. begin at the end of capillary beds
d. Heart
i. a muscular pump (cardiac muscle)
ii. contains a pacemaker to regulate rate but rate can also be influenced by
the Autonomic Nervous System

SIMPLE CIRCULATORY SYSTEMS

The circulatory system varies from simple systems in invertebrates to more complex
systems in vertebrates. The simplest animals, such as the sponges (Porifera) and rotifers
(Rotifera), do not need a circulatory system because diffusion allows adequate exchange of
water, nutrients, and waste, as well as dissolved gases (figure a). Organisms that are more
complex, but still have only two layers of cells in their body plan, such as jellies (Cnidaria) and
comb jellies (Ctenophora), also use diffusion through their epidermis and internally through the
gastrovascular compartment. Both their internal and external tissues are bathed in an aqueous
environment and exchange fluids by diffusion on both sides (figure b). Exchange of fluids is
assisted by the pulsing of the jellyfish body.

Animals without circulatory systems

Simple animals consisting of a single cell layer, such as the (a) sponge, or only a few cell
layers, such as the (b) jellyfish, do not have a circulatory system. Instead, gases, nutrients, and
wastes are exchanged by diffusion.
For more complex organisms, diffusion is not efficient for cycling gases, nutrients, and
waste effectively through the body; therefore, more complex circulatory systems evolved. Closed
circulatory systems are a characteristic of vertebrates; however, there are significant differences
in the structure of the heart and the circulation of blood between the different vertebrate groups
due to adaptation during evolution and associated differences in anatomy.

Fish Circulatory Systems

Fish have a single circuit for blood flow and a two-chambered heart that has only a single
atrium and a single ventricle (figure a). The atrium collects blood that has returned from the
body, while the ventricle pumps the blood to the gills where gas exchange occurs and the blood
is re-oxygenated; this is called gill circulation. The blood then continues through the rest of the

Dr.C.V.Narasimha murthy .Associate professor (Contract), VSUPGCenter,Kavali. M.Sc.Zoology, notes-2016


body before arriving back at the atrium; this is called systemic circulation. This unidirectional
flow of blood produces a gradient of oxygenated to deoxygenated blood around the fish's
systemic circuit. The result is a limit in the amount of oxygen that can reach some of the organs
and tissues of the body, reducing the overall metabolic capacity of fish.

(a) Fish have the simplest circulatory systems of the vertebrates: blood flows unidirectional from
the two-chambered heart through the gills and then to the rest of the body.
(b) Amphibians have two circulatory routes: one for oxygenation of the blood through the lungs
and skin, and the other to take oxygen to the rest of the body. The blood is pumped from a three-
chambered heart with two atria and a single ventricle.
(c) Reptiles also have two circulatory routes; however, blood is only oxygenated through the
lungs. The heart is three chambered, but the ventricles are partially separated so some mixing of
oxygenated and deoxygenated blood occurs, except in crocodilians and birds.
(d) Mammals and birds have the most efficient heart with four chambers that completely
separate the oxygenated and deoxygenated blood; it pumps only oxygenated blood through the
body and deoxygenated blood to the lungs.

Amphibian Circulatory Systems


In amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals, blood flow is directed in two circuits: one
through the lungs and back to the heart (pulmonary circulation) and the other throughout the rest
of the body and its organs, including the brain (systemic circulation).
Amphibians have a three-chambered heart that has two atria and one ventricle rather than
the two-chambered heart of fish (figure b). The two atria receive blood from the two different
circuits (the lungs and the systems). There is some mixing of the blood in the heart's ventricle,
which reduces the efficiency of oxygenation. The advantage to this arrangement is that high
pressure in the vessels pushes blood to the lungs and body. The mixing is mitigated by a ridge
within the ventricle that diverts oxygen-rich blood through the systemic circulatory system and
deoxygenated blood to the pulmocutaneous circuit where gas exchange occurs in the lungs and
through the skin. For this reason, amphibians are often described as having double circulation.

