Você está na página 1de 30

V I K R A M A S I M H A P U R I U N I V E R S I T Y :: N E L L O R E

M .S c . D E G R E E C O U R S E I N Z O O L O G Y
S C H E M E O F E X A M I N A T IO N A N D S Y L L A B U S

C H O I C E B A S E C R E D IT S Y S T E M (C B C S )
( E f f e c ti v e f r o m t h e b a t c h o f s t u d e n ts a d m it t e d d u r i n g t h e a c a d e m ic y e a r 2 0 1 7 - 1 8)

V IK R A M A S IM H A P U R I U N IV E R S IT Y
N E L L O R E – 524 003
M.Sc. zoology previous syllabus effective from 2017-2018

S e m e ste r C ou rse C ore/ N o.o f In te r n a l S e m e ste r T o ta l


C ode T it le o f t h e C o u r s e E le c t iv e C r e d it s A ssessm e n t E nd M arks
E xam

T heory:

Z O O -1 0 1 C o re 4 30 70 10 0
I n v e r te b r a ta & C h o r d a ta

Z O O -1 0 2 C o re 4 30 70 10 0
Cell Biology and Immunology
I
Z O O -1 0 3 C o re 4 30 70 10 0
Animal Physiology and Endocrinology

Z O O -1 0 4 B io p h y s ic a l a n d B io c h e m ic a l C o re 4 30 70 10 0
T e c h n iq u e s
P r a c t ic a ls

Z O O -1 0 5 C o re 4 --- 10 0 10 0
P r a c tic a l - I : Z O O - 1 0 1 & - 10 2

Z O O -1 0 6 C o re 4 --- 10 0 10 0
P r a c tic a l - I I : Z O O - 1 0 3 & 1 0 4

Z O O -1 0 7 C o re -- 30 70 10 0
Human values and Professional ethics-I
*
T heory:
Z O O -2 0 1 C o re 4 30 70 10 0
Genetics and Evolution

Z O O -2 0 2 C o re 4 30 70 10 0
M o le c u la r B io lo g y

Z O O -2 0 3 Chemistry of C o re 4 30 70 10 0
biomolecules
Z O O -2 0 4 C o re 4 30 70 10 0
D e v e lo p m e n ta l B io lo g y
II
P r a c t ic a ls
Z O O -2 0 5 P r a c tic a l - I I I : Z O O - 2 0 1 & 2 0 2 C o re 4 -- 10 0 10 0
Z O O -2 0 6 C o re 4 -- 10 0 10 0
P r a c tic a l - I V : Z O O - 2 0 3 & 2 0

Z O O -2 0 7 Foundation course in computer application-I* C o re -- 30 70 10 0


C ore/ N o. of T o ta l
Sem es- C ou rse IA SE E
T it le o f t h e C o u r s e E le c t iv e C r e d it s M arks
te r C ode
T heory:
E n v ir o n m e n ta l B io lo g y & 30 70
Z O O -3 0 1 C o re 4 10 0
Biodiversity
30
Z O O -3 0 2 Neurobiology & Animal Behaviour C o re 4 70 10 0

30 70
Z O O -3 0 3 E n z y m o lo g y a n d M e ta b o lis m C o re 4 10 0

Aquaculture and Industrial 30 70


Z O O -3 0 4 C o re 4 10 0
Applications
P r a c t ic a ls
III
Z O O -3 0 5 P r a c tic a l - V : Z O O - 3 0 1 & 3 0 2 C o re 4 --- 10 0 10 0
Z O O -3 0 6 P r a c tic a l - V I : Z O O - 3 0 3 & 3 0 4 C o re 4 --- 10 0 10 0

Z O O -3 0 7 Human values and Professional Ethics- C o r e -- 30 70 10 0


II *
30 70
ZO O - 401 T o x ic o lo g y C o re 4 10 0

ZO O - 402 30 70 10 0
Animal Biotechnology& Microbiology C o re 4

B io s ta tis tic s a n d 30 70
ZO O - 403 C o re 4 10 0
B io in f o r m a tic s
Applied Zoology 30 70
ZO O - 404 C o re 4 10 0

P r a c tic a l – V I I : Z O O - 4 0 1 &
Z O O -4 0 5 C o re 4 -- 10 0 10 0
IV 402
P r a c tic a l – V I I I : Z O O – 4 0 3 &
Z O O -4 0 6 C o re 4 -- 10 0 10 0
404
F o u n d a tio n C o u r s e in
Z O O -4 0 7 C o re -- 30 70 10 0
C o m p u te r A p p lic a tio n s -II

T o ta l M a r k s
240 0

T o t a l M a n d a t o r y C r e d i ts: 9 6

N o te: S e m in a r w ill b e c o n d u c t e d o n ly by in t e r n a l s t a f f .

( * ) N O T E : F o r I & I I I S e m e st e r s Human values and Professional ethics I, II c o u r s e i s o f f e re d


t o a ll t h e d e p a rt m e n t s . T h r o u g h t h e m a r k s o b t a i n e d i n t h e s ai d c o u r se a r e n o t i n c l u d e d i n
t h e t o t a l , a p as s m ar k i n
t h i s e x a m i n a ti o n i s r e q u i r e d f ai li n g w h i c h t h e s t u d e n t i s d e e m e d t o h a v e f a i le d i n t h e
e x a m i n at i o n s .

( * ) N O T E : F o r II & I V Semesters Foundation course i n Computer Applications I, II co u r s e i s


o f f e r e d t o al l t h e d e p ar tm e n t s . T h r o u g h t h e m a r k s o b ta i n e d i n t h e sa i d c o u r s e ar e n o t
i n c l u d e d i n t h e t o t a l , a p a s s m a r k i n t h i s e x a m i n a ti o n i s r e q u ir e d f a il i n g w h i c h t h e
s t u d e n t i s d e e m e d t o h a v e f a il e d i n t h e e x a m i n a ti o n .
M. S c. Z O O L O G Y
(Ef f e c ti v e f r o m t h e b a t c h o f s t u d e n ts a d m it t e d d u r i n g t h e a c a d e m ic y e a r 2 0 1 7 - 1 8)

SEM ESTE R- I

Z O O 1 0 1: I N V E R T E B R A T A & C H O R D A T A

IN V ER T E B R A T A

U N I T - I: T a x o n o m y & O r g a n i z a t i o n a l C o e l o m, N u t r it i o n & D i g es t i o n

1.1 S p e c i e s c o n c e p t, I n t e r n at i o n al c o d e o f Z o o l o g i c al n o m e n cl a t u r e , T a x o n o m i c a l p
r o c e d u r e s , N e w t r e n ds i n t a x o n o m y
1.2 A c o e l o m a t a, P s e u d o c o e l o m a ta, C o e l o m at a, P r o t e r o st o r n i a a n d D u e t e r o s t o r n i a
1.3 P a t t e r n s o f f ee d i n g a n d d i g e s ti o n i n l o w e r m et a z o a n.F e e d i n g i n p o l y c h a et a,
Mo l l u s ca, E c h i n o d e rm a ta
1.4 T o r t i o n i n M o ll u s c a, W at e r v as c u l ar s y st e m i n E c h i n o d e rm s

U N I T - I I R e s p i r a t i o n, C i r c u l a t i o n, N e r v o u s S y s te m a n d L a r v a l F o r m s

2.1 S t r u c t u r e o f G il l, L u n g s a n d T r ac h e a.M e c h a n i s m o f R e s p ir a ti o n
2.2 C i r c u l at o r y s y st e m i n A n n e l i d s, A r t h r o p o d s & M o l l u s c a
2.3 A d v a n c e d N e r v o u s s y s t em - A n n e li d a, A r t h r o p o d a & M o l l u s c a
2.4 L a r v a l f o r m s o f C r u s t a ce a n s a n d E c h i n o d e r m a t a, P h y l o g e n e ti c s i g n i fi c a n c e o f
La r v al f o rm s.

CHO RDATA

U N I T I I I:

3.1 Protochordata – Morphology and anatomy of Urochordata and Cephalochordata – Retrogressive


Metamorphosis
3.2 Ve r t e b r at e i n t e g u m e n t a n d d e ri v a ti v e s , S k i n s t r u c t u re a n d f u n ct i o n , G l a n d s ,
S c a l e s , H o r n s , C l a w s , N a il s , H o o f s , F e at h e r s , H a ir
3 .3 C o m p a r a ti v e a n a t o m y o f H e a rt , A o r ti c a r c h e s a n d p o rt a l s y s t em
3.4 Comparative account of excretory system.

U N I T I V:

4.1 C o m p a r a ti v e A n a t o m y o f R e s p i ra t o r y o r g a n s
4.2 C o m p a r a ti v e a n a t o m y o f B r ai n a n d S p i n al c o r d
4.3 O r g a n s o f v i si o n: S t r u c t u r e a n d f u n c t i o n a l si g n i fi c a n c e .
4.4 O r g a n s o f H e a r i n g a n d t a ct i le r e s p o n se s
SU G G E ST E D R E A D IN G M A T E R IA L :

1. B a r r i n g t o n , E J . W . I n v e rt e b r at e S tr u c t u r e a n d F u n c ti o n . T h o m a s N e ls o n a n d S o n s
L t d ., L o n d o n .
2. J a g e r s te i n , G . E v o l u ti o n o f M et a z o a n l if e c y c le , A c a d e m i c P r e s s , N e w Y o r k &
London.
3. H y m a n , L . H . T h e I n v e r t e b r at e s . V o l . 1 - 8 . M c G r a w H i l l C o . , N e w Y o r k a n d
London.
4. B a r m e s , R . D . I n v e r te b r a te Z o o l o g y , II I e d it i o n . W . b . S a u n d e r s C o . , P h il a d e l p h i a .
7. R u s s e l - H w l t er , W . D . A B i o l o g y o f H i g h e r I n v e r te b r a te s . T h e M c M i ll a n C o .
L t d ., L o n d o n .
8. H y m a n , L . B . T h e I n v e r t e b r at e s S m a ll e r C o e l o m a t e G r o u p s , V o l . V . M c . G r a w H i l l ,
C o ., N e w Y o r k
9. S e d w i c k , A . A S t u d e n t T e x t B o o k o f Z o o l o g y , V o l . II a n d I II . C e n t r al B o o k
D ep o t, A llah ab ad
11. P a r k e r , T J . , H a s w e l l , W . A . T e x t B o o k o f Z o o l o g y , M c M i ll a n C o . ,
London.
12. A l e x a n d e r , R . M . T h e C h o r d a t a . C am b r i d g e U n i v e r si t y P r es s , L o n d o n
13. B a r r i n g t o n , E J . W . T h e B i o l o g y o f H e r n i c h o r d at a a n d P r o t o c h o r d at a . O li v e r
a n d B o yd , E d in b o u rgh .
14 B o u r n e , G H . T h e S t r u c t u r e a n d F u n ct i o n s o f N e r v o u s T i ss u e . A c a d e m ic P r e s s ,
N ew Y o rk
14. C a r t e r , G S . S t r u ct u r e a n d H a b i t I n v er t e b r a t e E v o l u ti o n S e d w i c k a n d J a c k s o n ,
London.
16. E e c l e s , J . C . T h e U n d e r s ta n d i n g o f t h e B r a i n . M c G r a w H i l l C o . , N e w Y o r k
and London.
17. K i n g s l e y , J . S . O u t li n e s o f C o m p a r at i v e A n a t o m y o f V e rt e b r at e s . C e n tr a l
B o o k D ep o t, A llah abad .
ZOO 102: CELL BIOLOGY AND IMMUNOLOGY

C E L L B IO L O G Y :

U N IT –I
1.1 Prokaryotic cell and Eukaryotic cells - History, origin, cell features, reproduction

1.2 T h e C y t o s k e l e t o n : T h e C y t o s k el e t al e le m e n t s , M ic r o t u b u l e s , s h a p i n g o f t h e c el l
a n d m e c h a n ic a l s u p p o r t , M i c r o f il a m e n t s , i n t e rm e d i at e fi l am e n ts , c y t o s k e l et a l
a r c h i te c t u r e .
(Red blood ce ll s, platelets, f i b r o b l a st s , e p i t h el i al c e ll s , e n d o t h e li a l c el l s) R e g
u l a t i o n o f C e l l c y c l e , C y c li n s , C y c li n d e p e n d e n t k i n a se s.
1.3 Membrabe structure and transport: Lipid bilayer and two dimensional
structure – Fluidity of lipid bilayer – assembly of lipid bilayer –
membrane protein.
1.4 Membrane transport: Active transport – passive transport- diffusion- Ion channels- membrane pumps.

