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Individual Mobility by Shared Autonomous

Electric Vehicle Fleets


Cost and CO2 comparison with internal combustion engine vehicles in Berlin, Germany

G. Fournier C. Pfeiffer
Institute for Industrial Ecology Business Administration and Engineering
Pforzheim University of Applied Sciences Pforzheim University of Applied Sciences
Pforzheim, Germany Pforzheim, Germany
guy.fournier@hs-pforzheim (corresponding author)

M. Baumann R. Wörner
Universidade Nova de Lisboa – Institute for sustainable mobility and energy storage
Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, Portugal Esslingen University of Applied Sciences
Esslingen, Germany

Abstract—The current mobility paradigm is based on cities. The substitution of individual vehicles will thus be
cheap fossil fuel energy, high CO2 emissions and individual simulated to clarify if autonomous EVs can be beneficial in
mobility. This paradigm faces economic, ecological and social terms of costs, customer service, CO2 emissions and parking
limits. The aim of this paper is to analyse if a shared spaces in comparison with the current situation.
autonomous Electric Vehicles (EVs) fleet can meet these
To do so, the relation to existing theories and work will
challenges and at the same time satisfy the current
requirements of privately owned Internal Combustion Engine first be drawn. In a second step the interdisciplinary method
Vehicles (ICEVs). Therefore, analytical models have been will be explained in order to finally analyse and discuss the
developed to compute the fleet size and to simulate and results of the simulation.
investigate impacts on mobility behaviour in Berlin, Germany.
The collected data were used to calculate cost effects, the II. RELATION TO EXISTING THEORIES AND WORK
energy consumption and the carbon footprint of different Autonomous Electric Vehicle (EV) fleets are not a
shared autonomous EVs in comparison with privately owned vision of a far future anymore [2]. This concept combines
ICEVs. The approach shows that the system of a shared
innovations in new electric powertrains, car sharing and
autonomous EV fleet could lower journey time, reduce CO2
emissions, free up parking space in urban areas and generate
autonomous driving. A service provider offers a shared
cost benefits for customers. autonomous fleet with the purpose of picking up customers
after they request a trip via phone call, mobile internet or
Keywords— sustainable mobility, urban mobility, future smartphone app. In this context the customer communicates
mobility, low carbon economy, electric vehicles, autonomous the time and location of departure, destination and chooses a
vehicles, powertrain, sharing economy, mobility service,
servitization, frugal innovation
specific purpose vehicle for his trip. This concept follows
the conditions of contemporary taxicabs with the difference
that all privately owned vehicles are replaced by a shared
I. INTRODUCTION autonomous fleet of electric vehicles. The used shuttles in
The current mobility paradigm is based on cheap fossil the simulation have no internal combustion engines (ICE)
fuel energy, high CO2 emissions and individual mobility. anymore and are equipped with autonomous driving
Due to external costs of mobility like pollution, congestion, technology. The idea is to combine innovations in
global warming etc. this paradigm will reach environmental, powertrains, in the sharing economy and in autonomous
economic and social limits and trigger a change in political vehicles to evaluate economic impact and the impact on
frameworks and, together with technological progress, drive global warming [3], [4], [5], [6] . Mobility services would
the change to a more sustainable mobility [1]. Innovations replace vehicle ownership. Vehicles today are just used
can open opportunities and provide an answer to these 2.6 % of the time for driving. Autonomous taxis are one
challenges. solution besides ride sharing, peer to peer car rental, car
The research question of this article is to analyse if sharing, Vehicle to Grid (using EVs in parking time to e.g.
autonomous Electric Vehicle (EV) fleets could be such an provide ancillary services) etc. to raise the productive use of
innovation and meet the aforementioned mobility challenges assets and time [1], [7]. Using a fleet of autonomous EVs as
and provide a sustainable solution to fulfil mobility needs in a mobility service could indeed raise the rate of use of cars