Reptile Circulatory Systems

Most reptiles also have a three-chambered heart similar to the amphibian heart that directs
blood to the pulmonary and systemic circuits (figure c). The ventricle is divided more effectively
by a partial septum, which results in less mixing of oxygenated and deoxygenated blood. Some
reptiles (alligators and crocodiles) are the most primitive animals to exhibit a four-chambered
heart. Crocodilians have a unique circulatory mechanism where the heart shunts blood from the
lungs toward the stomach and other organs during long periods of submergence; for instance,
while the animal waits for prey or stays underwater waiting for prey to rot. One adaptation
includes two main arteries that leave the same part of the heart: one takes blood to the lungs and
the other provides an alternate route to the stomach and other parts of the body. Two other
adaptations include a hole in the heart between the two ventricles, called the foramen of Panizza,
which allows blood to move from one side of the heart to the other, and specialized connective
tissue that slows the blood flow to the lungs. Together, these adaptations have made crocodiles
and alligators one of the most successfully-evolved animal groups on earth.

Dr.C.V.Narasimha murthy .Associate professor (Contract), VSUPGCenter,Kavali. M.Sc.Zoology, notes-2016


Mammal and Bird Circulatory Systems

In mammals and birds, the heart is also divided into four chambers: two atria and two ventricles
(figure d). The oxygenated blood is separated from the deoxygenated blood, which improves the
efficiency of double circulation and is probably required for the warm-blooded lifestyle of
mammals and birds. The four-chambered heart of birds and mammals evolved independently
from a three-chambered heart.

COMPARATIVE ANATOMY OF HEART

All vertebrates possess a heart – a hollow muscular organ


composed of cardiac muscle fibres. The function of the heart is to
pump oxygen to all parts of the body. The evolution of the heart is
based on the separation of oxygenated blood from deoxygenated
blood for efficient oxygen transport. In fishes, the heart was like a
hollow tube. This evolved into the four-chambered heart in
mammals.

Vertebrate Hearts:

Piscean heart

Fish has only two chambers in its heart – one auricle and
one ventricle. Since both the auricle and the ventricle
remain undivided, only deoxygenated blood passes
through it. The deoxygenated blood enters the gills for
oxygenation from the ventricle. It has additional
chambers such as sinus venous and conus arteriosus

Cartilaginous fishes
2. Single-circuit heart with 4 chambers: sinus
venous, atrium, ventricle, & conus arteriosus
a. the sinus venous receives blood & is
filled by suction when the ventricle
contracts & enlarges the pericardial cavity
b. the atrium is a thin-walled muscular sac; an A-V valve regulates flow between
atrium & ventricle
c. the ventricle has thick, muscular walls
d. the conus arteriosus leads into the ventral aorta (and a series of conal valves in the
conus arteriosus prevent the backflow of blood)

Teleosts - heart is similar to that of cartilaginous fishes, except a bulbous arteriosus (a muscular
extension of the ventral aorta) is present rather than a conus arteriosus (a muscular extension of
the ventricle)

Dr.C.V.Narasimha murthy .Associate professor (Contract), VSUPGCenter,Kavali. M.Sc.Zoology, notes-2016


Amphibian heart

Amphibians, such as frogs, have three-chambered hearts, with two auricles and one ventricle.
The auricle is divided into a right and a left
chamber by an inter-auricular septum, while the
ventricle remains undivided.
Additional chambers such as sinus venous
and conus arteriosus are also present. The
oxygenated blood from the lungs enters the left
auricle and simultaneously, the deoxygenated
blood from the body enters the right auricle. Both
these auricles empty into the ventricle, wherein
the oxygenated and deoxygenated blood get
mixed to some extent.

Lungfish & amphibians - modifications are


correlated with the presence of lungs & enable oxygenated blood returning
from the lungs to be separated from deoxygenated blood returning from
elsewhere
5. Partial or complete partition within atrium (complete in anurans and
some urodeles)
6. Partial interventricular septum (lungfish) or ventricular trabeculae
(amphibians) to maintain separation of oxygenated & unoxygenated
blood
7. Formation of a spiral valve in the conus arteriosus of many dipnoans
and amphibians. The spiral valve alternately blocks & unblocks the
entrances to the left and right pulmonary arches (sending unoxygenated blood to the skin
& lungs).
8. Shortening of ventral aorta, which helps ensure that the oxygenated & unoxygenated
blood kept separate in the heart moves directly into the appropriate vessels

