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UNIT

8 Land of the pharaohs

woman phoned earlier and asked to


3A
Grammar 1: articles CB page 76 speak to you.
Cats are more independent than dogs.
4
About the language to Greece for our next holiday.
5 We're going
Articles that I told you about didn't
6 The woman
1 We use the indefinite article a/an with: leave a message.
a) single nouns you mention for the the doctor says I shouldn't
7 1love cheese but
first time. eat it.
b) jobs. do your friends live?
8 Where in the UK
2 We use the definite article the with:
visit Peru.
a) nouns you have mentioned before. 9 1would love to
translator.
b) when there is only one of something. 10 My boyfriend is a
c) some countries and organizations difficult to
11 Do you think it would be
e.g. the USA, the UK, the UAE, the UN, learn Chinese?
the EU.
3 We use no article with: 2 Fill in the gaps in this text with a/an,theor
a) languages, names, streets, towns, cities, O (z no article).
most countries. Nobody knows when (1) .... . animals first startedto
b) uncountable nouns and plural nouns live with (2) ...... . humans but it seems that
that have not been mentionedbefore. . story of our connection to them goes back
c) abstract nouns e.g. love, beauty, truth many thousands of years. In the beginning peoplekept
animals like (4) . . dogs and cats becausethey
were useful in some way. In (5) ... .. Ancient Egypt,
Typical •nistal«es oeøoo for example, cats and dogs were used in (6) .... .....
T-hélove makes the world go round. hunting. In addition, because (7) .... . Egyptians
I'm allergic to t.hé wheat. were able to produce a lot of (8) ..... .. food, they
the had to store it and this created (9) ..... . problem
O My country joinedkU recently.
with (10) ..... .... rats and mice. Because the cats
a a
I'd likekheese sandwich andkwhitecoffee, protected(11) . .. food stores, they eventually
p/ease. became so important that they were worshipped.
0 0 0 0 0 0 000 0 00000 •o o o ooooeoooo There was even (12) ... . goddess called (13) ... .....
Bastet who had (14) . head like the head of a
Look at the following examplesand the cat. Cats were often mummified and placed in tombs
words in italics. Match them to one of the rules in with dead mice and bowls of (15) ... . milk.
the box. The first one has been done for you. (16) . archaeologists have even found
(17) .... . cat cemeteries and there are thousandsof
0 The sun was shining when I left this morning. .2.? ornaments and statues of cats made of preciousmetals
1 Love conquers all. like (18) .... . gold.