978-1-5386-0774-9/17/$31.00 ©2017 IEEE 368


and thus lower the number of vehicle needed, save money, concepts e.g. taxicabs, the subway, bus or private car. To
CO2 emissions and parking spaces. The fusion of calculate the performance and fleet size of a shared vehicle
technologies for connected products and e-mobility could system for Berlin the analytical method developed by
consequently accelerate the servitization process and `Columbia University´, USA has been used. It is assumed
improve quality of life without increasing consumption [8], that all performed trips of the provider take place within a
[9]. defined area within a trip rate per day. Furthermore the
Scientists from `Columbia University´ developed a calculation assumes an average trip distance and an average
methodology for a calculation of the economic performance trip time. Vehicles drive with an average speed and
of such an autonomous EV mobility system and applied it in customers need a given time for entry and exit processes.
different areas of the United States. This investigation Finally, a fleet size to fulfil all requests with a given
demonstrates the dependency of the fleet size on different performance is needed. The supply of a shuttle starts with a
parameters of mobility behaviour of the customers and the request and follows a strict scheme which has to be
geographical circumstances in the analysed area: The size of executed by computers and supported by service employees
the area, the requested trips per day, the average route of a provider. The given procedure is as follows:
length of the trip, the average speed of the vehicle in traffic, 1. A trip request can be submitted at a random time
the street layout and the average time of boarding and exit within the defined area. In the course of this, the customer
of the passengers. The resulting data of this project can order a drive via smartphone app, mobile internet or
demonstrates differences between rural and urban areas. The telephone at a service station. To fulfil the needed technical
analytical application of a shared autonomous EV fleet for requirements an infrastructure with a continuous GPS signal
Ann Arbor, Michigan (285,000 inhabitants) shows that the has to be established. This signal is needed to locate the
cost per trip- mile of 0.41 $ would reduce the costs position of a possible passenger and to comprehend the
compared to the ownership of a private car for an average route of active shuttles. Another needed technology is the
utilization of 10,000 miles per year by 54%. For Babcock mobile internet. This guarantees a data transfer of needed
Ranch, Florida (50,000 inhabitants) the average cost per information between customer, shuttle and service provider.
mile is 0.57 $. [10] In this way shuttles have the opportunity to communicate
and to coordinate the sequence of requests and to improve
III. RESEARCH APPROACH routes by receiving and sending real time traffic information
The aforementioned autonomous shuttle based car [11].
sharing mobility system of [10] has been transposed to a 2. After a trip request the system scans through all idle
simulation model for Berlin, Germany. To evaluate the and in- service vehicles and determines which one can reach
sustainability of the solution, the featured model has been the customer first. For the calculation of the fleet size in
extended to calculate not only the economic impact but also relation to customer wait time the method distinguishes
the possible ecological impact. Therefore the cost- benefit between the supply of an idle vehicle that has got no active
ratio and the CO2 balance have been analysed. To do so, the drive between trip order and entry of the customer. After a
fleet size to replace the individual vehicles, the waiting time real-time calculation by mainframe a shuttle has to become
and the trip time have first been estimated. The costs of combined to a request.
privately owned ICEVs were then compared to a shared 3. After a shuttle ends its current trip, it either directly
autonomous EV fleet. The energy consumption and partial fulfils the next trip request which has been assigned by
carbon footprint using a well-to-wheel approach between central control or switches into an inactive condition and
privately owned ICEVs and a shared autonomous EV fleet waits for a new order.
were then measured. 4. If the battery of an EV is discharged it uses a
The methodology used to determine the performance of supercharger of the provider or an autonomous maintenance
a shared autonomous fleet for costs, energy consumption vehicle which replaces the discharged battery. [12]
and partial carbon footprint is based on a simulation model. To compute the requirements and circumstances within
The approach includes the calculation of the fleet size and this model various mathematical and statistical approaches
further key figures which provide a sufficient amount of have been used. The probability is needed that an in-service
data to compare BEVs with ICEVs. vehicle ends its current trip and reaches the customer faster
than an idle vehicle to compute which shuttle should pick
the customer up. In the first step the average number of
A. Method: calculation of fleet size, waiting time and trip
inactive vehicles has been calculated. Based on this the
time
expected empty travel distance and time for the closest idle
The fundamental challenge of a shared autonomous fleet vehicle has been considered. Furthermore an expected
is to find a balance between the amount of autonomous radius has to be defined in which an in-service vehicle has
electric vehicles and the waiting time a customer has to to be located for that request which would be fulfilled faster
expect until a requested shuttle arrives. The reasonable time than by an inactive idle vehicle. The probability of a faster
for passengers to wait is on the one hand dependent on the delivery by a current in-service vehicle has been constructed
purpose and circumstances of the personal transportation, on with the rate at which trips end within this radius. To
the other hand on the waiting times of additional mobility