Dr.C.V.Narasimha murthy .Associate professor (Contract), VSUPGCenter,Kavali. M.Sc.Zoology, notes-2016


5 = ventricle, 11 = right atrium, 12 = left atrium, 13 = conus arteriosus
Amniotes:
1 - Heart consists of 2 atria & 2 ventricles &, except in adult birds & mammals, a sinus venous
2 - Complete intertribal septum
3 - Complete interventricular septum only in crocodilians, birds, & mammals; partial septum
in other amniotes

Used by permission of John W. Kimball

Reptilian heart

Dr.C.V.Narasimha murthy .Associate professor (Contract), VSUPGCenter,Kavali. M.Sc.Zoology, notes-2016


Reptiles have incomplete four-chambered hearts,
except for crocodiles, alligators, and gharials.
They have only one accessory chamber called
sinus venous. The reptilian heart also shows
mixed blood circulation.

Avian and mammalian hearts

They have two pairs of chambers for


separating oxygenated and deoxygenated bloods.
The heart is divided into four chambers. The

upper two chambers are called atria and


the lower two chambers are called ventricles. The
chambers are separated by a muscular wall that
prevents the mixing of the blood rich in oxygen
with the blood rich in carbon dioxide.

Dr.C.V.Narasimha murthy .Associate professor (Contract), VSUPGCenter,Kavali. M.Sc.Zoology, notes-2016


Dr.C.V.Narasimha murthy .Associate professor (Contract), VSUPGCenter,Kavali. M.Sc.Zoology, notes-2016
Dr.C.V.Narasimha murthy .Associate professor (Contract), VSUPGCenter,Kavali. M.Sc.Zoology, notes-2016
Comparative anatomy of Aortic Arches

Aortic arches are paired blood vessels that emerge from the ventricle of the heart which are
basically similar in number and disposition in different vertebrates during the embryonic stages.

Embryonic aortic arches: During the embryonic stages—

Dr.C.V.Narasimha murthy .Associate professor (Contract), VSUPGCenter,Kavali. M.Sc.Zoology, notes-2016


7. Six pairs of aortic arches develop in most gnathostomes and are named according to the
name of the visceral clefts.
8. These are designated by roman numerals.
9. The first aortic arch named Mandibular, proceeds upwards on either side of the pharynx.
10. Mandibular aortic arch turn backwards as lateral aorta which both join medially to form
the common dorsal aorta.
11. The second aortic arch becomes hyoid arch.
12. The third, fourth, fifth & sixth are called branchial arches.

Modification of aortic arches in different vertebrates:

4. The number of aortic arches is different in different adult vertebrates but they built on the
same fundamental plan in embryonic life.
5. The differences in number of aortic arches are due to the complexity of heart circulation
in the mode of living from aquatic to terrestrial respiration.
6. There is a progressive reduction of aortic arches in the vertebrate series during evolution.

1. Aortic arches in primitive vertebrates:

¾ Branchiostoma (amphioxus) has about 60 pairs of aortic arches, but Petromyzon has only
7 pairs and Myxine has 6 pairs of aortic arches.

2. Aortic arches in fishes:

In Elasmobranchs:

¾ The primitive elasmobranches, Heptanchus has only 7 pairs of aortic arches, where as
Selachins has only 6 pairs of aortic arches.
¾ In most sharks, Scoliodon, have 5 pairs of functional aortic arches; the first pair is
reduced or disappears or replaced by the non-functional gills.

In Teleosts:

¾ In most teleosts or bony fishes, the first and second aortic arches are tend to disappear &
thus only third, fourth, fifth & sixth pairs of aortic arches remain functional.

In Polypterus & Lungfishes (Dipnoi):

c) Due to the mode of living & respiration from aquatic to terrestrial, the first aortic arches
disappeared & thus there are third, fourth & sixth aortic arches which are functional.
d) A set of pulmonary artery arises from the sixth aortic arches, near the dorsal aorta.

Notes:

Dr.C.V.Narasimha murthy .Associate professor (Contract), VSUPGCenter,Kavali. M.Sc.Zoology, notes-2016


4. In Elasmobranchs & dipnoans, each aortic arch has one afferent artery & two efferent
arteries in each gill.
5. In teleosts, each arch has one afferent & one efferent artery in each gill.
6. In tetrapods, the arteries do not break up; as a result, the gills are situated below the
artery.