U N IT -II

2.1 C e l l s i g n al i n g: M o d el s o f c el l - c e ll si g n a li n g (ste r o i d r e c e p t o r s, n i t ri c o x i d e a n d c a
r b o n m o n o x i d e)
2.2 F u n c t i o n s o f c e ll s u rf a c e r ec e p t o rs (G - p r o t e i n c o u p l e d r ec e p t o r s, T y r o si n e
k i n a s e s , c y t o k i n e r e c e p t o r s , re c e p t o r s li n k e d t o o t h e r e n z y m a ti c a ct i v i ti e s )
2.3 P a t h w a y s o f i n t r a c el l u l a r si g n a l t r a n s d u c ti o n ( c - A m p p a t h w a y s , c y cl i c
2
c G M P ,p h o s p h o l i p i ds a n d C a +
2.4 T h e d e v e l o p m e n t a n d c a u s es o f c a n ce r, t u m o r v i r u s e s, o n c o g e n e s, C a n c e r
s u p p r e s s o r g e n e s , p r e v e n t i o n a n d t re a tm e n t
Immunology

Unit – III

3.1 P h y l o g e n y o f im m u n e s y s t em. T y p e s o f im m u n i t y – I n n at e a n d a c q u i r e d. C e ll s o f t h e
i m m u n e s y s te m – B c el l s , T c e ll s , p h a g o c y t e s , i n f l am m at o r y c e ll s , a n ti g e n p re s e n ti n g
cells.
3.2 O r g a n s – P r i m a r y , s e c o n d ar y a n d te r ti a r y l y m p h o i d o r g a n s .
3.3 A n t i g e n s – N a t u r e , t y p e s , fa c t o rs i n fl u e n c i n g a n t i g e n e ci t y , h a p t e n s , a d j u v a n t s a n d
s u p e r a n ti g e n s .
3.4 A n t i b o d i e s – S t r u ct u r e , t y p e s , c l as s e s a n d f u n c ti o n s .

Unit – IV

4. 1 H y p e r s e n s it i v it y – C l a ss i fi c a ti o n, m e d i at o r s , m e c h a n is m , c o n se q u e n c e s o f
h y p e r s e n si t i v e r e a ct i o n . A u t o i m m u n i t y – C o n c e p t o f t o l e ra n c e o f a u t o im m
u n e d i s o r d er s, b a si s a n d t h e r a p y f o r a u t o i m m u n e d i s o r d er s.
4.2 T r a n s p l a n t a ti o n – T r a n s p la n t at i o n a n t i g e n s, m e c h a n i s m o f g r af t r ej e ct i o n , G ra f t ve r s u s
H o s t r e a ct i o n, i m m u n o s u p r es s o r s .
4.3 T u m o r i m m u n it y – T u m o rs o f im m u n e s y s te m, im m u n e r e s p o n s es a g a i n s t t u m o rs .
I m m u n o d ef i ci e n c y – P ri m ar y a n d s e c o n d ar y im m u n o d ef i ci e n c y, c o m b i n e d i
m m u n o d ef i ci e n c y, c o m p l em e n t d ef i ci e n c y, A I D S.
4.4 V a c c i n e s – C o n c e p t o f i m m u n i za t i o n, r o u t es o f v a c ci n a ti o n. Types o f v ac c i n e s –
W h o l e o r g a n i s m ( a tt e n u a te d a n d i n a ct i v at e d ) a n d c o m p o n e n t v a c c i n e s .
SU G G E ST E D R E A D ING M A T E R IA L :

1. C e l l B i o l o g y ( F u n d a m e n t a l s a n d A p p l i c at i o n s ) B y G u p t a / J a n g i r , 2 0 0 1 ;
A g r o b i o s , I n d ia .
2. C e l l a n d M o le c u l ar B i o l o g y b y E D R D e R o b e r t i s a n d E M R D e R o b e r ti s Jr , I n d i a n
E d i t i o n , B . I . P u b l i c ai t o n s , P v t . L t d .
nd
3. T h e C e l l ( A M o l e c u l a r A p p r o ac h ) b y G e o f fr e y M . C o o p e r , 2 E d n . 2 0 0 0 , I S B N .

th
4. R o i t t s E s s e n t i al s o f Im m u n o l o g y . R i o tt , I . M a n d P .J . D e l v e s . 2 0 0 1 . 1 0 Edn.
B lackw ell S c ie n t if i c P u b l i c at i o n s . U S A .
5. E l e m e n ts o f Im m u n o l o g y . R a t o g i , S . C . 2 0 0 2 . C B S p u b l i s h er s , N e w D e l h i .
6. I m m u n o l o g y u n d e r st a n d i n g t h e im m u n e s y s t em . E l g er t , K . D . 1 9 9 6 . W i l e y – L is s .
USA.
7 . I m m u n o l o g y b i o l o g y t h e im m u n e s y st e m i n h e a lt h a n d d i se a s e . J a n e w a y , C . A . , P .
th
T r a v e r s , M . W al p o r t a n d J . D . C a p r a . 1 9 9 9 . 4 E d n . C u rr e n t b i o l o g y P u b l ic a ti o n s .
USA.
th
8 . M e d i c a l Im m u n o l o g y . S t it e s , D . P . , A . I . T e r r a n d T . G . P a r s l o w . 1 9 9 7 . 9 Edn.
P r e n t i c e - H a l l I n t er n a ti o n a l , U S A .
nd
9 . Im m u n ol o g y . K u b y , J . 2 0 0 1 . 2 E d n . W .H . F r e e m a n a n d C o m p a n y , N e w Y o r k .
th
1 0 . C e l l u l ar a n d M o le c u l ar Im m u n o l o g y . A b b a s , A . K a n d A . H . L i c h tm a n 2 0 0 3 . 4 E d n .
S au n d ers, C h in a.
1 1 . I m m u n o l o g y . M al e , D . , J . B r o s t o ff , D . B . R o t h a n d I . R o i tt . 2 0 0 6 . E l s e v i e r , C a n a d a .
1 2 . I m m u n e m o d u l at i n g A g e n ts . K r e s i n a , T . F . 1 9 9 8 . M a r c el D e k k e r , N e w Y o r k .
th
1 3 . K u b y I m m u n ol o g y . K i n dt , T .J ., R .A . G o l d s b y a n d B .A . O s b o r n e . 2 0 0 7 . 6 E d n .
W .H . F r e e m a n a n d C o m p a n y , N e w Y o r k .
Z O O 1 0 3: ANIMAL PHYSIOLOGY AND ENDOCRINOLOGY

U N I T - I: A n i m a l P h y s i o l o g y:
1.1 Aim and Scope of Physiology, P h y s i o l o g i c al F u n ct i o n s a n d P r i n ci p l es
1.2 Feeding Mechanisms and Regulation. Comparat i v e P h y s i o l o g y o f D i g e s ti o n
1.3 Respiration and Metabolism. Circulation of Body Fluids.
1. 4 Patterns of Nitrogen Excretion among different Animal groups. Osmo regulation in different
Animal groups.

U N I T - I I; A n i m a l P h y s i o l o g y:

2.1 Thermoregulation, Homeothermic animals, Poikilothermic animals . Hibernation &Aestivation.


2.2 BiologicalRhythms & B i o l u m i n e s e n c e – Occurrence of bioluminescence among different animals,
Mechanism of light production, Control of bioluminescence, Functions of luminescence.
2.3 Chromato phore s a n d Re g u l a ti o n o f t h e ir f u n c ti o n – Color production, Chromatophore pigments,
Mechanism of action of Chromatophores, Movement of pigment, Control of Chromatophores,
Factors influence in Chromatophore System.
2.4 contractile elements, cell and tissues among different phylogenetic groups.
Muscle structure and function.

U N I T - I I I: E n d o c r i n o l o g y:

3.1. I n t r o d u ct i o n t o E n d o c ri n o l o g y - C h a r a ct e ri s ti c f ea t u r es o f Ho rm o n e s
3.2 A n a t o m y , S e c re t i o n s a n d F u n ct i o n s o f En d o c ri n e o r g a n s P it u i ta r y , Th y r o i d , Ad r e n a l
a n d P a n c r e a s , G o n a d s a n d t h e ir h o r m o n es .
3.3 C l a s s i fi c at i o n a n d C h emic a l n at u r e o f H o r mo nes. B i o s y n t h e s i s a n d Se c re t i o n o f
h o r mo n e s. C o rt i c o st e r o i d h o rm o n e s - P e p t i d e h o r m o n es - C a t e c h o l a m i n e s
3.4 Mechanism of hormone action .Hormone Receptors, Receptor structure and Signal tr a n s d u ct i o n
m e c h a n is m - G - p r o t ei n f am ily. S t r u ct u r e a n d f u n c ti o n o f Nu cl e a r
Re c e p t o r s, O r g a n Re c e p t o r s. Termination of hormone action.

U N I T - I V: E n d o c r i n o l o g y:

4.1 Hormonal regulation in Digestive System: Gastrin, Secretin, Insulin, Glucagon.

4.2 Hormonal regulation of M e t a b o l i s m - Carbohydrate, Nitrogen and Lipid Metabolism


4.3 Hormonal regulation of Reproductive system: Ho r m o n e s i n f e m al e s e x u al c y c le, Hormones of
Pregnancy and parturition, H o r m o n al c o n t r o l o f s pe r m a t o g e n e si s.
4.4 Hormonal regulation of Mineral metabolism - Ca2, PO4 , glucose, water, Temperature.

SU G G E ST E D R E A D ING M A T E R IA L :

1. C . L . P r o s s e r . C o m p a r at i v e A n im a l P h y s i o l o g y . W . B . S a u n d e r s & C o m p a n y
2. R . E c k e r t . A n i m al P h y s i o l o g y . M e c h a n i s m s a n d A d a p t a ti o n . W . H . F r e e m a n &
Com pany
3. W . S . H o a r . G e n e r a l a n d C o m p ar a ti v e A n i m al P h y s i o l o g y
4. S c h i e m d t - N i e ls e n . A n i m al P h y s i o l o g y . A d a p t at i o n a n d E n v ir o n m e n t . C a m b ri d g e
5. C . L . P r o s s e r . E n v i r o n m e n t a n d M e t a b o l i c P h y si o l o g y W i l e y - L i ss , N e w Y o r k .
6. Barrington. EJ.W. General and comparative Endocrinology Cambridge Press, Oxford.
7. Bentley, PJ. Comparative Vertebrate Endocrinol ogy, Cambridge Press, Oxford
8. Williams, R.H. Text Book of Endocrinology, W.B. Saunders Co., Philadelphia.
9. Martin, C.R. Endocrine Physiology. Oxford Univ. Press, Oxford.
10. Prakash S. Lohar. Endocrionology-Hormones and human health-2005. MJP Publishers-
Chennai
Z O O 1 0 4: B I O P H Y S I C A L A N D B I O C H E M I C A L T E C H N I Q U E S

U N I T I:

1.1 Measuremen t of pH, Bio chemical buffers, Selection of Bio chemical buffer and oxygen electrode.
1.2 Cell disruption methods – French press, Sonication, Freeze – Thaw techniques, Enzymatic method, use of
Liquid Nitrogen in Cell disruption.
1.3 Centrifugation - Basic principles of sedimentation, types of centrifuges and rotors.
1.4 Preparative Ultracentrifugation – Differential centrifugation, density – Gradient, Analytical Ultra
Centrifugation and its Applications.

U N IT II:

2.1 Seperation methods – General Principles and Definitions.


Methods based on Polarity, Chromatography & Types: Thin layer Chromatography, Gas- liquid
Chromatography and Reverse-phase Liquid Chromatography.
2.2 Methods based on size – Principle of Gel filtration, Methodology and Applications. Dialysis, Ultra filtration,
Lyophilization.
2.3 Methods based on affinity – Principle of Affinity Chromatography, methodology and applications.
2. 4 High – performance liquid Chromatography and Ion – Exchange Chromatography – Principle,
Instrumentation, Practical procedure and Applications.

U N I T I I I:

3. 1 Electrophoresis – General principles and definitions PAGE, 2D electrophoresis, identification of novel


proteins in 2D gels, Capillary electrophoresis.
3. 2 Agarose gel Electrophoresis: Preparation, Separation and determination of molecular size of DNA,
denaturing agarose gel electrophoresis and their applications, Recovery of DNA from Agarose gels.
3. 3 Pulse – field gel electrophoresis – Principle, methodology and applications in separation of large DNA
fragment.
3.4 Blotting techniques – Western, Southern and Northern.