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receive the total waiting time and travel distance the this period is 60,000 km (15,000 km/a). Cost parameters are
different values for idle and in- service vehicles have been distinguished according to fixed costs, operating costs,
calculated taking into consideration the specific workshop costs and costs for loss of value. [13]
probabilities of which shuttle reaches the position of a Fixed costs result out of periodical expenditures
customer first. Another important indicator of the regardless of whether a car is used or not. This includes
performance of the fleet is the average workload. In this liability insurance with unlimited cover and fully
context it is required to have the possibility to fulfil all trip comprehensive insurance which are both based on standard
requests during daytimes with high capacity but to achieve a rates of ADAC car insurance without special discounts.
minimum of needed vehicles. [10] Also the specific vehicle tax for Germany was calculated
taking into consideration tax exemption of EVs. Estimating
average costs for parking, maps, main and exhaust gas
B. Method: cost comparison between privately owned examination and equipment a flat rate of 200€ per year have
ICEVs and a shared autonomous EV fleet been assumed.
Different car type categories have been formed with the Operating costs include everything caused by driving
aim of finding a realistic basis for the cost calculation of operations. There, the average price of fuel (diesel: 1.302€/l
shared autonomous vehicles. German demand for ICEVs in [14]; petrol: 1.4912 €/l [15]; energy: 0.2466 €/ kWh [16])
2016 [13], [14] was therefore taken and categorised in 4 between 2012 and 2016 for Germany in combination with
segments. Category 1 reproduces current mini and small consumption data of vehicles has been used [17], [18].
class vehicles. Compact class, medium class, SUVs and Besides refill costs for motor oil and Ad Blue as well as a
vans are in category 2. To comply with requirements to flat rate of 250€ per year for car wash and care have been
transport small group particularities of utilities, terrain considered [13].
caravans and caravans were merged in category 3. Category Costs for oil change and inspections are based on
4 should substitute upper medium class, upper class and informational data by car manufacturers. Besides average
sports cars. Vehicle categories are differentiated by the wear repairs of each segment and tire replacement according
maximum number of passengers (2-10), the purpose to factory information are included.
(transport in urban area) and particularities, e.g. specific Finally, an important cost component of privately owned
possibilities for business customers (see table I). These four vehicles is the loss of value during ownership. These losses
categories were then applied to the shared autonomous EV have been derived from official data of `Deutsche
fleet in order to reproduce the mobility needs in our model Automobil Treuhand´ (DAT) as well as a flat rate for
and the different costs in a realistic way. approval and transfer of 500€ per vehicle.
Considering the need for technology (e.g. laser sensors,
TABLE I: EV categories within the shared autonomous fleet radar sensors, stereo camera, information and
EV Share in Number Correspondi Purpose Particularity communication technology) for autonomous driving costs of
categ. EV fleet of ng ICEV 5,000 € per vehicle for the EV fleet have been used [11].
passenge class
rs
This calculation is based on a statement by Dirk Hoheisel,
Mini, Public Simple managing director of Robert Bosch GmbH, where he
1 27% 2 small class transport in equipment predicts a reduction in this equipment cost to 3,000 – 5,000€
urban area by 2020 because of customer needs and the willingness of
Compact Public Adjusted to the automotive industry [19].
class, transport in transport of
2 56% 5 medium urban areas families Besides operating costs and intra cooperative costs have
class, SUVs, also been calculated to compare costs between private
vans ownership of ICEVs and the use of a shared autonomous
Utilities, Public Possibility to EV fleet within a realistic customer price range. In this
terrain transport business
3 9% 10
caravans, of small conferences context a share of 20% in reference to the turnover has been
caravans groups assumed for administration and distribution while 10% of
Upper Transport Luxury turnover has been prescribed for operative developing costs
medium of business equipment; of the information technology sector. Besides, the rate of
4 8% 5 class, upper customers integrated
class, sports working places
return on sales should reach more than 5%. To find a
cars common output basis time and distance based components
have been converted to costs per km considering 365 days
of use per year and a maximum distance per vehicle per
A survey by the German automotive association lifetime of 250,000 km.
`Allgemeine Deutsche Automobil- Club e.V.´ (ADAC) in New research shows that in the near future costs for EVs
2016 has been used where 1,800 new EV and ICE vehicles will potentially decrease by 2023 or 2024 to the current
were included to consider different cost components. Within level of ICEVs [20], [21], [22]. This corresponds to the
this average calculation it is assumed that a vehicle is used expectation of reducing prices for battery packages by 2020
for four years after resale. The average driving distance for of more than 50% in comparison to 2015 developing a

