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Willhite, G. Paul.

Waterflooding (1986) briefly defined waterflooding as the injection of

water into the reservoir formation to displace the oil and therefore maximize the oil production

and increase the recovery factor.

Designing the waterflood has many phases. According to Baker, Richard (1998)

“Reservoir Management For Waterfloods-Part II.” Engineering evaluation techniques must be

done to determine if the reservoir will meet the minimum technical and economic criteria for a

successful waterflood. Holstein, Edward D (2007) states that a thorough assessment of the

geology must be done to understand the following reservoir characteristics: reservoir geometry,

fluid properties, reservoir depth, lithology and rock properties, fluid saturations, reservoir

uniformity and pay continuity, primary reservoir driving mechanisms and reservoir connectivity

must be analysed. Reservoir calculations must also be done in order to determine well spacing

and pattern style.

Willhite, G. Paul. Waterflooding (1986) states that the selection of waterflood pattern is

determined by factors unique to each reservoir. Pattern flooding may be selected because

reservoir properties will not permit waterflooding through edge wells at desired injection rates.

The injection and withdrawal rates are determined by well spacing as well as reservoir

properties. Pattern size becomes a variable that is considered in economic analyses. Simulations

of the reservoir with different patterns will be conducted to determine which provides optimal oil


The main purpose of this paper is to identify the best design for optimal oil recovery

using waterflood. Previous waterflood projects from Petrotrin (2003) indicate an increase in

production for the wells however there is the possibility to further increase production from

choosing a more suitable water flood design along with new engineering techniques.
Literature Review

Project Title:
Water-flood Design for Optimal Oil
Recovery of Petrotrin Oil Fields Trinidad &

Lawrence Lopez