Você está na página 1de 4

# PROBLEMS N

^
W
1. Using the technique of separation of variables, show that there are solutions to the

three-dimensional Schroedinger equation for a time-independent potential, which can be
written
iEtm
P(x,y,z,t) = Y' (x,y,z)e -
where l/i(x,y,z) is a solution to the time-independent Schroedinger equation.
2. Verify that D(cp) = eim") is the solution to the equation for (Kcp), (7-15).
Problemi  da  Eisberg-­‐Resnick
3. Hydrogen, deuterium, and singly ionized helium are all examples of one-electron atoms.
The deuterium nucleus has the same charge as the hydrogen nucleus, and almost exactly
Cap.  7
twice the mass. The helium nucleus has twice the charge of the hydrogen nucleus, and
almost exactly four times the mass. Make an accurate prediction of the ratios of the
ground state energies of these atoms. (Hint: Remember the variation in the reduced
mass.)
4. (a) Evaluate, in electron volts, the energies of the three levels of the hydrogen atom in the
states for n = 1, 2, 3. (b) Then calculate the frequencies in hertz, and the wavelengths in
angstroms, of all the photons that can be emitted by the atom in transitions between
these levels. (c) In what range of the electromagnetic spectrum are these photons?
5. Verify by substitution that the ground state eigenfunction Iiloo, and the ground state
eigenvalue E 1 , satisfy the time-independent Schroedinger equation for the hydrogen atom.
6. (a) Extend Example 7-4 to obtain from the uncertainty principle a prediction of the total
energy of the ground state of the hydrogen atom. (b) Compare with the energy predicted
by (7-22).
7. (a) Calculate the location at which the radial probability density is a maximum for the
n = 2, 1 = 1 state of the hydrogen atom. (b) Then calculate the expectation value of the
radial coordinate in this state. (c) Explain the physical significance of the difference in
the answers to (a) and (b). (Hint: See Figure 7-5.)
8. (a) Calculate the expectation value V for the potential energy in the ground state of the
hydrogen atom. (b) Show that in the ground state E = V/2, where E is the total energy.
(c) Use the relation E = K + V to calculate the expectation value K of the kinetic energy
in the ground state, and show that K = — V/2. These relations are obtained for any state
of motion of any quantum mechanical (or classical) system with a potential in the form
V(r) cc — 1/r. They are sometimes called the virial theorem.
9. (a) Calculate the expectation value V of the potential energy in the n = 2, 1 = 1 state of
the hydrogen atom. (b) Do the same for the n = 2, 1 = 0 state. (c) Discuss the results of
(a) and (b), in connection with the virial theorem of Problem 8, and explain how they
bear on the origin of the 1 degeneracy.
10. By substituting into the equation for R(r), (7-17), the form R(r) cc r1, show that it is a
solution for r —* O. (Hint: Ignore terms that become negligible relative to others as r -> O.)
11. Consider the probability of finding the electron in the hydrogen atom somewhere inside
a cone of semiangle 23.5° of the +z axis ("arctic polar region"). (a) If the electron were
equally likely to be found anywhere in space, what would be the probability of finding
the electron in the arctic polar region? (b) Suppose the atom is in the state n = 2, 1 = 1,
1 = 0; recalculate the probability of finding the electron in the arctic polar region. m
12. (a) Sketch a polar diagram of the directional dependence of the one-electron atom proba-
bility density for 1 = 2, m 1 = O. (b) At what angle 6 does the angular probability density
have its minimum value ? (c) Where does the angular probability density have a value
one-fourth its maximum value?
13. Consider the hydrogen atom eigenfunction 0432. What are (a) the total energy in eV;
(b) the expectation value of the radial coordinate in A; (c) the total angular momentum;
(d) the z component of the angular momentum; (e) the uncertainty in the angular momen-
tum; (f) the uncertainty in the z component of the angular momentum?
14. Show that the sum of hydrogen atom probability densities for the n = 3 quantum states,
analogous to the sum in Example 7-5, is spherically symmetrical.
6. Ifofathe hydrogen
pattern. (c) atom is placed
Calculate theinstrength
a magnetic fieldE2which
p4of the external V2is-2EV
+ magnetic veryfield strong thatcompared
would produce to its
internal field, its orbital and
an energy difference between the most8YnwidelyAErei
spin magnetic dipole
= moments precess independently
n = 2 levels which equals the dif- about
3C2 separated2mc 2
the
ferenceexternal between field,the andenergies
its energy depends
of the n = 1 on andthe n =quantum
2 levelsnumbers in the absence ml and ms which
of the field.
so
specify that their components along the external field
7. Use the procedure of Example 8-3 to estimate the spin-orbit interaction energy in the direction. (a) Evaluate the splitting of
the energy levels according to the
n = 2, 1= 1 state of a muonic atom, definede4in Example values of m l and ms. (b)
, ^,^ 4-9. Draw1 the pattern of split levels
nljm^ dzof each component
Y2 j"from the series j = l + Problemi   da  Eisberg-­‐Resnick
originating from theAErei n = =2 level, enumerating the quantum numbers
8. of
Prove that the only possible