U N I T I V:

4. 1 Spectroscopy – Principles, laws of light absorption. Instrumentation and applications of UV- Visible
spectrophotometer, Fluorescence Spectroscopy, NMR, ESR. Mass Spectroscopy.
4. 2 Radioisotope techniques – Types of isotopes, radioactive decay. Detection and Measurement of
Radioactivity.
4. 3 GM counter Autoradiography. Preparation of labeled compounds – Pulse chase studies and Tracer
techniques, Isotopes used in biology, safety methods in handling Radioisotopes.
4. 4 Optical activity of Biomolecules – CD and ORD: Principles and applications. D- Ray diffraction and
Crystallography – Basic principles, Applications in the determination Molecular Structure of Protein and
Nucleic acids.
SU G G E ST E D R E A D ING M A T E R IA L :

1. S e p a r a t io n m et h o d s i n b i o c h e m i s tr y b y S . J . M o r r is a n d P . M o r ri s ( P i tm a n )
2. T h e t o o l s o f B i o c h e m i s tr y b y T e r r a n c e G . C o o p e r ( W il e y )
3. B i o c h e m i ca l re s e a rc h t e c h n i q u e ( A p r a c ti c a l i n t r o d u ct i o n b y E d . J o h n M . W r i g g l e s
w o rth
4. A n a l y t i c al b i o c h em is t r y b y D a v i d J . H o l m es a n d H a z e l p e c k
nd
5. A B i o l o g i s t' s g u i d e t o p ri n c i p l e s a n d t e c h n i q u es o f p r ac t ic a l b i o c h e m i s tr y , 2 e d i ti o n
E d . b y B L . W i l l i am s a n d K . W il s o n ( E d w a r d A r n o l d )
6. B i o p h y s i c a l c h e m i s tr y D . F r e i f el d e r , W . H . F r e e m a n
7. E x p e r i m e n t a l t e c h n i q u e s i n b i o c h e m i st r y b y D r e w e r , A J . a n d A s w o r t h , R . B .
8. P r i n c i p l e s o f P h y si c a l B i o c h e m i s tr y b y K . E . V a n h o l d e m W . C . J o h n s o n , P . S . H o ,
( P r e n ti c e H a l l) , 1 9 9 8 .
9. M a n o m e te r a n d b i o c h e m i c a l t e c h n i q u e s b y W . W U m b ri t a n d R . H . B u r r is ( B u r g e n s
1 0 . T h e d e t e r m i n a ti o n o f M o l e c u l a r S tr u c t u r e b y P . J . W h e a t l y ( O x f o r d C l a r e n d er s p r e ss )
1968
1 1 . M o l e c u la r B i o p h y si c s – R . B . S e t l o w a n d E . C . P o l l a r d ( A d d is o n W il e y p u b li s h i n g C o .
U S A )1 9 6 2
1 2 . B i o p h y s i c s – E d it e d b y W . H o p p e , W . L e h m a n H i . M a s k al a n d H . Z i e g l e r ( S p r i n g er -
V e r l a g , B e r li n ) 1 9 8 3
1 3 . P r a c t i ca l b i o c h em i st r y : P ri n c i p l e s & T ec h n i q u e s – E d i t e d b y W i l s o n & W a l k e r ,
C a m b r i d g e U n i v . P re s s , N e w Y o r k ) 1 9 8 6 .
1 4 . B i o l o g i c al S p e c tr o s c o p y b y Ia i n D . C a m p b e ll a n d R a y m o n d A . D w e k , t h e
B e n j a m i n/ C u m m i n g P u b . C o ., C a l i f or n i a , L o n d o n .
1 5 . B i o p h y s i c a l C h e m i st r y b y C . R . C a n t o r a n d P . R . S c h i m m e l , W . H . F r e e m a n & C o . ,
NY.
1 6 . I n t r o d u ct i o n t o B i o p h y si c al M et h o d s f o r P r o t e i n a n d N u c l e ic A c i d R e s e ar c h , E d . J . A .
G l a s e l a n d M . P . D e u ts c h e r , ( A c a d em i cs P r e s s) , 1 9 9 5 .
M. S c. Z O O L O G Y
(Ef f e c ti v e f r o m t h e b a t c h o f s t u d e n ts a d m it t e d d u r i n g t h e a c a d e m ic y e a r 2 0 1 7 - 1 8 )
SE M E ST E R -II

Z oo 2 0 1 : GENETICS AND EVOLUTION

U N IT I: G E N E T IC S

1.1 Concept of Gene : Allelles, Multiple alleles (Characters, symbolism, ABO blood grouping, Bombay
Phenotype and Rh factor), Pseudo alleles: Interaction of genes( Lethal genes, Complementary genes,
duplicate genes).
1. 2 Genome organization in prokaryotes and Eukaryotes, Microbial genetics (Methods of genetic transfers –
Transformation, Conjugation, Transduction and Sexduction), Human Genome – Heirarchy and
Classification.
1. 3 Gene mapping methods : Linkage – complete and Incomplete linkage ; Linkage maps, Recombination,
mapping with molecular markers, somatic cell hybrids.
1.4 Crossing over : Types (Somatic or mitotic crossing over and Germinal or meiotic crossing over), Theories
about the mechanism of crossing over, tetrad analysis, and cytological detection of crossing over.
U N IT II :

2.1 Mutations: Types (Spontaneous and Induced), Causes and Detection, Mutant types (Lethal, Conditional,
biochemical, Loss of function, Germinal versus somatic mutants), Molecular basis of Mutations.
2.2 Chromosomal aberrations (Deletion, Duplication, Inversion and Translocation, Ploidy and their genetic
implications); Autosomal abnormalities (Down’s Syndrome, Trisomy – 13,-18); Sex Anomalies (Turner’s
syndrome, Klinefelter’s Syndrome, Hemaphroditism).
2.3 Human genetics: Human traits, Human karyotyping (banding techniques), Pedigree analysis, Genetic
disorders due to Mutant Genes: P T C Tasters, Brachydactyly, Huntington’s chores, Inborn errors of
metabolism – Phynylketonuria, alkaptonuria, Sickle cell anemia.
2.4 Eugenics (Positive Eugenics – Artificial insemination and sperm banks ; Negative Eugenics –
consanguinity, genetic counselling); Euphenics (Intake of missing enzyme, cure for inherited anemia,
Increasing role of genetics to medicine).

U N I T I I I : A B r i e f a c c o u n t o n t h e o r ie s o f o r g a n i c e v o l u t i o n

3.1 Evolutionary Time scale. Chemical origin of life.


3.2 Darwinism, Neo Darwinism, Lamarkism.
3.3 Isolation – definition, types – Role of isolation mechanisms.
3.4 Models of speciation (Allopatric, Sympatric and Parapatric)

U N I T I V : P o p u l a t i o n g e n e t i c s a n d M o le c u l a r e v o l u t i o n

4.1 A detailed account on destabilizing forces (i) Natural Selection (ii) Mutation (iii) Genetic Drift
(iv) Hardy Weinberg law.
4.2 Phylogenetic gradualism & punctuated equilibrium, Gene evolution and phylogeny.
4.3 Micro, Macro evolution and Mega evolution.
4.4 Gene Evolution and Phylogeny; Evoluton of Man.

SU G G E ST E D R E A D ING M A T E R IA L :

rd
1. G e n e t i c s - M o n r v e W . St r i c k be r g e r . 3 E d ., M a y , 2 0 0 0 .
2. G e n e t i c s - K . B . A l ll u w a l li a - 1 9 8 5 .
3. P r i n c i p l e s o f G e n et i c s - E J . G a r d n e r . M J . S im m o n s & D . P . S n u s t a d .
4. M o l e c u la r B i o l o g y o f g e n e s - W a ts o n , J . D . , N . H . H o p k i n s , J . W . R o b e r t s , J . A .
S t e i t z & A .M .
W e i n e r . T h e B e n j am i n C u m m i n g s p u b li s h i n g c o m p a n y . I n c . T o k y o .
5. B a s i c H u m a n G e n e t ic s - E J . M an g e , A r t h u r P . M a n g e . I n d i a n P r i n t , 1 9 9 7 .
6. G e n e t i c d is o r d e rs o f M a n b y M . R . G o o d m a n .
7. A n i n t r o d u c ti o n t o m o d e m g e n e t ic s b y C h . W a d d i n s g t o n
8. Dobzhansky, Th. Genetics and origin of species, Columbia University press.

rd
9. G e n e t i c s - M o n r v e W . St r i c k be r g e r . 3 E d ., M a y , 2 0 0 0 .
10. G e n e t i c s - K . B . A l ll u w a l li a - 1 9 8 5 .
11. P r i n c i p l e s o f G e n et i c s - E J . G a r d n e r . M J . S im m o n s & D . P . S n u s t a d .
12. M o l e c u la r B i o l o g y o f g e n e s - W a ts o n , J . D . , N . H . H o p k i n s , J . W . R o b e r t s , J . A .
S t e i t z & A .M .
W e i n e r . T h e B e n j am i n C u m m i n g s p u b li s h i n g c o m p a n y . I n c . T o k y o .
13. B a s i c H u m a n G e n e t ic s - E J . M an g e , A r t h u r P . M a n g e . I n d i a n P r i n t , 1 9 9 7 .
14. G e n e t i c d is o r d e rs o f M a n b y M . R . G o o d m a n .
15. A n i n t r o d u c ti o n t o m o d e m g e n e t ic s b y C h . W a d d i n s g t o n
16. Dobzhansky, Th. Genetics and origin of species, Columbia University press.
17. Dobzhansky, Th., F.J. Ayala, GL. Stebbins and J .M. Valentine Evolution: Surjeet
publications, New Delhi latest edition.
18. P.A. Moody Introduction to Evolution II ed/latest: Kalyani publishers, New Delhi.
ZO O 202: M O L E C U L A R B IO L O G Y

U N I T - I : Molecular Nature of Genome:


1.1 Properties of DNA (C – Value paradox, Cot Value).
1.2 Nuclear and mitochondrial genome.
1.3 Structure of Gene (Cistron, Muton, Recon, Cis- trans test).
1.4 DNA damage and repair: Biological induction of repair, Photo reactivation, Excision repair,
Recombination repair, SOS repair, and Mismatch repair.

U N I T - I I : R e p l i c a ti o n

2.1 Replication in Prokaryotes: Geometry of DNA replication, semi conservative replication.


2.2 Enzymology of DNA replication: DNA plymeragese I, II and III; Replication of Eukaryotic chromosomes;
Eukaryotic DNA polymerases; Multiple forks; Replication of Chromatin.
2.3 D i s c o n t i n u o u s R e p l i c at i o n: F r a g m e n t s i n R e p l i c at i o n f o r k a n d d e te c ti o n o f
f r a g m e n t s; E v e n ts i n t h e r e p l i c at i o n f o r k; D e n o v o i n i ti a ti o n a n d c o v a l e n t
e x t e n s i o n.
2.4 B i d i r e ct i o n al r e p l i c at i o n, T e rm i n at i o n o f r e p l i c at i o n

U N I T I I I : T r a n s c r i p t i o n a n d T r a n s l at i o n

3.1 T r a n s c r i p t i o n, E n z y m e s a n d m o l e c u l a r m e c h a n i s m s i n v o l v e d i n tr a n s cr i p ti o n.
3.2 P r o c e s s i n g o f r R N A, t R N A a n d R N A i n P r o k a r y o t e s a n d E u k a r y o t e s, R i b o z y me
3.3 T r a n s l a ti o n: G e n et i c c o d e, P o l y p e p ti d e c h ai n i n i t ia ti o n, e l o n g at i o n a n d te r m i n a ti o n
3.4 P o s t t r a n s l at i o n al m o d i f ic a ti o n s , R o l e o f a n t i b i o ti c s i n p r o t ei n s y n t h e s is

U N I T I V : G e n e e x p r e s s i o n a n d M o l e c ul a r B i o l o g y T e c h ni q u e s

4 .1 G e n e t i c r e g u l a ti o n : I n d u c ti o n , R e p r e s si o n , L a c O p e r o n , L a m b d a O p e r o n
4 .2 T r y p t o p h a n O p e r o n , B r it t e n a n d D a v i d s o n m o d el f o r E u k ar y o ti c r e g u l a ti o n
4 .3 D N A s e q u e n c i n g , D N A f i n g e r p ri n t i n g , P o l y m er a s e c h ai n r e ac t i o n
4 .4 c D N A l i b r a r y , G e n o m i c l i b ra r y , M i c r o ar r a y s

SU G G E ST E D R E A D IN G M A T E R IA L :

1 . M o l e c u la r B i o l o g y b y D a v i d F r e if e l d er , 1 9 9 3
2 . M o l e c u la r B i o l o g y o f G e n e - b y l D . W at s o n , 1 9 8 8
3 . H a r p e r ' s re v i e w o f B i o c h em is t r y b y D . W . M ar ti n e t al 1 9 9 0
4 . B i o c h e m i st r y b y A . L . L e h n i g e r
5 . C e l l a n d M o le c u l ar B i o l o g y - E . D . P . D e R o b e r t i s a n d E . M . F .
6 . C o n c e p t s i n M o l e c u la r B i o l o g y - S . C . R a s t o g i , VN. S h a r m a a n d A n a n d a T a n d o n
(1 9 9 3 )
G en es V II b y B en jam in L ew in
Z O O 2 0 3 : CHEMISTRY OF BIOMOLECULES

U N IT I:
1.1 Principles of Thermodynamics. pH, pKa, Acids, Bases, Buffers, Chemical bonding, Properties of water.