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similar trend by 2030 [23]. In relation to this quota a Consumption measurements of automotive
scenario 2025 analysis has been developed which assumes a manufacturers are based on roller test stands within the
reduction in the basic price of the vehicles. `New European Driving Cycle´. In view of considering real
life energy [fuel] consumption and CO2 emissions in
C. Method: comparison of energy consumption and partial
comparison to the stated values real world experience has
carbon footprint between privately owned ICEVs and a
been applied. Therefore, consumer data has been used to
shared autonomous EV fleet
find an average value for each car segment [17], [18]. For
To compare the energy efficiency and the pure CO2 that reason the well-to-wheel approach shows a realistic
emissions between the use of privately owned internal concentration of the current and future CO2 emissions based
combustion engine vehicles and the shared autonomous fleet on the total energy consumption for ICEVs and EVs. To
with electric engine vehicles a well-to-wheel approach has find a common basis between EVs and ICEVs a maximum
been used [24], [25]. This process is divided into a well-to- performance of 250,000km per vehicle was assumed, as
tank and a tank-to-wheel analysis. The well-to-tank mentioned beforehand.
approach investigates the processes of producing,
transporting and distributing of a considered product [26].
That includes on the one hand the capture of the energy IV. FINDINGS
consumption in relation to the manufacturing processes of
the vehicles used in mobility systems. On the other hand A. Fleet size, waiting time and trip time
production processes for the energy supply have also been Based on the described method in chapter III data of
analysed. This involves all processes around oil production mobility behaviour of Berlin has been used to calculate the
and refinery and ends with the logistics and delivery size of a shared autonomous EV fleet. Therefore 88.4% of
activities at gas stations related to the combustion engines the population of Berlin belongs to a mobile society which
[27]. In a tank-to-wheel approach the energy consumption implements a change of location on average working days
of the use phase and the resulting CO2 emissions by (Monday- Friday). 3,111,680 of 3,520,000 inhabitants are
combustion processes have been explored. mobile in Berlin. In combination with the main means of
The required amount of energy for vehicles and fuel transport and the use of cars there is an average amount of
production directly influences the CO2 emissions if 2,671,066 trips per day for Berlin which serves as starting
electricity is supplied by the German grid which uses fossil- point for the calculation of the shared autonomous fleet size
fuelled power stations alongside nuclear power and (see table II). [31]
renewable sources. In the use phase the produced emissions
through electricity generation units are only relevant for
EVs because of the necessity for battery charging via the TABLE II: Mobility behaviour of Berlin [31]
public electric grid. In this context the CO2 emissions for Investigation Value Unit
Numbers about Berlin
both engine technologies are directly dependent on the Population 3,520,000 inhabitants
energy mix of the local energy providers. Therefore, a Mobile population 3,111,680 inhabitants
scenario analysis was carried out which distinguished Mobility behaviour
different compositions of electricity provision for the future: Average trip rate of mobile
1) Scenario 1 (26% renewable energy sources (RES)) population 3.4 trips per day
Average trip distance 6.9 km per trip
considers the current German energy mix based on the Average trip time 24 min/ trip
values of 2013 [28]. Degree of motorization 35.8 %
2) For Scenario 2 (45% RES) the calculation assumes a Main transport group
share of renewable energy of 45 % and 55 % of fossil By foot 31 [964,620] % [inhabitants]
energy until 2025 taking into account that the German 12.5
Bicycle [388,960] % [inhabitants]
government decided a phase out of nuclear power by 2022
26.9
onwards [29]. Public Transportation [837,041] % [inhabitants]
3) In scenario 3 (60% RES) the energy consists of 60 % Motorised Individual 29.6
renewable and 40 % fossil energy until 2035. The different Transport [921,057] % [inhabitants]
combination of energy sources refers to the aims of the Vehicle usage
Trip rate 2.9 per day per person
German ministry of economy and ecology where key Average trip distance 8.8 km per trip
indicators of prospective German energy efficiency were Average trip time 22.7 min/ trip
defined [30]. Average speed 6.46 m/ s
4) To show the possible improvements in energy Total trip rate Berlin 2,671,066 trips per day
efficiency in form of an energy supply without any fossil
fuels in scenario 4 (100% RES) the energy consumption and Regarding the course of trips during the day the greatest
CO2 emissions for a 100% share of renewable energy was frequency occurs between 7:01 and 8:00 a.m. where 9% of
investigated. This is already realistic today as most of the transportation activities take place. During this time 82,896
charging stations for EVs already provide renewable energy. cars move around in the city simultaneously. Therefore the