values of
2mc 2 (4itE0)22mc2the quantum number
lJnljm) 1/2,
the pattern. (c) Calculate the strength of the external magnetic field that would produce
l —energy
an
1/2, are
3/2, ... , between
1/2, 1—difference that satisfy
1/2,
theEne2
1/2,if
the inequality
most ç
widely
0, Inljm,
or
1,\,/j (j + 1) > IVl(l + 1) — Js(s + 1) 1 with
separated
r
1/2,Cairn; ndz= 2 levels which equals the dif-
0. in the absence of the field.
Cap.  8
s= j=l+
ference between the energies 47LE 1- of the0mCn2 J= 1 and n = 2iflevels
1 j = 1=
9. Use
13.
7. (a)
(a)Enumerate
the procedure
Draw the possible
the hydrogen of Example values
energy-level 8-3ofto and
jdiagram mj, for
estimate forthe thespin-orbit
all states through
states in which
interaction n1 == 1, and,
2energy
as in of course,
in
the the
right-
s =
nhand 1/2.
= 2, part (b)
1= 1ofstate Draw
Figure the corresponding
of a8-11,
muonicbut with
atom,the "vector
splitting
defined model" figures.
according4-9.
in Example (c) Draw a figure
to l also shown. (b) With arrows illustrating
the angular pairs
connecting momentumof levels, vectors
show forthe
all a typical
transitions state.that (d)are Show allowed also by thethe spin and orbital
selection
8. Prove that the only possible values of the quantum
magnetic dipole moment vectors, and their sum the total magnetic dipole moment number j from the series +rules.
j = lvector. 1/2,
14. l(e)
Verify
— Is that the
3/2, parities
... , that of the
satisfy one-electron
the
1/2,the1—total magnetic dipole moment vector antiparallel inequality atom eigenfunctions
,\,/j (j + 1) > IVl(l
to the total3007r
+ 1) —
angular Js(s +, 032o, and
0310momentum1) 1 with
s=t//322
vector? are determined by (-1) 1.
1/2, are j=l+1/2, 1- 1/2,if 1 0, or j = 1/2, if 1 = 0.
15.
9. (a)
10. (a)
ConsiderUse parity
Enumerate considerations
the
the states possible
in which valueslto=prove
of
4 andj andthat =the
s mj, first
for
1/2. thetwo
For theintegrals
states in which
state with of the
the display
1 =largest equation
1, and, possible
of course,j
preceding
= 1/2.
sand largest (8-42)
(b) possible both yield
Draw themcorresponding zero.
j, calculate (a)"vector (b) Interpret
the angle model" what
between this
figures. L and means
(b) the the
a figure existence
between of
angleillustrating µi
theatomic
and angular
µs , andelectric dipole
momentum
(c) the angle moments
vectors
betweenfor which are
thestatic
a typical
J and +z state. in time.
axis.(d) Show also the spin and orbital
16. magnetic
11. dipole
By a straightforward
Enumerate momentevaluation
the possible vectors,
values ofandjofand their sum
themjelectric thedipole
for states total in magnetic
matrix/ =elements
which dipole
3 and moment s for
= 1/2. thevector.
eigen-
(e) Is the total
functions magnetic
of Table 7-2, dipole
show that moment vector antiparallel
the selection rule Al = ±to1the total angular
of (8-37) is validmomentum
for the n =
12. The2 —* relativistic shift in the energy levels of a hydrogen atom due to the relativistic
vector? n = 1 transitions of the hydrogen atom.
dependence of mass on velocity can be determined by using the atomic eigenfunctions to
17. Consider
10. Considerthe
calculate thestates
the electric
expectation dipole
in which valuelmoment 4 andofmatrix
=AErei = 1/2.
sthe elements
quantity For the AErei for
state=aEreicharged
with — one-dimensional
theEcias,
largest thepossible
differencej
simple
and largest harmonic
possible oscillator
m j, making
calculate (a) the
the transitions
angle
between the relativistic and classical expressions for the total energy E. Show that between ni =L 3,
and n fS,= (b)
0; the
ni = 2,
anglen f between
= 0; nifor =µi1,
p
and
n1
not too= 0. Use the eigenfunctions of
large(c) the angle between J and the +z axis.
µs , and Table 6-1 to show that the matrix elements which are
11. Enumerate
not zero agree the possible
with thevalues selection of jrule and An mj for= ±states
1,E2discussed in which in /Section
= 3 and4-11. s = 1/2.(Hint: Use
p4 + V2 -2EV
parity
12. The considerations
relativistic shift whenever AErei
in the energy you 8Yn can.)
levels =
3C2 of a hydrogen 2mc 2 atom due to the relativistic
dependence of mass on velocity
18. (a) Calculate the rate for spontaneous transitions between can be determined by usingthe the atomic
n = 1 and eigenfunctions
n = 0 statestoof

