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PROCEEDINGS, INDONESIAN PETROLEUM ASSOCIATION
Twenty-Ninth Annual Convention & Exhibition, October 2003

THE ABADI GAS FIELD

H. Nagura* H. MP Bandjarnahor*
I. Suzuki* K. Kihara*
T. Teramoto* T. Swiecicki**
Y. Hayashi* R. Bird***
T. Yoshida*

ABSTRACT Utilizing this framework, a full-field 3D model is


currently being developed to better characterize the
The Abadi field is Indonesia’s first discovery in the likely range of reserves and to provide the basis for a
Middle Jurassic Plover Formation. This potentially more accurate understanding of the economic value of
giant gas discovery is located some 350 km east of Abadi.
Timor Island and 350 km north of Darwin, Australia.
It lies just north of the international boundary with
INTRODUCTION
Australia, in 400-800 m water depth. The Masela
Production Sharing Contract (PSC) was awarded to
The Abadi gas field was discovered in late 2000 with
Inpex as Operator with 100% interest in November
the successful drilling of the Abadi-1 well. The field
1998. The discovery well Abadi-1 was drilled and
is located within the Masela PSC block in the eastern
completed in late 2000. Following discovery, a 2,060
part of the Timor Sea, Eastern Indonesia, along the
km2 3D seismic survey was acquired in 2001 and two
Indonesia -Australia international boundary (Figure 1).
successful appraisal wells were drilled in 2002. Approximately 100 km north of the block, the Babar
Islands and Tanimbar Islands follow an east-west
Geologically, the field comprises relatively
trend along the outer ridge of the Banda Arc. The
undeformed Australian continental margin that
block name of Masela originates from one of these
extends into Indonesian waters. It lies on the eastern
islands. The deep Timor Trough with more than
extremity of the Sahul Platform and occupies a large
1,500 m water depth lies between the island arc and
tilted fault block bounded to the east and south by the
the block. The Masela Block is on the upper slope
Calder-Malita Grabens. The accumulation contains a area of the Australian Continental Shelf with
significant gas column, reservoired within shallow associated water depths ranging from 300 m to 1,000
marine, highly mature, quartzose sandstone of the m.
Middle Jurassic Plover Formation. Close analogues
are to be found in the giant Greater Sunrise and Bayu-
Active exploration work was conducted on the
Undan fields. Reservoir quality, at a depth of ~3,900
Australian side of the Timor Sea from the mid 1960s,
m, varies from surprisingly good to poor, reflecting a
and the discovery wells of the Sunrise-Troubadour
complex interaction of primary depositional controls
gas fie ld were drilled in the early stages (Troubadour-
and later diagenetic influences. A preliminary 1 in 1974, Sunrise-1 in 1975). Although exploration
estimate of reserves size is about 5 TCF. efforts were halted in the Timor Gap area in the late
1970s and 1980s by the boundary dispute between
Inpex has undertaken a variety of exploration projects
Indonesia and Australia, the discoveries of the Evans
and studies, including high-resolution sequence
Shoal gas field (Evans Shoal-1 in 1988) and the Bayu
stratigraphy and seismic -driven paleofacies
Undan gas field (Bayu-1 in 1995) were eventually
reconstructions to model the reservoir architecture.
added to the area’s commercial reserves. Some of
these fields are now on track for development. On the
* Inpex Masela, Ltd.
** Cerberus Consultants other hand, no exploration work was conducted on the
*** P.T. Paradigm Geophysical Indonesia Indonesian side of the Timor Sea until Geco-Prakla
shot a 2,594 km 2D spec seismic survey in 1996 The lithostratigraphy of the Abadi field area is shown
under an arrangement with MIGAS. in Figure 3. Fluvio-deltaic to shallow marine deposits
of the Middle Jurassic Plover Formation accumulated
Following Geco-Prakla’s spec survey, Pertamina in a pre-rift to early syn-rift tectonic regime. This
opened the Masela Block PSC tender on October 19, formation is the main reservoir objective in the area.
