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Final Project

Internship HELD ON
Course code: GMT-
Northern corporation ltd. GMM 250



Submission Date: 15-01-2015

SUBMITTED TO: Prepared by:-
Our Honorable Teacher… Sourab Ghosh
MD. FARUK AHMED ID:111-118-0-45
Batch 111 Section AMT o3
Senior Lecturer of (BUFT)
Cell: 01911-914429
Cell: 01928-371876
Email: Faruk ahmed@gmail.com

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BGMEA University of Fashion & Technology (BUFT). 1 0 5 S R T O W E R , U T T A R A , D H A K A
Final Project

1. Acknowledgement.

2. Objectives of the Internship.

3. Company Profile

4. About Northern Corporation

5. Vision & Mission

6. Social Commitment

7. Knitting section (Introduction of Knitting, Lay-Out, Source of

raw materials, Process flow of knitting section, Different Types of
Knitting Machine, Basic Knitting Elements, Fabric GSM, Production
8. Lab section(Introduction of Knitting, Lay-Out ,Quality assurance
procedure, calculation of Lab dip, Sequence of chemical lab’s work,
Problem, Objectives)
9. Dyeing section (Introduction of Knitting, Lay-Out, Process
flow Chart Of Dying Section, Machine Specification of Dyeing Section,
Dyeing Recipe, Classification of dyes, Some Special Chemicals name)

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10. Garments section (Technical Specification Of Men’s T-shirt,
Polo shirt & Long sleeve shirt, Sketch, Of Men’s T-shirt, Polo shirt &
Long sleeve shirt, Process Breakdown Of Men’s T-shirt, Polo shirt,
Long sleeve shirt,4 points System, Calculation etc.)
11. Finishing Section

12. Sample department

13. Store section

14. I.E Section (Work of IE officers, Time Study Sheet, Efficiency,

Productivity, Production etc.)

15. Merchandising department (Costing, consumption,

responsibilities of Merchandiser, works of a merchandiser etc.)

16. Award Photos of Northern Corporation

17. Factory Address

18. Transmission Letter.

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All praise to God, the almighty, and the merciful. Without his blessing and endorsement this
Report would not have been accomplished. The successful completion of this Report might
never be possible in time without the help of many people have made significant
contributions. Their insights, advice and suggestions helped me a lot development and
preparation of the report. First of all I want to thank our honorable faculty Md. Faruk
Ahmed Sir for guiding us to make this Report .He gave us a best support to make this
His convincing power is very high. He makes us confident.He is a friends, philosopher & guide
to us. I also would like to express our heartfelt thanks to ED sir, Mr. Md. Rezaul Karim(admin)
Mr Mamun (Sr.Executive Admin), Mr. Jahid Hasan (Executive Admin),Rasel (Executive Admin).
I would like to express my sincere gratitude to Mr.Md. Mahbubur Rahman (Dyeing Manager),
Mr. Md. Abdullah Al Mamun (Knitting Manager), Mr. Md. Fazle Rabby( Deputy Manager of
Garments),PM Sir, Mr.Pramanik (Merchandiser) for providing me all necessary information
& guide line.. I am also grateful to other Sr. Executives & Executives, all stuff for assisting
me to gather information about various processes.
I also thanks the University’s Authority because they included this subject & the experienced
course faculty for this subject.
For complete this Assignment, I have to do………..
i. Hard Working.
ii. Collect Data
iii. Search internet.
iv. Taking help from others etc.

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Objectives of the Internship

The objective of the internship is to know the Basic

knowledge about the Knitting Section, Dyeing Sec., Lab,
Garments sec., Sample Sec., I.E, and Merchandising and
also provide recommendations for better
implementation in the Garments Industries.

To acquire knowledge and find the relationship

between practical and theoretical background. To
evaluate the Factory internship .To examine the
operational procedure of Textile Industry. To examine
various factors and techniques used in garment
industry to analyze the overall garments procedure
up to shipment.

Finally I have learned many things about garments

industry that will help me a lot to working in future in
this sector…

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• Northern Corporation Ltd.

• Fashion Asia Ltd.

• Tosrifa Industries Ltd.

• Printers And Printers Ltd.

• Enviro Pac Ltd.

• Hung Tak Northern Garments Ltd.

Northern Corporation Ltd.

The group started its humble journey as a composite knit items manufacturing unit.
Being known as Northern Corporation Ltd, the company now employs over 1800
people with an annual turnover of more than 22million US dollar. Located just few
minutes away from Dhaka International Airport, NCL is well equipped with
machineries that can produce 12 tons finished fabric per day. Not only that, it has
the ability to sew 4 million minutes per month. In return of its accomplishments,
NCL is rewarded with several international certificated including OEKOTEX 100
and Organic Exchange.

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Top Management:

Tosrifa Khatoon Mohim Hassan Naim Hassan RafiqHassan

Group Chairman Group Managing Director Group Director Group Director

Northern Corporation Limited is a 100% export oriented composite knit
textile unit established with the commitment to care the Global needs for
knit and casual clothing. The Report has employed the State-of-Art
technology in its very pieces of investments. Aiming at the context of
the changing Global demand pattern, international environment on trade
specially the withdrawal of quota system and GSP and the availability of
craftsmanship in the country, the Report encompassed the knitting,

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dyeing and processing of fabrics and ready-made Garments production
to be available from one stop service.

The manpower engaged in the Reports to carry out the day to day
business are all highly skilled, purely professional, vastly experienced.
The unique combination of organized Managerial and Technical term in
one hand and latest, advanced and balanced technology on the other
hand made the Report one of the top to be referred in this field in the
country. The best use of continuous development of Human Resources
by providing them International Standard Environment and equal
opportunity is the keys for achieving comprehensive competence in all
the level Organizational Hierarchy.

Northern Corporation Limited has been established with the objective

and vision to cater the needs of 21st century of worldwide knit apparels
markets from one stop service being committed to One-time Delivery,
Quality Assurance, Price Affordability and Social Accountability.
Market survival of knitted fabric manufacturing industry depends on
producing at lower cost while maintaining higher quality finishing.
Synchronizing both is very difficult for a manufacturer. It requires up-
dated technology and a very good management system. At our internship
period, we have observed that Northern Corporation Limited has a
complete system for manufacturing of knitted fabrics with high quality
assurance. By latest technology, world class machinery and skilled
manpower, they have arranged a well co-ordinate production system.
Northern Corporation Limited is Manufacturer and Exporter of Knit
fabric and Knit ware Garments.

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About Northern Corporation Limited:
An ISO certified company; Northern Corporation Limited continues to
play a leading role in the manufacturing of Quality Garments in
Bangladesh with the intent to further strengthen its position for its
quality products. With our decades of experience and extensive industry
knowledge, we have been able to face the challenges of the global
market place and deliver quality products in adherence with market
standards and parameters.

Modern production, techniques and flexible processes and procedures

allow offering efficient service for small batch as well as large orders.
Northern Corporation Limited is a 100% export- oriented company
and work with the objective of achieving maximum customer
satisfaction. The company has adopted innovative procedures and
practices to meet customer expectations.

Vision: We are focused to be the most preferred NAME to our stakeholders -

customers, employees, suppliers, society and shareholders.

Northern Corporation Limited believes that “Dyeing is an exploration

into the images people seek to convey – about themselves and the way
they live.”

So, in dealing with its target consumers , Northern Corporation Limited

mainly aims to know their perception about themselves and translates
those into garments. Doing that, over the years, Northern Corporation
Limited designers have acquired an almost telepathic understanding of
the consumers’ needs.

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Its mission is to produce the latest design fancy item for ladies & kids,
quality knit fabrics and apparels for international markets.

Northern Corporation Limited is one of the few elite private sector

business groups, which contributed wealth as well as welfare to the
struggling economy of Bangladesh.

 EXCEED our customer’s expectations delivering right products in right time
with excel quality and customer service.

 EMPOWER our Human Resource turning them into our Best Asset.

 CONTRIBUTE to the enhancement of our Society and Environment.

 MAXIMIZE Shareholder’s Value.

Why Northern Tosrifa Group?