2 Does Ania ride a motorcycle?


UNIT 8 Land of the pharaohs

Look at the postcard a student sent while he was on The world's (1) .. building is
holidayin Mexico. There are ten mistakes with articles. Find them currently the Petronas Towers in Kuala
and correct them. Lumpur, Malaysia. This extraordinary
building measures 452 metres, but
there are plans to build an even bigger
Pear Francesea, structure in Chicago, where the first
We'rehavin"antastic time here in Mexico. We've skyscraper was built. The new
visited some amazing places likephé MexicoCity and building, which is called '7 South
Palenque,where there are #6 pyramids just likethe Dearborn', will be 472.44 metres
ones near Cairo. The people are really nice here and .. but it will also have a
they don't laugh when I try to speak to them inethe-- digital television antenna on top
Spanish!Last night there was special party withÄ that will increase the building's
fantastic food and/ wonderful music. By the time we . by 137.16 metresto an
astonishing 609.6 metres.
got to bed)sun had already come up! fév-rcr
See you when I get back. 1 A highest B tallest
Love, 2 A tall B long
Adam
3 A height B length
Mauna Loa is the largest volcano on
Earth. Its peak rises more than 8
kilometres (4) ..... ..... the ocean
measurements floor. It makes up half of the area of
ce page 77 the Island of Hawaii, which is 241
kilometreslong and 197 kilometres
Choosethe best alternative to fill in the gaps in the texts . Mauna Loa has erupted
on the right. fifteen times since 1900. The last
eruptionwas in 1984 and lava flows
The World's Tallest Buildings got to within a (6) . . of
6.5 kilometresfrom the town of Hilo.
It is still one of the most active
volcanoes on Earth.
4 A over B above
5 A wide B thick
6 A distance B length
The Amazon River may only be the
second (7) . . river in the world
after the Nile but it is the (8) .... ..
Many kilometres from its mouth it can
be as wide as 11 kilometres in the dry
season and 40 kilometres in the wet
season. At the place where it meets
the Atlantic it can reach (9) ,
of 325 kilometres. It is now widening
as much as 4 kilometres a year due to
waves from ships breaking down the
banks.
7 A highest B longest
8 A thickest B widest
7 South Petronas Towers Sears Tower Jin Mao
Dearbora Tower 9 A distances B widths
UNIT
8 Land of the pharaohs
earlierand asked to
Grammar 1: articles
3 A woman phoned
page 76 speak to you.
independent than dogs.
4 Cats are more
About the language for our next holiday.
5 We're going to Greece
Articles you about didn't
6 The woman that I told
1 We use the indefinite article a/an with: leave a message.
a) single nouns you mention for the says I shouldn't
first time. 7 1love cheese but the doctor
eat it.
b) jobs.
2 We use the definite article the with: 8 Where in the UK do your friends live?
a) nouns you have mentioned before. 9 1would love to visit Peru.
b) when there is only one of something. 10 My boyfriendis a translator.
c) some countries and organizations
11 Do you think it would be difficult to
e.g. the USA, the UK, the UAE, the UN,
learn Chinese?
the ELI.
3 We use no article with: 2 Fill in the gaps in this text with a/an,the or
a) languages, names, streets, towns, cities, O (= no article).
most countries.
Nobody knows when (1) . . animals first startedto
b) uncountable nouns and plural nouns live with (2) ... .. humans but it seems that
that have not been mentioned before. . story of our connection to them goes back
c) abstract nouns e.g. love, beauty, truth manythousandsof years. In the beginning peoplekept
animals like (4) .. dogs and cats because they
were useful in some way. In (5) .... . Ancient Egypt,
Typical rnistal«es
for example, cats and dogs were used in (6) ....
Thé love makes the world go round. hunting. In addition, because (7) . . Egyptians
I'm allergicto thé wheat. were able to produce a lot of (8) ...
the . food, they
joinedkEU recently. had to store it and this created (9) .... . problem
My country
with (10) . rats and mice. Because the cats
. I'd likekheese sandwich andkwhitecoffee, protected(11) .... ..... food stores, they eventually
please. became so important that they were worshipped.
There was even (12) . . goddess called (13) ....
Bastetwho had (14) . .. head like the head of a
Look at the following examples and the cat. Cats were often mummified
and placed in tombs
words in italics. Match them to one of the rules in with dead mice and bowls of (15) ..... milk.
the box. The first one has been done for you. (16) ..... . archaeologists have even found
(17) .. . cat cemeteries and thousandsof
0 The sun was shining when I left this morning. .2? there are
ornaments and statues of cats made of precious metals
1 Love conquers all. like (18) .... . gold.

2 Does Ania ride a motorcycle?


Look at the postcard a student sent while he was The world's (1) .....
on .. building is
holiday in Mexico. There are ten mistakes with articles. Find them currently the PetronasTowers in Kuala
and correct them. Lumpur, Malaysia. This extraordinary
building measures 452 metres, but
there are plans to build an even bigger
Pear Francesca, structure in Chicago, where the first
We'rehaving fantastic time here in the Mexico.We've skyscraper was built. The new
visited some amazing places like the MexicoCity and building, which is called '7 South
Palenque,wherethere are the pyramidsjust likethe Dearborn', will be 472.44 metres
ones near the Cairo. The people are really nice here and .. but it will also have a
Cheydon't laugh when I try to speak to them in the digital television antenna on top
that will increase the building's
Spanish! Last night there was special party with a
by 137.16 metres to an
fantastic food and a wonderful music. By the time we astonishing 609.6 metres.
got Cobed sun had already come up!
1 A highest B tallest
See you when I get back.
Love, 2 A tall B long
Adam 3 A height B length
Mauna Loa is the largest volcano on
Earth. Its peak rises more than 8
kilometres (4) . the ocean
Vocabulary 1: measurements floor. It makes up half of the area of
CB page 77 the Island of Hawaii, which is 241
kilometreslong and 197 kilometres
Choosethe best alternative to fill in the gaps in the texts . Mauna Loa has erupted
on the right. fifteen times since 1900. The last
eruption was in 1984 and lava flows
The World's Tallest Buildings got to within a (6) .... . of
6.5 kilometresfrom the town of Hilo.
It is still one of the most active
volcanoes on Earth.
4 A over B above
5 A wide B thick
6 A distance B length
The Amazon River may only be the
second (7) ...... . river in the world
after the Nile but is the (8) .... ..
it
Many kilometres from its mouth it can
be as wide as 11 kilometres in the dry
season and 40 kilometres in the wet
season. At the place where it meets
the Atlantic it can reach (9) .....
of 325 kilometres.It is now widening
as much as 4 kilometresa year due to
waves from ships breaking down the
banks.

