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1.

0 DESIGN INFORMATION

1.1 Material Properties

Density of Concrete 24 kN/m3


Density of Water 9.81 kN/m3
Concrete Grade 30 N/mm2
Characteristic Strength of high yield Steel 460 N/mm2
Characteristic Strength of Mild Steel 250 N/mm2

1.2 Durability Requirement

Exposure Condition - Severe

Clear cover to r/f 50 mm

1.3 Foundation

Assumed bearing capacity 125 kN/mm2


Soil parameters c= 0 kN/mm2
(cohesionless soil) j= 30 0
g= 20 kN/m3
(Where c is cohesion, j is friction angle and g is the density.)

2.0 REFERENCES

BS 8110 Part 1 (1985)


British Standard Structural Use of Concrete

BS 8007 (1987)
Design of concrete structures for retaining aqueous liquids

BS 4466 (1981)
Specification for Bending Dimensions and Scheduling of Reinforcement for Concrete.

Reinforced Concrete Designer’s Hand Book


R.E.Renolds and James C. Steedman - 10 th Edition

Standard Method of Detailing Structural Concrete


By Institution of Structural Engineers UK
Reference Calculations Output
1.0 Design Data and Parameters

Material Properties
Density of Concrete 24 kN/m3
Density of Water 10 kN/m3
Density of water during flooding 14.5 kN/m3
Concrete Grade 30 N/mm2
Strength of high yield Steel 460 N/mm2

Durability Requirement
Exposure Condition - Severe
Clear cover to r/f 75 mm

Foundation
Bearing capacity (assumed) 75 kN/m2
Soil parameters c= 5 kN/m2
j= 30 deg
g sat= 18 kN/m3
(Where c is cohesion, j is friction angle and g is the density)
Reference Calculations Output

2.0 Design of the Column Support

Cl.3.8 BS 8110 Height of the support = 3.00 m


P-1 Pipe diameter (Inner Diameter) = 0.50 m
Length of a flange pipe = 5.00 m
Maximum spacing between two suports = 5.00 m
Length of pipe which applies the loads on
= 5.00 m
support
Self wt of pipe + Water = 225 lb/ft
= 3.28 kN/m
Column size (Width = Length) = 0.400 m

2.1 Load Calculation

Wt of water+Pipe = 16.42 kN

Self wt of the column = 8.64 kN

Additional imposed load (1.0 kN/m) = 5.00 kN

500 DI Pipe/ 5000 long


Column Support
River Water Flow Thrust force due to pipe flow

Force on column due to logs impact,


Weight of log hitting during flooding = 2.00 Ton
Velocity of water during flooding = 3.00 m/s
RDA Bridge Log impact on column = 0.1 x W x V
Manual = 0.60 kN

Since pipe and column fully submerged,


Drag Force, FD = CD AP ρ V02 / 2
Drag coefficient of column, CD = 2.0
Ap for column = 1.60 m2
Total drag force on column during flooding = 20.88 kN

Force due to water pressure on bends = 2 P A sin (φ / 2)


Water pressure inside the pipe = 0.5 bars
Maximum bend size of gravity main = 45.0 deg
Thrust force on column due to internal pipe
= 7.52 kN
water flow

Drag Force + Log Impact

y y
Reference Calculations Output

Thrust from water flow


x

Serviceability forces on column,

21.4 kN 21.4 kN
0.6 kN

20.88 kN 7.5 kN

3.0

2.0

SECTION y-y SECTION x-x

Equivalent

21.42 kN 21.42 kN
0.6 kN

7.5 kN

3.00 m

41.8 kN.m

SECTION y-y SECTION x-x

Seviceability forces and moments on column base,


Axial load, N = 21.42 kN
Bending moment along major axis, Mx = 43.56 kN
Bending moment along minor axis, My = 22.55 kN