Some of their specialties that make them a reliable business partner to

work with are:
 Long experience and extensive industry knowledge.
 State-of-the-art production facilities.
 Superior quality of fabric and fabric dyeing industry to follow the
standards and parameters according to buyers.
 Timely deliveries.
 Proven record in successful of small as well as bulk orders.
 Cost effectiveness.

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Social Commitment :

Northern Tosrifa Group is a green company that keeps the environment

in mind while making any organizational decision. It understands their
responsibilities towards society and environment in which they operate.
They give prime consideration to health & safety, environmental
protection & accident prevention in line with any other phases of
operation or administration.
They are a socially conscious company and work with the policy of
providing and maintaining a safe & healthy work environment. Their
operating procedures and organizational policies ensure strict adherence
to practices that will safeguard the interest of all stakeholders, society
and the environment.

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Introduction of Knitting:
At the pre historical time, human being used animal skin wraps for clothing. By the
time they attempted to manipulate into textile fabrics. According to their
knowledge, they invented manually (hand) knit machine. The first hand operating
knitting machine was invented at 16th century. Day by day the knowledge & idea of
people upgraded, so they invented modern, most complicated & most automated
machinery in the textile industry. A skilled hand knitter produced 120 to 150
stitches per minute. In comparison, a modern high speed circular knitting machine
makes about 20 million stitches per minute. The Northern Corporation Ltd. is
also using different types of modern knitting machines on the basis of the

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# Lay-Out Of Knitting Section Of Northern Corporation Ltd.:

Enter Office

3 2 1

6 7 8 9

5 11

16 15 13

(1stfloor- Northern Corporation Ltd.)

1-4, 6-13: circular knitting machine (Single-jersey)
5, 14-16: circular knitting machine (Rib/interlock)

Source of raw materials:

Main raw material of knitting section is yarn package. On Northern
Corporation Ltd. yarn packages are brought from both local and
international market:
a. Local Source: Cotton and polyester yarns are bought from Metro
spinning, Thermax spinning, youth group, delta spinning, FM yarn
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etc. Millange yarn are bought from Sohagpur and Shamim
spinning (Jomuna group).
b. International Source: Mainly imported from India and Hongkong.

Types of yarn used in Northern Corporation Ltd.:

Different types of yarns are used on knitting section of Northern

Corporation Ltd. both natural and man-made according to the buyer

Most widely used raw yarns are:

- Cotton.
- Organic cotton.
- Polyester.
- Lycra.
- Millange etc.

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Process flow of knitting section:


Yarn Book

Machine Select

Machine Setting

Sample Production(5-10kg

Quality Check

Bulk Production


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Different Types of Knitting Machine


Warp knitting Weft knitting

m/c m/c
United needle United needle
Independent needle Independent needle
Indipendent needle

Flat-bed Circular knitting Flat-bed Circular knitting

knitting m/c m/c knitting m/c m/c

Circular knitting machine:

The knitting machine whose needle beds are arranged in circular
cylinders and/or dials are called circular knitting machine. In single
jersey knitting machines there have only cylinders but in case of
rib/interlock knitting machines there have both cylinders & dials.

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Features of circular knitting machine of Northern Corporation Ltd.:
 •In circular knitting machine, there have rotating cylindrical needle
 •Latch needles are used.
 •Between every needle spaces holding down sinker are used on
single jersey knitting m/cs.
 •Stationary angular cam systems are used for needles &sinkers.
 •Around the circumferences of the rotating cylinder, stationary
yarn feeders are situated at regular intervals.
 Yarns are supplied from creel, but from overhead bbobbin in case
of lycra.

 Mayer and Cie (Germany)

 KEUM YONG (Korea)

 FUKUHARA (Japan)

 PAI LUNG (Taiwan)

• Machine gauge: 18-28
• Machine dia: 26-36 inch.
• Feeder Number: 48-114

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Flat knitting machine:
The knitting machines whose needle beds are arranged in V-shape with two flat
beds are called flat knitting machine.

Features of flat knitting machines of Northern Corporation Ltd.:

o Latch needle are used.

o Bi-directional cam system is used.

o There are separate cam systems for each needle bed.

o Two cam systems are linked together by a bridge.

Brand: CMT-211 (Germany)

Machine length: 84”

Feeder Number: 28

Basic Knitting Elements:

There are three basic elements of knitting section. These are-

• Needle

• Cam

• Sinker

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Fabric GSM:
GSM means gram per square meter. It is a measurement of fabric
thickness and compactness.
Internationally Accepted range is ±5%
In factory Target of keeping G.S.M should be 0%-4%

Measuring System:
 Setting the pad on the table
 Putting fabric on the pad (without any crease or extra tension)
 Putting cutter on fabric
 Setting the hook at outer position at this blades become active
 Giving pressure on the head
 Turning handle 400º-500º
 Taking weight & multiply with 100

Manually Calculation:
G.S.M= × 0.9158

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Stitch length:
Stitch length is a length of yarn which includes the needle loop and half
the sinker loop on either side of it. Generally the larger the stitch length,
the more extensible and lighter the fabric and the poorer the cover,
opacity and bursting strength. In practical job 100 needle lengths is
stitch length. Stitch length of fabric is controlled by VDQ (variable dia
quality) / pulley of knitting machine.
Stitch Length= 100 loops=29cm (by measure) ÷10=2.9mm

We know (10 mm=1cm)

Calculation of production:
Production on knitting section per shift in terms of kg is calculated by
the following formula:

Production in kg/shift

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For smooth running of a factory uninterrupted supply of raw materials

are very essential. As far as we saw the control of raw materials are good
in Northern Corporation Ltd...

Observer’s signature

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The working process of quality control & lab are quite different but they
are equipped under same section on due to the NORTHERN
CORPORATION’s similarities in view of purpose .They mainly give
assurance of quality of textile . On laboratory, shade matching & recipe
calculation of a swatch is performed .The properties of fabric & fastness
of color is tested on the Q.C department.

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Lay-out of Lab and Quality Control department:

Lay out of Lab department of NORTHERN CORPORATION:

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1 – Computer(general) 12. –Computer(data recorder)

2 – Datacolour 13. –Warp reel

3 –Indesit Dryer m/c 14. –Twist tester

4 –Indesit Washing m/c 15. –Iron m/c & dryer

5 –Colour Fastness m/c 16. –Electronic balance

6 –Simence Washing m/c 17. –U.P.S. & Bettery

7 –Rob lab auto dispenser m/c 18. –Sample dyeing m/c

8 –Controler 19. - Sample dyeing m/c

9 –Yarn strength tester 20. - Sample dyeing m/c

10 –Crockmeter 21. – Basin

11 –Beesley balance 22. –Basin(Hot water)

Quality assurance procedure:

Quality assurance is defined as all those possible planned and

systematic actions necessary to provide adequate confidence than a
product or service will satisfy given requirements for quality. The
Quality Assurance Department is assigned to maintain consistently
uniform quality of the material in process and various stages of

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M/c Name: 1) Mathis – (Sample Dyeing m/c)-made by Switzerland

2) Ahiba-made by U.S.A

3) Fangs lab sample Dyeing m/c-made in china

4) Color Fastness m/c-paramount-made in India

5) Indesit-washing m/c-made in Italy\

6) Indesit dryer m/c- made in U.K

7)mathis dryer m/c- made in Switzerland

Liquor ratio 1:10, but they have taken 1:8

# Calculation for lab deep:

 Recipe calculation formula :

Shade % Weight of the fabric in gm

Dye =

Stock solution %


W = weight of fabric, yarn or fiber

P = shade percentage

C = concentration of stock solution

CC = cubic centimeter.

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Quality assurance:

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# Sequence of chemical lab’s work:

Buyer submit swatch

Data color inspection

Recipe formation (changing various %)

Sample dyeing

Reprocess Match sample with standard

Send to buyer for approval

If not If approved,

Send for sample production

Send to buyer for approval

Send for mass production

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#Sequence of dyeing 100% cotton fabric in lab:

Select bleach
fabric (5gm)
Recipe making
Select dyes
Hot wash
Cold wash
match with standard
sample(If matches)
Bulk production
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Procedure :

 Fabric weight measured by electric balance.

