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CHAPTER II

Related Literature and Studies

This chapter provides conceptual and research literature related to: [OUTLINE

PA]

Review of Related Literature

The Political and Economic Origins

As Karl Polanyi discussed in his classic, The Great Transformation, the

economic system is embedded as a component on human culture, and like our

culture, it is in constant evolution. In fact, according to him, our ability to adapt

to changing environmental circumstances through cultural evolution is something

that most clearly distinguishes humans from other life forms. Economic, social,

and political systems, as well as technological advances, are examples of cultural

adaptations. All these systems have adapted in response to changes in the

environment, and these adaptations in turn provoke environmental change, to

which we must again adapt in a co-evolutionary process.

Hunter-Gatherer Society

For more than 90% of human history, humans thrived as small bands of

nomadic hunter-gatherers. Anthropology and archaeology together provide us

with a reasonable understanding of the hunter-gatherer economy. Rather than

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the “nasty, brutish and short” life that many imagine, early people met their

basic needs by working only a few hours a day and resources were sufficient to

provide for both young and old who contributed little to gathering food.

Small bands of hunter-gatherers would deplete local resources and then

move on to places where resources were more abundant, allowing the resource

base in the previous encampment to recover. Mobility was essential to survival,

and accumulating goods reduced mobility. Numerous chronicles by

anthropologists attest that hunter-gatherers show very little concern for material

goods, readily discarding their possessions, confident in their ability to make new

ones as needed. Property rights to land made no sense in a nomadic society, and

prior to domestication some 10,000 years ago, property rights to animal herds

were virtually impossible. Food was also shared regardless of who provided it,

perhaps partly because of technological limits. Some food simply cannot be

harvested in discrete bundles, and if hunters bring home a large game animal,

unshared food would simply rot or attract dangerous predators.

Gradually hunter-gatherer societies developed the technology to store

large quantities of food for months on end, an essential precursor to agriculture.

Agriculture ended the nomadic lifestyle for many early peoples. People began to

settle in towns or small communities, which led to greater population

concentrations than had previously been possible. The technologies of storage

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and agriculture changed the nature of property rights. Certainly agriculture itself
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made some form of property rights to land essential. Surplus production allowed

greater division of labor and specialization, which in turn led to ever-greater

production, fostering extensive trade and eventually the development of money.

Greater populations, the need to protect increasing riches against other groups,

and the need to defend property rights within the community meant more need

for government, and ruling classes developed. Ruling classes and the needs of

the state clearly had to be supported through the productive capacity of others,

which inevitably led to some sort of tax system and concentrations of wealth in

the upper echelons of the hierarchy.

The chain of evolutionary events did not end there, of course. Higher

populations and agriculture would have disrupted local ecosystems, eventually

decreasing their capacity to produce food and materials independently of

agriculture. This only increased the demands society would place on agriculture.

These demands, accompanied by a more rapid exchange of ideas in denser

communities, stimulated new technologies, such as large-scale irrigation.

Irrigation over time led to increased soil salinity, eventually reducing the capacity

of the ecosystem to sustain such high population levels without further

agricultural innovations or migration.

The Industrial Revolution

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Ever-greater surplus production, accompanied by better ships, allowed

trade on an expanding scale. Traders exchanged not only goods but also ideas,

further speeding up the rate of technological progress. Among the crucial

technological leaps was the ability to extract and use fossil fuels and other

nonrenewable mineral resources. It is no coincidence that the market economy

and fossil fuel economy emerged at essentially the same time. Trade also

allowed specialization to take place across regions, not only across individuals

within a society. Technological advance, fossil energy, and global markets laid

the groundwork for the Industrial Revolution.

The Industrial Revolution had profound impacts on the economy, society,

and the global ecosystem. For the first time, human society became largely

dependent on fossil fuels and other nonrenewable resources (partially in

response to the depletion of forests as fuel). Fossil fuels freed us from

dependence on the fixed flow of energy from the sun, but it also allowed the

replacement of both human and animal labor by chemical energy. This increased

energy allowed us ever-greater access to other raw materials as well, both

biological and mineral. New technologies and vast amounts of fossil energy

allowed unprecedented production of consumer goods. The need for new

markets for these mass-produced consumer goods and new sources of raw

material played a role in colonialism and the pursuit of empire. The market

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economy evolved as an efficient way of allocating such goods, and stimulating

the production of even more.

