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1. Using the technique of separation of variables, show that there are solutions to the

sw 318oad

three-dimensional Schroedinger equation for a time-independent potential, which can be

written

iEtm

P(x,y,z,t) = Y' (x,y,z)e -

where l/i(x,y,z) is a solution to the time-independent Schroedinger equation.

2. Verify that D(cp) = eim") is the solution to the equation for (Kcp), (7-15).

Problemi
da
Eisberg-‐Resnick

3. Hydrogen, deuterium, and singly ionized helium are all examples of one-electron atoms.

The deuterium nucleus has the same charge as the hydrogen nucleus, and almost exactly

Cap.
7

twice the mass. The helium nucleus has twice the charge of the hydrogen nucleus, and

almost exactly four times the mass. Make an accurate prediction of the ratios of the

ground state energies of these atoms. (Hint: Remember the variation in the reduced

mass.)

4. (a) Evaluate, in electron volts, the energies of the three levels of the hydrogen atom in the

states for n = 1, 2, 3. (b) Then calculate the frequencies in hertz, and the wavelengths in

angstroms, of all the photons that can be emitted by the atom in transitions between

these levels. (c) In what range of the electromagnetic spectrum are these photons?

5. Verify by substitution that the ground state eigenfunction Iiloo, and the ground state

eigenvalue E 1 , satisfy the time-independent Schroedinger equation for the hydrogen atom.

6. (a) Extend Example 7-4 to obtain from the uncertainty principle a prediction of the total

energy of the ground state of the hydrogen atom. (b) Compare with the energy predicted

by (7-22).

7. (a) Calculate the location at which the radial probability density is a maximum for the

n = 2, 1 = 1 state of the hydrogen atom. (b) Then calculate the expectation value of the

radial coordinate in this state. (c) Explain the physical significance of the difference in

the answers to (a) and (b). (Hint: See Figure 7-5.)

8. (a) Calculate the expectation value V for the potential energy in the ground state of the

hydrogen atom. (b) Show that in the ground state E = V/2, where E is the total energy.

(c) Use the relation E = K + V to calculate the expectation value K of the kinetic energy

in the ground state, and show that K = — V/2. These relations are obtained for any state

of motion of any quantum mechanical (or classical) system with a potential in the form

V(r) cc — 1/r. They are sometimes called the virial theorem.

9. (a) Calculate the expectation value V of the potential energy in the n = 2, 1 = 1 state of

the hydrogen atom. (b) Do the same for the n = 2, 1 = 0 state. (c) Discuss the results of

(a) and (b), in connection with the virial theorem of Problem 8, and explain how they

bear on the origin of the 1 degeneracy.

10. By substituting into the equation for R(r), (7-17), the form R(r) cc r1, show that it is a

solution for r —* O. (Hint: Ignore terms that become negligible relative to others as r -> O.)

11. Consider the probability of finding the electron in the hydrogen atom somewhere inside

a cone of semiangle 23.5° of the +z axis ("arctic polar region"). (a) If the electron were

equally likely to be found anywhere in space, what would be the probability of finding

the electron in the arctic polar region? (b) Suppose the atom is in the state n = 2, 1 = 1,

1 = 0; recalculate the probability of finding the electron in the arctic polar region. m

12. (a) Sketch a polar diagram of the directional dependence of the one-electron atom proba-

bility density for 1 = 2, m 1 = O. (b) At what angle 6 does the angular probability density

have its minimum value ? (c) Where does the angular probability density have a value

one-fourth its maximum value?

13. Consider the hydrogen atom eigenfunction 0432. What are (a) the total energy in eV;

(b) the expectation value of the radial coordinate in A; (c) the total angular momentum;

(d) the z component of the angular momentum; (e) the uncertainty in the angular momen-

tum; (f) the uncertainty in the z component of the angular momentum?

14. Show that the sum of hydrogen atom probability densities for the n = 3 quantum states,

analogous to the sum in Example 7-5, is spherically symmetrical.