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minimum fleet size has to be above this capacity in order to waiting time for a requested shuttle was not taken into
be able to satisfy all customer requests. account in this calculation because it corresponds
Thus, in order to have enough capacity to fulfil all approximately to the time needed to go to the parking place
mobility requests currently performed with cars in the area when the driver has an own vehicle.
of 892 km2 a fleet size of 120,118 shared autonomous EVs
is needed. In this context the system achieves an average
B. Cost potentials of a shared autonomous EV fleet
workload of 100% that causes a waiting time according to a
customer request of 34.2 minutes. Because of an Considering the whole shared autonomous fleet of
exponential relation between customer waiting time and 130,000 vehicles the average price for customers is 0.26 €/
fleet size this value can be effectively reduced by an km. In comparison with the cost of ownership of current
increase in the fleet to 130,000 EVs. This concludes an ICEVs (0.65 €/ km) the whole potential of the system is a
average waiting time of 42.54 seconds taking into account cost reduction of 60% (see Fig. 2). In view of a total
regularly distributed trip times and request positions (see performance of 250,000 km the average time of use is 3.7
Fig. 1). At the same time a workload of 91.03 % can be years per vehicle which results from a high degree of
achieved that enables prospective fluctuations in requests. capacity utilisation in contrast to ICEVs.
Due to the quantity of 11,660 inactive shuttles, maintenance
work and battery charging activities during peak times are 0,70
possible. Simultaneously, likelihood of vehicle failures and
the risk of losing availability of the service decrease. 0,60
This performance of the fleet is possible through a