7 A highest B longest
8 A thickest B widest
7 South Petronas Towers
Sears Tower Jin Mao
Tower 9 A distancesB widths
UNIT 8 Land of the pharaohs
clauses CB page 79
Grammar 2: relative
Now use the information
from Exercise1 to fill in the gaps in
these quiz questions and answers.
About the language
relative clauses
What is the (1) .... Defining and non-defining
of the PetronasTowers Defining relative clauses:
building in Kuala
or identify a person, thing, place or time.
Lumpur? • define
o do not have commas.
It's (2) . metres speech.
• are common in informal
tall.
to things and people.
• can use that to refer
How (3) . will the met in England last summer.
Jacquesis the boy who/that I
new '7 South Dearborn' in the living room isn't very
building be? The chair that we bought to put
comfortable.
group.
(4) metres, if you Izabe/is the girl whose mother sings in a pop
include the antenna and
472.44 metres without it.
Septemberis the month when the weather is warmest.
That's the restaurant where we went for Claudia's birthday.
How (5) ..... ..... .. is
Mauna Loa if it is Non-defining relative clauses:
measuredfrom the ocean give extra information about a person, thing, place or
floor? time that has already been identified.
More than (6) . have commas.
kilometres. o are common in formal writing.
o do not have that to refer to things or people.
In the 1984 eruption, how
. were the lava Robert Wilson,who has just returned from New Zealand,
flows from the town of spoke about his fascinating trip.
Hilo? Roberto, whose brother also plays football, kicked the
final goal.
only (8) .
The table,whish was made in the 18th
kilometres. century, was sold for
over €3000.
What is the (9) ..... April,when thousands of turtles lay
of the Amazon at the beach, is the coolest month.
their eggs on the
place where it meets the Bristol,where the poet was
Atlantic? born, is still a busy port.
(10) kilometres.
Typical mista kes
How much (11) ...... who
is the Amazon becoming Tina, that came to your
each year? party, is living in Paris now
Thor Heyerdahbwho
died in
kilometres. O on the island of Tenerife. 200Gdiscovered some pyramids
(12)
She's the girl/ that / told
you about.
UNIT 8 Land of the pharaohs

There are seven commas missing in


this
paragraph.Add them in the correct places. Use of English: open cloze

Egypt is the country that people usually associate with


Read the text below and think of the word
that
best fits each space. Use only one word for
pyramidsbut there are pyramids in many other places each
space.
aroundthe world. One of these places is the island of
Tenerifewhich is in the Canary Islands. There are six I have a friend called Kris, (0) wft?.. was born in
step pyramidsnear the town of Guimar in the south of Egypt. She grew up speaking four differentlanguages,
the island. Nevertheless, these pyramids which are one of (1) ... . . was English. The otherswere Dutch,
madeof black volcanic stone are very controversial. Arabic and Greek. Her mother,(2) ..... .... first
Manyscientistsbelieve the structures which were only language was Dutch, had learnt Greek from Kris's
discoveredfairly recently are simply natural stone father, (3) ... . had come to live in Egypt. Greek was
terracesand not a mysterious wonder of ancient times. the language (4) .... ..... the family mainly used at
Thor Heyerdahl, the famous Norwegian researcher home. In the 1950s, (5) ..... .... Kris was born, there
who
spentthe last years of his life on Tenerife claimed the were a lot of foreign people living in Cairo. Like Kris,
pyramidswere, in fact, made by humans who had used many of them went to the InternationalSchool,
buildingtechniques that were similar to those used to . was not far from where Kris's family lived.
build pyramids in Mexico, Peru and ancient The children at the school spoke many different
Mesopotamia. languages but English was the language (7) ..... .... the
teachers used. Nevertheless, most of the children spent
Matchthe first parts of these sentencesto a lot of time playing in the streets, (8) ..... . they
the second parts. Complete the sentences with always spoke Arabic. As a result, they could all speak
relative pronouns. their parents' languages, English and Arabic.

