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MMAT380: L14 Austenitic, Duplex, PH 10/03/2004

stainless steels

Lecture 15:
Duplex and Other Steels
Mmat 380

Production of stainless steels


Types Major Alloy AISI
Additions
1. Ferritic - α Fe-Cr 4xx
2. Martensitic Fe-Cr-C 4xx
3. Austenitic - γ Fe-Ni-Cr 3xx
4. Duplex (α+γ) Fe-Cr-Ni
5. Precipitation
Fe-Cr-Ni
hardened
6. Super ferrites & Higher alloy versions
austenitics of 1 & 3
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MMAT380: L14 Austenitic, Duplex, PH 10/03/2004
stainless steels

Topics to be covered
• Duplex stainless steels
• Precipitation hardened steels
• Precipitation/age hardening
mechanisms
• Mechanical properties/applications

Duplex Stainless Steels


Cr: 18-30%
Ni: 3-9%
• Intermediate between austenitic and
ferritic stainless steels (α + γ phase
approx. 50-50)
• Combine some characteristics of both
• Better corrosion resistance than
conventional ferritic and better strength
than austenitic
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MMAT380: L14 Austenitic, Duplex, PH 10/03/2004
stainless steels

Chemical composition of commercial


duplex stainless steels

Mo for pitting prevention

3-9% Ni ↑toughness
& workability 5

Mechanical properties of some


duplex stainless steels

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MMAT380: L14 Austenitic, Duplex, PH 10/03/2004
stainless steels

Pseudo-Binary Diagram

• At 25%Cr alloy ideally


solidifies as α phase,
cooling rate below γ−
loop determines α/γ α+
ratio γ
• Commercial practice is
to water quench from
1050-1150oC to obtain
the 50-50 structure
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Avesta 2205

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MMAT380: L14 Austenitic, Duplex, PH 10/03/2004
stainless steels

Avesta 2205

Mechanical properties

Stainless σy σUTS Elongation


Steel (MPa) (MPa) (%)
Ferritic (α) 275-600 450-700 20-30
Austenitic (γ) 200-380 500-800 45-60
Duplex (α + γ) 315-565 590-740 20-40
Fatigue crack
S.C.C
1. Environment
2. Applied or residual tensile stress 10

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MMAT380: L14 Austenitic, Duplex, PH 10/03/2004
stainless steels

Production of Stainless Steels


Types Major Alloy AISI
Additions
1. Ferritic - α Fe-Cr 4xx
2. Martensitic Fe-Cr-C 4xx
3. Austenitic - γ Fe-Ni-Cr 3xx
4. Duplex (α+γ) Fe-Cr-Ni
5. Precipitation
Fe-Cr-Ni
hardened
6. Super ferrites Fe-Cr-Ni-Mo-N
7. Super austenitics: alloy version of 1&3
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Precipitation hardened (PH) stainless


steels
a) Martensitic 17% Cr, 4%Ni
b) Semi-Austenitic 17% Cr, 7%Ni
• Controlled transformation steels
c) Austenitic 17% Cr, 10%Ni
• Other additions: Al, Nb, Cu and Mo
(Ni3Al, Ni3Mo, Nbx,Cy ppts nm in size)
Note: increasing Ni lowers MS and MF

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MMAT380: L14 Austenitic, Duplex, PH 10/03/2004
stainless steels

Good properties

• Ease of fabrication
• High strength
• Relatively good ductility
• Excellent corrosion resistance

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Strengthening mechanisms:

1. Hall-Petch strengthening (↓gs)


2. Solid solution strengthening
3. Strain hardening
4. Precipitation hardening

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MMAT380: L14 Austenitic, Duplex, PH 10/03/2004
stainless steels

Precipitation/age hardening process

Slow cooled
Quenched
96%Al – 4%Cu alloy, 15
precipitates are still submicroscopic at time of max hardness

Aging heat treatment

By quenching and then reheating an Al-Cu (4.5 wt%)


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alloy, a fine dispersion of ppts forms within the κ grains.