Total costs in €/ km
0,50
random assignment of different vehicle types to customers. - 60% - 63%
If customer would like to have the four vehicle categories 0,40
they have today, this will impact the vehicle fleet size:
171,000 BEVs will then be needed to have an average wait 0,30
time of 42 seconds.
0,20
As a consequence, the number of vehicles in Berlin
(approximately 1,260,000) can be reduced by 1,130,000 0,10
vehicles (- 89.6 %). This makes it possible to free up a
surface of 13.5 km2 in Berlin, assuming that a parking area 0,00
has to provide 12 m2 per vehicle. This corresponds to 1,255 ICEV EV EV
scenario 2025
soccer fields
Fig. 2: Average total cost comparison between private owned ICEVs and
shared autonomous EVs for customers
Ϯ͕Ϭ
ϭ͕ϴ Regarding the different EV categories (1-4) within the
ϭ͕ϲ fleet as shown in chapter III there are different cost saving
Waiting time in min

ϭ͕ϰ potentials for each category. The financial indicators for the
ϭ͕Ϯ whole fleet have been calculated by the use of a weighted
ϭ͕Ϭ average considering the current ICEV share of each segment
Ϭ͕ϴ (see table III).
Ϭ͕ϲ In this context, the cost composition has been derived
Ϭ͕ϰ
from different current EVs. For category 1 technical and
cost side specifications of a Nissan Leaf Visia 30 kWh have
Ϭ͕Ϯ
been used for calculation. The car uses a battery package
Ϭ͕Ϭ
with a capacity of 30 kWh and generates a power of 80 kW.
In relation to tests of the ADAC the average combined
consumption is 20.39 kWh/ km [13]. With the accumulation
fleet size in vehicles of all costs for purchase, use and business processes there
are distance based costs per km of 0.19 € and time based
Fig. 1: Customer waiting time in dependence of fleet size
costs per day of 24.67 € for every EV without taking
The driving time could also be lowered for the customer. customer influence into consideration (see table III).
It is known that currently the productive use of a vehicle To compare these costs with private ownership of
amounts to 2.6% for driving as mentioned before, 0.8% for current ICEVs new registrations of cars in 2016 have been
looking for parking and 0.5% for sitting in congestion. 96% analysed. In this context the share of the segments mini and
of the time the car is parked [32].Using an intelligent shared small cars which can be replaced by EV category 1 is
autonomous EV mobility service could consequently avoid 27.13%. Based on ADAC cost calculations the average
the time to look for parking and time in congestions. The costs for the combination of minis and small cars is 0.42 €.
time of a journey could thus be reduced by 33.3 %. The

372
TABLE III: Cost derivation of different EV categories a 24 kWh battery package [33]. The engine provides a
category category category category maximum power of 80 kW consuming 22.8 kWh/ 100 km
Characteristics 1 2 3 4
Number of vehicles 35,272 73,751 11,490 9,486 based on ADAC data. Overall there are distance based costs
[share in fleet (%)] [27] [56] [9] [8] of 0.23 €/ km and time based costs of 25.29 €/a per day (see
Energy consumption
20.39 20.39 22.8 24.2
table III). The average costs for utilities, terrain caravans
(kWh/ 100 km) and caravans have been used to compare an autonomous
Fixed costs (€/
vehicle)
fleet with ICEVs (0.79 €/km). The proportion of these
Basis price 29,265 29,265 37,602 69,019 segments is 8.8% which implies an amount of EVs of
Basis price scenario 11,490 shuttles. Taking into account customer prices of 0.29
15,700 27,715 30,496 60,713
2025 €/ km by using the shared autonomous fleet service there is
Autonomous driving a cost saving potential of 63% (67% in a scenario 2025
5,000 5,000 5,000 5,000
technology
IC Technology 1,000 1,000 1,000 1,000
analysis on the basis of 0.26 €/km).
Financing (interest Finally, for the calculation of category 4 a Tesla Model
1,713 1,713 2,130 3,701
rate: 5%) S 60 has been used as the reference car [34]. The vehicle has
Operative costs a 60 kWh battery package installed providing a maximum
Additional fixed power of 228 kW. The energy consumption for the car is
1,260 1,260 1,116 2,748
costs (€/a)
Maintenance (€/a) 588 588 540 1,752
24.2 kWh in reference to ADAC tests. All in all there are
Variable costs distance based costs of 0.36 €/ km and 37.38 €/ d time based
Basis energy price costs (see table III). In reference to higher class ICEVs the
0.2466 0.2466 0.2466 0.2466
(€/ kWh) average costs of upper medium class, upper class and sport
Energy price [€/ 100 cars have been used. In this context the ownership costs are
5.78 5.78 6.47 6.86
km)
Administrative 1.53 €/ km and the share of this segment is 7.2 %. In
costs (€/a) transfer to the shared autonomous fleet 9,486 EVs of
Distribution and category 4 are needed. Considering a price of 0.44 €/ km for
Administration 2,962 2,962 2,962 2,962 the use of the fleet there is a cost potential of 71%.
(20 % of turnover)
IT department (5%
Regarding the scenario 2025 analysis 73% are possible in
741 741 741 741 the future (at a cost of 0.41 €/ km).
of turnover)
Profit margin (5% of 1,80
741 741 741 741
turnover)
1,60
In relation to a fleet size of 130,000 EVs there are 1,40 ICEV EV
Total costs in €/ km