1997, together with the adjacent Leti Block. Inpex Marine claystone of the lower Cretaceous Echuca
conducted a regional evaluation using the Geco- Shoals Formation unconformably overlies the Plover
Prakla data together with open file seismic and well Formation. Overlying the Echuca Shoals Formation
data from the Australian side. The prospectivity was is the predominantly carbonate Jamieson Formation,
assessed, and a bid was submitted to Pertamina for followed by thick prograding shelf and slope
the Masela PSC on April 3, 1998. The Masela PSC sediments of the Cretaceous Wangarlu Formation.
was awarded to Inpex and the PSC was signed on The Tertiary section consists of drift phase deposits,
November 16, 1998, between Inpex and Pertamina predominantly thick shelf carbonates. The late
with the witness and approval of MIGAS. Miocene collision between the Indo-Australian and
Sunda plates initiated the final tectonic phase in this
Inpex Masela, Ltd. was established as the project area and continues to the present day. Left-lateral
company to execute the exploration program with transtension and plate flexure rejuvenated Jurassic
financial support from the Japan National Oil normal faults and produced a new set of normal faults
Corporation. This paper summarizes the exploration with a dominant north-easterly strike.
activities conducted in the Masela Block to date.
EXPLORATION HISTORY
REGIONAL SETTING
Pre Bid Evaluation
The Abadi field lies within the Northern Bonaparte
Basin, on the Sahul Platform at the eastern end of the In 1997/98, the Masela Block was evaluated based on
Sunrise-Troubadour High (Figure 2). It is bounded to approximately 2,600 km of Geco-Prakla spec seismic
the east by the Masela Deep, which is the northern data (GPARI-96 series) shot during 1996 in
extension of the Calder Graben. The Malita Graben Indonesian waters. Available Australian open file 2D
lies further to the southwest and accommodates thick seismic (3,500 km) and well data (13 wells) were also
Cretaceous-Tertiary sediments. The northwest incorporated for the evaluation. These well data
trending Goulburn Graben, with thick Paleozoic included Troubadour-1, Sunrise-1, Loxton Shoals-1,
sediments, is located to the southeast. The Timor Evans Shoal-1, Lynedoch-1, Tuatara-1 and others.
Trough lies to the north. The primary reservoir rocks of these discoveries were
Jurassic sandstone similar to many other North West
Approximately 250 km west of Abadi, the Sunrise- Shelf discoveries. No exploratory wells had been
Troubadour gas field (proved & probable recoverable drilled in Indonesian waters of this area up to that
reserves: 8.4 TCF; public information from Northern time.
Territory Government of Australia) occupies the axis
of the Sunrise-Troubadour High. The Evans Shoal Line spacing of the available 2D seismic data within
gas field (proved & probable recoverable reserves: the Masela Block was roughly 10 km x 25 km. The
6.6 TCF; public information from Northern Territory Albian carbonate marker above the Jurassic sandstone
Government of Australia) is approximately 150 km level provided a readily mappable horizon on seismic
southwest of Abadi between the Sunrise-Troubadour data throughout the area, and this became the key
High and Malita Graben. horizon for our interpretation. Time mapping and
simple depth conversion of the Albian marker
Development of the Northern Bonaparte Basin was identified two structural leads. One of these
influenced by rifting and continental separation in structures, located just west of the Masela Deep, was
middle Jurassic to early Cretaceous times along the in a favourable positio n to trap hydrocarbons
northwestern Australian margin, and later modified migrating from the Masela Deep with a closed area of
by the collision between the Indo-Australian and more than 1,000 km2 . Basin modeling suggested the
Sunda plates from the Miocene to the present generation and migration of hydrocarbons from the
(Whittam et al. 1996). Masela Deep to this adjacent area.