6. Ifofathe hydrogen

pattern. (c) atom is placed

Calculate theinstrength

a magnetic fieldE2which

p4of the external V2is-2EV

+ magnetic veryfield strong thatcompared

would produce to its

internal field, its orbital and

an energy difference between the most8YnwidelyAErei

spin magnetic dipole

= moments precess independently

n = 2 levels which equals the dif- about

3C2 separated2mc 2

the

ferenceexternal between field,the andenergies

its energy depends

of the n = 1 on andthe n =quantum

2 levelsnumbers in the absence ml and ms which

of the field.

so

specify that their components along the external field

7. Use the procedure of Example 8-3 to estimate the spin-orbit interaction energy in the direction. (a) Evaluate the splitting of

the energy levels according to the

n = 2, 1= 1 state of a muonic atom, definede4in Example values of m l and ms. (b)

, ^,^ 4-9. Draw1 the pattern of split levels

nljm^ dzof each component

Y2 j"from the series j = l + Problemi
da
Eisberg-‐Resnick

originating from theAErei n = =2 level, enumerating the quantum numbers

8. of

Prove that the only possible

—

values of

2mc 2 (4itE0)22mc2the quantum number

lJnljm) 1/2,

the pattern. (c) Calculate the strength of the external magnetic field that would produce

l —energy

an

1/2, are

3/2, ... , between

1/2, 1—difference that satisfy

1/2,

theEne2

1/2,if

the inequality

most ç

widely

0, Inljm,

or

1,\,/j (j + 1) > IVl(l + 1) — Js(s + 1) 1 with

separated

r

1/2,Cairn; ndz= 2 levels which equals the dif-

0. in the absence of the field.

Cap.
8

s= j=l+

ference between the energies 47LE 1- of the0mCn2 J= 1 and n = 2iflevels

1 j = 1=

9. Use

13.

7. (a)

(a)Enumerate

the procedure

Draw the possible

the hydrogen of Example values

energy-level 8-3ofto and

jdiagram mj, for

estimate forthe thespin-orbit

all states through

states in which

interaction n1 == 1, and,

2energy

as in of course,

in

the the

right-

s =

nhand 1/2.

= 2, part (b)

1= 1ofstate Draw

Figure the corresponding

of a8-11,

muonicbut with

atom,the "vector

splitting

defined model" figures.

according4-9.

in Example (c) Draw a figure

to l also shown. (b) With arrows illustrating

the angular pairs

connecting momentumof levels, vectors

show forthe

all a typical

transitions state.that (d)are Show allowed also by thethe spin and orbital

selection

8. Prove that the only possible values of the quantum

magnetic dipole moment vectors, and their sum the total magnetic dipole moment number j from the series +rules.

j = lvector. 1/2,

14. l(e)

Verify

— Is that the

3/2, parities

... , that of the

satisfy one-electron

the

1/2,the1—total magnetic dipole moment vector antiparallel inequality atom eigenfunctions

,\,/j (j + 1) > IVl(l

to the total3007r

+ 1) —

angular Js(s +, 032o, and

0310momentum1) 1 with

s=t//322

vector? are determined by (-1) 1.

1/2, are j=l+1/2, 1- 1/2,if 1 0, or j = 1/2, if 1 = 0.

15.

9. (a)

10. (a)

ConsiderUse parity

Enumerate considerations

the

the states possible

in which valueslto=prove

of

4 andj andthat =the

s mj, first

for

1/2. thetwo

For theintegrals

states in which

state with of the

the display

1 =largest equation

1, and, possible

of course,j

preceding

= 1/2.

sand largest (8-42)

(b) possible both yield

Draw themcorresponding zero.

j, calculate (a)"vector (b) Interpret

the angle model" what

between this

figures. L and means

(c)S,Draw about

(b) the the

a figure existence

between of

angleillustrating µi

theatomic

and angular

µs , andelectric dipole

momentum

(c) the angle moments

vectors

betweenfor which are

thestatic

a typical

J and +z state. in time.

axis.(d) Show also the spin and orbital

16. magnetic

11. dipole

By a straightforward

Enumerate momentevaluation

the possible vectors,

values ofandjofand their sum

themjelectric thedipole

for states total in magnetic

matrix/ =elements

which dipole

3 and moment s for

= 1/2. thevector.