International trade exploded, linking countries together as never before. A

greater ability to meet basic needs, and advances in hygiene and medical

science, resulted in dramatic increases in population, whose needs were met

through greater energy use and more rapid depletion of resources. Growing

populations quickly settled the last remaining frontiers, removing the overflow

valve that had allowed populations to relocate as local resources ran out. Per-

capita consumption soared, and with it the waste output that now threatens to

degrade our ecosystems.

Era Ecological Constraint

Only with the Industrial Revolution did change really begin to accelerate

to the extent that we could notice it from one generation to the next. And much

of what the Industrial Revolution did was to increase the extraction of

nonrenewable resources, thereby increasing human material consumption. As a

result of this subsidy from nature, the general perception was that the future

would always get better, and all that was needed was more of the same. Our

response has been to use up this finite subsidy at ever greater rates, so that

now, for the first time in human history, we can dramatically change the Earth’s

˻ systems on a human time scale. In fact, it threatens to alter the ability of the
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Earth to support life. While cultures have continually and slowly evolved in

adapting to new technologies and new constraints, the unprecedented rate of

change in technology and ecological degradation means we no longer have the

luxury of biding our time. Most likely we will have to change our cultural

institutions and values in response, particularly the economic institutions and

values that have led to this state of affairs. Since there is certainly some limit to

how fast we can adapt culturally, we need also to consider seriously how to slow

down the rate of change that is forcing the adaptations. It is worth remembering

that not all change is desirable and that even desirable change can be too fast.

Sustainable Development

In an attempt to reconfigure global economic scales through the

Brundtland Report, defining it more succinctly from “Our Common Future”,

countries all across the globe agreed to streamline sustainable development.

Sustainable development is development that meets the needs of the present

without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.

It contains seventeen (17) sustainable development goals and each it has

specific targets to be achieved by 2030. The goals and targets are universal,

meaning they apply to all countries around the world, not just poor countries.

Reaching the goals requires action on all fronts – governments, businesses, civil

˻ society and people everywhere all have a role to play.


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Goal 13 which emphasizes Climate Action and encourage countries to

combat climate change and its impacts. To address climate change, countries

adopted the Paris Agreement at the COP21 in Paris. The implementation of the

Paris Agreement is essential for the achievement of the Sustainable Development

Goals, and provides a roadmap for climate actions that will reduce emissions and

build climate resilience.

The Case for Climate Justice

The disproportionate impacts of a changing climate are most clearly

illustrated by the marked increase in weather-related disasters over the past

half-century. The stories of people affected by unprecedented droughts, floods,

wildfires and other such incidents have most shaped public perceptions of the

case for climate justice. From Hurricane Katrina in the US to the flooding of the

Indus River valley in Pakistan, uncontrollable wildfires in Russia, Super typhoon

Haiyan in the Philippines and years of protracted drought in the Horn of Africa,

the stories of vulnerable and often helpless people facing increasingly dangerous

and unanticipated weather events have stirred the conscience of people around

the world.

While scientists may disagree to what extent particular events are

attributable to climatic changes, three things are clear: first, that the rate of

weather-related disasters is increasing rapidly, upsetting even the authoritative

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projections of the global insurance industry; second, that these incidents are

wholly consistent with the predictions of climate models for the behavior of a

warmer, more turbulent atmosphere; and third, that when the climate

contribution to particular weather events can be measured, the signal of global

warming consistently stands out as an essential strong contributing factor.

The 2007 UN Human Development Report revealed that one out of every

19 people in the so-called developing world was affected by a climate- related

disaster between 2000 and 2004, compared to one out of every 1500 people in

the OECD countries. A 2009 Oxfam study found that of nearly 250 million people

who are now affected by natural disasters every year, 98 percent of them are

falling victim to climate-related events such as floods and droughts. They predict

that this could increase to over 375 million people per year as soon as 2015.

Columbia University’s International Earth Science Information Network predicts

that by 2050 the world will see as many as 700 million climate refugees. The

IPCC’s ongoing assessment of current climate research has confirmed these

realities, while summarizing numerous studies of the potential impacts of

observed trends. Their 2007 report predicted a worldwide decrease in crop

productivity if global temperatures rise more than 3 degrees Celsius, and that

crop yields from rain-fed agriculture could be reduced by half as early as 2020.