This primary lead, named Abadi, was located in the Abadi-1
central part of the block in water depths ranging from
400 m to 800 m. It was initially expected to hold Abadi-1, the first exploration well in the Masela
hydrocarbon reserves of more than 2 TCF with an Block, was located 760 km east of Kupang, or 350
upside potential of 5 TCF in the Jurassic reservoir. km north from Darwin , Australia. The drill ship
Energy Searcher arrived on location on September 29,
Inpex submitted a bid to Pertamina to obtain the 2000, and Abadi-1 spudded in 457 m of water on
Masela Block on April 3, 1998, and the Masela PSC October 1, 2000. The objective of the well was to test
was awarded to Inpex on November 16, 1998. the hydrocarbon potential of sandstones in the Middle
Jurassic Plover Formation. The well was drilled
without a riser using seawater until reaching the 13-
Additional Evaluation after Signature of PSC 3/8” casing point at 2,139 m, in the uppermost part of
the Wangarlu Formation. After Setting 9-5/8” casing
After signing the PSC, a 2,948 km 2D seismic survey at 3,795 m in the Echuca Shoals Formation, the
(IM99 dataset) was conducted utilizing M/V Geco objective Jurassic Plover sandstone was intersected
Rho (PT Geco-Prakla) in February to March 1999 to and 18 m of conventional core was cut with 100%
evaluate in detail the structure and stratigraphy of recovery. TD was called at 4,230 m, after ‘hot-shot’
identified leads and to continue exploration over the palynological analyses confirmed a Bajocian age
entire block. The seismic program was designed to (Middle Jurassic) for the bottom sample and a VSP
infill the existing GPARI-96 grid, reducing the block- showed that Abadi-1 had penetrated the objective
wide line spacing to 2 km x 4 km. The GPARI-96 seismic reflections. Comprehensive wireline logging
lines in the Masela Block area were also reprocessed confirmed the presence of gas-filled sandstone in the
to have seismic images consistent with the new upper part of the Plover Formation, with 73 m of
acquisition. To develop a more detailed regional gross hydrocarbon column including 21 m of
understanding, seismic data were exchanged with extremely good quality reservoir. Though not readily
Shell, operator of the adjacent NT/P49 block in recognizable from log data, the gas water contact was
Australian waters just south of the Masela Block. A established at 3,900 mSS from MDT pressure
pre-drilling well data trade was also agreed with Shell, measurements (Figure 4).
and well data from Lynedoch-2 and Tyche-1 were
added to our database. These data trades were One production test was conducted in the Plover
conducted with MIGAS approval. Formation over the interval 3,867 m - 3,887 m. This
flowed gas, condensate and water at the sustained rate
Regional maps and prospect interpretations were of 25 mmscfgpd, 260 bcpd (52.5o API) and 178 bwpd
updated and refined utilizing these data . The seismic through a 40/64” choke. The water condensed from
time interpretation was converted to a depth map water vapour within the gas. The gas contained 9.6 %
using a two-layer model to remove the water depth CO2 as determined by laboratory test. After
effect. The Abadi structure was defined as a drillable completing the testing program, the well was plugged
prospect and the location of an exploration well was and abandoned as a gas and condensate discovery,
selected to test it. and the rig was released on December 11, 2000. This
success was the first Plover discovery in Indonesian
The Abadi prospect has three-way dip closure, waters.
bounded to the east by the north-south trending
eastward dipping normal fault that marks the western 3D Seismic Acquisition and Interpretation
boundary of the Masela Deep. The prospect was
interpreted to be a paleo-high structure during the The available map and drilling results indicated that
Mesozoic syn-rift phase, and structural closure was the Abadi structure could hold significant gas reserves,
enhanced by compression in the Miocene collision hence exploration continued with plans for 3D
phase. The major risks were presence of effective seismic acquisition and processing. A 3D seismic
reservoir rock within the Plover Formation and the survey of 2,060 km2 was conducted from July to
presence of source rocks in the Masela Deep. The September 2001, utilizing the PGS M/V Ramform
risk related to the trap and the seal were considered to Challenger with 8 streamers and a 4,200 m cable
be low. length. A 700 km2 “fast track area” was selected to
expedite interpretation over the main part of the sidetracked hole, a 6” hole was drilled to 3,986 m and
Abadi structure and allow delineation drilling from then wireline logging was conducted. As no shows
the 1st quarter of 2002. On-board processing was were detected in the bottom part of the section and
completed for this “fast track area,” and the migration penetration into the lower reservoir section of the
cube was available for interpretation by the middle of Plover Formation was confirmed by the PEX log suite,
September 2001. Processing for the full cube this depth (3,986 m) was selected as TD of Abadi-
continued in the onshore processing center and was 2ST.
completed by the end of 2001.