eigen-

(e) Is the total

functions magnetic

of Table 7-2, dipole

show that moment vector antiparallel

the selection rule Al = ±to1the total angular

of (8-37) is validmomentum

for the n =

12. The2 —* relativistic shift in the energy levels of a hydrogen atom due to the relativistic

vector? n = 1 transitions of the hydrogen atom.

dependence of mass on velocity can be determined by using the atomic eigenfunctions to

17. Consider

10. Considerthe

calculate thestates

the electric

expectation dipole

in which valuelmoment 4 andofmatrix

=AErei = 1/2.

sthe elements

quantity For the AErei for

state=aEreicharged

with — one-dimensional

theEcias,

largest thepossible

differencej

simple

and largest harmonic

possible oscillator

m j, making

calculate (a) the

the transitions

angle

between the relativistic and classical expressions for the total energy E. Show that between ni =L 3,

and n fS,= (b)

0; the

ni = 2,

anglen f between

= 0; nifor =µi1,

p

and

n1

not too= 0. Use the eigenfunctions of

large(c) the angle between J and the +z axis.

µs , and Table 6-1 to show that the matrix elements which are

11. Enumerate

not zero agree the possible

with thevalues selection of jrule and An mj for= ±states

1,E2discussed in which in /Section

= 3 and4-11. s = 1/2.(Hint: Use

p4 + V2 -2EV

parity

12. The considerations

relativistic shift whenever AErei

in the energy you 8Yn can.)

levels =

3C2 of a hydrogen 2mc 2 atom due to the relativistic

dependence of mass on velocity

18. (a) Calculate the rate for spontaneous transitions between can be determined by usingthe the atomic

n = 1 and eigenfunctions

n = 0 statestoof

SW318 01:Id

so that

calculate the expectation

a simple harmonic oscillator, carrying value AErei of charge the quantity e. Take AErei the= massErei — of Ecias, the difference

the oscillator to be

between

equal tothe therelativistic

mass of anand atomclassical

of some expressions

typical

e4 ionic for, the total

^,^molecule,1 energy and the E. Show

restoring that force

for p

not too large AErei = nljm^ dz

constant C to be 10 3 joules/m2 —

2mc , 2which is typical for

(4itE0)22mc2 lJnljm)such Y2a molecule.

" (Hint: Normalized

eigenfunctions must be used.) (b) Ene2From ç

the transitionE2

1 + V2 rate, -2EVestimate the average time re-

p4

quired to complete the transition. AErei This isInljm, the

= lifetime r Cairn; ofdzthe n = 1 vibrational state of the

47LE0mC8Yn2 J3C2 2mc 2

molecule.

13. (a)

19. so Draw the

that

Consider hydrogen

enough of theenergy-level

electric dipole diagram

moment formatrixall states throughforna =charged

elements 2 as inparticle

the right- in

hand part ofsquare

an infinite Figurewell 8-11,potential,

but with using the splitting according

thee4eigenfunctions , ^,^ to 1 ofl also

Sectionshown. 6-8, (b)

to With

see arrows

if there

connecting

is a selection pairs

ruleofAErei

levels,

for = show all the transitions that are allowed

this system and, if so, to determine what by

it is.

nljm^ dz the selection rules.

—

2mc 2 (4itE0)22mc2 lJnljm) Y2 "

14.

20. Verify

Find the that the parities

selection rule for of the one-electron

a rigid atom eigenfunctions

charge — e. Use r 3007 0310 , 032o, and

the eigenfunctions in

t//322 are determined by (-1) 1.

