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Theoretical Framework

There have been various theories propounded to explain the relevance of

training needs in any establishment of organization. According to Albert

Bandura’s social learning theory, employees acquire new skills and knowledge

by observing other members of staff whom they have confidence in and as well

believe to be credible and more knowledgeable [10], [11]. The theory posited that

training and learning is influenced by persons self-efficacy and his ability to

successfully learn new skills which can be influenced by encouragement, oral

persuasion, logical confirmation, observation of others [28]. People learn through

observing others’ behavior, attitudes, and outcomes of those behaviors. “Most

human behavior is learned observationally through modeling: from observing

others, one forms an idea of how new behaviors are performed, and on later

occasions this coded information serves as a guide for action.” (Bandura). Social

learning theory explains human behavior in terms of continuous reciprocal

interaction between cognitive, behavioral, and environmental influences.

Learning theories provided some key principles of learning so that implication of

these principles in training may provide opportunities of trainees’ motivation and

facilitating their learning. This section (literature review) provided a solid body of

knowledge about how individual learn the different processes of learning involved

and significant factors that affects individual learning. This literature can

significantly contribute to the training plans and program alike.

Another theory that has been used in this study is the “Reinforcement

theory”. According to the behaviorist B.F. Skinner, he believed that training is a

strategic tool to make job interesting to the workers and as the avenue for the

employees to improve themselves for optimal performance which can

culminating to promoting employees for outstanding performance, innovation,

creativity as a result of training attended [2]. Feedback and reinforcement are

the two most important concepts in learning as put forwarded by (Mckenna,

2011), feedback involves providing trainees with information about their

responses whereas reinforcement affects the tendency to make a specific

response again, (Braton et al 2017) noted that positive feedback increases the

responses and negative feedback decreases the responses behavioural approach

to learning focus on the role of reinforcement in motivating the individual to

behave in certain ways.

The resource-based view (RBV) of the firm advocated that an organization

can gain competitive advantage by attracting and retaining competent human

resources and as well identify relevant training for them that will keep improving

their capacity for optimal performance. By implications, the effectiveness of

training and learning depends on the pattern of the job-related knowledge, skills,

capability, competencies and behavior that are important for greater

performance which invariably be capable of influencing organizational success.


[10] Bratton, J: Work and Organizational

Behavior. New York. Paul Grave Mac
Millan, 2017.

[11] McCourt, W., Derek, E: Global

Human Resource Management:
Managing People in Developing and
Transitional Countries. Cheltenham,
UK: Edward Elgar, 2013.

[28] Kendra, C.: ISocial Learning Theory:

An Overview of Banduras Social
Learning. Available at:
m. Retrieved

[2] Ahmad, A.., Jehanzeb, K., Alkelabi,

S.A.H.: Role of Learning Theories in
Training While Training the Trainers.
In: International Journal of Academic
Research in Business and Social Sciences,
Vol. 2, No. 11(2013), p. 181-189.