Current climate trends would expose between 75 million and 250 million people

˻ to “increased water stress” in Africa alone.


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A study by Rafael Reuveny of Indiana University, examined 38 cases over

seven decades where populations were forced to migrate due to a combination

of environmental and other factors. Half of these cases led to violent conflict

between the migrating populations and those in the host areas. Reuveny points

out that those who depend the most on the environment to sustain their

livelihood, especially in regions where arable land and fresh water are scarce, are

most likely to be forced to migrate when faced with rapid and unplanned-for

climate changes. Journalist Christian Parenti’s book, Tropic of Chaos, offers a

particularly graphic, on-the-ground tour of climate-exacerbated conflicts

throughout Africa, Asia and Latin America, illustrating what he describes as “the

catastrophic convergence of poverty, violence and climate change.”

Outlining a Rights-Based Approach to Climate Change

As the Human Rights Council (HRC) has stressed, it is critical to apply a

human rights-based approach to guide global policies and measures designed to

address climate change. The essential attributes to a human rights-based

approach are the following:

• As policies and programmes are formulated, the main objective should

be to fulfil human rights.

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• The rights-holders and their entitlements must be identified as well as

the corresponding duty-bearers and their obligations in order to find ways to

strengthen the capacities of rights-holders to make their claims and of duty-

bearers to meet their obligations.

• Principles and standards derived from international human rights law –

especially the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and the core universal

human rights treaties, should guide all policies and programming in all phases of

the process.

The Universal Declaration on Human Rights, the Vienna Declaration and

Programme of Action, the Declaration on the Right to Development, the 2030

Agenda for Sustainable Development, the UN Common Understanding of a

Human Rights-Based Approach to Development Cooperation and other

instruments emphasize that human rights principles like universality and

inalienability, indivisibility, interdependence and interrelatedness, non-

discrimination and equality, participation and inclusion, accountability, and the

rule of law must guide development. They outline a conceptual framework for

development that has international human rights standards at its centre and the

ultimate objective of fulfilling all human rights for all. The rights-based approach

analyses obligations, inequalities and vulnerabilities, and seeks to redress

discriminatory practices and unjust distributions of power. It anchors plans,


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policies and programmes in a system of rights, and corresponding obligations

established by international law.

Human rights obligations apply to the goals and commitments of States in

the area of climate change and require that climate actions should focus on

protecting the rights of those most vulnerable to climate change. Human rights

principles articulated in the Declaration on the Right to Development and other

instruments call for such climate action to be both individual and collective and

for it to benefit the most vulnerable. The United Nations Framework Convention

on Climate Change (UNFCCC) further elaborates upon the need for equitable

climate action calling for States to address climate change in accordance with

their common but differentiated responsibilities and respective capabilities in

order to benefit present and future generations.

Existing State commitments require international cooperation, including

financial, technological and capacity-building support, to realise low-carbon,

climate-resilient, and sustainable development, while also rapidly reducing

greenhouse gas emissions. Only by integrating human rights in climate actions

and policies and empowering people to participate in policy formulation can

States promote sustainability and ensure the accountability of all duty-bearers for

their actions. This, in turn, will promote consistency, policy coherence and the

enjoyment of all human rights. Such an approach should be part of any climate
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change adaptation or mitigation measures, such as the promotion of alternative

energy sources, forest conservation or tree-planting projects, resettlement

schemes and others. Affected individuals and communities must participate,

without discrimination, in the design and implementation of these projects.

States should cooperate to address the global effects of climate change on the

enjoyment of human rights around the world in a manner that emphasizes

climate justice and equity.

A human rights-based approach also calls for accountability and

transparency. It is not only States that must be held accountable for their

contributions to climate change but also businesses which have the responsibility

to respect human rights and do no harm in the course of their activities. States

should make their adaptation and mitigation plans publicly available, and be

transparent in the manner in which such plans are developed and financed.

Accurate and transparent measurements of greenhouse gas emissions, climate

change and its impacts, including human rights impacts, will be essential for

successful rights-based climate change mitigation and adaptation efforts.

Because of the impacts of climate change on human rights, States must

effectively address climate change in order to honour their commitment to

respect, protect and fulfil human rights for all. Since climate change mitigation

and adaptation measures can have human rights impacts; all climate change-

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related actions must also respect, protect, promote and fulfil human rights

standards.