The wireline logging data and MDT pressure plot
3D seismic interpretation of the “fast track area” confirmed the presence of the gas reservoir in the
focused on determining optimal delineation well upper reservoir section of the Plover Formation
locations. A clearer image of the Abadi structure (Figure 4). The gas pressure data of Abadi-2ST fall
emerged as time interpretation maps were converted almost on the same trend line as Abadi-1 suggesting
to depth, showing the structure to consist of northern the gas to be in pressure equilibrium between Abadi-1
and southern blocks separated by an east-west and Abadi-2ST. The pressure data of the possible
trending normal fault (Figure 5). Seismic facies water sandstone was obtained below the shale zone of
analyses and paleogeographic modeling were the verrucosa maximum flooding surface, which is
conducted at the reservoir level, integrating the 3D described in the reservoir section below. The
seismic and Abadi-1 well data. Based on these pressure of this zone is slightly higher than the water
interpretation results, two delineation well locations pressure in the Abadi-1, and if we assume this
were selected. One was in the northern fault block, sandstone is in the same reservoir unit with the gas
13.5 km northeast of Abadi-1, and the other was in reservoir above the verrucosa zone, the GWC is
the southern fault block, 16.5 km southwest of Abadi- estimated to be approximately 3,890 mSS in Abadi-
1. The predicted depths of the Top Plover level at 2ST.
both wells were estimated to be approximately 20 m
deeper than that of Abadi-1 and approximately 50 m After wireline logging was completed, one production
shallower than the indicated gas water contact. test was carried out in the Plover Formation over the
intervals of 3,829 m - 3,839 m and 3,845.5 m -
Abadi-2/2ST 3,850.5 m. The test flowed gas, condensate and water
at the rate of 18.6 mmscfgpd, 150 bcpd (51o API) and
Inpex began delineation drilling at Abadi-2, situated 127 bwpd through a 44/64” choke. The gas contained
in 580 m of water, using the drill ship Energy 9.5 % CO2 by laboratory test, and 5 ppm H2 S were
Searcher. The rig arrived at the location on March detected in wellsite measurements.
19, 2002, and spudded Abadi-2 on March 20, 2002.
Abadi-3
The well reached the principle reservoir objective at
3,756 m, 113 m shallower than prognosis. Two After completion of Abadi-2/2ST drilling, the rig was
conventional cores were cut from 3,783 m to 3,837 m towed to the Abadi-3 location and the well was
(54 m) within the Plover Formation, though total spudded on July 29, 2002. The well was situated in
recovery was only 9.6 m (17.8%). Intermediate check 423 m of water.
shot data revealed that interval velocit ies in the
Abadi-2 area are much slower than estimated from Abadi-3 intersected the objective Jurassic Plover
seismic velocity analysis. This velocity difference sandstone at 3,832 m, 19 m shallower than prognosis.
contributed to the significant error in the depth Four conventional cores were cut within the upper
prediction. part of the Plover Formation, resulting in the recovery
of 58.16 m of core. The 8-1/2” hole was drilled to
The well encountered a problem with 9-5/8” casing 4,032 m, which was considered deep enough to
just after cutting #2 core, which caused us to plug evaluate the upper Plover reservoir section.
back the original hole and sidetrack from 3,556 m as
Abadi-2ST. Because of this casing trouble, no The wireline logging data and MDT pressure plot
wireline logs were run for the coring interval of confirmed the presence of gas in the upper reservoir
Abadi-2. After setting a 7” liner at 3,756 m in the section of the Plover Formation (Figure 4). The gas
pressure data of Abadi-3 lies on exactly the same line southern block, by an east-west trending normal fault
as the gas pressure data of Abadi-1. These data (Figure 5). Multiple conjugate fault sets cut the field,
confirm that the gas is in pressure equilibrium but to date there is no clear evidence of fault
between the two wells. The GWC was not observed compartmentalization. A structural spill point to the
on the wireline logs. No reliable formation pressure west separates Abadi field from the Sunrise-
data was acquired in the water bearing zone below the Troubadour accumulations updip.