35,272 vehicles which apply to category 1. Considering the 1,20


calculated costs per km for a customer request of 0.24 €
1,00
there is a potential of cost reduction of 41% in comparison
with privately owned ICEVs. Under application of a 0,80
scenario 2025 analysis regarding the reduction in basic 0,60
prices the decreased costs are 0.18 €/ km. Therefore, the 0,40
assumed cost reduction to ICEVs is 55% (see Fig. 3).
0,20
Due to the satisfactory performance of a Nissan Leaf EV
this model has also been used to calculate the costs for the 0,00
shared autonomous fleet of category 2. As a result there are Category 1 Category 2 Category 3 Category 4
the same distance based costs of 0.19 €/ km and time based Fig. 3: Total cost comparison between privately owned ICEVs and shared
costs of 24.67 €/d (see table III). Owing to a common autonomous EVs for customers for different EV categories (see Table I)
ground of costs for EVs there are differences to
characteristics of ICEVs in this segment. In this context C. Energy consumption
category 2 replaces current compact class, medium class,
vans and SUVs which occupy a common share of 56.73%. The tank-to-wheel results prove that there are significant
The average costs for ownership are 0.63 €/ km. When benefits in using the EV fleet in comparison to similar
transferring to the EV fleet there are 73,751 vehicles in ICEVs regarding energy consumption. The analysed data
category two, the costs for customers are 0.24 €/ km overall. shows a reduction potential of 32.06 kWh/ 100 km for
Thereby the reduction potential in comparison with category 1 (-61%). In relation to category 2 the calculated
privately owned cars is 61%. Regarding scenario 2025 there energy consumption can be reduced by 69 % saving 44.95
is a decrease in costs of 1,550 € predicted. Therefore costs kWh/ 100 km. Moreover, tank-to-wheel consumption for
for customers drop to 0.24 € conserving 62% in relation to category 3 enables a reduction of 72% (-58.75 kWh/
current ICEVs. 100km), for category 4 73% (-64.76 kWh/ 100 km). This
For category 3 of autonomous shuttles a Nissan e- leads to an overall energy saving potential of 67% for the
NV200 EVALIA has been used in reference to a common use of a shared autonomous EV fleet in comparison with
base for transporting groups and goods. The utility car uses current ICE vehicles.