1 Do you want to see the photos .


2 Did you take them with the camera that you bought Vocabulary 2: phrasal verbs
in September . CB page 82
3 These are mainly of Cairo . 1] The words in the box are missing from the
4 Cairo's the place . sentences below. Decide where they should go
and write them in.
5 The person .
6 She's the girl ... away out (x2) up to on with

7 He'sfrom Cyprus
1 Clara studied on Sunday afternoonto make for not
. has to be one of the noisiestand most doing much work during the week.
crowded cities in the world. 2 He was so fast that none of the other runners could
.... ..... I took on my trip to Egypt? catch up him.
c). . they have the famous museum, isn't it? 3 People with good memories can often get with not
studying very much.
.... ..... is standing next to me in this photograph
is Elena. 4 I didn't get down work until about ten thirty.
5 She's always making that she doesn't care what
. we had the party for Stefano?
anyone else thinks, but I know she does really.
f) . we went on holiday last year.
6 Why don't you carry chopping the onions
while I
. sister used to go out with Stefano. boil the potatoes?
your computer
7 Did you manage to work why
wouldn't start?
to complete these
Use phrasal verbs
Use of English: key word transformations sentences.
Complete the second sentence so that it has a
similar meaning to the first sentence. Use the
ll.sending herforgetting my friend's birthday by
some flowers.
word in bold and no more than four other words, stand Delia but you'll just haveto
2 1know you can't
1 In old films, criminals were always caught and her while she's here.
punished for their crimes.
away 3 I don't know
what makes you think you can
In old films criminals never got . their . not revisingfor the test,
crimes. . that she was French but
4 She tried to .
2 1finally started writing the reportthe day before I hardly anyone believed her.
had to hand it in. was told to give up
down 5 I don't know how often she
smoking but she . . until she was eighty.
Igot. . writing the report the day before
I had to hand it in. 6 Stop fooling around and
your work.
3 If you continue to smoke, you will damage your 7 I am so behind with my work that I sometimes
health permanently. wonder if I'll ever .
carry
If you . smoking, you will damage your 8 She that she would need f2000 to pay off
health permanently. her debts.
4 He pretended that he was asleep.
4 Find words or phrases in Exercise 3 that
made
meanthe following.
He .............„... that he was asleep.
1 late or slow
5 1can't think of any reason why she isn't here.
work 2 stop doing something
I can't . . why she isn't here.
3 dislike
6 She was soon working at the same level as the other
students, although she had missed the first week of 4 behave in a silly way
term. 5 finish paying for
caught
She soon ..... ..... ........ the otherstudents,
although she had missed the first week of term. Speaking
7 Because of the fantastic summer weather we didn't
mind so much about, the bad winter we had had. I Look at the four photographs on the
made next page and listen to a student
describing two
The fantastic summer weather . . . ..... ..... ..... the of them.Tick (V) the two
photographs he
bad winter we had had. describes.
8 1don't think I can tolerate the traffic noise in this city
for much longer. Topic sentences
put
I don't think I can the traffic noise in When you talk about
this city for much longer. two photographs, compare
them by saying
something about one photograph
and immediately
explaining why the other one is
similar or different.