gas column because of super-charging and/or seal-
failure of the MDT tool. However, the highest Movement along the bounding faults to the south and
interpreted water based on PEX log response is at east juxtaposed the Plover reservoir succession
3,896 mSS. against early Cretaceous shales of the Echuca Shoals
Formation, providing the primary side-seal. Topseal
Given these results from Abadi-3 and pressure data is also provided by the regional Echuca Shoals
from Abadi-1 and Abadi-2ST, the GWC appears to be Formation.
different for each of these three wells. This
difference may be due to hydrodynamic flow across Reservoir Stratigraphy
the basin from the Timor Trough area as discussed by
Nowell (1999). A high resolution, reservoir-scale stratigraphic
framework has been developed drawing on evidence
Two production tests were conducted in the Plover from wireline log data, conventional core, CST
Formation. The interval of 3,899 m - 3,906 m was (sidewall core) and MSCT (rotary sidewall core)
perforated for DST #1, which resulted in no flow due samples, biostratigraphy and ichnofacies. A total of
to a tight reservoir. DST #2 was conducted over the 86 m of conventional core was cut in the 3 wells.
interval 3,855 m - 3,867 m and flowed gas and Palynological zonation with an age resolution of
condensate through 44/64” choke at a rate of 13.8 between one and four million years (Helby et al. 1987,
mmscfgpd, 266 bcpd (51-56o API) and 57 bwpd. The and Laurie and Foster, 2001) provides the main
gas contained 9.2 % CO2 by laboratory test, and 6.66 chronostratigraphic framework for the correlation.
ppm H2 S were detected in wellsite measurements. Stratigraphic correlation of the 3 Abadi wells is
shown in Figure 6.
PETROLEUM GEOLOGY
The stratigraphic succession can be readily divided
Source and Migration into a series of genetically related zones based on the
presence of bounding surfaces related to periods of
The source for the Abadi gas is postulated to be rapid marine flooding. These have been named by
laterally equivalent marine shales deposited reference to the palynological interval containing
contemporaneous with the Plover Formation. them. The deepest sediments penetrated in Abadi-1
Thermal maturity studies indicate such source rocks appear to occur just above the caddaense flooding
should be mature for gas in the Calder-Malita event recognized within the Sunrise-Troubadour field
Grabens, Masela Deep, and directly down-dip from (Seggie et al. 2000). The Zone 4 sediments overlying
the Abadi field towards the Timor Trough. The this comprise a 220 m thick succession of stacked,
Grains containing Oil Inclusion (GOITM) technique of progradational to aggradational deltaic sediments with
Eadington et al (1996) did not detect oil inclusions on limited reservoir potential encountered to date. This
quartz grains in the gas filled sandstone (GOI values deltaic succession is capped by a thin shale associated
are less than 0.2%), indicating no liquid hydrocarbon with a flooding event, the verrucosa maximum
migration before the gas trap. flooding surface (mfs). The Abadi gas reservoir
confirmed so far lies above this maximum flooding
Trap and Seal surface. This lower deltaic unit, however, lies above
the GWC in higher structural positions that remain
The Abadi structure is a paleo high that has been undrilled.
reactivated and modified by subsequent rifting both in
the latest Jurassic/earliest Cretaceous and in the The verrucosa mfs is well defined on log, palynology
Neogene. The Abadi field is fault bounded to the east, and seismic data and is a key surface for mapping.
and divided into two parts, a northern block and a Overlying this is an 80-100 m thick, laterally
persistent coarsening upward succession comprising preserve excellent reservoir quality despite burial
Zone 3. This zone passes from a lower interval of depths in excess of 3,400 m below the seabed.
offshore shales with thin storm sands, into lower Although the burial depth of the Plover sandstone is
shoreface silts and fine sands and eventually into fine nearly 1,500 m deeper than in the Sunrise-Troubadour
to medium grained, planar and cross-bedded, field, the sandstones in the Abadi field still possess
extensively bioturbated upper shoreface sands. On reservoir properties capable of commercial flow rates.
seismic data, this interval shows well-developed
progradational geometries that, together with the well A crossplot of porosity vs. permeability from core
data, are indicative of shoreline progradation plug data shows three clear trends indicative of
(Figure 7). No evidence of emergence has been seen different litho-facies within the Plover reservoir
to date, though sedimentary structures and section of the Abadi field (Figure 8).