Principle of Climate Justice

In seeking through the mission to realise the vision of a world engaged in

the delivery of climate justice climate action is propounded by the Mary Robinson

Foundation to be informed the following core principles.

1. Respect and Protect Human Rights. The international rights framework

provides a reservoir for the supply of legal imperatives with which to

frame morally appropriate responses to climate change, rooted in equality

and justice. The idea of human rights point societies towards

internationally agreed values around which common action can be

negotiated and then acted upon. Human rights yardsticks deliver valuable

minimal thresholds, legally defined, about which there is widespread

consensus. The guarantee of basic rights rooted in respect for the dignity

of the person which is at the core of this approach makes it an

indispensable foundation for action on climate justice.


2. Support the Right to Development. The vast gulf in resources between

rich and poor, evident in the gap between countries in the North and

South and also within many countries (both North and South) is the

deepest injustice of our age. This failure of resource-fairness makes it

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impossible for billions of humans to lead decent lives, the sort of life-

opportunities that a commitment to true equality should make an absolute

essential. Climate change both highlights and exacerbates this gulf in

equality. It also provides the world with an opportunity. Climate change

highlights our true interdependence and must lead to a new and

respectful paradigm of sustainable development, based on the urgent

need to scale up and transfer green technologies and to support low

carbon climate resilient strategies for the poorest so that they become

part of the combined effort in mitigation and adaptation.


3. Share Benefits and Burdens Equitably . The benefits and burdens

associated with climate change and its resolution must be fairly allocated.

This involves acceptance of common but differentiated responsibilities and

respective capabilities in relation to reduction of greenhouse gas

emissions. Those who have most responsibility for greenhouse gas

emissions and most capacity to act must cut emissions first. In addition,

those who have benefited and still benefit from emissions in the form of

on-going economic development and increased wealth, mainly in

industrialised countries, have an ethical obligation to share benefits with

those who are today suffering from the effects of these emissions, mainly

vulnerable people in developing countries. People in low income countries

must have access to opportunities to adapt to the impacts of climate

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change and embrace low carbon development to avoid future

environmental damage.
4. Ensure that Decisions on Climate Change are Participatory, Transparent

and Accountable. The opportunity to participate in decision-making

processes which are fair, accountable, open and corruption-free is

essential to the growth of a culture of climate justice. The voices of the

most vulnerable to climate change must be heard and acted upon. A basic

of good international practice is the requirement for transparency in

decision-making, and accountability for decisions that are made. It must

be possible to ensure that policy developments and policy implementation

in this field are seen to be informed by an understanding of the needs of

low income countries in relation to climate justice, and that these needs

are adequately understood and addressed. Decisions on policies with

regard to climate change taken in a range of fora from the UNFCCC to

trade, human rights, business, investment and development must be

implemented in a way that is transparent and accountable: poverty can

never be an alibi for government failure in this sphere.


5. Highlight Gender Equality and Equity . The gender dimension of climate

change, and in turn climate justice, must be highlighted. The impacts of

climate changes are different for women and men, with women likely to

bear the greater burden in situations of poverty. Women’s voices must be

˻ heard and their priorities supported as part of climate justice. In many


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countries and cultures, women are at the forefront of living with the

reality of the injustices caused by climate change. They are critically

aware of the importance of climate justice in contributing to the right to

development being recognized and can play a vital role as agents of

change within their communities.


6. Harness the Transformative Power of Education for climate stewardship.

The transformative power of education under-pins other principles,

making their successful adoption more likely and inculcating into cultures

a deeper awareness of human rights and climate justice than is presently

to be found. To achieve climate stabilisation will necessitate radical

changes in lifestyle and behaviour and education has the power to equip

future generations with the skills and knowledge they will need to thrive

and survive. As well as being a fundamental human right which is already

well developed in the international framework of rights referred to above,

education is indispensable to the just society. It draws those in receipt of

it towards a fuller understanding of the world about them, deepening their

awareness both of themselves and of those around them. Done well, it

invites reflection on ethics and justice that make the well-educated also

good citizens, both of their home state and (in these global times) of the

world as well. Delivered in an effective multi-disciplinary school, college or

university environmental education can increase consciousness of climate

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change, producing new insights not only at the scientific but also at the

sociological and political level. Education is also achievable outside the

formal system, through public and, increasingly, virtual (i.e. web-based)

activity. The learning required to see climate change in justice terms

cannot be done at the schools and university alone: it is a life-long

responsibility and therefore a commitment.