373
However, regarding the well-to-tank approach as reducing the emissions of EVs in this scenario to 0 g/ km
mentioned in chapter III there is a higher energy the reduction potential in comparison to ICEVs becomes
consumption in vehicle manufacturing of EVs (150 GJ) in 100 % without consideration of emissions caused by
comparison to current ICEVs (80 GJ) caused by energy logistics processes for manufacturing (e.g. shipments).
intensive battery production processes [35]. Due to a
dependency between energy consumption for supply
processes and the consumption caused by the use of the V. CONCLUSION
vehicles the data has been represented in the unit kWh/ 100 The simulation of an autonomous EV fleet has shown
km based on a total performance of 250,000 km per vehicle that this innovation can meet the mobility challenges of our
(EV and ICEV). In this context there is a well-to-tank societies and provide an answer to the external costs of
energy consumption for ICE vehicles of 44.71 kWh/ 100km mobility which our cities are facing. Introducing a fleet of
in comparison with 37.55 kWh/ 100km for EVs. around 130,000 autonomous and electric vehicles could thus
cover the mobility needs of Berlin citizens with a waiting
D. Partial carbon footprint time for customer after a customer request that would be
lower than 1 min. The time for a journey could be reduced
The results show that a shared autonomous EV fleet can
by 33% avoiding the search for parking and congestions.
achieve a lower carbon footprint (excluding CO2
Furthermore, this service could be cheaper than owning a
equivalents) than current ICEVs in a well-to-wheel analysis.
car and save more than 60% of the costs per km in 2025.
In scenario 1 (26% RES) already 11% of CO2 emissions can
This can be explained with a better use of the vehicles as an
be saved despite a share of fossil fuels in energy production
asset. More than 1 million private cars can be saved through
of 73% (see Fig. 4).
the better rate of use and thus make journeys more
180 affordable. Moreover, the CO2 emissions could be lowered
Ͳϭϭй Ͳϭϴй Ͳϯϲй ͲϭϬϬй by 10% using the current German Energy mix or by 35%
160
when renewables are expected to have a share of 60% by
140
2035 in Germany. Using these services would then free up a
surface which is larger than 13 km2 and consequently offer
CO2eq in g/ km

120
100 new opportunities for urban design. These results show
similarities in behaviour and cost saving potential in
80
Germany in comparison with the aforementioned simulation
60 in the USA. Of course, due to the differences in vehicle
ICEV
40 fleets in Germany and USA the carbon footprint cannot be
EV
precisely transferred to the USA but advantages could be
20
expected in the long run, too.
00 This optimistic view is of course a theoretical
Scenario 1 Scenario 2 Scenario 3 Scenario 4 simulation. In reality, a lot of technical, social and economic
26% RES 45% RES 60% RES 100% RES
(2013) (2025) (2035) (20XX) obstacles due to induced structural changes will have to be
faced and examined beforehand. The autonomous vehicle
Fig. 4: Carbon footprint comparison between privately owned ICEVs and
shared autonomous EVs in relation to the share of renewable energy
will e.g. be in competition with taxicabs and will not have a
sources (RES) driver anymore but will need more IT skilled workers and
hence necessitate structural labour adjustments. The
The absolute well-to-wheel CO2 emissions for ICE business models of Original Equipment Manufacturers
vehicles (168.7 g/ km) are 19.87 g/ km higher in comparison (OEMs) will further be challenged and strong lobbying is
with average EVs using weighted shares of the different car probable. How to ensure more sustainable mobility remains
segments. In regard of a decrease in fossil fuels in energy therefore open and will depend on a new consensus in our
supply to 55% which complies with scenario 2 (45% RES) societies between politics, customers, companies,
the CO2 emissions can be reduced with an EV fleet by about employees etc. Nevertheless, the described solution shows
18%. In this context it is assumed that there aren´t only that a change in our urban mobility paradigm can be
possibilities for ecologically friendly use and manufacturing sustainable and beneficial for Berlin as a whole in terms of
of EVs but also for ICEVs which benefit due to positive quality of service, individual costs and impact on carbon
changes in the energy mix, too. In reference to scenario 3 dioxide emissions. The model could be easily extended to
(60% RES) emission savings increase to 40% during a 36% other cities.
share of fossil fuels. To represent the maximum capability
of a shared autonomous fleet with EVs a supply of electric
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