 Calculate the recipe.
 Keep the fabric in the pot.
 Then required amount of water, salt, soda and other
chemicals are taken to the pot by pipe ting.
 Start the program for dyeing. The dyeing time and
temperature depend on types of dyes being used.

Shade Temperature Time

For light 600c 60 min


For dark 800c 60 min


 After finished the dyeing time then cold wash two times.
 Acid wash for neutralization.
 Then soaping by required soap solution for 10 min. at 900C.
 Cold wash then drying the lab dip and compare with the

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#Problems for lab-dip:

 Shade variation (major problem).

 Soda or alkali spot come.
 Metamerism problem.

# Problems overcome by:

 Dye adjusts between std. and lab-dip.

 Accurate dyes and chemical measure.
 By shading (additional way).
 By stripping

 Objectives
- To know how light fastness test do.
- To know which reactive groups are better.
- To know how to sample rating by grey scale.

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Dyeing section

Dyeing is the process of coloration to the textile .The choice of dyeing

machinery depends on the type of fabric and the fiber it contains. As far
as dyeing is concerned, consideration is the consistency of dyes or
chemicals distribution that must in short time. World class Machinery
are used in Northern Corporation.

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# Process flow Chart Of Dying Section:

Layout of Dyeing Section :

1,2,13,14 –Sample dyeing machine.

3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12 - Dyeing machine.
15 -Turning machine.
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# Machine Specification of Dyeing Section :

M/C M/C Capacity Brand Origin Maxm. Nozzle Max Liquor Pressure
No. Type (kg) Name Temp.( C) No. Nozzle Ratio
01 Sample 15 FONG’s China 140 1 300 1:10 400kpa
02 Sample 10 KRSNA India 140 1 300 1:10 400kpa
03 Dyeing 600 Athena 2 Greece 142 4 310 1:6 0.28mpa

04 Dyeing 50 Dilmenler Turkey 135 1 400 1:6 2.5bar

05 Dyeing 1400 Dilmenler Turkey 135 8 400 1:6 2.5bar
06 Dyeing 500 FONG’s China 140 4 210 1:6 700kpa
07 Dyeing 650 FONG’s China 140 3 260 1:6 380kpa
08 Dyeing 450 FONG’s China 140 2 260 1:6 380kpa
09 Dyeing 50 FONG’s China 140 1 300 1:6 400kpa
10 Dyeing 25 Son-tech China 140 1 100 1:6 0.44mpa
11 Dyeing 135 Athena 2 Greece 142 2 190 1:6 0.38mpa
12 Dyeing 225 Athena 2 Greece 142 2 210 1:6 0.38mpa
13 Sample 25 FONG’s China 140 1 100 1:6 350kpa
14 sample 10 FONG’s China 140 1 100 1:6 350kpa

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Dyeing Recipe:

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# Classification of dyes :

Coloring Matters

Dyes Pigments

Readymade Ingrain / Developed

Azoic Oxidation Mineral

Water soluble Water insoluble color color

Direct Acid Reactive Basic Optical whitener

Vat Sulpher Disperse


Classes of dyes suitable for dyeing on different fibers:

1. Acid dyes: Wool, Silk, and Nylon.
2. Basic dyes: Nylon, Acrylic, Acetate Rayon, Silk, Wool, and Jute.
3. Direct dyes: Cotton, Viscose Rayon, Linen, Nylon, Wool and Silk.
4. Azoic dyes: Cotton, Viscose, and Linen.
5. Vat dyes: Cotton, Viscose, and Linen.
6. Soluble Vat: Cotton, Viscose, and Silk.

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7. Sulphur dyes: Cotton, Viscose Rayon, and Linen.
8. Reactive dyes: Cotton, Viscose Rayon, Linen, Wool, Silk, and Nylon.
9. Disperse dyes: Polyester, Nylon, Acrylic, Acetate Rayon, and Triacetate
10.Acid Mordant dyes: Wool, Silk, and Nylon.

Turning process :

Normally turning is done for those fabrics which are not same in
both face & back to protect the face side of fabric from any dust,
spot, other color, machine corrosion or any visual or physical
The machine by which counting of rolls & face/back side of fabric
is opened is called turner machine.

Special feature of turning m/c:

 Fabric turning face side to back side by cylinder.

 Delivery per hours = 417 kg .
 A large cylinder present
 Two pipes for blowing air
 An engine inside of the machine
 Two rollers (for delivering the fabric) on the upper side of the
 3 buttons two for start two pipes individually the other is for
stop the machine.

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The necessity of turning:

 To remove some dirt from the fabric.

 To count the number of rolls.
 To make back side of appear on face side as required.
 To make some identification on fabric.
 To adjust all the rolls together with hand.
e.g. Some fabrics can be cut at the bottom side in fabric times
and some are not (the fabric which are cut during turning is also
cut after weight measurement at the top side of the fabric and
also a card is supplied by the people who takes the weight of the
 To make the back face side as required for a fabric.
 To adjust all the rolls together with hand by knot for a nozzle.
 They fulfill the turning row in process Route card and also
fulfill the particular turning khata. Then, it goes for sewing.

Which fabrics are turning Which fabrics are not turning by

by m/c? m/c?
1. Single Lacoste. 1. Lycra single jersey (Turn
2. Double Lacoste. over by hand).
3. 1×1 Rib. 2. CVC Fleece (Turn over by
4. 2×2 Ribs. hand).
3. 1×1 Lycra Rib.
4. Collar and Cuffs.
5. Lycra single jersey turning
two times.

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Note :

 Turning is only for single jersey fabric and its derivatives (PQ,
lacoste fabric etc).
 But fleece, double jersey and their derivatives are kept unturned.
 Precaution should be taken during batching. Otherwise lot may be
mixed and causes in dyeing problem.

# Various Parts Of Winch Dying Machine:

 Main Pump

 Winch and motor unit

 Nozzle

 Addition tank

 Heat Exchanger

 Filter

 Reserve tank

 Drain Line

 Safety bulb

 Seam line

 Stand

 Cooling line

 Chamber and door

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# Description of general dyeing process as flow chart :

Scouring and bleaching

Wash 2

Acid hot wash (steam 60, time 20 min)

Raising temperature 800C

Water realized

Wash 2

Water Supply

Enzyme (PH - 4.5, Steam 55 - 60)

1 hours running

Sample Cut (Test)

Enzyme hot

Wash 2

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Leveling (PH 5 - 6)

Dye Stuff (40 min dosing, running 20 min)

Salt (running 20 min)

Sample Cut (shade analysis)

Soda (dosing time 40 min)

Steam 55 - 60 (Time 20 min)

Shade OK

Hot wash (steam 70, running 10 min)

Acid wash

Fixing agent

Softener (10 min)

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Some Special Chemicals name which is mostly used in NCL:

1. AN Tshamer-k 50
2. Anticrease-200
3. Agasol-AME
4. Arristan-64
5. Acetic Acid
6. Biavin –BPA
7. Bio Polish-EC
8. Bio Polish Biavin-109-CR
9. Biosoft-C-100
10. B/Powder
11. Cibafix Eco
12. Coustic Soda
13. Cotoblan Sel
14. Catalase BF
15. Coto blanc NSR
16. Dispergotor-XHTS
17. Felosan-RGN
18. Glauber-Salt
19. Heptl EMG
20. H2o2
20. Hydroze
21. Meropen CIT
22. Neutrcid NVM
23. Polybin PEN
24. Rewin –RNR
25. Soda Ash
26. Scourzm
27. Sarabid mip etc.

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For smooth running of a factory uninterrupted supply of raw materials,

dyes and chemical are very essential. As far as we saw the control of raw
materials, dyes and chemicals are good in Northern corporation..

Observer’s signature

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Garments is the second need of basic needs of human. Once man used
leafs, barks, and animal skin to protect their body from environment
conditions when yarn and fabric was unknown to human. Now-a-days
with modern technology man is producing different garments of
different colors, fabrics and yarn. Quality, comfort, fashion are the most
important parameters of a garments. In Northern Corporation Ltd.
Garments are made considering these facts and has got much
reputation both inside and outside of our country.

