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Lime Softening Questions

1. The capacity to neutralize acids is called?

A. Hardness
B. pH
C. Alkalinity
D. Phenolphthalein
2. The amount of acid that is added to water (liquid) to lower the pH to 4.5
determines what parameter?
A. Total Alkalinity
B. Methyl Orange Alkalinity
C. Softness
D. A & B
3. Total Hardness is the sum of what salts?
A. Sodium Chlorides
B. Chlorides
C. Sodium Aluminate
D. Calcium and Magnesium
4. Calcium and magnesium are defined as what type of hardness?
A. Noncarbonate Hardness
B. Permanent hardness
C. Carbonate Hardness
5. The TH is 266 mg/L. The TA is 242 mg/L. What is the Carbonate hardness?

6. If the Total Hardness of the water is less than the alkalinity, what kind of hardness
is present in the water?
A. Carbonate Hardness
B. Noncarbonate hardness
C. Permanent Hardness
D. Reconstituted Hardness
7. The total hardness is greater than the alkalinity. Subtracting the alkalinity from
the hardness gives you what type of hardness?
A. Total Harness
B. Carbonate Hardness
C. Noncarbonate Hardness
D. Phenolphthalein

8. The alkalinity in question 7 is equal to what type of hardness?
A. Noncarbonate Hardness
B. Carbonate Hardness
C. Phenolphthalein
D. Permanent
9. Total Hardness is the sum of what 2 types of hardness?
A. Carbonate and Noncarbonate Hardness
B. Temporary and Permanent Hardness
C. Calcium and Magnesium
D. Can be all of the above
10. A pure substance composed of two or more elements whose composition is
constant is called?
A. An element
B. Compound
C. Equation
11. CaO is the shorthand symbol for what substance?
A. Calcium Hydroxide
B. Soda Ash
C. Caustic Soda
D. Quicklime
12. [Ca (OH)2 ] is the formula for what chemical?
A. Slaked Lime
B. Hydrated Lime
C. Quicklime
D. A & B
13. What is the first reaction that takes place when you add slaked lime to raw water?
A. Heat
B. Grit Removal
C. Carbon Dioxide (CO2) is removed
D. pH goes down
14. What is a byproduct of slaking quicklime?
A. Grit
B. Sand
C. Stone
D. Heat
15. What is added to lime softening to remove noncarbonate hardness?
A. Soda Ash (Na2CO3)
B. Sulfuric Acid
C. CO2
D. [Ca(OH) 2 ]

15. At a constant pH of 10, what precipitates form?
A. Calcium precipitates.
B. Magnesium Hydroxide Precipitates
C. Bicarbonate Precipitates
D. A & B

16. When lime raises the pH to 11 or higher, what reaction takes place?
A. Calcium Precipitates
B. Bicarbonate Precipitates
C. Magnesium Hydroxide (magnesium hardness) precipitates form
D. A & C
17. What is the SMCL for pH?
A. 0 -14
B. 7 - 9.5
C. 6.5 – 8.5
D. None of the above
18. Water treatment plants have to add excess lime to remove magnesium hardness.
What treatment method is used to lower the cost by reducing the amount of lime
added to remove magnesium?
A. Recarbonation
B. Split Treatment
C. Ion Exchange Softening
D. Lime Softening

19. Why must we lower the pH of the water after lime has formed hardness
A. To reduce the scaling tendencies of water
B. To precipitate hardness
C. To remove carbon dioxide
D. A & B
20. How is pin floc removed during water treatment?
A. Recarbonation
B. Filtration
C. Aeration
D. Acidification
E. A & B
21. What does NPDES mean?
A. National Pollution Discharge Elimination System
B. National Public Discharge Elimination System
C. National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System
D. National Prevention of Disease Emission Systems

22. What causes carbonate hardness?
A. Sulfates
B. Ca & Mg
C. Alkalinity
D. Precipitation
E. B & C

23. What causes Noncarbonate Hardness?

A. Sulfates
B. Lime
C. Alkalinity
D. Precipitation

24. What is the SMCL for sulfates?

A. 500 mg/L
B. 250 mg/L
C. 100 mg/L
D. 100 ppb
25. Why are water treatment plant operators concerned with sulfates?
A. They have a laxative effect
B. They cause scaling
C. They are non-corrosive
D. A & B
26. Below pH of 8.3, what type of alkalinity is always absent?
A. Bicarbonate Alkalinity
B. P Alkalinity (PA)
C. Methyl Orange Alkalinity
D. Total Alkalinity
27. Calcium carbonate is unstable in which of the following conditions?
A. Cold Water
B. Water with Low pH
C. Hot Water
D. In the presence of Fluoride
28. Which of the following is an advantage of lime softening?
A. TTHM formation
B. Removal of radioactivity
C. Scaling Effect
D. All of the above

