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1 IN T R O D U C T IO N I
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1 .0 . P a n in i, th e a u th o r o f th e A s ta d h y a y i.
P a n in i (P) h a s a t t r a c t e d th e a t t e n t i o n o f th e w e s te rn an d n a tiv e l i n g u i s t s , in t h i s c e n ­
tu r y by th e A s ta d h y a y i ( A s t) , h is c o m p o sitio n p a r - e x c e lle n c e , in th e S a n s k r it gram m ar. The
p r in c ip le s e s ta b lis h e d by h im , may be u s e f u l to a n a ly s e th e la n g u a g e ; th e w o rd , th e s e n te n c e
1
an d th e r e l a t i o n b etw een th e m .
1 .1 . D ata c o n c e rn in g th e l i f e o f P a n in i.
The l i f e h is to r y o f P , th e s o o th in g moon o f th e sk y o f S a n s k r it l i t e r a t u r e i s l o s t in
th e womb o f m y s te rio u s c lo u d s . V et he an d
w ill c o n tin u e to re m a in a l i v s f o r c e n tu ­
is a liv e
r i e s to come th ro u g h h is e x c e ll e n t w o rk , th e A s t. Very l i t t l e in f o r m a tio n a b o u t P 's l i f e i s
a v a ila b le , so we h av e to d ep en d upon some le g e n d a ry t a l a s an d q u o ta tio n s o f S a n s k r it w r ite r s
a b o u t P 's life .
1 .1 .1 . L e g e n d a ry t a l e s .
P h a s becom e an i n t e r e s t i n g c h a r a c te r o f soma le g e n d s . A c c o rd in g to th e K a th a s a r its a g a -
ra o f Som adeva and th e B rh a d k a th S m a n ja ri o f K sem en d ra, b o th th e S a n s k r it v e r s io n s o f th e
B rh a tk a th a o f G unadhya, o r i g i n a l l y w r it te n in P a is a c i, P was a d u ll s tu d e n t o f V arsa an d
a c q u ire d k n ow led g e by th e w o rsh ip o f S iv a . A c c o rd in g to th e s e W o rk s, he was a t th e c o u rt o f
2
th e E m peror o f th e Nanda d y n a sty an d a f r ie n d to th e E m p e ro r, The M a n ju s rim u la k a lp a , a

I
Budhist work in Sanskrit, of about 8th century supports P ’s friendship with the Emperor of
3
the Nanda dynasty. According to a well known stanza of Nandika^vara , P worshiped Lord Siva

for a long time to get the better of Kltyayana (Rat) uho uas a rival in his study. Lord
4
Siva became pleased and blessed him with 14 groups of sound. One more legend says, P and
Kat were studying in Taxila from Acarya Varsa. The beautiful daughter of Var§a chose Kit

as her mate. So P being disheartened tried to commit suicide. Lord Siva saved him from that
5
and blessed him uith knowledge, A south Indian legend says that once in the marriage of
"Siva, P and Kit were seated right, and left side of Siva respectively. Lord Siva gave 14
6
groups of sound to P and to Agatsya/ the Tamila grammar. P was killed by a lion according
v, 7
to the Pancatantra. However romantic and interesting these legendary tales are, they seldorr

provide us with reliable sources and historical facts about P ’s life.

8
1.2, As some authorities say, P was a maternal cousin to Vyadi, the author of the Samgraha.
The name of P ’s mother was Daksi and so he uas named Daksiputra/The references of Daksip-
, _ ‘ J"V_- 9
utra as the name of P are often found in MBh, Slokatmaka-Paniniya^iksa etc and Vyadi is
10 '

referred to as Daksayana, a patronymic name. But Vyadi as a maternal uncle of P is not


* '11 ^ 12
accepted by some scholars. K.V. Abhyankara dates Vyidi after P and before Patanjali.

1.3. P issaid to be the elder brother of Pingala, the author of Pihgalasutra , the work on
_ ^yo.
Sanskrit prosody. The commentator of Katyaniyarksarvanukramapi f Sadgurusisya refers to
-* 13 _ ~
Pingala as the younger- brother to P in his commentary Vedarthadipika. The Slokatmakapanini-
14
yya'siksl also believes so. But ue can not accept any relation between them, until!', us do

not get soma reliable proof.


