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Unit 10: The reactivity series

10.1 The reactions of metals with oxygen. metal + oxygen  metal oxide
1. Magnesium burns in air.
i) It reacts with oxygen to make magnesium oxide.
ii) This reaction starts fast and furious.
iii) There are bright and white flame observed during the reaction occurred.
iv) Chemical equation: magnesium + oxygen  magnesium oxide
2. Iron burns in air
i) It reacts with oxygen to make iron oxide.
ii) There are bright and white flame observed during the reaction occurred.
iii) Chemical equation: iron + oxygen  iron oxide
3. Sodium burns in air
i) The flame is very bright.
ii) Rections is very fast.
iii) Chemical equation: sodium + oxygen  sodium oxide
Summary:

Metal Observation Chemical Equation: X + oxygen  X oxide


Magnesium Bright white sparks. Cracking Magnesium + oxygen  magnesium oxide
sounds. Very vigorous.
Zinc Bright white sparks. More Zinc + oxygen  zinc oxide
vigorous than iron.
Copper No sign of reaction. Copper + oxygen  copper oxide
iron Burned. Bright yellow sparks Iron + oxygen  iron oxide

10.2 The reaction of metals with water Metal + water  metal oxide + hydrogen
1. Some of the metal do react with water. Eg: Calcium, lithium.
2. Calcium reacts with water.
i) It bubbles quickly
ii) the calcium to have disappeared.
iii) bubbles contained hydrogen gas.
iv) chemical equation: calcium + water  calcium hydroxide + hydrogen
3. Lithium react with water.
i) It makes hydrogen bubbles.
ii) It forms lithium hydroxide as end product.
iii) Chemical equation: Lithium + water  lithium hydroxide + hydrogen
4. Metals do not react with water for example: copper, silver and gold. As those metals are
non-reactive.
5. An order of reactivity. The table below summarizes how vigorously some metals react with
water.

Metals Comment
Potassium Most vigorous reactions Reactions get less vigorous
Sodium
Lithium
Calcium
Mangnesium
Zinc
Copper Do not react with water
Silver under normal conditions
Gold
Platinum

10.3 Reactions of metals with acids. Metal + acid  Metal salt + hydrogen
1. Magnesium and hydrochloric acid.
i) It makes magnesium chloride and hydrogen gas
ii) Hydrogen gas leaves the test tube in bubbles.
iii) Magnesium chloride dissolves in water, as it is a metal salts, which is a compound made
when a metal replaces the hydrogen gas in an acid.
iv) Chemical equation: magnesium + hydrochloric acid  magnesium chloride + water
2. Every metal that reacts with hydrochloric acid makes a salt and hydrogen gas.
3. For example:
i) zinc + hydrochloric acid  zinc chloride + hydrogen
ii) iron + hydrochloric acid  iron chloride + hydrogen
10.4 金属与非金属的反应

1. 铁和硫在加热的情况下生成硫化铁(II), 化学反应式为:

铁 + 硫  硫化铁(II)

2. 除了硫外,金属还能与氯气等发生反应,生成相应的氯化物。例如:钠能在氯气中燃烧
生成氯化钠。

10.5 常见的盐

1. 盐是金属离子或铵根离子(𝑁𝐻4 + )与酸根离子组成的化合物。例如:碳酸钠
(𝑁𝑎2 𝐶𝑂3)、硫酸铁(II) (𝐹𝑒2 𝑆𝑂4 ) 、硫酸铵 [ (NH4 )2 𝑆𝑂4 ] 都属于盐。

2. 食盐 = 氯化钠 = NaCl

i) 人体分泌的汗液中含有氯化钠。

ii) 我们人类必须摄取一定的食盐来维持一定的氯化钠正常浓度。

iii) 食盐来自于海水、自岩盐、盐湖。

iv) 食盐是不可缺少的食物调味料,而且也是重要的化工原料,可用以制造氢氧化钠、盐

酸、氯气、氢气、碳酸钠、漂白粉等。

3. 碳酸盐 (碳酸钠和碳酸钙)
i) 碳酸钠俗名为书单、纯碱。能够从溶液中析出一定晶体,晶体里结合了一定数量的书
分子, 化学式为𝑁𝑎2 𝐶𝑂3 ∙ 𝐻2O。

ii) 在常温及干燥的空气里,碳酸钠晶体会逐渐失去结晶水形成粉末称为风化。

iii) 碳酸钠是重要的化工原料,主要用于平板玻璃、玻璃制品和陶瓷釉的生产。

iv) 碳酸钙是一种难溶的盐,存在于石灰石。

v) 碳酸盐的物质与盐酸起反应会生成二氧化碳,利用这一性质来可以检测碳酸盐的存
在。

10.6 金属与盐溶液的反应

1. 铁放在胆水(硫酸铜溶液)来制取铜。

2. 上述的化学反应为: 铁 + 硫酸铜  铜 + 硫酸铁(II)