29. All water treatment plants must use what book to determine the method of
analysis for any parameter a WTP is required to analyze for?
A. Sacramento Volumes 1 & 2
B. AWWA Manual M-14
C. Standard Methods for Examination of Water/Wastewater
D. Ten States Code
30. What test is used to measure the intensity of the basic or acidic condition of liquid
A. Turbidity
B. Specific Conductance (Also)
C. pH
D. Alkalinity

31. What test is used to measure the hydrogen ion activity in a liquid?
A. Jar Test
B. pH
C. Specific Conductance
D. Alkalinity
32. When Alum dosage is decreased during treatment, what adjustment is usually
made to the lime dosage?
A. Lime dosage decreased
B. Lime dosage increased
C. Soda Ash Added
D. Has no effect on lime dosage

33. When Alum dosage is increased during treatment, what adjustment is usually
made to the lime dosage?
A. Lime dosage decreased
B. Lime dosage increased
C. Soda Ash Added
D. Has no effect on lime dosage
34. Below a pH of 8.3 what is the only alkalinity usually present in water?
B. Hydroxide
C. Bicarbonate
D. Carbonate
35. The logarithm (base 10) of the reciprocal of the hydrogen ion activity is called?
B. Methyl Orange Alkalinity
C. pH
D. Bicarbonate

36. If PA is 79 and TA is 156, what is the OH? 2PA – TA = OH
A. 2
B. 4
C. 8
D. 10
37. In question 36, what adjustment must be made to the lime dosage?
A. Raise Lime dosage
B. Lower Lime dosage.
C. Make no change
D. None of the above
38. Lime softening alone can reduce water hardness to what level?
A. 100 mg/L
B. Lime can remove all hardness
C. 30 – 40 mg/L
D. As much as needed to be removed
39. In split treatment, how much raw water is Treated?
A. 20%
B. 80%
C. 100%
D. 120%
40. What 2 chemicals should not be added to the same conveyer belt?
A. Lime and Alum
B. Chlorine & Polyphosphate
C. Potassium Permanganate & Glauconite
D. Manganese & greensand
41. What is a disadvantage of recirculating dewatered sludge supernatant?
A. Corrosion
B. Chemical Overdose
C. Magnesium increases
D. Low hardness
42. Complete this formula: CO2 + [Ca (OH)2 ]→ _____↓ + H2O

43. Where is lime sludge disposed of?

A. Canals
B. Sanitary Sewer System
C. Agriculture Land
D. Sanitary Landfill
E. C & D

44. Which of the following are advantages of recirculating dewatered sludge
A. Less chemical demand
B. Less water pumped from wells
C. Decrease in electric cost
D. All of the above
45. What is used to reduce pH and alkalinity before filtration?
A. Acid
B. Alum
C. Recarbonation with CO2
D. Sodium Hypochlorite
46. If sodium aluminate is substituted for alum, what action is needed on lime
A. Lime will thicken faster
B. Decrease Lime Dosage
C. Increase Lime Dosage
D. Lime dosage remains the same

47. What is the numerical range of pH?

48. Which of the following formulas are used to determine Hydroxide Alkalinity?
A. 2T – P = OH
B. T - 1/2P = OH
C. 2P – T = PA
D. 2P - T = OH

49. The total of the bicarbonate, carbonate and hydroxide alkalinities produce what
A. Total Hardness
B. Carbonate Hardness
D. P Alkalinity

50. Below pH 4.5, what is usually present in water?

A. Bicarbonate & CO2
B. Carbonate & CO2
C. PA and CO2
D. CO2
51. When slaked lime is added to water, the calcium bicarbonate is precipitated
from the water as which of the following?
A. CO2
B. CaO3
C. Calcium Carbonate
D. B & C
52. What is a disadvantage of lime softening?

A. Reduces Efficiency of Chlorine
B. THM Formation
C. Scaling of Pipes
D. All of the above

53. The chief operator at the Fountain of Youth WTP called the PBC WTP for advice.
Utility Director Bill said fire away. The CO said we are using a lot of chemicals at
our plant. What do you advise to reduce our chemical cost?
A. Buy larger quantities
B. Recirculate the sludge
C. Use longer detention time
D. Add alkalinity before filter

54. What is a disadvantage of lime softening?

A. Soft water
B. High pH
C. THM formation
D. B & C