1 . 2 C a r b o h y d r a t e s – C l a s si f i ca t i o n a n d p r o p e rt i es o f c ar b o h y d r at e s , m o n o s a c c h a ri d e s ,
d i s a c c h ar i d e s , p o l y s a c c h a r i d es . S u g a r a ci d s , al c o h o l s , d e o x y s u g a r s a n d a m i n o
s u g a r s . S tr u c t u r e a n d f u n ct i o n s o f m u c o p o l y s a c c h ar i d es .
1 . 3 L i p i d s – C l a ss i fi c at i o n . S tr u c t u r e a n d b i o l o g i c al f u n ct i o n s o f f at t y a ci d s , g l y c o p li p i d s ,
t r i a c y l g l y c e r o ls , p h o s p h o li p i d s , t e r p e n e s a n d st e r o i d s . P h y s i co - c h em i c al p r o p er t ie s
a n d a n a l y si s o f fa t s a n d o i l s .
1 . 4 S t r u c t u r e a n d f u n ct i o n s o f p r o st a g la n d i n s , l e u k o tr i e n e s , t h r o m o b o x a n e s . T y p e s a n d
f u n c t i o n P o r p h y r i n s , p i g m e n t s , G r o w t h r e g u l at o r s .
U N IT II:

2 . 1 A m i n o a c i d s – C l a s si f i ca t i o n , E ss e n ti a l a n d N o n e ss e n ti a l am i n o a ci d s , Is o m er i sm .

2.2 Biosynthesis of Non essential amino acids.

2 . 3 A c i d - b a s e ti tr a ti o n s o f A m i n o a c i d s . P h y s i c al a n d C h e m i c a l p r o p e rt i e s o f A m i n o
acid s.
2 . 4 S t r u c t u r e o f p e p t i d e s & T y p e s – P r o p er ti e s o f p e p t i d e s . P e p t i d e s y n t h e si s b y s o li d - p h as e
t e c h ni q u e

U N IT III:
3 . 1 P r o t e i n s – C l a s si f ic a ti o n , i s o l a ti o n a n d p u ri f ic a ti o n o f p r o t e i n , cr it e ri a o f
h o m o g e n e it y .
3 . 2 S t r u c t u r e o f P r o t e i n s - P ri m a r y , S e c o n d a r y , t e r ti a r y a n d q u a t er n a r y st r u ct u r e o f
P ro tein s ,
3.3 P r o t ei n f o l d i n g – A n f i n s e n ’ s e x p e r im e n t o n r i b o n u cl e a s e a n d C re i g h to n ’ s
s t u d i e s o f B P T I . F o r c e s r e s p o n si b l e fo r p r o t e i n st a b il it y .
R a m a c h a n d r a n P l ot - P r ot e i n f o l di n g .
3 . 4 D e n a t u r a ti o n a n d R e n a t u r a ti o n o f p r o t e i n s – E f f e ct o f m e l ti n g t em p e ra t u r e , s a lt s a n d
c h a o t r o p i c a g e n ts . S t r u ct u r e a n d f u n c ti o n s o f g l y c o p r o t e i n s a n d li p o p r o te i n s .
U N IT IV :

4 . 1 N u c l e i c A c i d s – S t r u c t u r e o f p u r i n e s , p y r im i d i n e , n u c l e o s i d e s , a n d n u c l e o t i d es .
W a t s o n a n d C r i c k d o u b l e h el i x s t r u ct u r e .
4 . 2 P r o p e r ti e s a n d f u n c t i o n s o f n u cl e i c ac i d s ( D N A , R N A ) . D i f f e r e n t f o r m s o f D N A
( A , B a n d Z f o r m s ) , D N A b a s e c o m p o si ti o n a n d C h a r g o ff ’ s r u l e .
4 . 3 R N A T y p e s ( m R N A , r R N A , t R N A a n d s n R N A ) . T h r e e - d i m e n si o n a l s t r u c t u r e o f
tR N A .
4 . 4 C h e m i c a l d i ff e r e n c e o f D N A , R N A a n d s i g n i f i ca n c e . I s o l a ti o n o f n u cl e i c a c i d s .
D e n a t u r a ti o n a n d r e n at u r at i o n o f n u c l ei c a ci d s , c o t c u r v e s a n d c h e m ic a l s y n t h e si s o f
DNA.
SU G G E ST E D R E A D IN G M A T E R IA L :

1. T e x t b o o k o f B i o c h em i st r y . W e st a n d T o d d . 1 9 6 8 . M a cM i ll a n , N e w Y o r k .
2. P r i n c i p l e s o f B i o c h e m i s tr y . L e h n i n g er , A . L . 1 9 9 3 . C . B . S . , I n d i a .
3. H a r p e r ’ s B i o c h e m is t r y . M u rr a y , R . K . , D . K . G r a n n e r , P . A . M a y e s a n d V . W . R o d w e l l .
2 0 0 2 . M c G r a w H i l l P u b li s h i n g C o m p a n y , N e w D e l h i .
nd
4. B i o c h e m i st r y . V o e t , D a n d J . V o e t . 1 9 9 5 . 2 E d n . 1 9 9 5 . J o h n W i l e y a n d S o n s , U S A .
th
5. B i o c h e m i st r y . B e r g , J . M . , L . J . T y m c o z k o a n d L . S t r y er 2 0 0 2 . 5 E d n . W . H . F r e e m a n
a n d C o m p a n y, N e w Y o rk .
th
6. T e x t b o o k o f B i o c h e m i st r y w i t h C l i n i c a l C o r r el a ti o n . D e v l i n , T . M . 1 9 9 7 . 4 Edn.
W i l e y - Li s s , N e w Y o r k .
7 . I n t r o d u ct o r y P r a ct i ca l B i o c h em i st r y . S a w h n e y , S . K a n d R . S i n g h . 2 0 0 1 . N a r o s a
Pu b lish in g H o u se. N ew D elh i.
nd
8 . B i o c h e m i st r y . L e h n i n g e r . A . L . 1 9 7 8 . 2 E d n . K a l y a n i P u b li s h er s , N e w D e l h i .
9 . P r a c t i ca l b i o c h e m i s tr y : P r i n ci p l e s a n d T e c h n i q u es . W il s o n a n d W a l k er . 1 9 8 6 .
C am b rid ge U n i v er s it y P r e ss , N e w Y o r k .
1 0 . B i o c h e m i st r y b y G a rr e tt a n d G i ri s h a m , 2 0 1 0 , C e n g a g e L ea r n i n g .
ZO O 204: D E V E L O PM E N T A L B IO L O G Y

U N IT I:

1 . 1 : O r i g i n o f g e rm l i n e c e ll s , M e c h a n i sm o f c el l l i n e a g e , m i g r a ti o n o f
g e r m c el l s t o g e n it a l r i d g e s , e m b r y o n i c st e m ce l ls , N u c l e a r t r a n s p l a n t a ti o n
e x p e r im e n t s .
1 . 2 : P r o d u c ti o n o f g am e t es a n d e s ta b li s h m e n t o f p o l a r it y a n d s y m m et r y .
1 . 3 : L e y d i g c el l s f u n c ti o n ; E n d o c ri n e r e g u l a ti o n o f s p e r m at o g e n e si s a n d v i t el l o g e n es i s .
1 . 4 : F e r ti li z a ti o n : C e ll s u rf a c e m o l e c u l e s i n s p e rm e g g r e c o g n i ti o n m o l e c u la r e v e n t s
o f p o s t fe r ti li z a ti o n .

U N IT II:

2 . 1 : C l e a v a g e , B l as t u la , G a s t r u l a ti o n i n d i f f er e n t a n i m a l s , M o l e c u l a r m e c h a n is m s
d e t e rm i n i n g g e r m l a y e rs f o rm a ti o n ; f a t e m a p s .
2 . 2 : I n d u c ti o n , c o m p e t e n c e , d e t e rm i n at i o n a n d d i ff e r e n t i at i o n .
2 . 3 : D e v e l o p m e n t a l g r a d i e n t s i n H y d r a – Axial patterning processes role of axial patterning in the
developmental activities of an adult Hydra- Tissue dynamics in adult Hydra, Morphogenesis and cell
differentiation, head regeneration, bud formation.
2 . 4 : C e l l a g g r e g a ti o n a n d d if f er e n ti a ti o n i n D i ct y o s t el i u m .

U N IT III:
3 . 1 : A x e s a n d P a t te r n f o r m at i o n i n D r o s o p h il a , a m p h i b i a a n d c h i c k .
3 . 2 : O r g a n o g e n i si s – V u l v a f o r m at i o n i n C a e n o r h a b d i t is e l e g a n s ; E y e l e n s i n d u c t i o n ,
l i m b d e ve l o pm e n t .
3 . 3 : R e g e n e r a ti o n – T y p e s o f r e g e n e ra t i o n , A x ia l p at t er n i n g d u ri n g r e g e n e r a ti o n .
3 . 4 : M e t am a r p h o s i s – H o rm o n a l re g u l at i o n o f m e ta m o r p h o s i s i n i n se c t s a n d a m p h i b i a n s .

U N IT IV :
4 . 1 : E n v i r o n m e n t al r e g u l a ti o n o f n o rm a l d e v e l o p m e n t .
4 . 2 : S e x d e t er m i n a t i o n i n a n im a ls ( T h e m e c h a n i sm o f m a m m a li a n p ri m ar y s e x
d e t e rm i n at i o n – S e c o n d ar y s e x d et e r m i n a ti o n : H o rm o n a l r e g u l at i o n o f t h e se x u a l
p h e n o typ e ).
4 . 3 : A p o p t o s i s d u r i n g a n i m al d e v e l o p m e n t ; A p o p t o si s i n m e t am o r p h o si s a n d
m o r p h o g e n e si s ; A p o p t os is d ur i n g l i m b de v e l o pm e n t .
4 . 4 : A g i n g , R e a c t i v e o x y g e n a n d c el l s c n es c e n c e , D i et a r y r e s tr i ct i o n a n d a n t i a g i n g
a c t i o n . , G e n e ti c c o n t r o l o f l o n g e v i t y , A g e r el a te d d i s e as e s .