SW318 01:Id
so that
calculate the expectation
a simple harmonic oscillator, carrying value AErei of charge the quantity e. Take AErei the= massErei — of Ecias, the difference
the oscillator to be
between
equal tothe therelativistic
mass of anand atomclassical
of some expressions
typical
e4 ionic for, the total
^,^molecule,1 energy and the E. Show
restoring that force
for p
not too large AErei = nljm^ dz
constant C to be 10 3 joules/m2 —
2mc , 2which is typical for
(4itE0)22mc2 lJnljm)such Y2a molecule.
" (Hint: Normalized
eigenfunctions must be used.) (b) Ene2From ç
the transitionE2
1 + V2 rate, -2EVestimate the average time re-
p4
quired to complete the transition. AErei This isInljm, the
= lifetime r Cairn; ofdzthe n = 1 vibrational state of the
47LE0mC8Yn2 J3C2 2mc 2
molecule.
13. (a)
19. so Draw the
that
Consider hydrogen
enough of theenergy-level
electric dipole diagram
moment formatrixall states throughforna =charged
elements 2 as inparticle
the right- in
hand part ofsquare
an infinite Figurewell 8-11,potential,
but with using the splitting according
thee4eigenfunctions , ^,^ to 1 ofl also
Sectionshown. 6-8, (b)
to With
see arrows
if there
connecting
is a selection pairs
ruleofAErei
levels,
for = show all the transitions that are allowed
this system and, if so, to determine what by
it is.
nljm^ dz the selection rules.

2mc 2 (4itE0)22mc2 lJnljm) Y2 "
14.
20. Verify
Find the that the parities
selection rule for of the one-electron
a rigid atom eigenfunctions
charge — e. Use r 3007 0310 , 032o, and
the eigenfunctions in
t//322 are determined by (-1) 1.
Ene2rotator ç carrying 1
0 found in Problem 23 of Chapter 7. (Note:
Inljm, the
r selection
Cairn; dz rule to be found is Am = +1
15. (a) 47LE 0mC 2 Jthat the first two integrals of the display equation
notUse Amparity = 0, ±considerations
1.) to prove
preceding the(8-42) of both yield8-20zero. to (b) Interpret for what i2this means
of the about the existence of
21. (a)
13. Use Drawthe result hydrogenProblem energy-level diagram
find the ratio allR states /Rolthrough n = of
rates 2 as in the right-
transition from
Problemi  da  Bransden-­‐Joachain
Cap.  3,  4,  5
194 12. Orbital and Spin Magnetism. Fine Structure