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Flow chart of making garments.

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Different section of garments

 Sample section

 Cutting section

 Sewing section

 Finishing section.

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Operation Description of men’s T-Shirt
SL. Process Description M/C & Stitch Working SMV
Class Aid
1. Shoulder Sew 4 thread O/L N.P.F Time
2. Shoulder top Stitch 2 needle M.T.L/S G.P.F Time
3. Neck rib ends tuck 1 needle L/S(301) N.P.F Time
4. Neck rib sew to body neck 4 thread O/L N.P.F Time
5. Tape sew to back neck 1 needle L/S(301) G.P.F Time
6. Tape lower side closed to back 1 needle L/S(301) G.P.F Time
neck with label DS
7. Sleeve hem 2 needle Bottom Folder on Time
Cov. (406),EFS easy guide
8. Sleeve sew to Aram hole 4 thread O/L N.P.F Time
9. Aram hole top stitch 2 needle M.T.L/S G.P.F Time
10. Side seam closed with care 4 thread O/L N.P.F Time
label (514),SS
11. Bottom Hem 2 needle Bottom Folder on Time
Cov. (406),EFS easy guide
12. Sleeve ends tuck 1 needle L/S(301) N.P.F Time

13. Attach collaret to body Top & bottom Folder on Time

Cover, DS easy guide
14. Attach tape to shoulder D/N/C/S M/C Folder Time
15. Attach tape to neck line D/N/C/S M/C Folder Time

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16. Bottom cover seam at shoulder Top & bottom Folder on Time
Cover, DS easy guide
17. Bottom cover seam at neck line Top & bottom Folder on Time
Cover, DS easy guide

Operation Description of men’s Polo-Shirt

SL. Process Description M/C & Stitch Working SMV
Class Aid
1. Placket Iron(upper+ lower) Iron - Time
2. Placket stitch (upper+ lower) 1 needle L/S(301) SS N.P.F
3. Pocket Iron Iron - Time
4. Pocket Hem 2 needle Bottom Cov. Folder on Time
(406),EFS easy guide study
5. Pocket Attach with Facing 1 needle L/S(301) SS N.P.F Time
6. Sub label Attach 1 needle L/S(301) SS N.P.F Time
7. Back facing stitch with main 2 needle M.T.L/S G.P.F Time
label (401),DS study
8. Back part join with back facing 1 needle L/S(301) SS N.P.F Time
9. Back & Front Bottom Hem 2 needle Bottom Cov. Folder on Time
(406),EFS easy guide study
10. Shoulder join 4 thread O/L N.P.F Time
(514),SS study
11. Shoulder top stitch 2 needle M.T.L/S G.P.F Time
(401),DS study
12. Collar join 1 needle L/S(301) N.P.F Time
SS study
13. Tape attach 1 needle L/S(301) SS N.P.F Time
14. Sleeve join with Rib 4 thread O/L N.P.F Time
(514),SS study
15. Sleeve rib top stitch 2 needle M.T.L/S G.P.F Time
(401),DS study

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16. Side Seam 4 thread O/L N.P.F Time
(514),SS study
17. Vent sticker 1 needle L/S(301) N.P.F Time
SS study
18. Bottom Hem 2 needle Bottom Cov. Folder on Time
(406),EFS easy guide study
19. Sub label 1 needle L/S(301) N.P.F Time
SS study
20. Sleeve ends Tuck 2 needle Bottom Folder on Time
Cov. (406),EFS easy guide study
Operation Description of men’s Woven-Shirt
SL. Process Description M/C & Stitch Working Aid SMV
Collar :
1. Collar top part fusing Fusing Machine - Time
2. Collar run stitch 1 needle L/S(301) N.P.F Time
SS study
3. Collar point trim - Scissor Time
4. Collar turn& point - Pointer Time
5. Collar 1/16” top stitch 1 needle L/S(301) 1/16” CR.F Time
SS study
6. Collar out line(1/4” top stitch) 1 needle L/S(301) 1/4” CR.F Time
SS study
7. Collar band fusing Fusing m/c - Time
8. Collar band hem(as per meas.) 1 needle L/S(301) Edge guide Time
9. Collar & Collar band attach 1 needle L/S(301) Band pattern Time
10. Collar & band attach trim - Scissor Time
11. Collar band turn& point - Pointer Time

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12. 1/16” top stitch at band 1 needle L/S(301) 1/16” CR.F Time
SS study
13. Cuff fusing Fusing m/c - Time
14. Cuff hem (as per meas.) 1 needle L/S(301) Edge guide Time
15. Cuff run stitch 1 needle L/S(301) N.P.F Time
SS study
16. Cuff trim - Scissor Time
17. Cuff turn & point - Pointer Time
18. Cuff 1/16” top stitch at edge 1 needle L/S(301) 1/16” CR.F Time
SS study
19. Cuff out line(1/4” top stitch) 1 needle L/S(301) 1/4” CR.F Time
SS study
Back Part:
20. Back pleat tuck 1 needle L/S(301) N.P.F Time
SS study
21. Back loop making 2 flat lock Folder Time
22. Back loop attach to back part 1 needle L/S(301) N.P.F Time
SS study
23. Back &Back yoke Attach 2 needle L/S M/C N.P.F Time
24. Main label& size label attach to 1 needle L/S(301) 1/16” CR.F Time
under yoke SS study
Front part:
25. Right front BTN Stand Stitch 1 needle L/S(301) Folder Time
26. Placket attach to front 2 needle M.T.L/S Folder Time
(401) study
27. PKT Position mark to L/ Front - Pencil, temp. Time
28. Pocket Hem stitch 1 needle L/S(301) Folder Time

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29. Pocket edge iron - Iron& tem. Time
30. Placket attach to L/ Front 1 needle L/S(301) 1/16” CR.F Time
31. Sleeve upper placket iron - Iron& tem. Time
32. Sleeve lower placket attach 1 needle L/S(301) 1/16” Time
CL+folder study
33. Sleeve upper placket attach 1 needle L/S(301) 1/16” CR.F Time
34. Shoulder Attach 1 needle L/S(301) No.F+E.guide Time
35. Shoulder top stitch 1 needle L/S(301) CR or CL Time
foot study
36. Neck center mark - Scissor/Pencil Time
37. Collar center mark - Scissor/Pencil Time
38. Collar attach to body 1 needle L/S(301) N.P.F Time
39. Collar closed 1 needle L/S(301) 1/16” CL.F Time
40. Sleeve attach to body 5-T O/L M/C N.P.F Time
41. Sleeve top stitch (double) 2-T O/L M/C G.P.F Time
42. Side joint (back+ front) 2 needle M.T.L/S Folder Time
(401),DS study
43. Cuff attach to sleeve 1 needle L/S(301) N.P.F Time
44. Cuff Closed 1 needle L/S(301) 1/16” CL.F Time
45. Bottom hem 1 needle L/S(301) Folder Time
46. Bottom hole stitch 1 needle BTN Guide Time

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hole M/C study
47. Button position mark - Pencil & Time
temp. study
48. Button Attach 1 needle BTN Temp. Time
attach M/C study

1) Nor. F=Normal presser foot (hinged)

2) CL.F= compensating left presser foot (guide presser foot)

3) CL.R= compensating right presser foot (guide presser foot)

4) 1-N L/S M/C=1 Needle lock stitch machine

5) BTN=Button

6) Temp=template (one kind of pattern)

7) 2-N Flat lock=2-needle covering chain stitch machine

8) E-guide=edge guide

9) 2N MT C/S=2 needle multithread chain stitch

Maintenance Area in industrial Sewing M/C:

 Finger Guard  Belt checking
 Eye Guard  Electric line checking
 Oil Level checking  Motor checking
 Oil Cleaning Checking  Other /Paddle Rubber malt
 Pulley Guard

 Oil leakage

 Air leakage

 M/c cleanliness
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Sequence of sample garments manufacturing

Costing Send to buyer

Pattern: It is a hard paper which is made by following each individual

component for a style of garments.

Stages of pattern making:

 Block pattern or Basic block.

 Working or garments pattern.

