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Feb 18, 2018

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This is consist of experimental methods of 5 different transducers.

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This is consist of experimental methods of 5 different transducers.

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Electronics Engineering Department

Technological Institute of the Philippines

Quezon City, Philippines

zeffreyaleta@gmail.com

converts energy from one form to another. These

devices can be seen almost everywhere; Speakers, The said problem statement will be addressed

microphones and many more. This documentation is by fulfilling the following research objectives:

the evaluation of five different types of transducers

which are Light Emitting Diode (LED), Light

Dependent Resistor (LDR), Potentiometer, Proximity 1.) Creating an experiment for each transducer.

Sensor, and Thermocouple (Peltier). Each devices 2.) Get data to evaluate from the created

have different ways to measure certain parameters and experiments

have different experimentations to get the data

necessary to evaluate it.

IV. METHODOLOGY

I. INTRODUCTION

This section shows the different methods or

(Maeve or Clang discuss nyo yung transducer experiments done in each devices. Here the procedure

tapos yung mga type na ginamit natin tapos done is explained.

describe each paki link yung mga reference saka

The students are limiting the number of

kung bakit natin ginagawa tong docu)

transducers into five which are Light Emitting Diode

(LED), Light Dependent Resistor (LDR),

Potentiometer, Proximity Sensor, and Thermocouple

II. PROBLEM STATEMENT (Peltier). These components have been conducted with

different experiments each.

Transducers are commonly used as a sensor or as A. Potentiometer

an output display like for thermistor. Thermistor is a Since potentiometer is a type of resistor and its

type of resistor and transducer whose resistance is resistance varies when the knob was turn, two

dependent on temperature. How will an Engineer parameters was set here. The independent variable

know if this is a Negative Temperature Coefficient which is the rotation of the knob (Angular

(NTC) or Positive Temperature Coefficient (PTC); Displacement) and the dependent variable which is the

what is the value of the resistance at certain resistance. The student used 1kΩ and this was chosen

temperature. This is important in designing a system since it has a lower limit of resistance which is more

due to the reason of accuracy. This is not the only or less 1kΩ.

type of transducer where it needed an evaluation.

There are a lot of it but this experiment only shows The experiment was set with these procedure:

five types of transducers.

1. Cut out a circle from a sheet of bond paper.

2. Mark the angles on the circle so that the Angular

Displacement can be measured when turning the

knob.

3. Create a hole to the center of the circle in order for

the knob to go through the paper. (See figure 1)

4. Secure the potentiometer by using the bolt and

washer included to it.

5. Create an indicator for the knob and point it to 0°.

Experiment

with a dark material to become accurate. If this is not

done, other sources of light may affect the data.

potentiometer to control the current and measuring the

FIGURE 1: MEASURING INSTRUMENT

luminous intensity.

After doing these procedures, proceed to the

experiment by using ohmmeter (or multi-meter) and C. Light Dependent Resistor (LDR)

measuring the resistance. (See figure 2). Turn the knob The method use here is almost the same with the

exactly 10° and measure again the resistance. LED experiment. Here a flashlight was used as the

Repeating the process until the knob reach the light source since the resistance of the device varies

maximum displacement it can rotate. This gives the when it sense light. The student created a tube to focus

students data (Table 1). the light to the LDR and lux meter;

B. Light Emitting Diode (LED) The method was illustrated in figure 5.1.

Current affects the brightness of the light that the

LED emits. The experiment for this device is set using

the schematic in figure 3.

independent variable while the brightness of the LED

was set as the dependent variable. Ammeter (Multi-

meter) was used to measure current through the circuit

and a lux meter was used to measure the luminance or

the luminous intensity (measure of the wavelength-

weighted power emitted). Potentiometer was used to

control the current to the circuit and a 50Ω resistor for

current limiter. Power supply was used as a battery. FIGURE 5.1: LDR SET

Super-Bright LED was used as the light source. The

set of experiment can be seen in figure 4. Before pointing the light onto the LDR, the

student measure the luminous intensity using the lux

meter. This is achieve using the same method in figure

5 only the lux meter is under the cover. The brightness

of flashlight to the phone can be adjust using

application installed to it.