7. Use Effective Partnerships to Secure Climate Justice . The principle of

partnership points in the direction of solutions to climate change that is

integrated both within states and across state boundaries. Climate justice

requires effective action on a global scale which in turn requires a pooling

of resources and a sharing of skills across the world. The nation state may

remain the basic building block of the international system but without

openness to coalitions of states and corporate interests and elements

within civil society as well, the risk is that the whole house produced by

these blocks will be rendered uninhabitable. Openness to partnership is a

vital aspect of any coherent approach to climate change, and in the name

of climate justice, this must also involve partnership with those most

affected by climate change and least able adequately to deal with it – the

poor and under-resourced. These principles are rooted in the frameworks

of international and regional human rights law and do not require the

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breaking of any new ground on the part of those who ought, in the name

of climate justice, to be willing to take them on.

Progressive Recognition of Human Rights

A. Recognition of Human Rights Obligations Relating to the Environment.

The core international human rights treaties do not recognize a

freestanding right to a clean environment. However, it is generally understood

that inadequate environmental conditions can undermine the effective enjoyment

of other enumerated rights, such as the rights to life, health, water, and food.

Some of the UN human rights treaties explicitly recognize this link. The ICESCR,

for example, directs states to adopt measures as may be necessary for the

“improvement of all aspects of environmental and industrial hygiene” in order to

fully realize the right to health. The Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC)

directs states to account for the “dangers and risks of environmental pollution” to

ensure full implementation of the right to health for children. In addition, the

1972 Stockholm Declaration recognized that there is “a fundamental right to

freedom, equality and adequate conditions of life, in an environment of a quality

that permits a life of dignity and well-being.” While this declaration apparently

recognizes a right to an adequate environment, it lacks the force of a binding

treaty. Nonetheless, as noted by the Office of the UN High Commissioner for

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Human Rights (OHCHR), this declaration reflects a “general recognition of the

interdependence and interrelatedness of human rights and environment.”

OHCHR’s conclusion is supported by the UN Independent Expert on Human

Rights and the Environment’s 2013 mapping report, which concluded that

“Human rights law includes obligations relating to the environment” that include

both procedural obligations and substantive obligations. Finally, the right to a

clean environment has either been expressly included in or interpreted as a

fundamental component of many regional human rights agreements and national

constitutions.

B. Recognition of Human Rights Obligations Relating to Climate Change.

Two key events sparked a searching international dialogue on human

rights and climate change. First, in December 2005, the Chair of the Inuit

Circumpolar Conference (ICC) submitted a petition to the Inter-American

Commission on Human Rights (IACHR) requesting relief for human rights

violations resulting from the impacts of global warming and climate change. The

petition specifically alleged that the United States—the largest cumulative emitter

of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions to date—had violated the Inuit’s human

rights by failing to adopt adequate GHG controls. Although the IACHR never

issued a decision, the petition did succeed in drawing public attention to the

severe effects of global warming on the Inuit and sparking further dialogue

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about the human rights implications of climate change. Second, in November

2007, the Small Island Developing States (SIDS) adopted the Male’ Declaration

on the Human Dimension of Global Climate Change. The Male’ Declaration was

the first international agreement to explicitly recognize that “climate change has

clear and immediate implications for the full enjoyment of human rights.” It also

called upon the Conference of the Parties (COP) to the UNFCCC and the UN

human rights bodies to launch a collaborative process for assessing the human

rights implications of climate change. That same month, OHCHR issued a public

statement for the Bali Climate Change Conference (COP-13) acknowledging that

“climate change can adversely affect the fundamental human rights of present

and future generations” and reminding the COP that governments have both

moral and legal obligations to protect and promote basic human rights when

tackling climate change. Responding to the Male’ Declaration, the UN Human

Rights Council (UNHRC) issued a 2008 resolution, expressing concern that

climate change “poses an immediate and far-reaching threat to people and

communities around the world and has implications for the full enjoyment of

human rights,” and directing OHCHR to conduct a “detailed analytical study of

the relationship between climate change and human rights” in consultation with

states and other relevant international organizations and intergovernmental

bodies.