铜 + 硝酸银  银 + 硝酸铜
3. 由于铁的活泼型比佟强,因此铁能把铜从硫酸铜溶液中置换出来。同理,铜能把银从硝
酸银溶液中置换出来。

10.7 The reactivity series


Potassium
The metals at the top
Sodium
have very vigorous
reactions. They are Lithium
most reactive.
Calcium
magnesium
Going down the
aluminium
reactivity series, the
metals get gradually zinc
less reactive.
iron
lead

The metals are the copper


bottom are unreactive.
silver
The reactivity series.
Predicting corrosion
1. Corrosion is a reaction of surface atoms of a metal with oxygen, or other substances.
2. Metals react with oxygen to form oxides. For example:
a) lithium + oxygen  lithium oxide
i) Lithium is shiny when freshly cut.
ii) In air, dull white substance formed quickly on its surface the white substance is lithium
oxide.
iii) It forms when surface lithium atoms react with oxygen.
b) Freshly- cut aluminum immediately reacts with oxygen form the air. A thin aluminum
oxide coating forms which stops the water and oxygen molecules hitting the aluminum
atoms below. Hence, the aluminum cannot react. It is protected from corrosion.
c) Steel corrodes more easily. Its iron atoms react with water and oxygen to make hydrated
iron oxide which appeared in red-brown rust.
4. The metals at the top of the reactivity series corrode easily, while metals at the bottom of the
reactivity series do not corrode.
5. Prevention of corrode:
- Paints on the surface.
- Zinc attached to steel, as zinc is more reactive than iron. Zinc react with water and oxygen
instead of iron. Zinc is scarified to save iron, so this is called sacrificial protection.

10.8 化学反应的基本类型
-可分为五大类:
(a)化合反应 ( combination reaction)
(b)分解反应 (decomposition reaction)
(c)置换反应 (displacement reaction)
(d)复分解反应 (double decomposition reaction)
(e)中和反应 (neutralization reaction)

(a) 化合反应
-2 种或两种以上的物质反应生成另一种新的物质:A + B  AB

例:镁条在氧气中燃烧生成氧化镁

2Mg + O2 2MgO

反应 例子
1. 金属 + 氧气 金属氧化物 Mg + O2 MgO
练习: Na + O2
2. 非金属 + 氧气 非金属氧化物 S + O2 SO2
C + O2
3. 金属氧化物 + 水 硷 Na2O + H2O NaOH
K2O + H2O
4. 非金属氧化物 + 水 酸 CO2 + H2O H2CO3
SO2 + H2O

(b) 分解反应
- 由一种物质生成两种或两种以上的新物质 : AB  A + B

例:加热氯酸钾及二氧化锰为催化剂而得到氧气

MnO2
2KClO3 Δ 2KCl + O2

反应 例子
1. 碳酸盐 Δ 氧化物 + 二氧化碳 CaCO3 Δ CaO + CO2
CuCO3 Δ
2. 碳酸氢盐 Δ 碳酸盐 + 水+ 二氧化碳 Ca(HCO3)2 Δ CaCO3 + H2O + CO2
3. 含结晶水物质 Δ 无水物 + 水 CuSO4 ·5H2O Δ CuSO4 + 5H2O
CoCl2.H2O Δ

(c) 置换反应
- 一种单质跟一种化合物反应,产生另一种单质和另一种化合物 : A + BC  AC + B

例 :将钠放进水里会产生氢气

2Na + 2H2O  2NaOH + H2


(单质) (化合物) (化合物) (单质)

反应 例子
1. 金属 + 稀酸  盐 + 氢气 Mg + H2SO4 

在金属活泼序中,K,Na,Ca,Mg,Al,Zn,Fe 能将酸分 Zn + H2SO4 


子中的氢原子置换出来
2. 金属 + 水  硷 + 氢气 Na + H2O 
K,Na,Ca 能将水分子的氢原子置换出来 K + H2O 
3. 金属 + 水  金属氧化物 + 氢气 Mg + H2O 

Mg,Al, Zn, Fe 能将水分子中的氢原子置换出来 Zn + H2O 


4. 金属 A + 盐 B  盐 A + 金属 B Cu + AgNO3 

Zn + AgNO3 
5. 金属氧化物 + 氢  金属 + 水 CuO + H2 

(d) 复分解反应
- 两种化合物互相交换,生成两种新的化合物,而其中一种产物常为不溶性或可挥发性
-
AB + CD  AD + CB

例 : 硝酸银和氯化钠的反应
AgNO3 + NaCl  NaNO3 + AgCl

(e) 中和反应
- 酸和硷反应生成盐和水(一种复分解反应)

例: 1. NaOH + HCl  NaCl + H2O

反应 例子
中 1. 酸 + 碱  盐 + 水 HCl + Ca(OH)2 

反 2. 酸性氧化物 + 硷  盐 + 水 CO2 + Ca(OH)2 
应 3. 碱性氧化物 + 酸  盐 + 水 CuO + H2SO4 
其 4. 碳酸盐 + 酸  盐 + 水 +二氧化碳 CaCO3 + HCl 


5. 碳酸氢盐 + 酸  盐 + 水 +二氧化碳 NaHCO3 + HCl 

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