Ultimate forces on column,

31 kN 31 kN
1.0 kN

33.41 kN 12.03 kN
Reference Calculations Output

3.0

2.0

SECTION y-y SECTION x-x

Equivalent

30.99 kN 30.99 kN
1.0 kN

12.03 kN

3.00 m

67 kN.m

SECTION y-y SECTION x-x

Ultimate forces and moments on column base,


Axial load, N = 30.99 kN
Bending moment along major axis, Mx = 69.70 kN
Bending moment along minor axis, My = 36.08 kN

2.2 Design of the column

Column is subjected to axial load and biaxial bending. Therefore


column shall be designed as slender, unbraced biaxial bending
column.
Y
b

h
X X
h'

b'
Y

b = 300 mm
h = 400 mm

Clear height of column, l0 = 100 b2 / h ≤ 60b


BS8110-1:1997,
= 22500
Cl 3.8.1.8
60b = 18000
Reference Calculations Output
Actual clear height, l0 = 3000 mm Satisfied

Clear height = 3.000 m


End condition about x & y axis,
End condition at top = 4
End condition at bottom = 1
ß = 2.2
Effective height (Lex or Ley) = 6.60

Lex/h = 16.50
> 10 for unbraced
Ley/b =
22.00
> 10 for unbraced
Hence the column should be designed as slender about both axis

Cover = 75 mm
Vertical r/f bar diameter = 25 mm
Stirrups = 8 mm

h' = 204.5 mm
b' = 304.5 mm

Assume, 100 Asc/ bh = 4.0%


Ac = 0.96 bh
Nuz = 0.45fcuAc + 0.95fyAsc
= 3652.8 kN
Nbal = 0.25 fcubh
= 900 kN

K = Nuz - N ≤1
Nuz - Nbal
= 1.32
Take, K = 1.00

ax = (1/2000) (lex/b)2 hK
= 54.5 mm

ay = (1/2000) (ley/h)2 bK
= 40.8 mm

Madd x = NaxK
= 1.69 kN.m

Madd y = NayK
= 1.27 kN.m

Biaxial Moment & Direct Load,


Design moments,
Mx = 70.96 kNm
My = 37.35 kNm

Direct load at 45deg bend locations,


M x/h' = 347.0 kN
M y /b' = 122.7 kN
Reference Calculations Output

N/ (bhfcu) = 0.009
Appendix D,
Manual for the N/ (bhfcu) < 0.1, Hence design as a beam.
design of Consider major axis,
reinforced
concrete building d = 304.5 mm
structures, 1985 d' = 95.5 mm
d/h = 0.76

Sec 4.4.5, 0.1fcubd = 274.05 kN


Manual for the Axial load can be ignored since, N< 0.1f cubd
design of
reinforced
concrete building
structures, 1985 K = M/ fcu bd2
= 0.085
K < 0.156
Compression reinforcement not needed
d = 304.5 mm
z = d {0.5+sqrt(0.25-K/0.9)}
= 272.33 mm
x = (d-z)/0.45
= 71.5 mm
As = M/0.87fyz
As = 651 mm2
Provide 2T 20 As, pro = 830 mm2
1T 16 Per face

4T20+4T16

Check for minimum area of r/f

Table 3-27 BS Asc = 3927.0 mm2


8110 P-1 Ac = 120000 mm2
100 Asc/Ac = 3.27 %
> 0.13%
Satisfied

Check for maximum area of r/f

Table 3-27 BS Asc = 3927.0 mm2


8110 P-1 Ac = 120000 mm2
100 Asc/Ac = 3.27 %
< 6.0%
Satisfied

Check for maximum spacing of Main Bars


Maximum Spacing allowable = 250 mm
Spacing of bars = 54.5 mm
< 250mm
Reference Calculations Output
Satisfied

Selection of Shear Links


Stirrups size = Greater of 6mm or
(1/4)*vertical bar dia
= 6.0 mm
Selected stirrup size = 8.0 mm Tor steel