SU G G E ST E D R E A D IN G M A T E R IA L :

1. A u s t e n , C . R . a n d S h o r t , R . V . R e p r o d u c t i o n i n A n im a ls
2. S c h a t t e n a n d S c h at t e n . M o l e c u l a r B i o l o g y o f F er t il i za ti o n .
3. F . T . L o n g o , F e r t i li z a ti o n , C h a p m a n & H a l l
4. R .G . E d w a r d s , H u m a n R e p r o d u c t i o n
5. S . F . G i l l b e rt , D e v e l o p m e n t a l B i o l o g y , S i n a u e r A s s o ci a t e s I n c . , M as s a c h u s et t s
6. E t h a n B i e r T h e C o i le d S p r i n g H a rl s o r L a b o r a t o r y P r e s s , N e w Y o r k
7. M o l e c u la r D e v e l o p m e n t al B i o l o g y – 2 0 0 8 , T . S u b r am o n i an , N a r o s a P u b li s h i n g
H ouse.
M .S c . Z O O L O G Y
( E f f e c ti v e f r o m t h e b a t c h o f s t u d e n ts a d m it t e d d u r i n g t h e a c a d e m ic y e a r 2 0 1 7 - 1 8 )

SE M E ST E R - III

Z O O 3 0 1 : E N V I R O N M E N T A L B I O L O G Y & BIODIVERSITY

U N I T I : B i o l o g y o f d i ff e r e n t e n v i r o n m e n ts :

1 .1 A g e n e r a l a c c o u n t o n B i o m es a n d t h ei r e n v i r o n m e n t s . F re s h w a t e r: C l a s si fi c a ti o n
& C h a r a c t er i st i cs , e u tr o p h i c at i o n , se a s o n a l c h a n g e s .
1 .2 M a r i n e : C l as s if i c at i o n & C h a r a c te r is t ic s . T e r re s tr i al : F o r es t s - G r a s s la n d s -
T u n d ra – D esert.
1 .3 E n e r g e t i c s o f E c o s y s t e m s : T r o p i c D y n a m i c v i e w o f e c o s y s t em a n d E n e r g y
F l o w . E s t i m at i o n o f E n e r g y B u d g e t a n d M e t h o d s f o r d if f er e n t E c o s y s t em s .
1 .4 I m p a c t o f E n v i r o n m e n ta l F a ct o r s o n E n e r g y F l o w . B i o l o g ic a l m a g n i fi c at i o n .

U N IT II: E n v i r o n m e n t a l P o l l u t i o n , h e a lt h h a z a r d s a n d E p i d e m i o l o g y :

2 .1 A i r P o ll u t i o n : C ri t er i a a n d S t a n d a r d s i n I n d i a , H e a lt h h a z a r d s a n d T o x i c o l o g y -
G r e e n H o u s e g a s e s a n d G r e e n H o u s e e f f ec t . W a te r P o l l u ti o n : C r it e ri a a n d
S t a n d a r d s i n I n d ia , H e a l t h h az a r d s a n d T o x i c o l o g y .
2 .2 R o l e o f e n v i r o n m e n t a l e p i d em i o l o g i c al st u d i es a n d h e al t h i n d i ce s i n e v a l u at i o n o f
e n v i r o n m e n t al h e al t h h a z a r d s e n v ir o n m e n t a l e p i d e m i o l o g i ca l e p i s o d es i n I n d i a
a n d a b r o a d . E n v ir o n m e n t a l L a w s : E n v i r o n m e n t al L a w s i n I n d i a - L e g i sl a ti o n a n d
E xecu tio n

2 .3 E n v i r o n m e n t a l m o n i t o ri n g a n d B i o r e m e d i a t i o n : B i o m o n i t o ri n g , B i o l o g i c al
m o n i t or i n g p r o g r am m e . B i o i n d i c at o r s a n d e n v ir o n m e n t a l m o n i t o ri n g ,
E n v i r o n m e n t a l i m p a ct a s s es s m en t .
2 .4 B i o r e m e d i a t i o n : N e e d a n d s c o p e o f b i o r em e d i at i o n , E n v ir o n m e n t a l a p p l ic a ti o n s
o f b i o r e m e d i at i o n . P h y t o r em e d ia t i o n ,- B i o t e c h n o l o g i c al c l e a n i n g u p o f t h e
e n v i r o n m e n t b y p la n t s u si n g B i o te c h n o l o g i c a l m e t h o d s .

U N IT II I: Biodiversity and Systematics:

3.1 Introduction to Biodiversity : Concept and definition, Causes of Biodiversity, Values of Biodiversity,
Types of biodiversity – species diversity, Genetic diversity, Ecosystem diversity, domesticated biodiversity
3.2 Threats to Biodiversity - Biodiversity at Global, National and Local levels – Magnitude and Distribution of
biodiversity.
3.3 Biogeographic realms of the world -biogeographic zones of India and faunal diversity
3 . 4 Current status of biodiversity values in different biogeographic zones of India - Hotspots in the world and in India.

U N I T I V : Biodiversity Management and Conservation

4 .1 Conservation of Biodiversity – Insitu and Exsitu conservation - Role of zoos, biodiversity parks, gene
banks, tissue culture, cryo preservation. etc. in biodiversity management.
4. 2 Wild life protection acts, organizations involved in protection of Biodiversity.
4.3 Major international agencies for biodiversity conservation such as IUCN, WWFInternational,
International council for protection of birds, Birdlife International, National Biodiversity Authority,
State biodiversity boards etc., their structure and function.
4.4 Satellite remote sensing -. Definition, basics, principles and types of remote sensing and GIS
programmes.
SU G G E ST E D R E A D ING M A T E R IA L :
1. P r a c t i ca l m e t h o d s i n E c o l o g y & E n v i r o n m e n t al S c i e n c e , R K . T r i v e d y , G o e l ,
T risal, 1 9 9 7 .
2. E n v i r o n m e n t a l P h y si o l o g y o f d e s e rt o r g a n i s m . E d . b y N . F . H a d l e y - D o w d e n
H u c h i n s o n a n d R o s s , In c .P e n n .U S A .
3. T h e E c o l o g y o f w a s t e w a t er tr e a tm e n t - H . A . H a w k e s p e r g o m a n p r e s s , 1 9 6 3 .
4. B i o c h e m i ca l e c o l o g y a n d w a t e r p o l l u t i o n - P R D u g a n , p l e n u m p r es s , L o n d o n ,
1972.
5. P e s t i ci d e s i n t h e e n v i r o n m e n t - R W h i t e S t e v e n n s , M ar c e l D e k k e r I n c . N e w Y o r k ,
1971.
6. E n v i r o n m e n t a l S ci e n c e R e s e ar c h V o l u m es : V o l . 1 . I n d i c at o r s o f e n v i r o n m e n ta l
q u a l i t y - W . A . T h o m a s , 1 9 7 2 . V o l . 3 . E n v ir o n m e n t a l p o l l u t i o n b y p es t ic i d e s - C . A .
E d w ard s, 1 9 7 4 .
V o l . 5 E n v i r o n m e n t a l d y n am i cs o f p e st i ci d e s - R . H a g u e a n d V . H . P r e e d , 1 9 7 5 .
7. E c o l o g y & E n v i r o nm e n t - P .D . S h a r m a , 1 9 9 1 .
8. Field B io lo g y & E co lo g y - A llen H B en ton & E . W ern er, J R , 1 9 8 0 .
9. E n c y c l o p e d i a o f e n v i r o n m e n t a l p o l l u ti o n a n d c o n t r o l , e n v i r o m e d i a , K ar a d , V o l . 1
& 2 , R .K T r i v e d i .
10. E c o t e c h n o l o g y f o r p o ll u ti o n c o n tr o l a n d e n v i r o n m e n t al m a n a g em e n t ,
e n v i r o m e d i a , K a r a d , R K . T r i v e di .
11. H e a l t h h a z a r d s a n d h u m a n e n v i r o n m e n t , W o r l d H e al t h O r g a n iz a ti o n ( W H O )
1972.
12. C u r r e n t p o ll u ti o n r e se a r c h e s i n I n d i a - R K . T r i v e d y a n d P . K . G o e l . K a r a d .
13. C h e m i c a l a n d b i o l o g i c al m et h o d s f o r w a t e r p o l l u ti o n st u d i e s R . K . T r i v e d y a n d P . K .
G o el, 1 9 8 4 .
14. I n d u s t ri a l P o l l u t i o n - V P . K u d e s i a , 1 9 9 0 .
th
15. A n i m a l P h y si o l o g y - A d a p t a ti o n & E n v i r o n m e n t . 4 E d i t i o n K n u t S c h m i d t -
N i e l s e n - C am b r i d g e U n i v e r si t y P r es s .
16. E n v i r o n m e n t a l B i o l o g y a n d T o x i c o l o g y - P . D . S h a r m a , R a st o g i P u b l i c at i o n s ,
M e e r u t ( I n d ia ) , 1 9 9 8 .
nd
17. B i o d e g r a d a ti o n & B i o r e m e d i a ti o n - 2 e d i t o n , M ar t ei n A l e x a n d e r - A c a d e m i c
Press, 1999 U SA .
18. W a t e r T r ea t m e n t a n d p u r i fi c a ti o n t ec h n o l o g y - W . J . R y a n , A g r o b i o s ( I n d i a) ,
Jo d h p u r, 2 0 0 2 .
19. M e t h o d s i n E n v i r o n m e n t al A n a l y s is - W at e r s o i l a n d a i r b y P . K . G u p t a - A g r o b i o s
( I n d i a) , J o d h p u r , 2 0 0 1
30 Hartl, D.L. A primer of population genetics, sinauer Associatesm Inc.,
Massachusetts.
31 Peter Volpe E. Understanding Evolution, University Book stall, New Delhi.
32 An introduction to genetic analysis. Griffiths, A.J .F., J . B . Miller, D.T. Suzuki,
R.C. Lewontin & W.M. Gelbark, W.H. Freeman and Company, New York.
32. A.k Pandey – Taxonomy and Biodiversity.
33. Biodiversity Principles & Conservation, Kumar & Asija- Published by
Upadesh Purohit by Agrobios (India), Jodhpur, 2002.
34. Biodiversity – K.C. Agarwal, 1998.
35. Conservation Biology, Peggy 1. Fieldler & Peter M. Kareiva, 1997.
36. Environmental impact assessment & manatgement. Editors B.B. Hosetti & A.
Kumar, 1998, Daya Publishing House, Delhi.
37. Hosetti, B.B. Venkateswarlu, M. Trends in wild life Biodiversity
Conservation and Management.
38. K.C. Agarwal , Biodifversity (1998).
39. Kumar & Sija., Biodiversity Principles & Conservation , Published by Upadesh
Purohit by Agrobios (India), Jodhpur, 2002.
Z O O 3 0 2 : N E U R O B I O L O G Y & ANIMAL BEHAVIOUR

U N I T - I : N e u r o n a l O r g a n i z a ti o n a n d F u n c t i o n a l a n a t o m y o f Nervous system :

1 .1 O r g a n i z a ti o n o f t h e c e n tr a l n er v o u s s y st e m ( s p i n a l c o r d ; b r ai n s te m ; c e r e b r a l co r t e x );
N e u r o n s a n d t h e a ss o c i at e d s tr u c t u r e s; A n a t o m y o f n e u r o n s a n d t y p es o f n e r v e c e ll s .
1.2 B i o e l e c tr i c al p r o p er ti e s o f n e u r o n s - N e u r o n a l e x ci t a b i li t y ; T h e r e st i n g m e m b r a n e
p o t e n t ia l , T h e s o d i u m a n d p o t a s si u m p u m p ; P r o p a g a t i o n o f t h e n e r v e im p u ls e ,
g e n e r a ti o n o f t h e a c ti o n p o t e n t i al s
1.3 M o l e c u la r m ec h a n i sm o f e x ci t at i o n ca r ri e r p r o t ei n s ; M e m b r a n e c h a n n e ls ;
G a ti n g m e c h a n is m s
1.4 S y n a p s e s : S tr u c t u r e a n d I n te g r at i o n ; M o r p h o l o g y o f t h e s y n a p s e ; T y p e s
o f s y n a p s e s ; U lt r a st r u ct u r e o f s y n a p s e , C h e m ic a l tr a n sm i s si o n ; E le c t ri c al
t r a n sm i s si o n ; S e c o n d m e s s e n g er s y st e m s: C y c li c A M P a n d G M P ; C a l c i u m a n d
c al mod u l i n.

U N IT -II :

2 .1 S y n t h e s i s - st o r a g e - r el e a s e and i n ac t i v a t i o n m e c h a n i sm s and f u n ct i o n s o f
n e u r o t r a n s m i t te r s .
2 .2 N e u r o p e p t i d e s (Ox y t o c i n , V a s o p r e s si n ,T h y r o tr o p i n r el e a si n g h o rm o n e s u b s t a n c e - P ,
C h o l e c y st o k i n i n ) .
2 .3 M a j o r d r u g c 1 a s s es - b rie f hi s t o r y - a b s o r p ti o n - b i n d i n g -t o l er a n c e e x c r e ti o n –
p h y s i o l o g i c a l a n d b e h a v i o u ra l ef f e ct s o f t h e d r u g s .
2 .4 S y m p t o m s- d i a g n o s i s- E t i o l o g y a n d p a t h o l o g y o f t h e f o l l o w i n g d i s o r d er s (Sc h i z o p h r e n i a;
A ff e c ti v e d is o r d e rs ( d e p re s s i o n ) ; P ar k i n s o n ' s d is e a s e; A l z h e i m er ' s d i s e a se

U N I T - I I I : ANIMAL BEHAVIOUR: Perception of Environment communication

3 .1 General introduction :An over view of concept of Animal behaviour.


