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PART I-CONTENT UPDATE -Highly prescriptive and diagnostic in approach

Curriculum: Concept, Nature and Purpose -Rely on step-by-step procedure, structured

I- Fundamental Concepts in Curriculum methods of learning
•Curriculum as a cumulative tradition of -For students who have difficulty learning,
organized knowledge curriculum and instruction can be broken down
•Curriculum as an experience into small units with appropriate sequencing of
•Curriculum as an instructional plan tasks and reinforcement of desired behavior
•Curriculum as an instructional outcome
Cognition and Curriculum
Levels of Curriculum -The cognitive approach constitutes a logical
oSocietal Level of Curriculum- the farthest form method for organizing and interpreting learning
of the learners since this is where the public -The approach is rooted in the tradition of
stakeholders (politicians, special interest subject matter
groups, administrators, professional specialist) -Educators have been trained in cognitive
participate in identifying the goals, the topics to approaches and they have better understanding
be studied, time to be spend in teaching- of them.
learning and materials to aid instructions
Phenomenology and Curriculum
oInstitutional Level of Curriculum- refers to the -Phenomenologist view the individual in
curriculum derived from the societal level, with relation to the field which he or she operates
modification by local educators or lay people; -Different things to different people
often organized according to the subjects and -Phenomenologist attempt to rescue learning
includes topics and themes to be studied, may theory from the narrow and rigid behaviorists
also includes standards, philosophies, lesson and from overstress on cognitive processes
plans and teaching guides -The raw data of personal experiences are vital
to understand learning
o Instructional Level of Curriculum- refers
to how teachers use the curriculum developed B. Philosophical Foundation
in the societal level and modified in the Philosophy is an important foundation
institutional level, or what authorities have of curriculum because philosophy advocated or
determined; involves the teacher’s instructional reflected by a particular school and its officials
strategies, styles and materials used. influences its goals or aims and content as well
as the organization of its curriculum.
o Experiential Level of Curriculum¬- the Traditional
curriculum perceived and experienced by each Focus 1- Intellectual Development
student and may, therefore, vary among Certain subjects train the mind
learners because of individual difference. Liberal arts and science build intellectual power
Ready made experiences by written and spoken
o Includes both curriculum processes- words
(Procedures in creating, using and evaluating Education conceived as instruction
the curricula) and curriculum product or
projects, resulting from curriculum and Focus 2- Functioning Citizen
development processes; includes curriculum Intellectual development makes for good
guides, course of study, syllabi, resource units citizenship
and other document that deal with content of Knowledge and discipline prepare pupil to
schooling. exercise freedom

II- Foundations of Curriculum Focus 3- Learners as individuals in our society

A. Psychological Foundation Follow traditional modes of learning with
Psychology is a unifying element of the prepared curriculum
learning process. It forms the basis for the Homogenous grouping and special grouping
methods, materials and activities for learning Educated rigorously to accept roles in society
and subsequently serves as basis for many
curriculum decisions. Focus 4- Learners as actual/potential workers
Behaviorism and Curriculum Vocational education follows liberal arts
-Curriculum should be organized so students
experience success in mastering the subject Focus 5- Characteristics of Curriculum
matter Fixed, absolute
Subject matter as important and taught for Perennialism - Fixed, because the
future use individuality, creativeness “ends” of education are absolute and universal
- Liberal arts and science drawn from
Progressive human wisdom and classical sources
- Taught subjects in customary, separate
Focus 1- Intellectual Development from rather than combined
- All subjects contribute to intellectual - Eliminate “extras” and “frills” (music)
- Liberal arts, sciences and practical arts develop Essentialism - Essential skills
the whole individual (3Rs)(English, Science, History, Math & Foreign
- Acting, acquiring meaning and problem- Language)
solving - Educate the competent person
- Education conceive as creative self-learning
Progressivism - Based on students
Focus 2- Functioning Citizen interest
- Development of good morals and useful skills - Involves the application of human
- Direct experience in democratic living problems & affairs
- Interdisciplinary subject matter,
Focus 3- Learners as individuals in our society activities and projects
- Develop own learning models within a flexible
curriculum Reconstructionism - Put curriculum
- Segregation of learners as undemocratic as a means in remaking society and rebuilding
- Educated to non conformity culture
- Curriculum should be a catalyst of
Focus 4- Learners as actual/potential workers change
Vocational and liberal education hand in hand - Aims to lead pupils to rational
discussions and contract analysis of issues
Focus 5- Characteristics of curriculum-relative
Subject as important for immediate use C. Socio-Cultural
Curriculum discussion should consider
Philosophy Curriculum the social setting especially the relationship
Idealism-Upholds goodness and truths between the schools and society and its
-Religious an values oriented influence on curriculum decisions. Social
astuteness in essential for curriculum planners
Realism -Concerned with world of ideas and and developers today. Curriculum decision
things fixed within established subject matter takes place in a complex social setting through
-Theory and principles before application demands that are imposed by society and that
-Includes only the essentials filler down to schools.