3. Aortic arches in amphibians:

Due to presence of lung as the main respiratory organ, the importance of gills is diminished.

In urodeles:

7. Four pairs of aortic arches (third to sixth) are functional in general.


8. The fifth pair is absent in Siren, Amphiuma.
9. The third pair forms the carotid artery & the fourth pair forms the systemic arches.
10. The radix or lateral aorta between third & fourth arches may persist as a vascular
connection called ductus caroticus.
11. The sixth pair forms the pulmonary arteries which supply blood to skin and lungs.
12. It retains connection with radix aorta, called ductus arteriosus.

In anurans:

7. At metamorphosis, with loss of gills, first, second & fifth aortic arches disappear
altogether.
8. Thus three pairs of aortic arches (third, fourth & sixth) are functional in general.
9. Carotid arch takes oxygenated blood to head region.
10. Systemic arch on each side continues to dorsal aorta to distribute blood elsewhere except
head & lung.
11. Pulmonary arch supplies venous blood exclusively to lungs for purification.
12. The ductus caroticus & ductus arteriosus are usually absent.

Notes:

• According to Kent & Miller (1997) the adult anurans have three pairs of aortic arches
(third, fourth & sixth) which are also retained by the amniotes or higher vertebrates.

Dr.C.V.Narasimha murthy .Associate professor (Contract), VSUPGCenter,Kavali. M.Sc.Zoology, notes-2016


4. Aortic arches in reptiles:

Reptiles are fully terrestrial vertebrates in which gills disappear altogether and replaced by
lungs.

6. Only three functional arches (third, fourth & sixth) are present.
7. Right systemic arch (fourth) arises from left ventricle carrying oxygenated blood to the
carotid arch (third) to be sent into head.
8. Left systemic arch (fourth) leads from right ventricle carrying deoxygenated or mixed
blood to the body through dorsal aorta.
9. Pulmonary trunk (sixth) arises from right ventricle carrying deoxygenated blood to the
lungs for purification.
10. Generally ductus caroticus
& ductus arteriosus are
absent but in certain
snakes & lizards
(Uromasitx) the ductus
caroticus is present and in
some turtle & Sphenodon,
the ductus arteriosus is
present.

5. Aortic arches in birds &


mammals:

Birds & mammals are warm-


blooded because in both the
ventricle is completely divided so
that there is no mixing of
oxygenated & deoxygenated
bloods.

8. 6 arches develop in embryo, but only 3 arches (third, fourth & sixth) persist in the adult.
9. Single systemic aorta, right in birds & left in mammals, emerging from left ventricle and
carrying oxygenated blood.
10. Systemic aorta unites with the radix aorta to form dorsal aorta.
11. Subclavian artery present on the left side in birds & on the right side in mammals.
12. Third arch represents carotid arteries, which arise from systemic aorta.
13. Sixth arch arises from a single pulmonary trunk taking deoxygenated blood from right
ventricle to the lung.
14. Embryonic ductus caroticus & ductus arteriosus also disappear.

Dr.C.V.Narasimha murthy .Associate professor (Contract), VSUPGCenter,Kavali. M.Sc.Zoology, notes-2016


Conclusion: Discussing the aortic arches in these vertebrate groups, it is clear that they are
originated from a common ancestral stock and their embryonic condition of aortic arches
supports the ‘recapitulation theory’ of Haeckel. (Kent & Miller, 1997)

Dr.C.V.Narasimha murthy .Associate professor (Contract), VSUPGCenter,Kavali. M.Sc.Zoology, notes-2016


Dr.C.V.Narasimha murthy .Associate professor (Contract), VSUPGCenter,Kavali. M.Sc.Zoology, notes-2016
Dr.C.V.Narasimha murthy .Associate professor (Contract), VSUPGCenter,Kavali. M.Sc.Zoology, notes-2016
PORTAL VENOUS SYSTEM

In the circulatory system of animals, a portal venous system occurs when a capillary bed
pools into another capillary bed through veins, without first going through the heart. Both
capillary beds and the blood vessels that connect them are considered part of the portal venous
system.