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Challenging Fossil Fuels and the False Solutions

It is true that movements for climate justice do not claim a unified political

strategy, however, their praxis to date clearly fall into three main arenas:

strategic interventions at the annual negotiations carried out under the UN’s

Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC); challenges to the

expanding extraction of fossil fuels; and a variety of efforts to expose corporate-

driven “false solutions” to the climate crisis. Even as fossil fuel companies and

other transnational corporate interests underwrite efforts to deny the reality of

global climate disruptions, they have simultaneously aimed to influence the

debate over climate solutions.

Several sectors of the global energy industry have proposed technological

and policy measures purported to address the climate situation while assuring

their continued hegemonic role in the global economy. Campaigns to challenge

the false solutions to climate change focus mainly on these corporate initiatives.

The false solutions framework has engaged those who identify with the

messages of climate justice in opposition to a new generation of energy

megaprojects, as well as the global proliferation of carbon markets and a variety

of proposed geo-engineering schemes.

The petroleum industry’s most aggressive measures, however, are more

closely linked to their support for climate change denial. With oil prices rising and

˻ conventional reserves rapidly dwindling, the industry is pursuing


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technologies to extract oil and gas from increasingly inaccessible and hazardous

locations, including deep beneath the oceans, once-impervious geological

formations, and tar sands deposits from Alberta, Canada to the Congo Basin.

These projects have sparked widespread opposition from the people most

affected by these projects, including Inuit communities near the shores of the

Arctic Ocean, Cree people in central Alberta, and people living in the vicinity of

major shale formations that have shown to be lucrative sources of oil or gas

when subjected to the high-pressure injections of water and chemicals known as

hydrofracturing, or “fracking.” Campaigns in solidarity with those most affected

by these most extreme forms of energy development have engaged people

throughout the world in recent years.

False solutions to the climate crisis include a variety of technologies that

are claimed to expand energy supplies without increasing greenhouse gas

emissions, as well as market-oriented policy measures such as carbon markets

and offsets that aim to substitute for regulations against pollution. Technological

false solutions include the expansion of nuclear power, which was widely

advocated before Fukushima and will likely be considered again in the near

future. Indigenous inhabitants of areas known to be rich in uranium, including

the US Southwest and central Canada, are organizing against the expansion of

mining in their territories. The false promise of “carbon capture and storage”

˻ from new coal-fired power plants is another important focus, as a new


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generation of purportedly “capture-ready” coal plants has been proposed in

many countries, despite a scientific consensus that reliable underground carbon

capture is many decades away, at best. Local activists tied to the Sierra Club

have reportedly halted the construction of 132 new coal plants in the US in

recent years. While utilities claim that new coal plants will replace older, less

efficient ones and thus reduce the climate impact of US electricity production,

activists argue that new construction will sustain the economy’s dependence on

coal far into the future.

In many countries, opposition to industrial-scale plantations for biofuel –

more appropriately “agrofuel” – production is a central focus of resistance.

Expansion of soya, maize and sugarcane fields for fuel production encroaches on

traditional land uses and contributes to ongoing food shortages, while scientists

increasingly question whether there is any climate advantage to burning

agrofuels instead of gasoline. The challenge to land rights is most acute in South

America – where native forests and grasslands, as well as traditional

polycultures, are being plowed under to facilitate a massive expansion of soy

production – as well as in Africa and Southeast Asia, where rainforests and

pasture lands are overrun by expanding palm oil plantations. The Global Forest

Coalition and World Rainforest Movement, among others, have brought

international attention to people’s movements challenging these rapidly

˻ expanding agrofuel monocultures. The same regions of the world also face a
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new generation of massive hydroelectric dams, including projects in uniquely

endangered areas such as the Amazon basin. For example, indigenous and

fishing peoples have repeatedly attempted to block the construction of a new

dam on Brazil’s legendary Xingu River; when developers built an initial barrier to

begin obstructing the river, opponents blocked roads and hand-dug a trench to

free the river once again.

On the policy front, campaigners for climate justice have led the

environmental opposition to the expansion of carbon markets, along with several

newer schemes that further commodify nature. Climate justice activists tend to

view tradable emissions permits as a boon to corporations seeking to postpone

investments in energy-saving technologies, while simultaneously creating a new

property right to pollute the atmosphere. The consistent over-allocation of

permits has allowed politically powerful corporations to exceed legislated “caps”

on emissions with ease. One significant impetus for the creation of Climate

Justice Now was the advocacy in favor of carbon markets by several larger

environmental NGOs, represented at the UN climate conferences as the Climate

Action Network (CAN). CAN describes itself as a broadly inclusive alliance

working toward “the coordinated development of NGO strategy on international,

regional, and national climate issues,” and boasts a network of 700 international

organizations, both large and small.