-Emphasized reality of things
a) Inhibit change through traditions
Pragmatism-Emphasis on how to think rather b) Rate and direction of change
than what to think c) Corresponds to societal changes
-Emphasis on development of insights, d) Apply pressure to societal demands
understanding and skills acquired in creative,
reflective, critical thinking a) Science and technology
-Utilitarian, subject matter taught naturally b) Improved communication
-Subject matter for stimulating exploration and c) Change family roles
practical action d) Population explosions
e) Social mobility
Existentialism-Main concern is to free the child f) Value crisis
to do own thing g) Subject matter related o events
-Frees learners to choose what to learn and h) Facilities/materials product of
believe technology
- No course guides and content outlines i) Active participation of stakeholders
- Learners sets own identities and j) Accountability
standards D. Historical Foundations
The historical foundation of curriculum
reflects the educational focus prevalent during
a particular period or event in the Philippines - Inappropriate for large number of
history. This focus could be made or model for students
curriculum development of recent years. - Stresses content and neglect student’s
needs, interest, and experiences
Period Goal Focus MethodCourse of Study - Teachers tend to foster passivity for
General Characteristics learning among the students
Pre-Hispanic Era Integration of 2. Correlated Designs
individuals into the tribe Customs and Strengths
traditions Oral immersion None Not - An attempt to eliminate the isolation
formal; community-based; no educational and compartmentalization of subjects without
system radically overhauling the subject design
Spanish Era Spread of Christianity Religion curriculum
Catechetical instruction; used of - Disciplines inked while keeping
corporal punishment; rote memorization identities of each
Not prescribed; flexible; not centralized Limitations
No grade level; church-based; no - Will require the teachers to plan their
educational system lessons cooperatively
American Era Spread of Democracy - Most class schedules do not allow
Academic, English language and sufficient block of time for students to
literature Democratic; English as medium meaningfully study correlated subjects
of instruction Prescribed; uniform; centralized 3. Process Design
Formal; structures; existence of an Strengths
educational system - The numerous curricula for teaching
Japanese Era Spread of the new Asian Order critical thinking exemplify this procedural
Principles of the new order Rote- design
memorization; use of threat and punishment - Learning how to learn design
Prescribed; uniform; centralized B. Learner-Centered Design
Propaganda tool; repressively anti- The students are the center or focus of
American and anti-British; military-backed the program. These designs are found more
existence of an educational system frequently at the elementary school level where
teachers tend to stress the development of the
III- Types of Patterns of Curriculum whole child
A- Subject-Centered Curriculum
The subject-centered curriculum 1. Child-centered design
designs are the most popular and widely used - Students are actively involved in their
curriculum designs. Knowledge and content are environment
integral parts of the curriculum. Teacher has full - “custom made” on students lives, needs
control of the curriculum. and interests
1. Separate Subjects Design - Emphasis on the child displaced the
Strengths emphasis on subject matter
- The oldest and best known curriculum 2. Experienced-centered Design
design - Curriculum cannot be pre-planned, that
- Based on the concept of knowledge everything had to be done “on the spot”
- Is organized by the disciplines on - Heavy emphasis on learners interests
scholarly fields of specialized inquiry and felt needs
- Emphasis on verbal activity., the - Curriculum would be ever changing in
teacher having the active role addressing the needs of students
- Easy to deliver because complementary C. Problem-Centered Design
materials are readily available Problem centered designs are organized
- Corresponds to textbook treatment and to reinforce cultural traditions and also address
how teachers are trained ass subject specialist. those community and societal needs that are
Limitations currently unmet. The major concerns is with
- Isolates and compartmentalizes genuine life problems, and the need to adjust or
knowledge cater to the concerns and situation of learners
- Overemphasis on subject matter 1. Life Situation Design
resulted in a curriculum that is too technical Strengths
and too specialized - Focus on the problem solving
procedures for learning