They are relatively uncommon as the majority of capillary beds drain into veins which then drain
into the heart, not into another capillary bed. Portal venous systems are considered venous
because the blood vessels that join the two capillary beds are either veins or venules.

Portal circulatory systems differ from the typical circulatory route in that the blood passes
through two sets of smaller vessels before returning to the heart. Blood from the first set of
capillaries collects in portal vessels (sometimes called portal veins) which then begin to branch
again to supply a capillary network to a second location before entering a series of veins which
will lead to the heart.

HYPOPHYSCEAL PORTAL SYSTEM

Dr.C.V.Narasimha murthy .Associate professor (Contract), VSUPGCenter,Kavali. M.Sc.Zoology, notes-2016


The hypophysial portal system is a system of blood vessels in the brain that connects the
hypothalamus with the anterior pituitary. Its main function is the transport and exchange of
hormones to allow a fast communication between both glands. The fenestrated structure of
capillaries in the hypophysial portal system facilitates a rapid exchange between the
hypothalamus and the pituitary, with only a small amount of hormones needed to stimulate an
accurate effect in the respective target organs in the body.

The pituitary gland is also supplied with a portal vessel. This small and short portal system
carries hormones directly from capillaries in the hypothalamic region of the brain to the target
tissues in the anterior pituitary.

RENAL PORTAL SYSTEM

A renal portal system which delivers portal blood to the kidneys is present in fish,
amphibians, and reptiles. Birds and crocodilians have a similar system, but the would-be portal
vessel forms a bypass around the second capillary bed, keeping the renal portal vein from acting
as a true portal system.

Origin:
The femoral and sciatic vein united together to form renal portal vein this vein open into kidney
and breaks into capillaries.

Destination: Kidney

Function: By the system filtration of metabolic


waste and excretion of these materials of the blood
by the kidney is done.

Significance: To separate the waste materials from


the blood before entering the heart while brings into
the kidney to filter and purify.

HEPATIC PORTAL SYSTEM

Dr.C.V.Narasimha murthy .Associate professor (Contract), VSUPGCenter,Kavali. M.Sc.Zoology, notes-2016


Humans, and most other vertebrates, have a portal system which supplies the liver. The hepatic
portal system carries blood from the stomach, intestines, pancreas, and spleen through the
hepatic portal vein to the liver. In the liver the portal vessels begin to branch and supply blood to
the liver sinusoids, a form of liver capillary.

Origin: Different parts of the digestive system such as stomach , intestine, pancreas„ spleen etc
and wins come from hind limb are united together and enters into liver and breaks into capillaries
instead open to heart

Destination: Liver

Function: Absorbed food of alimentary canal and transport into liver. This food is differentiated
into the liver and sends them to the place of necessary and store the excess food.

Significance: The absorbed food is stored into liver not circulated meaning lastly into the body
and food is distributed when in need metabolized by the liver before reaching general circulation.

Blood flow to the liver is unique in that it receives both oxygenated and (partially)
deoxygenated blood. Blood passes from branches of the portal vein through cavities between
"plates" of hepatocytes called sinusoids. Blood also flows from branches of the hepatic artery
and mixes in the sinusoids to supply the hepatocytes with oxygen. This mixture percolates
through the sinusoids . A liver sinusoid is a type of sinusoidal blood vessel (with fenestrated,
discontinuous endothelium) that serves as a location for the oxygen-rich blood from the hepatic
artery and the nutrient-rich blood from the portal vein. Hepatocytes are separated from the
sinusoids by the space of Disse. Kupffer cells are located inside the sinusoids and can take up
and destroy foreign material such as bacteria. This blood then collects in a central vein which
drains into the hepatic vein. The hepatic vein subsequently drains into the inferior vena cava. The
hepatic artery provides 30 to 40% of the oxygen to the liver, while only accounting for 25% of
the total liver blood flow. The rest comes from the
partially deoxygenated blood from the portal vein.
Interestingly, the liver consumes about 20% of the
total body oxygen when at rest. That is why the total
liver blood flow is quite high, at about 1 liter a
minute and up to two liters a minute. That is on
average one-fourth of the average cardiac output at
rest.

Dr.C.V.Narasimha murthy .Associate professor (Contract), VSUPGCenter,Kavali. M.Sc.Zoology, notes-2016