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Marker is a thin paper which contains all necessary pattern pieces for
all sizes for a particular style of garments in such a way that fabric
wastage would be least.

Marker width is equal to the minimum fabric width and its length
depends on the no. of pattern sizes that will be drawn.

Area of pattern in the marker plan

Marker efficiency=

Total area of the marker plan

Higher the marker efficiency, lower the fabric wastage.

Fabric spreading:
In garments industry, fabric is cut once to make wear.For doing this ,
the process of fabric alignment according to production planning and
length and width is called the fabric spreading.

Requirements of fabric spreading:

 Alignment of fabric plies

 Correct ply tension

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 Fabric must be flat

 Elimination of fabric faults

 Correct ply direction

 Elimination of static electricity

 Easy separation of the cut lay into bundles

 Avoidance of fusion of plies during cutting

 Avoidance of distortion in spread

 Matching checks or stripes

Types of fabric lays:

1) According to structure :

 Straight lay

 Stepped lay

2) According to direction of spreading :

 All face up/down

 Face to face

 Zig –zag lay

Methods of fabric spreading:

1) Manual method:

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 Hand spreading

 Spreading by hook

 Spreading by hand run spreading truck

2) Mechanical method:

 Semi automatic

 Full automatic

Fabric Cutting:
It is difficult to define cutting. In garments industry , to cut the
different parts of fabric nicely and accurately from fabric lay or spread
according to the patterns of the marker , is called fabric cutting.

Requirements of fabric cutting:

 Precision of cut

 Clean edge

 Unfused edge

 Support of the lay

 Consistent cutting
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Cutting Section process breakdown :
Dyeing fabric

Relaxation (1day

(uzu ctath inspection m/c

,4point system)

shrinkage test
/color fastness test

Lay (servo m/c




Cut writing




Print Check


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Methods of fabric cutting :

Mainly two types:

1) Manual method:

 Hand operated scissor

 Round knife

 Straight knife

 Band knife

 Die cutting

 Notcher

 Drill

2) Computerized method:

 Knife cutting

 Cutting by water jet

 Laser cutting

 Plasma torch cutting

In Northern Corporation Limited , straight knife cutting

machine is used.

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Cutting Production Calculation

1. Lay Length =600 cm

2. Width=200 cm

3. G.S.M=150 gram/square mtr

4. Marker =7 pcs

5. Ratio=1500:1000:12 Dzn.

We know 1”=2.54cm

1. Lay Length =600 cm÷2.54

=236 inch

2. Width=200 cm÷2.54

=78 dia

Booking Qty: 236×78÷1550×150÷1000÷7×12=3.05 kg

𝟐𝟑𝟔 × 𝟕𝟖 × 𝟏𝟓𝟎 × 𝟏𝟐
𝟑𝟗. 𝟑𝟕 × 𝟑𝟗. 𝟑𝟕 × 𝟏𝟎𝟎𝟎 × 𝟕

=3.05 kg/dzn.

BC= TTL÷ Order QTY×12

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Four Point System:
Four point system is an international system to measure how defective the fabric is.

 Important points to be considered during Inspection As follows:

 Defect must be measured Length wise

 Minimum penalty points per yard is 4

 Defects within 1/2” of Selvedge Not Considered

 Acceptance level up to 40 points /100 sq. yards.(Depends on Buyer &

Supplier) As per ASQ.

 Above 40 points /100 sq.yds lot will be Rejected /2nd Quality. (Depends on
Buyer & Supplier)

 Defect must be marked by Arrow sticker/color thread

Result: Per 100 SQ. yards as per ASQ

Result: PER 100 YDS. As per KTA

Size of Defect Penalty points

Up to 3” 1

3”-6” 2

6”-9” 3

More than 9” 4

Any Hole 4

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Calculation of 4-point system:

Penalty Point Per 100 sq.Yard=

𝑻𝒐𝒕𝒂𝒍 𝒑𝒐𝒊𝒏𝒕 × 𝟑𝟔 × 𝟏𝟎𝟎
𝑻𝒐𝒕𝒂𝒍 𝒊𝒏𝒔𝒑𝒆𝒄𝒕𝒆𝒅 𝒍𝒆𝒏𝒈𝒕𝒉(𝒚𝒅𝒔) × 𝐅𝐚𝐛𝐫𝐢𝐜 𝐰𝐢𝐝𝐭𝐡(𝐲𝐝𝐬)

1-20 pts/100 yds. = Class “A”
21-30 pts/100 yds. = Class “B”
31-40 pts/100 yds. = Class “C”
More than-40 pts/100 yds=Reject

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Sewing is the most important process in producing garments.
Generally, by sewing we understand to sew with needle and thread
.Without needle and thread it is also possible to sew fabric. The
processes that are used for sewing, among them sewing with needle
and thread is the best and most costly. Because the strength and the
flexibility in this method is not found in any other method.

Properties of seam:
The line by which more layers of fabrics are sewn is called the seam.
The properties of seam are discussed below

 Seam strength

 Elasticity

 Durability

 Security

 Comfort

 Special properties

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Seam types:

 Class-1 , superimposed seam

 Class-2,Lapped seam

 Class-3,bound seam

 Class-4,flat seam

 Class-5,decorative seam

 Class-6,edge neatening

 Class-7

 Class-8

Stitch types:

 Stitch class -100

 Stitch class -200

 Stitch class-300

 Stitch class-400

 Stitch class-500

 Stitch class-600

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Sewing machine:
Sewing machines are mainly two types:

1) Manually operated sewing machine

2) Electrically operated sewing machine

1) Manually operated sewing machine :

This type of sewing machine is mainly run by physical power.
Sewing is done by moving the machine pulley by hand or leg,
that’s why production is less and hard work is needed. Manually
operated sewing machine is used mostly in houses and tailors.

2) Electrically operated sewing machine:

 Lock stitch machine

 Chain stitch machine

 Over lock machine

 Zigzag machine

 Flat lock machine

 Blind stitch machine

 Button holing machine

 Button attaching machine

 Bar tack machine

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Fig: Sewing Section

Sewing problem :

1) Problems of stitch formation:

 Slipped stitch

 Staggered stitch

 Unbalanced stitch

 Needle thread breakage

 Frequent thread breakage

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2) Problems of pucker:

 Unequal stretch

 Fabric dimensional instability

 Extension in sewing thread

 Sewing thread shrinkage

 Fabric construction

 Mismatched pattern

3) Seam wise fabric damage:

 Mechanical damage

 Needle heating damage

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Sequence of finishing:

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Fig: Finished Garments

Different defects of finished garments:

1. Off shape NK

2. Interlining visible at NK

3. Drop stitch at sly

4. Hole at sleeve

5. Oil spot
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6. Dirty spot

7. Same size sleeve length up-down

8. Elastic twisted at sleeve hem

9. NK piping with ugly uneven

Mainly three types of stitch:

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Store section:
Different types of Trim & Accessories:

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Trims and Accessories

To full fill the design objectives we need different kind of materials. Fabrics are
the main material, which used for garment manufacturing. We need other
materials also, which make the garments aesthetic, functional and commercially
required. Usually other than fabrics these materials used for making garments are
called trims and accessories.


The raw materials used in sewing room other than fabric are called Trims. On the
other hand we can say that which materials are directly attached with the fabric
to make a garment are called trims. Like: Threads, buttons, lining, Interlining,
zippers, labels, care labels, etc. (Interlining is used as shape forming / preserving


The materials, which are used to make a garment attractive for sale and packing,
other than fabrics and trims, are called Accessories.