ichnofabrics indicate a strong tidal influence. Zone 3
sands were tested in the Abadi-2ST well and flowed Facies 1 shows high porosity and permeability values
at over 18 mmscfgpd. This zone is capped by a thin and corresponds to tidal delta deposits. The data
flooding event, the base indotata mfs. points for the sandstones of core #1 of Abadi-1 and
core #1 of Abadi-3 fall in this facies group. The
The base indotata mfs is well defined by log, sandstones of core #1 in Abadi-1 comprise medium to
palynological and seismic data and is another key coarse-grained quartzarenite with excellent visible
surface for mapping. Overlying this is a 50 m thick, porosity (Figure 9). The framework grains are
laterally persistent coarsening upward succession composed mostly of quartz (72-75 %), with very
comprising Zone 2. This zone passes from a lower minor amounts of K-feldspar (<0.4 %), chert (<1 %),
interval of offshore shales with thin storm sands, into metaquarzite (<0.4 %), bioclasts (<0.4 %) and other
lower shoreface silts and fine sands and eventually grains (Figure 10). Quartz grains are monocrystalline
into fine to medium grained, planar and cross-bedded, quartz with a grain size from 100 to 900 µm. The
extensively bioturbated upper shoreface sands. No rocks are medium-well sorted to well sorted. Porosity
evidence of emergence has been seen to date. is main ly intergranular. The detrital clay volume is
Capping this zone are massive, extensively very low (<0.4 %) and occurs as dispersed matrix,
bioturbated, predominantly medium grained sands associated with burrow linings. Porosity ranges from
that display a characteristically blocky log profile and 7-13 % and the volume of quartz overgrowth is 10-
excellent reservoir properties. Relict sedimentary 16 %. The kaolinite content is less than 1 %. Other
structures and ichnofabrics indicate a strong tidal diagenetic minerals including pyrite or illite are also
influence, and these sands are interpreted to have minor. The very low clay and feldspar contents
been deposited in a tidal delta setting. These sands indicate the well winnowed and texturally highly
were tested in the Abadi-1 and 3 wells and flowed at mature nature of these sandstones. The sandstone of
rates of up to 25 mmscfgpd. The sediments of Zone 2 core #1 of Abadi-3 has almost the same
are capped by a thin flooding event, the base aemula characteristics except the grain size is predominantly
mfs. fine to medium.

The base aemula mfs can be defined on log and For a given porosity, the permeability of Facies 2
palynological data. Sediments of Zone 1, above the (Figure 8) is an order of magnitude worse than
base aemula mfs, comprise a thin succession of non- Facies 1. However, Facies 2 sands still retains good
reservoir quality sands possibly representing deposits reservoir properties. This facies is represented by
of an offshore bar in Abadi-1, whilst in Abadi-3 the sandstone in core #1 of Abadi-2. These sands are fine
interval compr ises offshore marine shales. In Abadi- to medium grained, moderately to well sorted
2ST, Zone 1 sediments are absent due to erosion. quartzarenite to subarkose/sublitharenite. In contrast
to Facies 1 sandstones, the percentage of quartz grains
Reservoir Quality is lower at 55-60 %, while the contents of other
framework grains like K-feldspar (1-3 %) and chert
Reservoir quality within quartzarenite sandstones of (1-2 %) are higher. The clay content is still minimal
the Plover Formation is dependant on a complex (0.4-2 %) and kaolinite cement content is 5-10%. The
interaction of primary depositional setting and porosity is 10-15 % and the volume of quartz
diagenesis. In the Abadi field the cleanest sands overgrowth is 10-18 %.
Facies 3 is represented by the middle part of Core #4 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
of Abadi-3. This interval is below the gas water
contact and diagenetic calcite cement is dominant. The authors would like to thank BP Migas and Inpex
This sandstone is predominantly medium-grained, Masela, Ltd. for allowing this paper to be published.
moderately to well sorted, clean quartzarenite.
REFERENCES

CONCLUSIONS AND FUTURE PLANS Eadington, P.J., Lisk, M., and Krieger, F.W., 1996.
Identifying oil well sites, United States Patent No. 5,
The Abadi gas field is the single largest discovery 543, 616.
made in the Indonesian waters for several years.