3 .2 Visual perception, Auditory perception and Olfactory perception..
3 .3 A ni mal aggress ion and Ho min g territo riali t y.
3.4 So ci al o rgani zat ion ; Ad vant ages, So ci al o rgani zat ion in In sect s and
P ri mat es.

U N IT –IV Learning, Memory and forgetting

4 .1 Co ndi tion in g Learn in g ( Cl ass ical and op eran t condi tion in g an d Mul ti pl e - respons e
l earnin g )
4 .2 Con gn it i ve Learn in g (In si gh t learnin g, Si gn learn in g, Lat ent Learnin g)
4 .3 Kinds of remembering (Redintegrative memory – Recall – Recognition – Relearning- Retrieval process –
Theories of Memory).
4 .4 The nature of forgetting( Decay through discuse, Inference effect, motivated forgetting, Improving
memory.
SU G G E ST E D R E A D ING M A T E R IA L :
1. N e u r o b i o l o g y . S h e p h e r d , G . M . O x f o rd U n i v e r si t y p re s s , L o n d o n .
2. B a s i c N e u r o c h e m i s tr y - G . J . S i e g a l , R W . A l b e r s , B . W . A g r a n o f f , R K a t z m a n
( 1 9 8 1 ) L i tt l e , B r o w n a n d c o m p a n y . B o s t o n .
3. I n t r o d u ct i o n t o N e r v o u s s y st e m - T . H . B u l l o c k , R C o r k , A . G r a n n e r
( 1 9 7 7 ) ; W .H F r e e - m a n& C o .
4. P r i n c i p l e s o f N e u ra l S c ie n c e - E . R K a n d e l a n d J . H . S c h w e r t z . ( 1 9 8 1 ); E l s e v i e rl
N o rth H o llan d. N Y . O xfo rd .
5. M e c h a n i sm o f D r u g A c ti o n o n t h e N e r v o u s S y s t em M . A . B . B r a z i l , R W . R y a l l .
( 1 9 7 9 ) ; C a m b r i d g e U n i v er s it y P r es s . C a m b ri d g e , L o n d o n a n d N e w Y o r k .
6. T h e B i o C h e m i c a l b a s i s o f N e u r o p h a rm a c o l o g y - J . R C o o p e r , F . E . B l o o m , & R H .
R o t h . ( 1 9 8 2 ) ; O x f o r d U n i v e r si t y P r es s , N Y a n d L o n d o n .
7. P r i n c i p l e s o f N e u r o P h y c h o p h a r m a c o l o g y - R o b er t S . F e l d m a n , J er r o l d S . M e y e r a n d
L i n d F . Q u e n z e r . S i n a u e r A s s o c i at e s , I n c . P u b l i s h er s . S u n d e rl a n d . M as s a c h u s et t s.

8. Alcock,J. Animal behavior: An evolutionary approach. Sinauer Assoc., Sunderland, Mass. USA.
9. An introduction to genetic analysis. Griffiths, A.J.F., J.B. Miller, D.T. Suzuki, R.C. LEwontin & W.M.
Gelbark, W.H. Freeman and company, New York.
10. Bradbury, IW.and S.L. Vehrencamp. Principles of animal communication. Sinauer Assoc. Sunderland,
Mass. USA.
11. Clutton- Brock, T. H. the evolution of paternal care. Priceton, USA.
12. Dobzhansky, Th.Genetics and origin og species, Columbia University press.
13. Dobzhansky, Th.F.J. Ayala, GL. Stebbins and J. M. Valentine Evolution: Surjeet publications, New Delhi
latest edition.
14. Eibl – Eibesfeldt,1.Ethology. The biology of behavour. Holt, Rinehart and Winston, New York.
15. Gpuld, J.L. The mechanisms and evolution of behavior.
ZO O 303 : EN ZY M O LO G Y & M ETA BO LISM

U N I T I : G e n e r a l P r o p e r ti e s o f E n z y m es :
1.1 Classification of enzymes and nomenclature. Enzyme specificity (optical specificity,
group specificity)
1.2 Quantitative measurement of enzyme activity. Isolation of enzymes, Intracellular
distribution of enzymes
1 .3 K i n e t i c P r o p e r ti e s o f E n z y m e s : Kinetic theory and collision theory. Effect of reactant
concentration (Rate constant, First order, Second order and Zero order react ions)
1.4 Effect of enzyme concentration, pH and temperature . Effect of substrate concentration,
Determination of kinetic constants (Km and Vmax)
U N I T I I : R e g u l a t i o n o f e n z y m e ac t i vi t y :

2.1 Inhibition of enzyme activity (competitive, non-competitive, uncompetitive and


mixed inhibition). Kinetics of Allosteric enzymes
2.2 Regulation of enzyme activity (Metabolic regulation), Catalytic efficiency of enzymes
(Feed back inhibition, covalent modification). Mechanism of enzyme action (Lock and
key; Induced fit model), catalytic site, Role of metal ions.
2 .3 A p p l i c a ti o n s o f e n z y m e s : Enzymes in clinical diagnosis . Immobilized enzymes
and their applications.
2.4 Isozymes- definition- types of Isozymes, significance . Enzyme engineering-
Principles of enzyme engineering – Steps in enzyme engineering – applications.

U N I T I I I : I n t e r m e d ia r y M e t a b o l i sm

3.1 Glycolysis, TCA cycle and their Biomedical importance. Pentose


phosphate pathway, Gluconeogenesis. Regulation of carbohydrate
metabolism.
3.2 Redox Potentials, Mitochondrial electron transport system, High energy
Phosphates in energy capture and transfers.
3.3 Beta-oxidation of palmitic acid; Biosynthesis of long chain fatty acids.
3.4 Oxidative deaminaiton, decarboxylation and transamination of amino acids.
Biosynthesis of Urea and detoxification of Ammonia . Biosynthesis of
polyamines.
U N I T I V : M e t a b o l i s m o f N u c le o t i d es & P o r p h y r i n s

4.1 Biosynthesis of Nucleotides- Types of nucleotides, biosynthesis of purines, biosynthesis of


pyrimidines, importance of nucleotides.
4.2 Degradation of Nucleotides- Degradation of purines and pyrimidines, pathways of
degaradation.
4.3 Clinical disorders of purine metabolism – Lesch-Nyhan disease adenylosuccinatelyase
deficiency,Myoadenylatedeaminase deficiency, Adenosine deaminase deficiency,
deoxyguonosine deficiency.
4.4 Types and function of Porphyrins, Pigments Growth regulation.

SU G G E ST E D R E A D ING M A T E R IA L :
1. Robert K.Murrey, D.K. Granner, P.A. Mayes and V.W. Rodwell; Harper's Biochemistry,
Lange Medical
2. D. Voet and J.G Voet, Biochemistry, 1. Wiley & Sons.
3. David L. Nelson and Mic hael M. Cox, Lehninger; Principles of Biochemistry, McMillan
Worth Publishers.
4. Enzyme kinetics by D.V Roberties, Cambridge University Press.
5. Enzyme Kinetics by 1. W. Segil.
nd
6. Biochemical calculations by I.H. Segel 2 Ed. John Wiley & Sons.
7. Biochemistry by D. Voet and J.G. Voet, J.Wiley & Sons.
ZOO 304 :AQUACULTURE AND INDUSTRIAL APPLICATIONS

Unit-1
Introduction of Aquaculture:

1.1 History and scope of Aquaculture; Culture practices of Fish and Shrimp, Traditional, Extensive,
Modified extensive, Semi extensive and Intensive cultures concept of Monoculture, Polyculture and
Integrated fish farming.
1.2 Culture of fishes
1.3 Culture of shrimp.
1.4 Culture of Ornamental fishes.

Unit –II Management of pond and feed

2.1 Types of culture systems: Open, Semi- closed, closed. Design and sonstruction of fish water fish
form and shrimp farm.
2.2 Management of Pond: Liming, Organic manures, chemical fertilizers and their implementation in
ponds.
2.3 Natural and Supplementary feeds: Spirulina, Brachinonas, Chaetoceros. Types of feeds – Wet, Moist
and Dry feeds, Mashes, Pelleted feeds - floated and sinking pellets.
2.4 Feed additives – Binders, Antioxidants, Enzymes pigments, Growth promoters, Feed stimulators.
Use of preservatives. Feeding strategies – Feeding devices, Feeding schedules and Ration size.

Unit –III Pathology and Disease Management

3.1 Health Management: Viral diseases and Bacterial diseases – Causes, Symptoms, Diagnosis and
Prophylactic and Therapeutic measures.
3.2 Protozoan and Fungal Diseases - Causes, Symptoms, Diagnosis and Preventive measures. Crustacean
Parasites – Isopods, Lingual, Learnea.
3.3 Environmental Stress Diseases – Gas bubble disease, PH Acidosis and Alkalosis, Intoxications,
Hydrocyanic acid, Free chlorine, Metals, Phenol and Temparature distrubances.
3.4 Examination of fish and prawn diseases.

Unit – IV: Industrial Applications

4.1 Fish crafts: Types of non-mechanized and mechanized crafts their advantages and disadvantages.
Fish gear: types of gear, fabrication of gear and preservation
4.2 Fishing methods: Electric fishing, Line fishing, trawling, purse seining, gill netting, use of
electronics in fishing.
4.3 Aquarium Types- Fabrication, Accessories, Ornamental fishes – Types,economic importance
and production.
4.4 Shrimp processing technology.Fish spoilage and methods of preservation – Processing – Different
byproduct preparations, animal feed preparations - Marketing

References :

1. Fish and Fisheries - V.G. Jhingran, Hindustan Publishing Corporation.


2. Inland Fishes - Vol-1&2 - P.K.Talwar and A.G. Jhingran.
3. Aquaculture, principles and Practices - T.V.R. Pillay, Fishing News Books.
4. Prawn and Prawn Fisheries - Kurian. C.V and V.O.Sebastian - Hindustan Publishing House.
5. Marine Fisheries - D.V. Bal and K.V.Rao- Tata Mc Grawhill Publishing Company.
6. The Wealth of India - Vol-IV, Fish and Fisheries -CSIR.
7. The Fishes of India Vol-1&2- Francis Day.
8. Fisheries and Aquaculture - Ravi Shankar Piska- Lahari Publication,Hyderabad.
9. Concepts of Aquaculture- Ravi Shankar Piska , Lahari Publication,Hyderabad.
10. Fish Biology - IVC Ist year Book - Ravi Shankar Piska and Divakara Chary - Telugu Academy,
Narayanaguda, Hyderabad.
11. Fish Ecology - IVC Ist year Book - Jithender Kumar Naik and Ravi Shankar Piska- Telugu Academy,
Narayanaguda, Hyderabad.
12. Marine Fisheries - IVC IInd year Book- Jithender Kumar Naik and Ravi Shankar Piska- Telugu
Academy, Narayanaguda, Hyderabad.
13. Fish Industry and Post harvest technology - Ravi Shankar Piska and Jithender Kumar Naik - Telugu
Academy, Narayanaguda, Hyderabad.
14. Fresh water Aquaculture - R.K. Rath- Scientific Publications
15. Fish Biology and Indian Fisheries - R.P.Parihar- Central Publishing house.
16. Fisheries (Telugu) - Ravi Shankar Piska and Others- Telugu Academy, Narayanaguda, Hyderabad.
17. Fisheries - Open University, Hyderabad.
18. An Introduction to Fisheries- S.S.Khanna, Central Book Depot, Allahabad.
19. Ecology and Environment - P.D.Sharma, Rastogi Publications, Meerut.
20. Fish Breeding- NCRT Publications, New Delhi.
21. Fish Culture - NCRT Publication, New Delhi.
22. Prawn Culture- Ravi Shankar Piska, Telugu Academy, Hyderabad.