List of Trims and accessories:

SL Trims SL Accessories

1 Label (S) 1 Poly bag

2 Button 2 Mini Poly bag

3 Zipper 3 Master Carton

4 Padding 4 Inner carton

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5 Interlining 5 Size clip

6 Elastic 6 P. P. bell

7 Thread 7 Tag pin

8 Twill Tape 8 Brass pin

9 Stopper 9 Collar stand

10 String/ Draw Cord 10 Safety pin

11 Piping Cord 11 Gum tape

12 D- Ring 12 Arrow sticker

13 Eyelet/ Grommet 13 Scotch tape

14 Collar Stay 14 Barcode Sticker

15 Cord Bell 15 Defect indicator

16 Buckle 16 Tissue paper

17 Rivet 17 Back board

18 Weaving belt 18 Neck board

19 Hook & Eye 19 Butterfly

20 Velcro tape 20 Numbering stickers

21 Seam sealing tape 21 Hanger

22 Shoulder pad 22 Size sticker

23 Cable (Steel ware) 23 Both side tape

24 Adjuster 24 Clip

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Industrial Engineering Department (I.E)
Work of IE officers
 Making garments process layout
 Finding working efficiency
 Finding MMR (man to m/c ratio)
 Binding time for each action
 Targeting 60% working efficiency
 Taking necessary steps against the failure

 The basic objectives of Industrial Engineering departments are;
 To establish methods for improving the operations and controlling the
production costs.
 To develop programmes for reducing these costs.

Production is defined as the process or procedure to transform a set of input
into output having the desired utility and quality. Production is a value-
addition process. Production system is an organized process of conversion of
raw materials into useful finished goods..

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Productivity may be defined as the ratio between output of wealth and input of
resources of production. Output means the quantity produced and inputs are the
various resources employed, e.g., land, building, machinery, materials and labor.

Productivity = Output / Input

Productivity refers to the efficiency of the production system. It is an indicator of

how well the factors of production (land, capital, labor and energy) are utilized.

It may also be defined as human effort to produce more and more with less and
less inputs of resources as a result of which the benefits of production may be
distributed more equally among maximum number of people.

Production and Productivity:

The concept of production and productivity are totally different. Production refers
to absolute output where as productivity is a relative term where in the output is
always expressed in term of inputs. Increase in production may or may not be an
indicator of increase in productivity. If the production is increased for the same
input, then there is an increase in productivity.

If viewed in quantitative terms, production is the quantity of output produced,

while productivity is the ratio of the output produced to the input used.

Productivity = Production / Resources employed

Productivity is said to be increased, when

 The production increases without increase in inputs.

 The production remains same with decrease in inputs.
 The output increases more as compared to input.

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Classification of productivity:
Labor productivity=output/labor input
M/c Productivity=output/mc input
Material productivity=output/material input
Energy productivity=output/energy input

Efficiency= (Earned hrs/Available hrs)x100

Earned hrs=SMVX output
Available hrs=wdxwhx60

Definition of Time Study:

Time study is a method of measuring work for recording the times of performing a
certain specific task or its elements carried out under specified conditions. An
operator does same operation (task) throughout the day. Time study help to define
how much time is necessary for an operator to carry out the task at a defined rate of

Time study tools:

 A stop watch
 Time study format
 One pen or pencil

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Time Study Sheet:

 SMV=Basic time + Allowance

𝒐𝒃𝒔𝒆𝒓𝒗𝒆𝒅 𝒓𝒂𝒕𝒊𝒏𝒈
 Basic time=𝑶𝒃𝒔𝒆𝒓𝒗𝒆𝒅 𝑻𝒊𝒎𝒆 ×

 OR=Skill, Effort, Quality, Consistency

 Target=

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Define & classify production system
Manufacturing sub system that includes all functions required to design,
produce, distribute, and service a manufactured product.

 Classification of production system:

Mainly there are two systems:

1. Push System: Unit Production System (Ups),

progressive bundle system (PBS)

2. Pull System: Zero Inventory Production System, Minimum Inventory

Production System, Just in time (JIT)

It can classify another way:

 Make through production system

 Sectional production system
 Progressive bundle system (PBS)
 Straight line or Synchro System
 Mechanical Transport Systems
 Selective unit production system
 Conveyor Belt System
 Unit Production System (UPS)
 Quick response sewing system (QRSS)

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Push system:
The push system of inventory control involves forecasting inventory
needs to meet customer demand. Companies must predict which
products customers will purchase along with determining what quantity
of goods will be purchased. The company will in turn produce enough
products to meet the forecast demand and sell, or push, the goods to the
consumer. Disadvantages of the push inventory control system are that
forecasts are often inaccurate as sales can be unpredictable and vary
from one year to the next. Another problem with push inventory control
systems is that if too much product is left in inventory. This increases
the company's costs for storing these goods. An advantage to the push
system is that the company is fairly assured it will have enough product
on hand to complete customer orders, preventing the inability to meet
customer demand for the product. An example of a push system is
Materials Requirements Planning, or MRP. MRP combines the
calculations for financial, operations and logistics planning. It is a
computer-based information system which controls scheduling and
ordering. Its purpose is to make sure raw goods and materials needed for
production are available when they are needed.

 The production capacities of input machine are higher than output machine.
 There are always bottlenecks between two adjacent work stations.
 The cycle time (CT)/ through put time (TPI) is extremely high in push

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Pull system:
The pull inventory control system begins with a customer's order. With
this strategy, companies only make enough products to fulfill customer's
orders. One advantage to the system is that there will be no excess of
inventory that needs to be stored, thus reducing inventory levels and the
cost of carrying and storing goods. However, one major disadvantage to
the pull system is that it is highly possible to run into ordering dilemmas,
such as a supplier not being able to get a shipment out on time. This
leaves the company unable to fulfill the order and contributes to
customer dissatisfaction. An example of a pull inventory control system
is the just-in-time, or JIT system. The goal is to keep inventory levels to
a minimum by only having enough inventories, not more or less, to meet
customer demand. The JIT system eliminates waste by reducing the
amount of storage space needed for inventory and the costs of storing

 The production capacities of output machine are higher than input

 The bottlenecks between two adjacent work stations are almost zero.
 The cycle time (CT)/through put time (TPI) is low.

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𝐏𝐫𝐨𝐝𝐮𝐜𝐞 𝐌𝐢𝐧𝐢𝐮𝐭𝐞𝐬
 Efficiency =
𝐒𝐩𝐞𝐧𝐭 𝐌𝐢𝐧𝐢𝐮𝐭𝐞𝐬

Produce min=output/ Production× SMV

Spent Min=worker×W.H×60

 Total Target for Individual Line: × 𝐞𝐟𝐟𝐢. %

𝐓𝐨𝐭𝐚𝐥 𝐟𝐚𝐜𝐭𝐨𝐫𝐲 𝐦𝐚𝐧 𝐩𝐨𝐰𝐞𝐫

 MMR=
𝐭𝐨𝐭𝐚𝐥 𝐑𝐮𝐧 𝐌/𝐜


On average almost 8 min required for a complete garments making.

That’s why the production of Northern Corporation is progressive.

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Tools & Techniques for Merchandiser

A man who collect order from customer sourcing raw materials production on time
with quality and maintain lead time.

Merchandiser is he who builds up relationship with the buyer and acts as a seller.
He plays a vital role in an organization in a sense that he bears more responsibility
than other in regards to execution of an order.


The responsibility of Merchandiser is as follows:

a) Should have good Managerial capacity.

b) Efficient in both English written and spoken.
c) Having high sense of Responsibility.
d) Should have good knowledge fiber, yarn, fabrics, dyeing, printing, dyes &
garments production.
e) To negotiate capacity.
f) Represent as a buyer to the Factory.
g) Attitude should always be positive in resolving any problem.
h) To impress the buyers by means of-
- Right products,
- Right quality,
- Right quantities,
- Undamaged condition.
i) Should have knowledge in costing, audit & consumption.
j) Should have good knowledge in computer.

 Merchant –Business Group / Company.

 Merchandise –A product, Like-Fabrics, Accessories.
 Merchandiser –Dealer Man / Dealing. Merchandising –Department.

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Works of a Merchandiser:
Order sheet Received from
details etc.)