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Despite widespread opposition, and mirroring the predictions of many

market skeptics, UN negotiators continue to expand the scope of pollution

markets beyond the trading of permits to emit carbon dioxide. The Indigenous

Environmental Network has been in the forefront of organizing global opposition

to an enhanced offset scheme aimed to address deforestation, which is

responsible for up to 25% of global greenhouse gas emissions. This plan, known

as REDD (Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation) has

encouraged new proposals for tradable biodiversity credits, clean water credits,

and other novel market-oriented measures.

CHAPTER III

Research Design and Methodology

Chapter 3 consists of four parts; (1) Research Design, (2) Methodology,

(3) Data Analysis Procedure, (4) Validity of Research.

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Part one, Research Design, discusses the nature of the study.

Part two, Methodology, includes the sources of data and the procedures

the research used to conduct the study.

Part three, Data Analysis Procedure, elaborates the steps in the analysis of

the data gathered.

Part four, Validity of Research, explains the theories used in the study to

validate research.

Research Design

This study is an attempt to explore the political economy factors that

influence patterns of decision making and how these influences forge climate

policies grounded on rights for a more equitable global community. It is guided

by a qualitative research design. Qualitative research is a multi-method in focus,

involving an interpretative; naturalistic approach to its subject matter. Thus, this

study aimed to discuss things in the natural setting, attempting to make sense

of, or interpret a phenomena in terms of the meaning people bring to them

(Denzin and Lincoln, 2004).

This study used collective/multiple case study for it provides an in-depth

analysis of the political-economic processes. It is not aimed to analyze cases

alone, but to define it and explore setting in order to understand it (Cousin,

2005). It is bounded by time and activity, and the researcher collected detailed

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information using a variety of data collection procedures over a sustained period

of time (Stake, 1995; Yin, 2009, 2012). The researcher studied multiple cases to

understand the differences and the similarities between the cases (Baxter &

Jack, 2008; Stake, 1995).

Moreover, according to Solberg Soilen & Huber (2006), case studies are to

produce background material to a discussion about a concrete problem. It excels

at bringing us to an understanding of a complex issue or object and can extend

experience or add strength to what is already known through previous research.

Methodology

Data Sources

The researcher used secondary data by employing desk research. Desk

research is the collection of data from internal sources, the internet, libraries,

government agencies, and published reports.

In this study, the researcher primarily took secondary data for the three

(3) jurisdictions under study. These data involving key policies, structure of

government, level of accountability, public awareness, and the like were taken

from online journals, government websites, international bodies, and other online

publication.

Data Gathering Procedure

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All secondary data were manually gathered by the researcher by visiting

government websites, online journals, UN websites….. MS Word and MS Excel

were simultaneously used by the researcher in encoding and storing data.

The period by which the data were retrieved was from June 2017 to

January 2018.

Data Analysis

The researcher used framework analysis in the process of reducing data.

This process seeks to examine the researchers’ findings with a pre-defined

framework, which reflect their aims, objectives and interests (Pope, C., Ziebland,

S., and Mays, N. 2000). This involves a five step process: familiarization;

identifying a thematic framework; indexing; charting; and mapping and

interpretation (Ritchie & Spencer, 1994).

Familiarization

It is the process during which the researcher becomes familiarized with

the data collected and gains an overview of it (Ritchie & Spencer, 1994).

Throughout this process the researcher will become aware of key ideas and

recurrent themes and make a note of them.

In this study, the researcher became immersed in the data by studying

and reading through all researched material. The researcher jotted down notes

˻ to take good account of the literature and researches.


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Identifying a thematic framework

The researcher recognizes emerging themes or issues in the data set. It is

at this stage that the researcher must allow the data to dictate the themes and

issues. To achieve this end the researcher uses the notes taken during the

familiarization stage (Ritchie & Spencer, 1994).

In this study, the researcher used a priori themes and identified emerging

key issues, concepts and themes that have been expressed in the gathered data

which now form the basis of a thematic framework that can be used to filter and

classify the data further.