Ene2rotator ç carrying 1

0 found in Problem 23 of Chapter 7. (Note:

Inljm, the

r selection

Cairn; dz rule to be found is Am = +1

15. (a) 47LE 0mC 2 Jthat the first two integrals of the display equation

notUse Amparity = 0, ±considerations

1.) to prove

preceding the(8-42) of both yield8-20zero. to (b) Interpret for what i2this means

of the about the existence of

21. (a)

13. Use Drawthe result hydrogenProblem energy-level diagram

find the ratio allR states /Rolthrough n = of

rates 2 as in the right-

transition from

Problemi
da
Bransden-‐Joachain

Cap.
3,
4,
5

194 12. Orbital and Spin Magnetism. Fine Structure

from

194 the magnet. Calculate the components of the12. magnetic moment

Orbital and in the direction

Spin Magnetism. of

Fine Structure

the magnetic field, if the splitting of the beam at the screen is observed to be d = 2 mm,

and

fromthe

thevelocity

magnet. of the atoms

Calculate is v = 500 m/s.

the components The

of the averagemoment

magnetic mass ofin silver atoms of

the direction is

Mthe magnetic field, if the splitting of the beam at the screen is observed to be d = 2 mm,

= 1.79.10- 25 kg. Why doesn't the nuclear spin affect the experiment? Problemi
da
Haken-‐Wolf

and the velocity of the atoms is v = 500 m/s. The average mass of silver atoms is

M = 1.79.10-

12.3 How large kg.theWhy

25 is doesn't

magnetic thegenerated

field nuclear spin affect

by the the experiment?

electron in the ground state of a Cap.
12,

hydrogen atom, at the position of the proton?

12.3 How large is the magnetic field generated by the electron in the ground state of a

12.4

hydrogenHowatom,

large atis the magnetic moment

position of of the orbital motion in a muonium atom, in

the proton?

which the electron of a ground-state hydrogen atom has been replaced by a muon?

How

12.4 large

Howislarge

the moment in positronium

is the magnetic moment(anof electron andmotion

the orbital a positron, i.e. particles

in a muonium with

atom, in

the

whichmasstheofelectron

the electron

of a and opposite charges,

ground-state hydrogenmoving

atom has around

beenthe common

replaced by centre

a muon? of

mass)?

How large is the moment in positronium (an electron and a positron, i.e. particles with

the mass of the electron and opposite charges, moving around the common centre of

mass)?Calculate the spin-orbit splitting of the states of the hydrogen atom with n = 2

12.5

and n = 3 using the relations

12.5 Calculate the spin-orbit splitting of the states of the hydrogen atom with n = 2

2

n == 3 using

andJif,s Ze Pothe(srelations

./)

81lmij r 3 '

2

Jif,s = Ze Po (s ./)

and 81lmij r 3 '

and

What are the values for a Rydberg state with n = 30 for the largest (l = 1) and the

smallest (l = 29) splitting?

ao is theare

What radius of the innermost

the values for a RydbergBohrstate

orbit.with n = 30 for the largest (l = 1) and the

smallest (l = 29) splitting?

12.6 In radius

ao is the the cesium

of theatom, spin-orbit

innermost Bohrsplitting

orbit. between the states 6P1/2 and 6P312 leads

to a wavelength difference of L1 A. = 422 A for the first line pair of the primary series.

Calculate

12.6 In the from this the

cesium finespin-orbit

atom, structure splitting a and thethefield

constant between at the

states 6P1/2nucleus

and 6PB 312

1> if the

leads

higher frequency difference

to a wavelength componentofhas L1 A.a =wavelength of A.first

422 A for the lineA.

= 8521 pair of the primary series.

Calculate from this the fine structure constant a and the field at the nucleus B 1> if the

12.7

higherSketch

frequencythe energy levelshas

component of the hydrogen atom,

a wavelength of A. =including

8521 A. the fine structure, up to

n = 3. Show the possible transitions. How many different lines are there?

12.7 Sketch the energy levels of the hydrogen atom, including the fine structure, up to

n = 3. The

12.8 Show fine

thestructure

possibleintransitions.

hydrogen-like Howions

many(ions with only

different oneare

lines there? is described

electron)

by (12.33).

a) Show

12.8 Thethat

finethe correction

structure term does notions

in hydrogen-like disappear foronly

(ions with any one

possible combination

electron) of

is described

by the

(12.33).

quantum numbers nand j, but that it always reduces the value of the uncor-

a) rected energy.

Show that the correction term does not disappear for any possible combination of

b) Into how

the quantum many energynand

numbers levelsj, are

but the

thatterms of singly

it always charged

reduces helium

the value with

of the the

uncor-

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