Negutiation with buyer with Costing

Complete Order Sheet received from


Draft L/C (Received from Buyer)

Back to Back LC

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Sample Proccing &


Sample Approval for

bulk production

Related work to
Production Planning

Start Bulk

Line inspection

Final Inspection By

Shipment to Buyer

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BUYER H&M Order Qty 2,00,000 pcs
STYLE# 0141569-5868 BRAND LOGG
ITEM R-Neck SS CTN Basic
Merchandiser Name Mr. XYZ

SL No. Fabric Description Supplier Cons/ gmt Cons/dzn Unit Unit Amount
1 100% Cotton Single Jersey- Nice Dyeing Factory Ltd. 0.208 kg 2.50 $8.00 kg $20.00
130 gsm (Solid)

2 95% Cotton 5% Spandex Nice Dyeing Factory Ltd. 0.008 kg 0.10 $8.50 kg $0.85
1X1 Rib-165 gsm (Solid)

Total Fabric Value $20.85

SL No. Trims, Accessories, Wash & Supplier Cons/ gmt Cons/dzn Unit Unit Amount
Embellishment Description Price
1 Main Label Shore 2 Shore 1 pc 12 pcs $0.30 dzn $0.30
2 Size Label " 1 pc 12 pcs $0.25 dzn $0.25
3 Care Label " 1 pc 12 pcs $0.35 dzn $0.35
4 HangTag " 1 pc 12 pcs $0.35 dzn $0.35
5 Sewing Thread Coats BD. Ltd 180 mtr 2160 mtr $0.85 Cone $0.46
6 Lace Abacus, China 8 inch 96 inch $0.20 yds $0.53
7 Chalk Button Interlink 4 pcs 48 pcs $5.00 GG $0.14
8 Twill Tape Pioneer Accessories 12 inch 144 inch $0.12 yds $0.48
9 Interlining Osman Interlining 0.20 yds 2.40 yds $0.25 yds $0.60
10 Poly Bag Global accessories 1 pc/20 pcs gmt 0.60 pcs $0.55 dzn $0.03
11 Carton " (0.05pcs
1 pc/60 pcs)gmt 0.24 pcs $0.80 pcs $0.19
12 Garments Wash Hams Washing (0.02 pcs) dzn $1.50
13 Print Alif Print & Embroidery dzn $3.00
14 Embroidery Ltd.
" dzn $3.50
Total Trims, Accessories, Wash & Embellishment Value $11.68
Cost of Manufacture (CM) $20.00

Total Cost/Dozen $52.53

Commercial, Logistics etc.(2.5%) $53.84
Total Cost/Dozen With Buying Commission (3%) $55.46
Total Cost/Pc With Buying Commission (3%) $4.62

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Fabric order sheet

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Garments Merchandising:
Merchandising means total responsibility of a Merchandiser.

Garments merchandising means buying raw materials & accessories, producing

garments, required quality level and exporting the garments within schedule time.

 Way of communication
- E-mail,
- Fax,
- Phone,
- Physical,

Corresponding -01:
Sub.: Business Relation
Mr. X,
At first I would like to introduce myself. I am a Merchandiser of “Y” company.
We have previously deals with you successfully. From now, I myself try to deals
with you/your organization with our company’s previous reputation and quality.
Hope, will understand me. And I also try to increase our business relationship in
future with our better service.

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Corresponding -02:
Sub.: Searching for Business counterpart.
Dear Sir,
We are very much interested in doing business with your company. If you
interested, please visit us our company web site www. “X” .com or send your
company products catalogue and price list and also the condition of doing business.
Hope that, place our first order from your site.
We look forward to having a long term and profitable business relationship with
your company.

Cordially yours.

Corresponding -02:
Sub.: Work Order.
Mr. X
This is your kind information about that your company as selected to place a work
orders for some garments items as follows:
Shirts, Pants
Therefore, we hope that you send us your Pro-forma Invoice for take necessary
Waiting to hear from you soon.

Thanking you,


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Consumption of a T-Shirt:

Body length=Given Length+ shoulder joining allowance +Bottom hem Rolling

Sleeve Length= Given Length+ armhole joining allowance +sleeve hem Rolling

Total Length=B/L+S/L

Total Width=1/2 chest +Side seam joining allowance (both side)

Body Fabric Consumption:

(Length × width)×2÷10000×GSM÷1000+10 %( wastage) ×12

Rib Fabric:

Neck Length=half of neck circumference + allowance

Neck Width/Height: Given Length+ Allowance
Neck Rib Consumption:
(Length × width)×2÷10000×GSM÷1000+10 %( wastage) ×12

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What is sample?
Sample is a unique which represents the bulk.

After getting order to execution:

 Master sample: This is original Buyer sample. When the order will be
finalize the Buyer will send this sample to seller.
 Development sample: Copy as a master sample, to make garments for
 Counter sample: To keep with seller one copy of development sample and
other copy send to buyer.
 Size set sample: To make sample by actual fabrics according to pattern
grading and consumption.
 Fit sample: After checking from Buyer of development sample, any
comments or not, after rectifying faulty what sample will prepared, that is
called fit sample.
 Pre-production sample : To develop this sample with actual fabric, color
& actual measurement, send to Buyer for confirming bulk production.
 Production sample: After checking the pre-production sample from Buyer
& getting acceptance for production that is called production sample.
 Shipping sample : For custom clearance & formalities which sample
collect from complete production, is called shipping sample.

Why sample develop from Buyer side?

Buyer develops the sample for their desire satisfaction, consumer behavior &
fashion design.
Three main aspect, Buyer develop the sample, they are-
a. Collection: Buyer collection to desire design from fashion / buying house.
b. Marketing: Buyer goes to market to satisfy design.
c. Forecasting: Consumer behavior how desire the design

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Shipping Mark

There are two types of shipping marks:

(a) Main Mark,
(b) Side Mark.

(a) Main Mark includes:-

- Brand,
- Style No.
- Color,
- Carton No.
- Quantity.
- Assortment,

(b) Side Mark includes:-

- Net Weight,
- Gross Weight,
- Carton Measurement.

CBM Calculation:
‘L’ X ‘W’ X ‘H’

LCL = Less Container Loading,

FCL = Full Container Loading,
ETA = Estimated Time of Arrival,
ETD = Estimated Time of Dispatch.

Vessels are two types:

- Mother Vessel,
- Feeder Vessel- a) Faster Vessel, b) Normal Vessel.
Air (Normal Air Plane & Cargo Plane)

i) Sketch,
ii) Specification,
iii) Measurement sheet,
iv) Technical sheet
- Fabrication,
- Trims & Accessories.

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Time & Action Planning:
Description of Items Comments
PI Issue 31/01/2015
L/C Open & Received 14/02/2015
Order Sheet (Purchase) Fr. Dt. Of PI 10/02/2015
Lab dip Develop 11/02/2015
Lab Dip Result 18/02/2015
Lab Dip Checked & Send 19/02/2015 Any shade verifies the sample.
Consumption 14/03/2015
Lab Dip Comments fr. Buyer 26/02/2015
Sample Develop after Lab Dip Develop 17//02/2015
Q.C Checked & send to Buyer. 18/02/2015
Approval Comments fr. Buyer 25/02/2015
Fit Sample develop 02/03/2015
Q.C Checked & Send 04/03/2015
Approval Comments fr Buyer 11/03/2015
Size Set Sample Develop 13/03/2015 Cutting Approval
Pre-Production Sample Ready 15/03/2015
Q.C Checked & Send to Buyer 16/03/2015
Approval Comments Fr. Buyer 23/03/2015
PI Request fr Supplier 14/03/2015
Back to Back L/C open 16/03/2015
Work Order Issue 17/03/2015
Fabric in house 02/04/2015
Pre-Production Meeting 03/04/2015
Production start 04/04/2015
Packing list 27/04/2015 72hrs Before shipping
Vessel Booking 27/04/2015
Final inspection 29/04/2015
Ex-Factory 30/04/2015
B/L collect 05/05/2015
Shipping Sample collect 05/05/2015
Document 14/05/2015
Accessories Develop 15/02/2015
Accessories in house 25/02/2015
QC checked & Send 26/02/2015
Approval comments fr. buyer 05/03/2015
consumption 06/03/2015
P/I request 10/03/2015
Back to Back L/C open 15/03/2015
Work order issue 16/03/2015
Accessories In house 30/03/2015

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Value for Our Customers:

Giving the highest priority to the customers and to provide them with one stop
service has been Northern Tosrifa Group’s ultimate goal. Driven with the Mantra
DELIVERING SATISFACTION, the group has grown from modest knit apparel
items manufacturing unit to a hub of 100% export oriented companies over the last
24years.Our business strategy is focused on our customer needs and expectations
and thus giving us a strong customer portfolio.