Indexing

It is that part of data analysis when the researcher identifies portions or

sections of the data that correspond to a particular theme (Ritchie & Spencer,

1994).

In this study, the researcher identified data matching a specific

theme by making labels and marginal comment to sections. These step allowed

the researcher to sort data that would not be hand.

Charting

Specific pieces of data that were indexed in the previous stage are now

arranged in charts of the themes. This means that the data is lifted from its

˻ original textual context and placed in charts that consist of the headings and
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subheadings that were drawn during the thematic framework, or from a priori

research inquiries or in the manner that is perceived to be the best way to report

the research (Ritchie & Spencer, 1994).

In this study, the researcher organized the data into single set to reflect

defined themes for the study. MS Excel file was used to facilitate better charting

of data relevant to each theme.

Mapping and interpretation

It involves the analysis of the key characteristics as laid out in the charts.

This analysis should be able to provide a schematic diagram of the

event/phenomenon thus guiding the researcher in their interpretation of the data

set

Validity of Research

Theory Triangulation

Theoretical triangulation is defined as the use of multiple theories in the

same study for the purpose of supporting or refuting findings since different

theories help the researcher see the problem using multiple lenses (Denzin,

1970, Thurmond, 2001). Both related and/or competing theories can be used in

formulating hypothesis for the purpose of providing broader and deeper

understanding of research problem at hand (Banik, 1993).

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Theory triangulation involves the use of multiple perspectives to interpret

a single set of data. This method typically entails using professionals outside of a

particular field of study. One popular approach is to bring together people from

different disciplines; in theory, it is believed that individuals from different

disciplines or positions bring different perspectives. Therefore if each evaluator

from the different disciplines interprets the information in the same way, the

validity is established.

In this study, the researcher used three theories to determine prevailing

outcomes that can help in formulating the study’s core idea. Using the theories

of Rational Choice, Common Pool Resources, and Two-Level Game, anchored

from different disciplines, the researcher interpreted a single set of data through

cross verification to determine significant phenomenon.

CHAPTER IV

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Movements for climate justice continue to be multifaceted, and draw upon


a perhaps unprecedented diversity of perspectives and strategies. In many ways,
their diversity is their greatest strength, given the multiplicity of peoples affected
by extreme weather and increasing climate chaos, as well as the need to develop
appropriate strategies for a wide variety of political contexts. But the climate
crisis is also inherently global in scope, and the lack of progress toward global
reductions in greenhouse pollution speaks to the need for ever greater

˻ coordination, determination, and commonality of vision.


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As awareness grows of increasingly erratic and extreme weather patterns
throughout the world, the social justice dimensions of the climate crisis have
proved increasingly difficult to overlook.

Theory Discussion

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This graphic by John Cook from "Consensus on Consensus" by Cook et al. (2016)
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uses pie charts to illustrates the results of seven climate consensus studies
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by Naomi Oreskes, Peter Doran, William Anderegg, Bart Verheggen, Ed Maibach,
J. Stuart Carlton, and John Cook

Source: IPCC (2014) based on global emissions from 2010

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Source: Boden, T.A., Marland, G., and Andres, R.J. (2017)

CHAPTER V

SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, IMPLICATIONS, AND RECOMMENDATIONS

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Climate justice activists’ involvement at the UN level has helped forge
unique and encouraging alliances among people and organizations throughout
the world, but the 2011 Durban Platform’s deferral of new mitigation measures
until 2020 at the earliest helped further a lingering crisis of confidence in the
entire process. The delay could spell a “death sentence for Africa, small island
states, and the poor and vulnerable worldwide,” in the words of Friends of the
Earth International chair Nnimmo Bassey, and increasing “climate racism,
ecocide, and genocide,” according to IEN’s Tom Goldtooth.Perhaps the
movement’s best hope lies in the combination of rising climate militancy in the
North and the increasing international visibility of struggles in the South. Short of
a comprehensive strategy to overturn the stalemate in global negotiations – in
turn a product of the political hegemony of fossil fuel interests – South African
analyst and activist Patrick Bond suggests that:

“we should remind ourselves of the most important features of a future


climate justice politics: in thinking locally, nationally and globally, and also
acting in each sphere with the appropriate analysis, strategies, tactics and
alliances.”

Humanity’s future may rest on that somewhat tentative but undoubtedly


essential prospect.

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