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Tutorial 6 - Solution

Q1 a) Using natural spline, S”(0)=S”(8)=0. From the tridiagonal system, equations for S”(2)
and S”(4) are written as below, and solved to get their values.
xi  x i 1 Si1  2xi 1  x i 1 Si xi 1  x i Si1
f  xi 1   f  xi  f  xi   f xi 1 
6 6
xi 1  xi xi  xi 1
Equations For S" Gauss Elimination: S" at x=2 and
x=4
at x=2 and 4

x f(x)

0 1.0000 8 2 0.1278 8 2 0.12780 0.0136

2 0.7937 2 12 0.1413 0 11.5 0.10935 0.00951

4 0.6300

8 0.3968

Si ( x) 
 xi 1  x  Si( xi )   x  x i  Si( xi 1 )
3 3

From the spline equation between xi=4 and xi+1=8:


6 xi 1  xi 
 f  xi  xi 1  xi Si( xi ) 
   x
 i 1  x 
f(x=6) = 0.5039  xi 1  xi 6 
 f xi 1  xi 1  xi Si( xi 1 ) 
    x  xi 
 xi 1  xi 6 
Q1 b)

Decay equation 𝑚 = 𝑚0 𝑒 − λt . Linearizing: ln(m )= ln(𝑚0 ) – λ t

x (=t) m y=[ln(m)] x^2 xy

0 1.0000 0.0000 0 0

2 0.7937 -0.2310 4 -0.4621

4 0.6300 -0.4620 16 -1.848

6 0.5039 -0.6854 36 -4.112

8 0.3968 -0.9243 64 -7.395

Sum 20 -2.303 120 -13.82


 4 4
  4   5 20  c0   2.303
 1  x k
c     yk 
 20 120 c    13.82 
 k40 k 0
  0    4k 0    1   
4
 x 2   c1 
  
xk  xk y k 
k 0
k
k 0

 
 k 0 

Note: Computations are done with more significant digits!


ln 2
λ= −c1 = 0.1151 c0 = 3.8 × 10−5 m0 = ec0=1.00004 Half Life = λ
= 6.02 days

Q2)

t v Acceleration

0 0 Forward Backward Central Richardson

1 0.65

2 1.72

3 3.48

4 6.39

5 11.18 5.35 5.73 6.35 (for h=1) 6.08 O(h4)

6 19.09 7.16 (for h=2) 5.86 O(h4)

7 32.12 11.05 (for h=4) 6.09 O(h6)

8 53.6

9 89.02

10 147.41

 3 f i  4 f i 1  f i  2 3 f i  4 f i 1  f i  2  f f
f i  f i  f i  i 1 i 1
2h 2h 2h