We operate world-class factories to provide excellent manufacturing capability to

achieve the requirement of our customers. We have extended vertical capabilities
which include the production of knit fabrics, garment dyeing, printing and as well
as packaging. Recently we have ventured into woven garments market with a joint
venture company- Hung Tak Northern Garments Ltd. Our year of experience and
technical knowhow gives us a unique advantage in the understanding and
exceeding customer expectations.


Technology is not just used to reduce production cost and maximize product
quality. For Northern Tosrifa Group, technology has a much more crucial role to
play. In this organization the uses of technology goes hand in hand towards an
effective manufacturing process, quality assurance and decision making. The group
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embraces technology with open arms and resolute to make necessary investments
whenever and wherever needed for it is technology that will move the company
forward in the years to come.Although it is evident that the nature of this industry
demands the organization to keep up with the fast paced technological
advancements, Northern Tosrifa Group eagerly engages itself in keeping all the
units updated with the latest technologies to sustain efficiency and quality in
production.For NTG every little detail matters. That is why systems like CAD,
CAS and CAM are used in the factories to lessen wastage and make cutting more
systematic and precise.In addition, state of the art fabric lab contains Robolab,
Spectrophotometer- Data Color and Dyeing machines from Ahiba and Methis to
insure that the fabric being used are uncompromised.
Apart from specific separate softwares and machines, a completely integrated ERP
software is used to manage and monitor the progress and process of the entire
However, the Group does not leave it all onto the machines to run all the errands; a
dedicated team of professional foreign and local industrial engineers are also
available to make the production process leaner.

Going Green:
Going Green is one of the most significant revolutions in the history of
mankind. The Group's motive is not only to achieve manufacturing success but
also commit themselves for being socially and environmentally responsible. They
strive to be eco- friendly through adopting solutions like measuring carbon
footprint, using renewable power source, conserving energy and not emitting
harmful chemicals and gases.

Northern Tosrifa Group is a green company that keeps the environment in mind
while making any organizational decision. Owing to its responsibility towards the
environment the Group has taken few measures.
Firstly it has optimized water usage by deploying highly efficient and effluent
Water Treatment plant.

Lastly, the Group has indulged in full compliance with REACH regulation to
protect environment and people from risks of chemicals which are necessary for
production. It has also partnered with GIZ of Germany to obtain ISO 14001:2004
Environmental Management System certifications.

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Human Capital

We believe that human beings, with a blend of their creativity and uniqueness can
make miracles. It is evident that a group of happy, trained and disciplined
workforce can do wonders; the case has been no different for Northern Tosrifa
Group.The backbone of any thriving organization is undoubtedly its employees.
Similarly, the power of this group also lies within its PEOPLE. NTG is committed
to be an 'equal opportunity employer' and offers the finest environment and
unsurpassed facilities for its valued employees. Presently, the group is blessed with
a workforce of over 4500 employees.

Not only that, the group understands the importance of a motivated workforce. In
order to achieve that NTG assures transparency and proper recognition within the
organization through 360 degree performance evaluation.

In addition, to keep the employees up to dated with the uses and application of the
latest technologies, trainings are organized with both foreign and local experts in
the company's very own training center. The company allocates 5% of its profit to
training and development of employees. Apart from the existing, skilled
employees, the fresh ones also receive a chance to undergo the training sessions to
turn them into better skilled operators.

Moreover, as per its policy, the Group strictly adheres to all local government labor
laws; regulations set by ILO, BGMEA and respected buyers. At any cost, keeping
the labor rights unaltered is a priority of this organization.

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STITCHING a legacy of 24 years

At any cost, Northern Tosrifa Group is adamant not to compromise with quality.
As a result, it ensures from knitting to sewing and finishing, that all concerns are
outfitted with the best and latest machines.In addition, every single employee is
coated with unbeaten ardency and sheer excellence.

Their constant strives for perfection never fails to meet each and every stringent
quality standard that is set for the buyers. Production lines are carefully designed in
both Modular and Linear layout. Whether ordered in bulks or in much smaller and
critical styles, every single piece is engraved with superior quality and thorough
proficiency to deliver the best results.

Furthermore, in all stages of production- starting from knitting yarn to the final
garment, 4'Points Product Quality Control and 7'Points Traffic Light Systems are

The 5S (seiri, seiso, seiketsu and shitsuke) technique is strictly upheld for work
layout.Finally, AQL (Acceptance Quality Limit) Standards, Major 1.50 and Minor
4.00 are practiced for final inspection so that they never have to give up the first
place in terms of quality.

NCL Won the Award of the Environmental Compliance Program

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BGMEA has selected our factory (Northern Corporation) as one of the best
environmentally compliant factories to receive the prestigious “Award of the
Environmental Compliance Program’’ jointly organized by BGMEA, IFC, UK Aid
& Norad. A jury board comprised of BGMEA, IFC-SEDF and environmental
experts has reviewed the findings of a survey conducted on the wet processing
factories (Composite Fabric, Yarn, Dyeing & Washing) in Bangladesh and selected
our factory among others for the award. The ceremony was held on 19 February,
2013 at 11:00 am at Ball Room, The Westin, Gulshan-2, Dhaka. Mr. Ghulam
Muhammed Quader, MP, Hon’ble Minister, Ministry of Commerce attended as the
Chief Guest of the ceremony. Mr. Md. Ghulam Hossain, Chairman, NBR attended
as the Guest of Honor; Mr. Carel Richter, Deputy Head of Mission, Embassy of
Netherland to Bangladesh, Mr. Andrew Barnard, Chargé d’ Affaires, European
Union Delegation to Bangladesh, Mr. Kyle Kelhofer, Country Manager, IFC-
SEDF also attended the ceremony as the Special Guests. The event was chaired by
Mr. Md. Shafiul Islam, President, BGMEA.

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Environment is one of the key issues in today’s world and the global community is
getting increasingly concerned on sustainable and environment friendly
production. There is an increasing instance on the adoption of resource-efficient
production techniques. For an export-based industry, reading the global trends and
public emotions is crucial for continued competitiveness. Buyers are also getting
increasingly concerned on environment friendly production. Moreover, resource
efficiency is a highly potential avenue for our industry to reduce cost and be
environment friendly. In order to promote the environmental awareness issue
among the apparel and textile producers BGMEA runs a number of activities and
the award is a part of this initiative. We do also believe that sharing the experience
of performing factories will act as a catalyst to improve the overall environmental
standard in the textile and apparel industry in Bangladesh, and thus could create a
greater momentum in our move toward a green and clean future.


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Buyer Name:

LINDEX& Stockman,

Contact Inforation:
Name : Northern Corporation Limited

Industry Type: Knit Composite

Location: Plot B42-45 and 33, BSCIC,Tongi ,Gazipur.

Head Office: Monnonagar, Gopalpur,Tongi,Gazipur

Phone: 880 2 9817461-63 FAX: 880 2 9817743

Email: info@ntg.com.bd Web site: www.ntg.com.bd

Finance Office

Plot#91, 4th & 5th Floor, Suhrawardy Avenue, Block# K, Baridhara, Dhaka-1212,

Phone: 880 2 9882516-7, 880 2 9882607

FAX: 880 2 9882610

Email: info@ntg.com.bd

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Certification of the company:

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Transmission Letter
15 Jan, 2015
BGMEA University of fashion & technology
Subject: Thanking letter to your respective faculty.
My Dear Sir, It is inform you that, I am a student of B.sc Hon’s in Apparel
Manufacturing & Technology (AMT) in BUFT. Under the course “Final Project” you
gave us a nice Report & which is influences our realistic Practical Knowledge. So
we are very much proud to learn lots of things about your course. In future it will
help us lots of practical work as well as different types of work. From your course
we learned lots of issue which we used our information sense & others personal
activities & it is very help for our future in industrial work.
So we are very much pleased to you to give us a nice Report & we want to thank
you for gives us nice support. I hope that you accept my Report cordially.

Yours Faithfully
Sourab Ghosh
(111-AMT-03 )
ID : 111-118-0-45

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