- Content is organized in ways to allow Ralph Tyler Model: Four Basic Principles. This is
students to clearly view problem areas also popularly known as Tyler’s Rationale.
- Utilizes past and current experiences of Four Fundamental Principles
learners as a means of making them analyze the 1. What educational purpose should the school
basic of living seek to attain?
- Linking of subject matter to real 2. What educational experiences can be
situations increased the relevance of the provided that are likely to attain these
curriculum purposes?
Limitations 3. How can these education experiences be
- Ability to determine the scope and effectively organized
sequence of the essential areas of living 4. How can we determine whether these
- Tends to indoctrinate youth into the purposes are being attained or not?
existing condition 2. Systems- Managerial Approach
- Many teachers are not comfortable - Considers the interconnected elements
with it because it departs from curricular of inputs, throughputs (process) and output
maintained by colleges and universities that comprise the educational system
2. Core Design - Emphasizes the managerial/leadership
- Sometimes called “social function” and supervisory aspect of curriculum especially
- Aims at creating a universal sense of in the implementation and organization
inquiry, discuss and understanding among process.
learners of different backgrounds - A cyclic process
- Centers on general education and is 3. Intellectual- Academic Approach
based on problems arising out of common - Emphasizes the importance of theories
human activities and principle in curriculum planning
- Variations of core design
a) Subject matter core would be classified Flowchart of Taba’s (1962) Seven Stages of
as subject cantered design Curriculum Development
b) Areas if living core rooted in the
progressive education tradition
- It unifies content, present subject
matter relevant to the learners and encourages
active processing of information
Curriculum Approaches
Several curriculum approaches reflect
the developers’ view of reality, philosophy,
history, psychology, social issues and the - Because of the cognitive demands of
domain of knowledge among others. An the approach, it overwhelms many beginning
approach expresses a viewpoint about the students who usually lack sufficient philosophy
development and design of curriculums. It can and theoretical insights on the subject.
be viewed from a technical and non technical or B. Non-Technical/ Non-Scientific Approach
scientific and non-scientific perspective (Bago, 1. Humanistic- Aesthetic Approach
2001) - Promotes the liberation of learners
A. Technical-Scientific Approach from authoritarian teachers
It reflects the traditional view on - Encourages group learning activities
educational and formal methods of schooling. which promote cooperation rather than
The technical-scientific approach views individual competition
curriculum development as something similar - Emphasis on how to learn, not on what
to engineering and architecture which use to learn
instruments and empirical methods in preparing 2. Reconceptualist Approach
blueprint - Reflects the existentialist orientation
- Purpose of education is to emancipate
society from traditional, outmoded orders
1. Behavioral-Rational Approach through individual free choice
- Oldest and still the most preferred - Emphasize learning experiences that
approach develop personal self-expression
- It is means-end approach which is
logical and prescriptive 3. Reconstructionism
- Considers the school as an agent of - Recommend directions and changes in
charge, an institution of social reform the curriculum
- Emphasizes cultural pluralism, V- Curriculum Process
internationalism and pluralism which are A. Curriculum Planning
beyond individual concerns. 1. Determinants for Curriculum Planning
IV- Role of Stakeholders in Curriculum 1) Learners- the consumer of education
Development 2) Society- any society to progress
• Include individuals or group who economically must progress educationally
directly or indirectly influence and make 3) Knowledge- set up an environment
important contributions to the curriculum which will challenge all students to master
• May be categorized as community- knowledge
based (whose influence on the curriculum is at 2. Needs Assessment
societal or institutional levels) or school-based Needs assessment is
(whose contributions to the curriculum are completed to identify the strengths and
either on the institutional level, instructional weaknesses of the existing curriculum situations
level, or experiential level) and to provide directions for their
A. School-based improvement. It is a systematic exploration of
? Learners the way things are and the way they should be.