Does the student you


1 follow the advice listened to in Exercise
given
+1

Listen to the recording again and 5,} Use the information from the table you
complete this tab)e. completed in Exercise 3 and the words from the
box below to complete this description of the first
i Photograph 1 Photograph 2 two photographs.
Topic Ancient world
but on the other hand whereas
gn Egypt another difference
People 2 Lots of people
Clothes 3 (O) 50th these photographs show people looking
at objects from the ancient world, but they are
different in several ways. In the first picture we can see
people in a museum somewhere in Europe,
Complete the transcript of part of what
(1) , s.. in the second photograph we see people
anotherstudent said about the other two
outside in Egypt. In the first photograph the people are
photographs.Choose between the verb forms.
wearing warm clothes. In the second picture,
Thesetwo photographs (1) both show/are both „ it is very hot so they are wearing summer
showrngpeople who are Interested in ancient clothes and hats,
cmTtsattons. In the first photograph some young people . between the two photographs is that in
(2) hokfare looking at an archaeological site. I am not the first one there are only about seven or eight people
surewhere they are but It (3) can/could be an Asian (4) in the second one it is quite crowded,
countrytike Thailand There are some ruins of temples.
In the second photograph. a family (4) stand/are 6 Now listen to the recording to see if you
ständjngnear an exhibit in a museum. They are looking were right.
at a statue of the Buddha. Maybe the statue is from
the same place as the first picture. The main difference
betweenthe two photographs is that in the first one
(S) can see?væreseeing people looking at the
statuestn the place that they come from and in the
one they are ona museum.
heard some hunters behind him. He
Suddenly,Joey
where his mother and the anteater were
Writing: story (2) CB page 83 hopped back to
until the hunters had gone. Joey had
and they all hid and, (5) so/therefore,he now stayed
been very frightened
mother as he could. She was comforting
Linking words or phrases of consequence as close to his
realised that the anteater had
her son when she
The following linking words all show that one action, disappeared.
event or situation is the result of another action, and Joey heard a voice. It was the
Suddenly, Kangaroo
event or situation. In your writing you should try to He had come down to Earth
father of all the creatures.
use all these words. for the kindest animal in his
as an anteater to look
very kind to him when he
• As a result can come at the beginning, in the land. Kangaroo had been
resulthe had decided to giveher
middle of a sentence after and or at the end of a was hungry (6) so/asa
how worried she was about Joey
sentence. It is quite formal. a present. He had seen
was sometimes
It hadn't rained for more than a yean As a result wandering off and also that Joey
hide. (7) So/Therefore
the forest was very dry. frightened and needed a place to
special bag.
he had decided to give her a
The baby was tired and, as a result, not very happy.
'Youmust tie this around your waist,' he said. 'It will
We can use consequently and therefore at the make a good place for Joey to rest and hide and sleep.'
beginning of a sentence or in the middle of a Kangaroo asked the father of all the creatures to give
sentence after and but they cannot come at the the other animal mothers special bags too. (8) So/
end of the sentence. They are both quite formal. Consequentlykangaroos, koalas and lots of other
She was very nervous about playing in front of such Australian animals now have pouches!
a large crowd. Consequently/Therefore, she made
a lot of mistakes. 2 Now use these prompts to write the story of
'Rabbit the Hunter' in your notebook. Begin and
We use so to link a reason and a result in the end your story with the sentences below. Try to
same sentence. It is less formal than the other use at least three linkers of consequence.
linking expressions.
In Che beginningof time, the Rabbit was a great hunter.
I was really enjoying talking to my friend, so I One day, he went hunting in Che forest as usual but the
completely forgot to record the tennis match on TV forest was empty.
'someone/ already / hunted / all the animals,'/ say
1 Underline the correct word or phrase to fill Rabbit
each gap in this Australian aboriginal myth.
Rabbit/ go home / no meat / only grass for supper
How the Kangaroo got her pouch
Kangaroo didn't have a pouch but she did have a very Rabbit/ decide / catch hunter / put / magic net / in
naughty son called Joey. Joey was always chasing forest
butterflies and other insects (1) so/thereforehe often got next morning / get up / look in
lost. Kangaroo had to hop all over the place looking for net
him, (2) So/Consequently,she was always very tired. see / bright light / hear / loud
angry shouts
One day an old anteater asked Kangaroo to help him Rabbit / realise / catch / the
sun
find some ants. 'There are some big juicy ones over 'l / never / hunt / again!'
here,' Joey called out from about twenty metres away. / cry Rabbit
Kangaroo could see that the anteater was too slow to 'must / release / sun,'
/ say animals / 'or / will be / dark
catch up with Joey, (3) so/asa resultshe told him to forever!'
hold on to her tail. The anteater kept tripping over Rabbit / go back / to net
twigs and it made it very hard for them to catch up / release sun
with Joey, (4) as a result/therefore. sun / rise / in the sky
/ burn / Rabbit's shoulders
And this Is whythe
Rabbit nowhas brownshoulders,
and io not a hunter,
but eats onlygrass.