Predictions of a gas reservoir within the Plover Haq, B.U., Hardenbol, J. and Vail, P.R., 1988.
Formation made dur ing the fast track exploration Mesozoic and Cenozoic chronostratigraphy and
program were confirmed by Abadi-1, 2/2ST and 3 cycles of sea-level change, SEPM Special Publication,
wells. High-resolution sequence stratigraphic 42, p. 71-108.
correlations provide the framework for a practical
reservoir subdivision. Pressure data indicate the Laurie, J.R. and Foster, C.B., (ed) 2001. Studies in
existence of a single tank system, although pressure Australian Mesozoic palynology II, Association of
plots indicate the possibility of small differences Australasian Palaeontologists Memoir 24.
in gas-water contacts within the field.
Helby, R., Morgan, R., and Partridge, A.D., 1987. A
Work is now ongoing to accurately model the palynological zonation of the Australian Mesozoic, in
reservoir. Establishing a stochastic 3D geological Jell, P.A. (ed), Studies in Australian Mesozoic
model and reservoir simulation are seen as essential Palynology, Association of Australasian
steps to provide an accurate assessment of reserves Palaeontolo gists Memoir 4, p. 1-94.
range. Determining the size of the prize on offer,
which is preliminarily estimated as about 5 TCF, will Nowell, N.A., 1999. Water Washing in the Northern
then allow future delineation planning and a more Bonaparte Basin, APPEA Journal 39 (1), p. 227-247.
focused marketing effort to be undertaken. The
present major tasks are addressing the depth Seggie, R.J., Ainsworth, R.B., Johnson, D.A., Koninx,
conversion uncertainty and reservoir facies mapping, J.P.M., Spaargaren, B., and Stephenson, P.M., 2000.
which together control much of the net reservoir Awakening of a sleeping giant: Sunrise-Troubadour
volume. In addition to this subsurface work, Inpex is Gas-Condensate Field, APPEA Journal 40 (1), p.
now conducting preliminary screening of 417-436.
development concepts and commercial/marketing
evaluations in order to expedite commercialization of Whittam, D.B., Norvick, M.S., and McIntyre, C.L.,
Abadi field. Development options include Floating 1996. Mesozoic and Cainozoic tectonostratigraphy of
LNG, GTL (Gas to Liquids), DME (Dimethyl Ether), Western ZOCA and adjacent areas, APPEA Journal
and raw gas sales via pipeline. 36 (1), p. 209-232.
Figure 1 - Location map of the Abadi gas field. Contour lines indicate water depths in meters. The Abadi gas field is located within the Masela
PSC block in the eastern part of the Timor Sea, Eastern Indonesia, along the Indonesia -Australia international boundary. The deep
Timor Trough of more than 1,500 m water depth lies between the outer ridge of the Banda Arc and the Masela Block. The Masela Block
is on the upper slope area of the Australian Continental Shelf with associated water depths ranging from 300 m to 1,000 m.
Figure 2 - Tectonic elements map of the Northern Bonaparte Basin. The Abadi field lies at the eastern end of the Sunrise-Troubadour High on
the Sahul Platform. It is bounded to the east by the Masela Deep, which is the northern extension of the Calder Graben. The Malita
Graben lies further to the southwest and accommodates thick Cretaceous-Tertiary sediments. The northwest trending Goulbourn
Graben, with thick Paleozoic sediments, is located to the southeast. Timor Trough lies to the north. Well locations referenced in this
paper are indicated. Approximately 250 km west of Abadi, the Sunrise-Troubadour gas field (proved & probable recoverable reserves:
8.4 TCF; public information from Northern Territory Government of Australia) occupies the axis of the Sunrise-Troubadour High.
The Evans Shoal gas field (proved & probable recoverable reserves: 6.6 TCF; public information from Northern Territory Government
of Australia) is approximately 150 km southwest of Abadi between the Sunrise-Troubadour High and Malita Graben.