- The stakeholders of the curriculum, 3. Formulating Goals
whose needs and abilities are the basis of Goals are statements of
curriculum content solution and whose endpoints or outcomes of education- statement
achievement level measures the effectiveness of purposes. By analyzing school goals, we can
of the curriculum determine the scope of its entire educational
? Teachers program
- Establish direction and implementation Sources of Goals
of a particular program 1. Learners- the purpose, interests,
- Select content to be given emphasis developmental needs and characteristics of the
- Assist/ contribute in the preparation of learner should guide the choices of appropriate
the scope and sequence of the program goals
- Attend to the pedagogical concerns 2. Society- the values and behaviors defined as
such that they modify the curriculum to suit the desirable by a given society help shape the
needs of the leaders help in evaluating the goals of education in that society
effectiveness of the curriculum 3. Fund of knowledge- human knowledge that
? School Administrators has been accumulated and organized for
- Supervise curriculum implementations universal use and should be taken into account
- Select, recruit and hire qualified in shaping the goals
teachers Levels of Goals
- Admit students 1. Institutional Goals
- Take charge in the procurement of 2. School Level or Department Goals
school equipment and instructional materials 3. Program or Curricula ar Goals
needed for the effective delivery of instruction 4. Classroom or Institutional Level
B. Community-based B. Curriculum Designing (Curriculum
? Parents Organization)
- Support and participate in parent- Curriculum design is concerned
school organizations where priorities for the with the nature and arrangement of the four
curriculum are set basic curricular parts. (also called components
? Publishers of elements)
- Provide/develop instructional materials 1. Sources of Design
based on the prescribed curriculum a. Science- the scientific method provides
? Law makers/government officials meaning for the curriculum design
- Authorize school budget b. Society- school should draw its ideas for
- Enact legislation to effect curriculum the curriculum from the analysis of the social
change or improvement situation
- Issue guidelines in designing and The Components of Design
implementing curriculum
? Community-at-large
- Often dictates the purpose, goals and
content of school curricula
2. Variety- should include minds on, hands on
and authentic learning experiences
3. Optimal value- should encourage the learners
to continue learning on their own
4. Feasibility- in terms of human, physical and
c. Eternal and Divine Sources- designers should financial resources
simply draw on the past or guidance as to what 4. Grade Placement
is appropriate content - Involves allocation of content to
d. Knowledge- “what knowledge is of most definite grade capable of learning
worth?” - Considers such factors as : child’s
e. Learner- Curriculum should be derived from ability, difficulty of item, importance of content,
what we know about the learners, how he or maturation, mental age, experiential
she learns. Forms attitudes, generates interests background
and develop values 5. Time Allotment
2. Dimensions of Curriculum Design (BASICS) - Refers to specification of definite time
Basics- equitable distribution of content, time, for subject/course; amount of time given to a
experiences and other elements of design subject
Articulation- interrelatedness of various aspects - Considers such factors as: importance
of the curriculum (vertical and horizontal) of subject; child’s ability; grade level average
Scope- the breaths and depths of the number of days/ hours
Integrations- refers to the linking of all types of C. Curriculum Implementation
knowledge and experiences contained within Implementation is an interaction
the curriculum plan between those who have created the
Continuity- vertical repetition and recurring of programme and those who are charged to
the content deliver it. According to Ornstein and Hunkins
Sequence- provide continuous and cumulative (1998), implementation:
learning • Requires educators to shift from the
Principles for Sequence current programme which they are familiar with