.
M. Sc. ZOOLOGY
( E f f e c ti v e f r o m t h e b a t c h o f s t u d e n ts a d m it t e d d u r i n g t h e a c a d e m ic y e a r 2 0 1 7 - 1 8 )

SEMESTE R–IV

ZO O 401: TO XICO LO G Y
U N IT -I:
1 . 1 . I n t r o d u ct i o n a n d S c o p e o f t o x i c o l o g y
1 . 2 . C l a s s i fi c at i o n o f p e s ti c i d es- Organophosphates, Organo chlorides, Synthetic pesticides.
1 . 3 . E n v i r o n m e n t a l t o x i c o l o g y ( T o x i ca n t s p r e s e n t i n f o o d , at m o s p h e r e a n d h y d r o s p h e r e) .
1 . 4 . T o x i c i t y e v a l u at i o n ( D o s e r e s p o n s e r e l at i o n s h i p s; c o n c e p t a n d m e c h a n i sm o f
s e l e ct i v e t o x i ci t y ) .

U N IT -II:
2 . 1 . F a c t o r s af f e ct i n g t o x i ci t y (f a c t o r s p e rt a i n i n g t o c h e m i c a l , e x p o s u r e ,
s u r r o u n d i n g m e d i u m a n d o r g a n i sm s ) .
2 . 2 . E x p o s u r e o f T o x i c a n t s ( R o u te s a n d si t e s o f e x p o s u re , d u r at i o n a n d fr e q u e n c y
o f e x p o s u r e) .
2 . 3 . M e c h a n i sm o f t o x i c a ct i o n o f p e s ti c i d e s ( R e c e p t o r c o n c e p t , n a t u r e o f
r e c e p t o r s , t h e o r y o f T o x i ca n t -r e c e p t o r i n t e r a ct i o n s a n d m e c h a n i sm o f a ct i o n
o f s o m e p es t ic i d e s) .
2 . 4 . T o x i c e f f e ct s o f p e s ti c i d es ( L o c a l a n d s y s te m at i c ef f e ct s , im m e d i a te a n d
d e l a y e d e ff e c ts , r e v er s i b l e a n d ir r e v er s i b l e e ff e c ts , b l o c k a d e o f o x y g e n
t r a n s p or t ) .

U N IT -III:
3 . 1 . T r a n s l o c at i o n o f t o x i ca n t s ( M e m b r a n o u s b ar r ie r s , a b s o r p ti o n o f t o x i c a n t s ,
s i t e s o f a b s o r p t i o n , d i st r i b u t i o n o f t o x ic a n t s , s t o ra g e d e p o t s a n d e x e c r et i o n o f
t o x i c a nt s ) .
3 . 2 . B i o t r a n sf o r m a t i o n o f X e n o b i ti c s ( B i o t ra n s f o rm a ti o n si t e s , b i o tr a n s f o r m at i o n
e n z y m e s , b i o t r a n s f o rm a ti o n r e ac t i o n a n d b i o a ct i v i ti o n ) .
3 . 3 . B i o a c c u m u la t i o n o f X e n o b i o ti c s ( B i o c o n c e n tr a ti o n , b i o ac c u m u l a ti o n a n d
B i o m a g n if i c at i o n ; B i o m a g n i f ic a ti o n o f li p o p h il i c a n d r e c al c it r a n t
s u b s t a n c es ) .
3 . 4 . T o x i c i t y o f h e a v y m et a ls li k e M e rc u r y , L e a d , C a d m i u m , A r s e n i c , C h r o m i u m ,
C o p p er and Z in c.

U N IT -IV :
4 . 1 . X e n o b i o t i c ef f e ct o n b a si c m et a b o li s m s ( c ar b o h y d r a te s & p r o t ei n s )
4 . 2 . T e r a t o g e n s a n d t e r at o l o g y
4 . 3 . A n t i d o t a l T h er a p y ( T y p e s o f a n ti d o t es a n d a n ti d o t al p r o c e d u r e s ) .
4 . 4 . S a f e t y e v al u a ti o n o f c h em i c al s ( P r o c e s s o f r is k a s s es s m e n t a n d s af e t y
e v a l u a ti o n p r o g ra m m e ) .
R eferences:
1. T o x i c i n t er a c ti o n s – R . S . G o l d s t e i n , W . R . H e w i t t a n d J . B . H o o k . A c a d e m i c P re s s –
1990.
2. P e s t i ci d e s a n d H u m a n W e lf a r e – D . L . G u n n a n d J . G . R . S t e v e n s . O x f o r d U n i v er s it y
Press – 1978.
3. P e s t i ci d e s a ct i o n a n d M e t a b o l i sm – O ’ B r i e n .
4. E n v i r o n m e n t a l t o x i c o l o g y o f P e st i ci d e s – F . M as t im u r a , G . M . B o u s h a n d T . M i s a t o .
5. T h e e n c y c l o p e d i a o f A m e ri c a n a – V o l . 1 5 .
6. I n t r o d u ct i o n t o B i o c h e m i c al T o x i c o l o g y – E . H o d g s o n & F . E . G u t h er i e .
7. C a s a r e t t & D o u l ’s – T o x i c o l o g y – T h e b a s i c s c i e n c e o f p o i s o n s – C . D . K l a s s e n ,
M a r y , O .D .& J o h n D o u l l .
8. C o n c e p t s o f T o x i c o l o g y D r . O m k a r , V i s h a l P u b li s h i n g C . 2 0 0 3 .
Z O O 4 0 2 : A N I M A L B I O T E C H N O L O G Y & MICRO BIOLOGY

U N IT I:
1.1 History and development of animal tissue culture. Equipment and mateials(culture vessels,CO2
incubator,inverted microscope,cell counters). Principles of sterile techniques. Sources of tissues. Types
of tissues –Epithelial,muscle, connective,nerve and blood. Introduction t o balanced salt solutions.
1.2 Primary culture –Mechanical and enzymatic mode of disaggregation, Establishment of primary
culture. Subculture- Passag e number, split ratio, seeding eff iciency, criteria for s u b c u l t u r e.
1.3 Celllines–Definite and continuous celllines, character izat ion, authentication, maintenance and control ,
cel l tr ansforma ion .Nor mal v s . transformed ce ll s , g rowth characte ris ti c s of preservation of cell
lines .Contamination–Bacte r i al ,v i r al ,f u n g a l a nd mycoplasma, detection and transformed ce ll s .
1.4 Application of animal c e ll culture – Vaccine production, specialized cell types. Concepts of tissue
engineering – Skin, liver, kidney, bladder and heart .

U N IT II :
2. 1 In v i t r o fertilization –Concept of superovu latio n ,collection , maintenance, and m a t u r at i o n
of oocytes, fertilization of oocytes . Maintenance and assessment o f embryos. Embryo transfer –
Artificial insemination,preparation of foster mother , surgical and non- surgical methods o f
emb r y o transfer, donor and recipient aftercare .

2 . 2 Cloning –Concept of nuclear transfer, nuclear reprogramming and creation of Dolly. T r a n s g e n i c


animals– Retroviral ,microinjection, and engineered embryonic stem cell method of transgenesis .

2. 3 Application of transgenic animals –Biopharming, disease models, functional knockouts. Gene


therapy–Ex v i v o and in vivo gene therapy methods ,and their applications .
2 . 4 Stem cells –Isolation and culture, embryonic and adult s te m cells, plasticity and concept of
regenertive medicine.

UNIT – III
3.1 History and scope of Microbiology.
3.2 Microbial nutrition, growth and their control.
3.3 Normal microbial flora of Human Body – Skin, Nose, Oral cavity, Pharnyx, Respiratory tract, Eye,
Ear, Stomach, Intestine, Genitourinary tract.
3.4 Microbial diseases and their control.
a) Bacterial diseases - Tuberculosis, Plague, Anthrax, Tetaus, Cholera.
b) Viral diseases - Influenza, AIDS, Rabies, Hepatitis, Poliomyletis.
c) Fungal diseases - Superficial mycoses, Cutaneous mycoses, Subcutaneous mycoses.

UNIT – IV

4.1 Microbiology of fermented food: Diary products, Meat and Fish, Microorganisms as Sources of
food.
4.2 Industrial Microbiology : Types of fermentation process, Types of fermentors, Down stream
processing, Alcoholic beverages.
4.3 Manufacture of various chemicals : Lactic acid, Acetic acid and Citric acid.
4.4 Therapeutic compounds : Antibiotics (Pencillin), Industrial enzymes (Amylase, Protease and
Lactase)

SUGGESTED READING MATERIAL:

th
1. Culture o f Animal Cells A Ma n u a l of Basic Technique. Freshney,R.I 2006.5 E d n .John Wiley
and Sons,U S A .
2. Cell Culture. Yadav,P.R and R.Tyagi.2005.Discovery Publishing House, New Delhi.
3. Cell Growth and Division: A Practical Approach. B a s e g a , R . I R L P r e ss , N e w D e l h i .
4. Cell Cu ltu re Lab Fax. Butler,M. a n d M . D a w s o n . B i o s S ci e n ti f i c P u b l i ca t i o n s L t d .
5. A n i m a l C e ll c u l t u r e a n d T e c h n o l o g y . B u t l er , M . 2 0 0 4 . B i o s S c ie n t if i c P u b li s
h er s , N e w Y ork.
6. P r i n c i p l e s o f C l o n i n g . J o s e C i b el li , R o b e r t P . L a n z a . K e i t h H . S . C a m p b e ll . 2
0 0 2 .A c a d e m i c P r es s , L o n d o n .
7. F e e d M a n a g e m e n t i n i n t e n s i v e A q u a c u l t u r e . G o d d ar d , S . 1 9 9 6 . C h a p m a n a n d
H a ll , N e w Y o r k .
nd
8 . A t e x t b o o k o f F i s h F i s h e r ie s a n d T e c h n o l o g y . B i s w a s , K . P . 1 9 9 6 . 2 Edn. N ar
e n dr a
P u b l i s h i n g H o u s e , D el h i
9. Tex book of MicrobiologyC. M. Presscots, J.P. Harley & D.A Klein Mc Graw Hill. WCB Publication 4 th
edition.
10. Elements of Microbiology, by C.B. Powar & H.F. Daginawala 1 st Edition, Himalaya Publishing House,
Bombay, 1982.
11. Text book of Microbiology, by R Ananthanarayanan & C.K. Jayaram Panikar, 4 th Edition, Orient
Longmen, Hyderabad, 1990.
ZO O 403: B IO ST A T IST IC S A N D B IO IN FO R M A T IC S

U N IT I: B IO ST A T IS T IC S

1.1 D a t a – D a t a t y p e s , c o l l e c ti o n o f d a t a , c l a ss i fi c at i o n a n d t a b u l a ti o n . M e a s u r es o f c
e n t r alt e n d e n c i es
1.2 M e a n , m e d i a n a n d m o d e . M e a s u r e s o f v ar i at i o n - R a n g e , q u a r ti l e d e v i a ti o n , m e a n
d e v ia t i o n a n d s ta n d a r d d e v i a ti o n .
1.3 C o e f fi c i e n t o f v a r i at i o n . P r o b a b il it y – A d d i ti o n a n d m u lt i p l i c at i o n t h e o r i e s .
1.4 C o n d it i o n al p r o b a b i li t y a n d p r o b a b i li t y d i st ri b u t o rs – B i n o m i al , p o i s s o n a n d
n o r m a l d is t ri b u ti o n .

U N IT II: BIO ST A T IST I C S

2.1 C o r r e l a ti o n a n d li n e ar r e g r es s i o n – S c at t er d i a g r a m m e t h o d – K a r n al P e a rs o n ’ s
R a n k, c o r r e la t i o n m e t h o d s .
2.2 R e g r e ss i o n li n e s – f it t i n g o f re g r e s si o n l i n e s b y l e a s t s q u ar e s m et h o d
– R e g r e s si o n c o e ff i ci e n ts a n d p r o p e rt i es . S m al l s a m p l e t e st s – t , F a n d c h i s q u a r e
t e st s .
2.3 A N O V A – o n e w a y a n d t w o w a y c l a s s i fi c at i o n s . C R D , R B D , L S D , D u n c a n ’ s
m u l t i p l e r a n g e ( D M R ) t es t .
2.4 S t at is t ic a l b a si s o f b i o l o g i c al a s s y a s - L D 5 0 , E D 5 0 , T C I D 5 0 , P D 5 0 .

U N IT III: BIO IN FO R M A T IC S

3.1 I n t r o d u ct i o n – O ri g i n o f b i o i n f o rm a ti c s b i o l o g ic a l d at a ( g e n o m e p r o j e ct s ) ,c o m p u t er
a n d i n f o rm a ti o n t e c h n o l o g y c o n t ri b u ti o n s .D i s ci p l i n e s o f b i o i n f o rm a ti c s –G e n o m i c s
, t r a n s cr i p t o m ic s ,p r o t e o m i c s ,f u n ct i o n al g e n o m i cs , st r u ct u r al g e n o m i cs , m e t a b o l o m i c s
, p h a r m a c o g e n o m i cs , s tr u c t u re p r e d i c ti o n a n d d r u g d e si g n .
3.2 G e n o m e p r o j ec t s - G e n er a l i n tr o d u c ti o n t o g e n o m e p r o j ec t s ( ri c e g e n o me p r o j e ct
a n d M y c o b a c t er i u m t u b e r c u l o si s g e n o me p r o j e ct ) .