Figure 3 - Generalized stratigraphic column of the Abadi field area (age scale based on Haq et al. 1988,
and palynological zonation based on Helby et al. 1987 and Laurie and Foster, 2001). Fluvio-
deltaic to shallow marine deposits of the Middle Jurassic Plover Formation accumulated in a
pre-rift to early syn-rift tectonic regime. This formation is the main reservoir objective in the
area. Marine claystone of the lower Cretaceous Echuca Shoals Formation unconformably
overlies the Plover Formation. Overlying the Echuca Shoals Formation is the predominantly
carbonate Jamieson Formation, followed by thick prograding shelf and slope sediments of the
Cretaceous Wangarlu Formation. The Tertiary section consists of drift phase deposits,
predominantly thick shelf carbonates.
Figure 4 - Formation pressure versus Depth plot of Abadi-1, 2ST and 3 wells. The GR curves of three wells are also shown for reference. The
gas pressure data for 3 wells fall almost on the same line, suggesting the gas to be in pressure equilibrium. GWC was established at
3,900 mSS in Abadi-1. In Abadi-2ST, GWC is estimated to be approximately 3,890 mSS. In Abadi-3, no reliable formation
pressure data was acquired in the water-bearing zone below the gas column, however, the highest water is interpreted at 3,896 mSS
from the PEX log suite. Pressure data indicate the existence of a single tank system, although pressure plots indicate the possibility
of small differences in gas-water contacts within the field.
Figure 5 - Depth map of Albian seismic marker. Contour lines indicate depths in meters. The Abadi field is fault bounded to the east
and divided into two parts, a northern block and a southern block, by an east-west trending normal fault. Location of
seismic line in Figure 7 is shown. A 700 km2 “fast track area” is also shown which was selected to expedite interpretation
over the main part of the Abadi structure and to allow early delineation drilling.
Figure 6 - Correlation section of the reservoir sequences in Abadi-1, 2ST and 3. The succession can
be readily divided into a series of genetically related zones based on the presence of
bounding surfaces related to periods of rapid marine flooding. These have been named by
reference to the palynological interval in which they lie. DST intervals and cored
intervals in three wells are indicated.
Figure 7 - Seismic inline 4996 through Abadi-1 (Location shown on Figure 5). Seismic polarity is SEG normal with red as peak and black
as trough. Yellow line indicates the Albian marker which corresponds to the base of the Jamieson Formation. This marker
provided a readily mappable hor izon on seismic data throughout the area, and this became the key horizon for our interpretation.
GR curve of Abadi-1 is shown as reference. Well-developed progradational geometries are observed in the seismic interval
correlatable to the upper part of the Plover Formation in the well that, together with the well data, are indicative of shoreline
progradation.
Figure 8 - Porosity versus permeability for core plugs from Abadi-1, 2 and 3, showing clear
trends indicative of different litho-facies within the Plover reservoir section. Facies 1
shows high porosity and permeability values and corresponds to tidal delta deposits.
The data points for the sandstones of core #1 of Abadi-1 and core #1 of Abadi-3 fall in
this facies group. Facies 2 is represented by sandstone in core #1 of Abadi-2 and still
retains good reservoir properties. Facies 3 is represented by the middle part of core #4
of Abadi-3. This interval is below the gas water contact and diagenetic calcite cement
is dominant.

Figure 9 - Thin section photomicrograph of the sandstone of the Plover Formation at 3,872.12 m in
Abadi-1. Medium grained, well sorted quartzarenite containing common quartz overgrowths
that have reduced intergranular porosity. Visible porosity is moderate (13%, shown in blue)
and is mainly of intergranular type. Measured permeability is 610 mD.
Figure 10 - Porosity, permeability and thin section point count data from conventional core of Abadi-1,
2 and 3. GR curves from wireline logs and core GR measurement are also shown as
reference. The sandstones of core #1 in Abadi-1 comprise quartzarenite and framework
grains are composed mostly of quartz, with very minor amount of other framework grains
like K-feldspar, chert, metaquartzite and bioclasts. The clay volume is also low and these
indicate the well winnowed and texturally highly mature of these sandstones. The
sandstones of core #1 in Abadi 3 have almost the same characteristics, and these sandstones
are categorized as Facies 1 in the porosity versus permeability plot in Figure 8. In the
sandstones of core #1 in Abadi-2 that are categorized as Facies 2, the percentage of quartz
grains is lower while the contents of other framework grains are higher compared with
sandstones of Facies 1.