1. simple to complex to the new or modified programme
2. prerequisite learning • Involves changes in the knowledge,
3. whole to part actions and attitudes of people
4. chronological • Can be seen as process of professional
development and growth involving ongoing
3. Selection of the Curricular Elements interactions, feedback and assistance
1. Selection of Objective • Is a process of clarification whereby
- Should describe behavior individuals and groups come to understand and
- Stated analytically and specifically practice a change in attitudes and behaviors;
- Developmental rather than terminal often involving using new resources
- SMART • Involves change which requires effort
- Considers the 3 objective domains and will produce a certain amount of anxiety
2. Selection of Content and to minimize these, it is useful to organize
- Criteria for selecting content implementation into manageable events and to
1. Validity- if it is authentic set achievable goals
2. Significance/ relevance- consistent with social • Requires a supportive atmosphere in
realities, purposes needs of the time which there is trust and open communication
3. Balance of breaths and depths- coverage between administrators, and where risk-taking
4. Learnability- adjustable to learner’s ability is encourages
5. Appropriateness- parallel with learner needs D. Curriculum Evaluation
and interest • The process of delineating, obtaining
6. Utility- useful on the performance of life and providing useful information for judging
activities decision alternatives
3. Selection of Learning Experiences • Involves value judgment about the
- Criteria for selecting experiences curriculum
1. Appropriateness- should be appropriate and • “Did we do what we wanted to do?”
suitable to the content, activities and level of Types of Evaluation
development of the learners 1. According to approach
Humanistic vs. Scientific
2. According to scope Principles that Guide Change Process
Evaluation of Learning vs. Program 1. People improve when they detect the
Evaluation desire of the stimulator to improve himself
3. According to timing 2. Direction of improvement should be
Formative vs. Summative determined cooperatively
Why Evaluate 3. People must identify and examine each
1. Meet demands that current other centrally held values
educational reforms have made 4. People improve through experience
2. Provide directions, security, and 5. Divide time between contract individual
feedbacks to all concerned and with group
3. Determine appropriate and available 6. People’s resistance to efforts of others
resources, activities, content, method or constitutes major individual differences
whether curriculum had coherence, balance, 7. Create a climate of freedom
articulation, scope, integration, continuity and 8. Keep channels of communication open
sequence in order to meet curriculum 9. Use power with great care
goals/objectives 10. Operate on limited number of fronts at
What areas in curriculum are qualified for a given time
evaluation? 11. From the analysis of the
1. mission statement (philosophy)
2. sequence (order)
3. continuity (without disruptions)
4. scope (depth/ variety of content)
5. articulation (how parts fit)
6. balance (quantitative and qualitative
aspects of content)
7. coherence (relationships among
different components)

E. Curriculum Improvement
- Enriching, modifying certain aspects
without changing fundamental conceptions/
elements/ structure
Levels of Operations for Improvement
1. Substitution- substituting a new book
for the current series
2. Alternation- adding to instructional
3. Variations- transferring a successful
4. Restructuring- organizing teams for
teacher and specialist
5. Value orientation change- shifting from
routine instruction to computer assisted
Actions that Facilitate Curriculum Improvement
1. Change climate and working condition
to encourage improvement
2. Maintain appropriate tempo
3. Arrange for variety of activities
4. Build evaluation procedure
F. Curriculum Change
- Refers to the basic alteration in the
structure and design of learning experiences
based on conceptions which may be at the
school, district or national level
- To make different by shifting to new
goals and means