3.3 S p e ci a l em p h a s is o n H u m a n G e n o m e P r o j e c t ( H G P ) – S c ie n c e b e h i n d H G P , b e n e f it s
o f H G P , E L S I o f H G P i n u se o f g e n e ti c i n f o rm a ti o n , g e n e ti c t es ti n g s t a n d a r d ,q u a li t y
a n d c o m m e r ci a li z a ti o n .
3.4 B i o l o g i c al d at a b a s e - I n t r o d u c ti o n o f d a ta b a s e ( D B ) , n e e d , o r g a n i z at i o n , s e a rc h o f
D B . A n o v e r v i e w o f b i o l o g i c al d a ta b a s e s - N C B I , E M B L , D D B J , S W I S S - P R O T ,
PD B, and KEG G .

U N IT IV : B IO IN FO R M A T IC S

4.1 Datab a s e q u e r y i n g w i t h N C B I u s i n g k e y w o r d s , s e q u e n c e s ( p r o t ei n s a n d g e n e s) ,
f i n d i n g s i m i l a ri ti e s , i d e n ti f y i n g g e n e s a n d p r o t e i n s f r o m d if f e re n t o r g a n i sm s .
4.2 S e q u e n c e a li g n m e n t - I n t r o d u ct i o n , s i g n i fi c a n c e o f s e q u e n c e a li g n m e n t s a n d u s e
o f d o t m a t ri c e s . P ai r w i s e a n d m u lt i p l e s e q u e n c e a li g n m e n t ( M S A ) u si n g C l u st a l
p r og r a m s . S e q u e n c e a n a l y s is - c o n c e p t s o f se q u e n c e a n a l y s i s a n d t h ei r im p o r ta n c e .
4.3 B L A S T – b l a s t n , b l a s t p , b l a s t x , t b la s t x , o u t p u t a n al y s is m at ri x B L O S S U M , P A M , e -
valu e.
4.4 P r o t e o m i c s - I n tr o d u c ti o n , p ri n c i p l e , t e c h n i q u e , 2 - D d at a b a s e G el a n al y s i s s o ft w a r e ,
p o st g e l a n al y s i s , M A L D I - T O F . S i g n i fi c a n c e a n d a p p li c a ti o n s o f p r o t e o m i c s i n
m o de r n b i o l o g y .

SU G G E ST E D R E A D IN G M A T E R IA L :

1. S t a t is t ic a l m e t h o d s . S . P . G u p t a
2. F u n d a m e n t al s o f m a t h em a ti c al s t at i st i cs . S . C G u p t a & K a p o o r
3. S t a t is t ic a l m e t h o d s i n b i o l o g i c al a n d H e a lt h S c i e n ce . J . S . M il t o n & J . O . T s o k a n .
4. P r i n c i p l e s o f G e n o m e A n a l y si s : a g u i d e t o m a p p i n g a n d s e q u e n ci n g D N A f r o m
d i f f er e n t o r g a n i s m s . P r i m r o s e S B . 2 n d E d . 1 9 9 8 . B l a c k w e l l S c i e n c e : O x f o r d . I S B N 0 -
632-04983-9.
5. G e n o m e M a p p i n g : A p r a c t ic a l a p p r o ac h . D e a r P ( E d i t o r ) . 1 st E d . 2 0 0 0 . O x f o r d
U n i v e r s it y P r e s s: O x f o r d , N e w Y o r k .
6. D e v e l o p i n g B i o i n f o rm a ti c s S k i ll s . A lf o n s o V al e n c i a a n d B la s c h k e . L ( 2 0 0 5 ) O r e il l e’ s
P u b l i c a ti o n .
7. B i o i n f o rm a ti c s s e q u e n c e , st r u ct u r e a n d d a t a b a n k s e d . B y D e s H i g g i n s W i l li e
T a y l o r .( 2 0 0 6 ) .
8. S t a t is t ic s m a d e s im p l e - D o i t y o u rs e l f o n P C . 2 0 0 1 B y K . V . S . S a r m a , P r i n t i ce H a l l .
9. I n t r o d u ct i o n t o B i o i n f o r m at i cs , 2 0 0 1 b y T . A . A t t w o o d a n d D . J . P a r r y sm it h . P e ar s o n
E d u c a t i o n A s i a P u bl .
1 0 . P r i n c i p l e o f B i o s t at i st i c s . 2 0 0 0 , M a r el l o P a g n o . P u b l i s h e d b y D u x b u r y , U S A .
Zoo 404: Applied Zoology

Unit I

1.1 Introduction to apiculture-Types of honey bees-hive production Identification of


different species of Honey Bees -
1.2 different types of Bee-Keeping Practices and Processing storage and quality control
measures of liquid honey
1.3 Identification of bee diseases, pests and predators and manufacture of safe drugs
for the control of bee diseases and pests.
1.4 Importance of Honey bees in agriculture, physico chemical characterization of
Indian honey, conservation of bee genetic resources. Bee keeping in India

Unit-II
2.1 Introduction to sericulture- – training and harvesting methods &Management of
mulberry field, Species of silk worm Rearing of Silk worm-mounting cocoons
production and harvesting of cocoons
2.2 Rearing of Silk worm-mounting cocoons, Diseases of silkworm and preventive
measures, sericulture management.
2.3 Pearl culture-Physical and chemical nature of pearl, Pearl producing mollusks,
rearing of oysters, nucleation for pearl formation and harvesting of pearls.
2.4 status of pearl production in India-Pearl production centres in India.
Artificial pearl production-Pearl millet production-Fresh water pearl production in
india

Unit-III
3.1 Introduction to Vermiculture-Species of earth worms used for vermicompost-
`Suitable worm species
3.2 Method of preparation of vermicompost –Advantages of vermicompost post-Role
of climate and temperature in vemicompost-operation and maintenance of
vermiculture.
3.3 Lac culture ,Hosts-Biology-Lac cultivation
3.4 Processingof Lac –Natural enemies of lac –Economic importance of Lac.

UNIT – IV Wild life Management :


4.1 Wild life in India and Schedules animals under Wild Life Act. List of Endangered
species and species on verge of Extinction in India and their Locations.
4.2 Wild life projects sponsored in India for endangered animals; Definition of
Sanctuary and National park – Wildlife Sancturies and National parks in Andhra
Pradesh – Migratory birds in India.
4.3 Wild life Habitat Components, Analysis and Methods of Evaluation: Physical and
Biological Parameters, Statistical Methods.
4.4 Wild life Act in India and Administration in Wild Life Management –
Governmental and Non-Governmental agencies in Wild life Management – Joint
Forestry Management concept in Andhra Pradesh.

References:
1. Text Book of Tropical Sericulture. Publ., Japan Overseas Corporation volunteers – 1975.
2. Silkworm Rearing Techniques in the Tropics, Dr. S. Omura, Japan International Cooperation
Agency, 1980.
3. FAO Manuals- I Mulberry cultivation. FAO Rome.
4. Boraiah, G. (1986) Mulberry Cultivation. Lectures on Sericulture.
5. Dandin et al., 1988 Bibliography on Mulberry (1900-1984) CSR & TI, (Central Silk board),
Mysore.
6. Manual on Sericulture; Food and Agriculture Organisation Rome 1976.
7. Appropriate Sericultural Techniques Ed, by M. S. Jolly Director, CSR & TI, Mysore.
8. Handbook of Practical Sericulture : S.R. Ullal and M.N. Narasimhanna CSB, Bangalore 1987.
9. Handbook of Silkworm Rearing : Agriculture and Technical Manual-1, Fuzi Pub. Co. Ltd., Tokyo,
Japan1972.
10. Manual of Silkworm Egg Production: M. N. Narasimhanna, CSB, Bangalore 1988.
11. Silkworm Rearing: Wupang—Chun and Chen Da-Chung, Pub. By FAO, Rome 1988.
12. Improved Method of Rearing Young age silkworm: S. Krishnaswamy, reprinted CSB,
Bangalore, 1986.
13. Economics of Sericulture under Irrigated Conditions: M.S. Jolly, CSR & TI, Mysore, 1982.
14. Silk from grub to Glamour: Mahesh M. Nanavathy, Pub. In Indian Paramount House, Bombay,
1965.
15. Mulberry cultivation (Vol. I) written by Zheng Ting-xing, Tan Yun-fang, Huang Guang-xian and
Ma ben. Published by: Oxford and IBH publishing Co. Pvt.Ltd., New Delhi, Bombay, Calcutta.
16. Insect Hormones, by U.J.A. Novak. Methuen and C., Canada.
17. Economics of Silk Industry, R. C. Rawlley, P. S. King and Sons Ltd., London.
18. Manual on Sericulture Silkworm Rearing, Krishnaswamy, S., Narasimhanna, M. N.,
Suryanarayan, S. K.. Kumar Raj S., FAO Agricultural Services Bulletin, AGS, ASB, Rome.
19. Silk Production, Processing and Marketing: M. M. Nanavaty, V. S. Johari, Wiley Estern Ltd.,
Ansari Road, Dariyaganj, New Delhi.
20. Principles of Sericulture: Hisao Aruga, Mohan Primlani for Oxford and IBH Publishing Co. Pvt.
Ltd., 66, Janpath, New Delhi-110001.
21. Sardar Singh. Bee keeping in India
22. Cherian and Ramanathan, S. Bee keeping in South India
23. Sharma P.L. and Singh, S.H. and Book of Bee keeping
24. Honey - A comprehensive survey - International Bee Research Association for House
- CNRC (England)
25. Roger, A. Morse, 1990. The ABC and XYZ of Bee culture, 40th edition, A.I.Root & Co.,
Medina, Ohio 44256. 516 pp.
26. Maria Haws, The Basic Methods of Pearl Farming : A Layman’s Manual.
27. George, C.D. 1967. Techniques of pearl cultivation. South Pacific Bulletin 19(4): 13-19.
28. Gervis, M.H. and N.A. Sims. 1992. The biology and culture of pearl oysters
(Bivalvia: Pteriidae).ICLARM. Manila, Philippines. 49p
29. Wada, K. 1973. Modern and Traditional methods of pearl culture. Underwater Journal
4: 28-33
30. Bhatt J.V. & S.R. Khambata (1959) “Role of Earthworms in Agriculture” Indian Council
of Agricultural Research, New Delhi.
31. Edwards, C.A. and J.R. Lofty (1977) “Biology of Earthworms” Chapman and Hall Ltd.,
London.
32. Lee, K.E. (1985) “Earthworms: Their ecology and Relationship with Soils and Land Use”
Academic Press, Sydney.
33. Kevin, A and K.E.Lee (1989) “ Earthworm for Gardeners and Fisherman” (CSIRO,
Australia, Division of Soils)
34. Satchel, J.E. (1983) “Earthworm Ecology” Chapman Hall, London.
35. Wallwork, J.A. (1983) “Earthworm Biology” Edward Arnold (Publishers) Ltd. London.
36. Lac culture in India farm information unit, DEMOFA, New Delhi, S. Krishnaswami.
37.. A text book of applied entomology- K. P. Srivastava
38.. Elements of entomology – Rajendra singh
39.. Conservation Biology , Peggy 1. Fieldler & Peter M. Kareiva,1997.
40..Environmental impact assessment & management. Editors B. BHosetti & A. Kumar, 1998,Daya
publishing House, Delhi.
41. .Wild life India – V.V.Saharia,1982, Natraco Pub., Dehradun.
V I K R A M A S I M H A P U R I U N IV E R S I T Y ::N E L L O R E
M . Sc Z O O L O G Y
P AP E R :
M O D E L Q U E S T IO N P A P E R

T IM E :3 H R S M AX M ARK S: 70

I A n s w er a n y F iv e o f th e F o llo w in g . 5 X 4 = 20M

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

II A n s w e r a n y F o u r o f th e fo llo w in g . 4 X 1 2 .5 = 5 0 M

9. (a )

(O R )

(b )
10. a)
(O R )
b)

11. a)
(O R )
b ).

12. a)
(O R )
b)