Maximum Spacing of links = 12xBar dia


= 240 mm
Use stirrups as T8 @ 200

Check for Crack control


0.2 fcu Ac = 720.0 kN
N = 21.4 kN
N < 0.2 fcu Ac
So, Check for crack width
Along major axis
q1 = bx
b = 300.0 mm
x = 95.2 mm
q1 = 28560.0 mm2
As, pro = 830 mm2
m = Es/Ec
Ec = 28 kN/mm2
Es = 200 kN/mm2
m = 7.12
d = 304.50
d' = 95.50
As ' = 829.7 mm2
g = 0.5q1x+mAsd+(m-1)A'sd'
q1+mAs+(m-1)A's
= 92.1 mm
e = M/N
Service bending moment, M = 43.6 kN.m
Service direct load, N = 21.4 kN
e = 2034 mm
h = 400 mm
d = 305 mm
d' = 96 mm
k1 = (e+g)/d+1
= 7.982
k2 = x/2d(1-x/3d)
= 0.140
k3 = (m-1)(1-d'/x)
= -0.019
fc = Nk1
k2bd+k3A's(1-d'/d)
= 13.376 N/mm2
fs = fc (0.5q1+k3A's)-N
As
= 204.1 N/mm2
Check x = d/ (1+(fs/mfc))
= 96.9 mm
εs = fs / E s
Reference Calculations Output
= 0.0010207
εh = (h-x)/(d-x) εs
= 0.0015
εmh = h (b(h-x)2)/3EsAs(d-x)
ε -
= 0.0012
acr = sqrt(s/22+dc2) - φ/2
= 79.1 mm
Wcr = 3acrεm/(1+2(acr-cmin)/(h-x)))
= 0.191 mm
<0.3 Satisfied

2.3 Design of the base

Characteristic axial load on footing F = 30.06 kN


Ultimate axial load on footing F = 43.08 kN

Characteristic moments on footing


Cl.3.11 BS 8110
P-1 Mx = 43.6 kNm
My = 22.6 kNm
Ultimate moments on footing
Mx = 70.96 kNm
My = 37.35 kNm

My

Mx
3300

1750

Allowable bearing capacity = 75 kN/m2


Footing size = qapp/qall
= 0.633 m
Select,
B = 1.750 m
L = 3.300 m
d = 0.500 m
FOS = 3.0
Ultimate bearing capacity = 225 kN/m2
qo = 7.5 kN/m2
< qult ok
Reference Calculations Output

Design for moment


Equivalent eccentricity, e = M/N

N= 30.1 kN

Mx = 43.6 kN.m

3.300

ex = 1449.2 mm
L/6 = 550.00 mm
e > L/6
Length of pressure diagram, y = 3 (L/2-e)
= 602.43 mm
Using simple elastic analysis,
Pmax = 2N/ (3B(D/2-e))
B = 1.8 m
Pmax = 57.0 kN/m2
Pmax < qall

N= 30.1 kN

My = 22.6 kN.m

1.750

ey = 750.2 mm
B/6 = 291.67 mm
e > L/6
Length of pressure diagram, y = 3 (L/2-e)
= 374.26 mm
Using simple elastic analysis,
Pmax = 2N/ (3B(D/2-e))
B = 3.3 m
Pmax = 48.7 kN/m2
Pmax < qall

Base thickness = 400 mm


Cover = 75 mm
Bar size = 12 mm
Effective depth, d = 319 mm
fcu = 30 N/mm2

Select 1m strip along y axis


Mx = 71.0 kN.m
400

3250 1000
Reference Calculations Output

% of moment redistribution = 0
K' = 0.156
K = M/ fcu bd2
= 0.023 kN.m
K < K'
Compression reinforcement not needed,
d = 319.0 mm
z = d {0.5+sqrt(0.25-K'/0.9)}
= 247.83 mm
x = (d-z)/0.45
= 158.2 mm
As = M/0.87f y
z
As,req = 715 mm2
No of bars = 6.33
Spacing = 158
Provide T 12 @ 150 As, pro = 867 mm2
Reference Calculations Output
Reference Calculations Output