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A.

PRESENT TENSE
Present Tense is verb form that shows the time of the action at present/now.
PATTERNS OF PRESENT TENSE
1. Nominal
Nominal is sentences form that its ordinary likely members of be and is
combinated with three complement.

Members of BE

be

Is Am Are

Its pattern:
(+) S + To be (Is, Am, Are) + O/3C
(-) S + To be (Is, Am, Are) + Not + O/3C
(?) To be (Is, Am, Are) + S + O/3C

Add patterns of introgative sentences :


(-?)1 Is,Am, Are + S + Not + O/3C
(-?)2 Isn’t, Aren’t + S + O/3C

Informal !!!
Example:
1. (+) You are handsome. 2. (+) I am a deligent.
(-) You are not Handsome. (-) I am not a deligent.
(?) Are you handsome? (?) Am I a deligent?
(-?) 1 Are you not handsome? (-?) 1 Am I not a deligent?
(-?) 2 Aren’t you handsome? (-?) 2 Aren’t I a diligent?

3. (+) It is my book. 4. (+) She is Smart.


(-) It is not my book. (-) She is not smart.
(?) Is it my book? (?) Is she smart?
(-?) 1 Is it not my book? (-?) 1 Is she not smart?
(-?) 2 Isn’t it my book? (-?) 2 Isn’t she smart
2. Verbal
Verbal is sentences form that its ordinary causes of be and usually its verb means
something of action.
Auxilary of Verbal at Present tense

I She
We
He
Do You Does
It
They
Singular
Plural

Ordinary of Verbal at Present tense

I She
We He
V1 You V1(s/es)
It
They
Plural Singular

Its Patterns :

(+) S + V1 (s/es) + O/3C


(-) S + Do/Does + Not + V1 + O/3C
(?) Do/does + S + V1 + O/3C

Add patterns of introgative sentences :

1 (-?)1 Do/does + S + Not + V1 + O/3C


2 (-?)2 Don’t/doesn’t + S + V1 + O/3C

Informal !!!
Note :
- Adjective
3C (Three
- Noun
Complements)
- Verb
View :
1. Adjective 2. Noun 3. Adverb of Place
We are smart. We are student. We are in the class.
Example:
1. (+) They play soccer. 2. (+) He goes to school every day.
(-) They do not play soccer (-) He does not go to school every day.
(?) Do they play soccer ? (?) Does he go to school every day?
(-?) 1 Do they not play soccer? (-?) 1 Does he not go to school every day?
(-?) 2 Don’t they play soccer? (-?) 2 Doesn’t he go to school every day?

USING OF PRESENT TENSE


 Just Pronoun (She, He, It, and Singular name)
 Add es If Its verb the And with word :
1. Ch Watches
2. Sh Washes
3. Ss Passes
4. X Mixes
5. O Goes
 If its verb the and with Y and its before consonan. Y change with i then add es.
1. Cry Cries 2. Study Studies
 Other than above, add with s.

USE 1: Repeated Actions / Habitual Action

Use the Simple Present to express the idea that an action is repeated or usual.
Examples:
 I play tennis every Monday.
 Does he play tennis?
 When does the train usually leave?
 Every twelve months, the Earth circles the Sun.
USE 2: General Truth

It is also used to make generalizations about people or things.


Examples:
 Jakarta is in Indonesia.
 PTIQ is in Jaksel.
 Birds do not like milk.
 The sun rises in the west.
USE 3: Scheduled Events in the Near Future

Speakers occasionally use Simple Present to talk about scheduled events in the near future.
This is most commonly done when talking about public transportation, but it can be used with
other scheduled events as well.
Examples:
 The train leaves tonight at 6 PM.
 The party starts at 8 o'clock.
 When does class begin tomorrow?
USE 4: Change of Continous if its verb is suitable

Examples:
 I want to eat now.
Not,
 I am wanting to eat now.
USE 5: Head line of Newspapaer or Megasine
Example:
 Indonesia hold PON XVII again

B. PAST TENSE
The past simple tense of the most english verbs (regular verbs) is formed by addinged"/"-
d" to their base form. (If the verb ends in "-e", we add "-d" to form the past simple.)
There are also some verbs called irregular verbs that have special past tense forms.
To understand thoroughly how to use the simple past tense of verbs, study the following
discussion. Simple past tenses of verbs are also used to express specific situations
USE # 1 Completed A c t i o n in the Past
Use the Simple Past to express the idea that an action started and finished at a specific time
in the past. Sometimes, the speaker may not actually mention the specific time, but they do have
one specific time in mind.
Examples:
 I watched a movie yesterday.
 I didn't see the play last Monday.
 Last year, I travelled to Japan.
 We arrived at 9:00 o'clock.
 This morning I went to the supermarket.
 Alec bought his little sister a book by Carly Philips.

USE # 2 A Series of Completed Actions


We use the Simple Past to list a series of completed actions in the past. These
actions happen 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, and so on.
Examples:
 I finished work, walked to the beach, and found a nice place to swim
 The Gazette Band arrived from the airport at 8:00, checked into the hotel at 9:00, and
met their fans at 10:00.
USE # 3 Duration in Past

The Simple Past can be used with a duration which starts and stops in the past. A
duration is a longer action often indicated by expressions such as: for two years, for five minutes,
all day, all year, etc.

Examples:
 I lived in Brazil for two years.
 Shauna studied Japanese for five years.
 They sat at the beach all day.
 They did not stay at the party the entire time.
 We talked on the phone for thirty minutes.
 The Rose princess slept for fifty years.
USE # 4 Habits in the Past
The Simple Past can also be used to describe a habit which stopped in the past. It can
have the same meaning as "used to." To make it clear that we are talking about a habit, we often
add expressions such as: always, often, usually, never, when I was a child, when I was
younger, etc.
Examples:
 I studied Niponggo when I was a child.
 He played the violin.
 Did you play a musical instrument when you were a kid?
 She worked at the movie theater after school.
 They never went to school, they always skipped class.
 Shana owned a car when she was in junior high school.
USE 5 Past Facts or Generalizations
The Simple Past can also be used to describe past facts or generalizations which are no longer
true. As in USE # 4 above, this use of the Simple Past is quite similar to the expression "used to."
Examples:
 She was shy as a child, but now she is very outgoing.
 He didn't like tomatoes before.
 Did you live in Texas when you were a kid?
 People paid much more to make cell phone calls in the past.
C. FUTURE TENSE
Structure of sentence
Subject + will/shall + verb
[questions] will/shall + subject + verb
In English, the future simple tense is used for spontaneous decisions, an assumption/ promise
or an action in the future that cannot be influenced.
Examples of future simple in use:
1. “Wait, I will help you” (a spontaneous decision)
2. He will probably come back tomorrow (an opinion, hope, uncertainty or assumption)
3. “I will not watch TV tonight” (a promise)
4. “It will rain tomorrow” (an action in the future that cannot be influenced)

Statement – Positive: I will go out tonight.


Negative: I will not walk to work on tomorrow (won’t)
Question – Positive: Will you help me?
Negative: Will she not speak tonight?

Answer – Positive: Yes, she will.


Negative: No he will not.

The future & “going to..”


“Going to..” is a special type of future English tense. It is not related to the Future Continuous
tense.
Its use is to express a conclusion regarding the immediate future (using available evidence)
or an action in the near future that has already been planned or prepared.
o I am going to study harder next year (a planned action for the near future)
o The sky is very dark and cloudy. It’s going to rain (a conclusion regarding the immediate
future using available evidence).
I Am
You/ we/ they Are Going to..............
He/ she/ it Is