from
194 the magnet. Calculate the components of the12. magnetic moment
Orbital and in the direction
Spin Magnetism. of
Fine Structure
the magnetic field, if the splitting of the beam at the screen is observed to be d = 2 mm,
and
fromthe
thevelocity
magnet. of the atoms
Calculate is v = 500 m/s.
the components The
of the averagemoment
magnetic mass ofin silver atoms of
the direction is
Mthe magnetic field, if the splitting of the beam at the screen is observed to be d = 2 mm,
= 1.79.10- 25 kg. Why doesn't the nuclear spin affect the experiment? Problemi  da  Haken-­‐Wolf
and the velocity of the atoms is v = 500 m/s. The average mass of silver atoms is
M = 1.79.10-
12.3 How large kg.theWhy
25 is doesn't
magnetic thegenerated
field nuclear spin affect
by the the experiment?
electron in the ground state of a Cap.  12,
hydrogen atom, at the position of the proton?
12.3 How large is the magnetic field generated by the electron in the ground state of a
12.4
hydrogenHowatom,
large atis the magnetic moment
position of of the orbital motion in a muonium atom, in
the proton?
which the electron of a ground-state hydrogen atom has been replaced by a muon?
How
12.4 large
Howislarge
the moment in positronium
is the magnetic moment(anof electron andmotion
the orbital a positron, i.e. particles
in a muonium with
atom, in
the
whichmasstheofelectron
the electron
of a and opposite charges,
ground-state hydrogenmoving
atom has around
beenthe common
replaced by centre
a muon? of
mass)?
How large is the moment in positronium (an electron and a positron, i.e. particles with
the mass of the electron and opposite charges, moving around the common centre of
mass)?Calculate the spin-orbit splitting of the states of the hydrogen atom with n = 2
12.5
and n = 3 using the relations
12.5 Calculate the spin-orbit splitting of the states of the hydrogen atom with n = 2
2
n == 3 using
andJif,s Ze Pothe(srelations
./)
81lmij r 3 '
2
Jif,s = Ze Po (s ./)
and 81lmij r 3 '

and

What are the values for a Rydberg state with n = 30 for the largest (l = 1) and the
smallest (l = 29) splitting?
ao is theare
the values for a RydbergBohrstate
orbit.with n = 30 for the largest (l = 1) and the
smallest (l = 29) splitting?
ao is the the cesium
of theatom, spin-orbit
innermost Bohrsplitting
orbit. between the states 6P1/2 and 6P312 leads
to a wavelength difference of L1 A. = 422 A for the first line pair of the primary series.
Calculate
12.6 In the from this the
cesium finespin-orbit
atom, structure splitting a and thethefield
constant between at the
states 6P1/2nucleus
and 6PB 312
1> if the
higher frequency difference
to a wavelength componentofhas L1 A.a =wavelength of A.first
422 A for the lineA.
= 8521 pair of the primary series.
Calculate from this the fine structure constant a and the field at the nucleus B 1> if the
12.7
higherSketch
frequencythe energy levelshas
component of the hydrogen atom,
a wavelength of A. =including
8521 A. the fine structure, up to
n = 3. Show the possible transitions. How many different lines are there?
12.7 Sketch the energy levels of the hydrogen atom, including the fine structure, up to
n = 3. The
12.8 Show fine
thestructure
possibleintransitions.
hydrogen-like Howions
many(ions with only
different oneare
lines there? is described
electron)
by (12.33).
a) Show
12.8 Thethat
finethe correction
structure term does notions
in hydrogen-like disappear foronly
(ions with any one
possible combination
electron) of
is described
by the
(12.33).
quantum numbers nand j, but that it always reduces the value of the uncor-
a) rected energy.
Show that the correction term does not disappear for any possible combination of
b) Into how
the quantum many energynand
numbers levelsj, are
but the
thatterms of singly
it always charged
reduces helium
the value with
of the the
uncor-