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MMAT380: L14 Austenitic, Duplex, PH 10/03/2004
stainless steels

Schematic of aging curve

B
C

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Martensitic PH steels
Example with 17-4 PH (17%Cr, 4%Ni)
• Solution treat @ 1040oC, air cool to RT
– Martensite forms above room temp.
• Age at 480oC (~4hrs)
– Martensite tempers (softens slightly)
– Precipitates form, increase strength
– Y.S. increases from 760 Mpa to 1240 Mpa
– %elongation increases from 10-12%
– Ductility and stress corrosion resistance increase with
aging
• Precipitate fine NbC
– Golf club heads
• Aging (strengthening); tempering (softening) 18

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MMAT380: L14 Austenitic, Duplex, PH 10/03/2004
stainless steels

Typical chemical composition of selected martensitic


precipitation hardenable stainless steels

Forms ppt’s

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Typical mechanical properties of selected martensitic


precipitation hardenable stainless steels

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MMAT380: L14 Austenitic, Duplex, PH 10/03/2004
stainless steels

Semi-austenitic PH steel
• 17-7 PH (approx. same composition as 301 SS but with
1-2% Al for PPT)
• Duplex structure at RT (~10% α + γ)
– Softer than martensite YS~275 MPa
– Can be formed to desired shape in this soft condition
• High T “conditioning” 750oC and sub-zero quench
converts γ to martensite
• Martensite then aged (450-510oC) to ppt Ni3Al and Ni3Mo
– YS increases from 275 MPa to 1275-1725 MPa
– (depends on alloy and heat treatment)

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Semi-austenitic PH steel
Martensite can be formed by:

1) A refrigerating cycle (sub-zero quench)

2) Cold deformation

3) A carbide ppt thermal cycle that raises the


transformation temperature above room temperature
causing the martensite to form on cooling

4) A combination of these cycles

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MMAT380: L14 Austenitic, Duplex, PH 10/03/2004
stainless steels

Semi Austenitic PH Steel


• Ductilities 2-10% elongation
• Conditioning treatment: 750oC for 2hrs
– ppt. of intermetallic compounds (MS>RT)
• Cool from conditioning (aging) T
– γ → martensite transformation (dispersed phase in α1
martensite matrix)
– Sometimes may have to cool to –60oC to complete γ → α1
• Final strength due to:
1. 2nd phase dispersion bcc martensite
2. Fine grain, high dislocation density of α’ (martensite)
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Advantages of BCC over BCT martensite


• Softer, more ductile than C-martensites
• Fine grain size (plates)
• high dislocation density but nearly no C in solid solution
(low σo)
– Softer martensite allows machining
• Less distortion on transformation in BCC as opposed to
BCT
• Aging produces a fine dispersion of 2nd phase
intermetallic particles
• Final aged alloy has better toughness and low T
properties than the aged C-containing martensites
because of lower C content
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MMAT380: L14 Austenitic, Duplex, PH 10/03/2004
stainless steels

Mechanical properties of semi-


austenitic PH stainless steels
• Retained austenite (solution treated)
– σy = 280-380 MPa; ε = 35%
• After final aging
– σy = 1500 MPa; ε = 6%
γ → form

Condition 750oC ppt intermetallics


cool
martensite

age High strength


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The structure of a 17-7PH alloy


Condition TH1050 Condition RH950
a) after solution b) As in a) then reheated c) As in a) then reheated
treatment 1h at to 1400oF for 1.5h, air to 1750oF for 10min, air
1950oF, air-cooled cooled, held ½ h at 60oF, cooled, held 8h at -100oF,
aged for 1.5h at 1050oF, aged for 1h at 950oF,
air cooled air cooled

ferrite

ferrite 100x 1000x 1000x


Austenite Small chromium martensite ferrite
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matrix carbides matrix

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MMAT380: L14 Austenitic, Duplex, PH 10/03/2004
stainless steels

Typical chemical composition of selected semi-austenitic


precipitation-hardenable stainless steels

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Typical mechanical properties of selected semi-


austenitic precipitation-hardenable stainless steels

TH1050
RH-950 28

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MMAT380: L14 Austenitic, Duplex, PH 10/03/2004
stainless steels

c) Austenitic PH Stainless Steels

• Do not undergo martensite formation


• Best ductility, lowest strength
• More Ni: MS and MF below room T
• Similar to 3xx stainless grade
• Aging increases Y.S. to 690 MPa

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Mechanical properties of PH stainless


steels

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MMAT380: L14 Austenitic, Duplex, PH 10/03/2004
stainless steels

Nominal composition of PH stainless


steels

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Summary of stainless steel


mechanical properties
Elongation
Stainless steel σy (MPa) σUTS (MPa)
(%)
Ferritic (α) 275-600 450-700 20-30
Austenitic (γ) 200-380 500-800 45-60
Duplex (α + γ) 315-565 590-740 20-40
Martensitic 275-1900 520-2000 15-30
PH 1200-1800 1380-1900 5-15
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MMAT380: L14 Austenitic, Duplex, PH 10/03/2004
stainless steels

Summary of stainless steel composition

C - Cr contents Ni-Cr contents

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Hot Strength
Characteristics
for Stainless
Steels

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MMAT380: L14 Austenitic, Duplex, PH 10/03/2004
stainless steels

Stress-strain curves for various


stainless steels and pure iron

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