D. Proximity Sensor 30 46.6

The parameters in this device are the distance and 40 86.5

the signal voltage being output by it. As the distance

50 138.7

varies, the signal voltage also varies. These was prove

with this experiment. 60 170.4

70 214

Using a ruler, dark and light object acting as a wall 80 250

in order for the infrared light to bounce and be detected

90 284

by the device. The students use two shades of color for

the wall to see if it affects the results. 100 316

110 365

The device is set at 0 centimeter of the ruler and 120 404

the distance was set by placing the “wall” at 1

130 437

centimeter. Increasing the distance with an interval of

1 centimeter and measuring the signal voltage to 140 474

acquire data. 150 511

160 544

The pin-outs of the device is shown in figure 6.1

170 601

and the set for the experiment in figure 6.2

180 640

190 680

200 718

210 764

220 813

230 858

240 908

250 956

260 983

270 1026

FIGURE 6.1: Pin-Out of Proximity Sensor

280 1057

E. Thermocouple 290 1066

300 1077

TABLE 1: Data Acquired in Potentiometer

V. DATA AND RESULTS

This data can be plotted in a graph which can

be seen in figure 7.

In this section, the data acquired was list, graph

and interpret.

A. Potentiometer

Table 1 shows the data obtained in the experiment

of potentiometer. The methods use are already

discussed in methodology.

(°) (Ω)

0 3.9

10 13.9

FIGURE 7.1: Plotted Data of Potentiometer

20 19.9

Using ‘trendline’ function on Microsoft X represent the angular displacement of the knob and

excel, Regression Line can be seen. This may be Y as the resistance.

linear, exponential, logarithmic, polynomial, or

power. This can be determined by computing the value The data shows that the minimum value of

of R-squared (statistical measure of how close the data resistance is 3.9 Ω and a maximum value of 1077 Ω.

are to the fitted regression line) and the closest the The knob can rotate up to 300° clockwise and

value of it to 1 the better it is. Microsoft Excel also has counterclockwise.

this feature where it automatically compute the value The data shows that as the Angular

of R-squared. The students try different types of Displacement increases the Resistance also increases.

regression line until it fits to the plots.

B. Light Emitting Diode (LED)

(mA) (Lux)

1.5 14

3.1 27

6.5 61

9.9 85

12 105

FIGURE 7.2: Linear Regression Line 22 175

(red line), the value of R-squared (R2) and the equation 28 222

of the line. As the figure shows, the value of R- 36 245

squared is 0.9966 and an equation of TABLE 2: Data Acquired in LED

𝑦 = 3.9146𝑥 − 57.327

EQUATION 1.1: Equation of Linear Regression Line Table 2 shows the data acquired on the

experiment discussed on the methodology.

FIGURE 8.1: Plotted Data from the LED Experiment

Figure 7.3 shows another type of regression

line which is polynomial. This is better due to the The plot shows that as the current increases

values of R-squared which is 0.9986. It is closer to one the luminous intensity also increases. To show the

and make the plots closer to the line. relationship between the two variables, Regression

Line is used.

𝑦 = −(2 × 10−5 )𝑥 3 + 0.0188𝑥 2 + 2.3031𝑥 − 11.209

EQUATION 1.2: Equation of Polynomial Regression Line

and can be used to estimate values in certain variable.

FIGURE 8.2: Regression Line of the Data FIGURE 9.1: Plotted Graph of the Experiment

Figure 8.2 shows the regression line of the The data showed that the resistance decreases when

obtained data. The equation has a R-Squared value of light intensity increases. LDR is at max when no light

0.9971 and the equation of the line is is being sense.

EQUATION 2: Equation of Regression Line relationship between the two.

It was observed that as the current increases the

luminous intensity but not in linear.

experiment having more light intensity than the usual

LEDs.

(Lux) (Ω)

220 2,970 Power Regression Line was used that fits to

520 2000 the data. The value of R-Squared is equal to 0.9921

almost close to 1 which

600 1800

D. Proximity Sensor

800 1500 E. Thermocouple (Peltier)

1350 1100

TABLE 3: Obtained Data from the Experiment VI. CONCLUSION

the experiment. VII. SUMMARY

VIII. RECOMMENDATION

IX. REFERENCES

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