1 .4 . The D am bavativijaya or P a ta la v ija y a is a s c rib e d to P but i t is obvious th a t i t i s a
co m p o sitio n bye la te r w r ite r . He may be P but o th e r th a n our P th e a u th o r o f th e A st.
„ _ _ J _ _ 15
S rid h a ra d a s a , in th e S a d u k tik a rn a m rta , an an th o lo g y in tro d u c e s P a s D ak sip u tra and p o e t.
R a ja se k h a ra , th e a u th o r o f th e S u k tim u k tlv a li say s th a t P f i r s t l y composed grammar and
- 16
th en th e D am bavativi ja y a , th e poem. Ksemendra sin g s h is p ra is e e s p e c ia lly fo r u p a ja ti
17 ^ _
m etre in th e S u v r tta tila k a , th e book on S a n s k rit p ro so d y . K s itis a c a n d ra CattopsTdhyaya
d isc u sse d th is m a tte r in d e ta il and th o u g h t th a t th e D am bavativijaya is a co m p o sitio n of
18
Bth to 9 th cen tu ry and i t is to ta lly im ag in ary to th in k th a t P is a p o e t. RBh, in one o f
th e k a rik a s , u ses th e word "K avi ” fo r P b u t K aiy ata and N agoji ta k e th e word "K avi" fo r
19
’'m ed h av l", th e in te llig e n t.

1 .5 . As quoted su p ra , th e name o f P ’ s te a c h e r was Uarsa and MBh and K ls. g iv e th e name o f


20 * ^
K autsa a s h is d is c ip le . Kas r e f e r s to two ty p es o f h is d is c ip le s i . e . p u rv ap an in iy a and
_21
a p a ra p a n in iy a . Thus it is q u ite c le a r th a t he would have ta u g h t h is grammar to number o f
s tu d e n ts .
1 .6 . In th e S a n s k rit le x ic o n s , P 's names a re given a s P in in i, A h ik a, "S alan k i, D ak sip u tra
J2.2 _ _23
and S a la tu riy a . He known
a s S u tra k a ra . Among th e s e names, P a p in i is h is p atro n y m ic
is a ls o
name and is ex p lain ed by K aiy ata a s p an in o 'p aty am i t i an p ln in a h , papinasy apatyam y u v e ti
s - * 24*
in p a n in i£ b u t th is etynrology is not a c c e p te d by a l l s c h o la rs .
25
1 .7 . The sc h o la rs have given th e d if f e r e n t o p in io n s ab o u t P ’ s tim e . Gold S tu c k e r, R.G
26 27
B h an d arkar, %,B» P a th a k , e tc p u t P in th e 7 th c e n tu ry BC. D r. D.R. B h a n d a rk a r's re v is e d
4 .
28 29 1
o p in io n is th a t he
flo u ris h e d in th e m iddle o f 6 th c e n tu ry BC. A ccording to M acdonell, he
30
liv e d in th e 5 th c e n tu ry BC. B o h tlin g k b e lie v e s th a t he b elo n g s to 350 BC p ro b a b ly . D r.V .S .
Hr
A graval d isc u sse d th is p o in t in d e ta il and a rriv e d a t th e c o n c lu sio n th a t P liv e d in th e m
31 *
m iddle o f th s 5 th c e n tu ry BC and we a c c e p t h is o p in io n ab o u t h is tim e .

1 .8 . P is b e lie v e d to be th e in h a b ita n t o f n o rth -w e st In d ia . One o f P ’ s nam es, S ila tu r iy a


32
is concerned w ith h is n a tiv e p la c e and id e n tif ie d w ith Lahaur by Gunningham, In th e days of
< - 33
Hiuen T sang, S a la tu ra was a p ro sp ero u s tow n. P h im se lf r e f e r s to th e word S a litu ra in IV .
i i i .9 4 Vardhamana, in h is G anarathnam ahodadhi, Bhamaha in th e K a v y a la n k lra , Bhoja in th e <tl

‘ ~ - -3 4 U
S a ra sv a tik a n th a b h a ra n a id e n tify P a s S a la tu r iy a . A ccording to U eber, P belongs to th e Vahika «
c o u n try , S alan k i is one o f h is names and re la te d w ith th e Vahika c o u n try . Taking th e above
m entioned f a c ts in c o n s id e ra tio n , we may f a ir ly conclude th a t P most p ro b ab ly b elo n g ed to
th e n o rth -w e st p a rt of In d ia . I
2 .0 . P a n in i and h is p re d e c e sso rs - l
P
m entions 10 gram m arians a s h is p re d e c e sso rs by name in th e A st. They a re A p is a li,
l
_ ,, ^ '3 6

K asyapa, G argya, G alav a, Cakra varm an , B h a ra d v ija , S a k a tay a n a , S a k a ly a , Senka and S p h o tay an a.
|
A ccording to th e com m entators, P m entions th e name o f th e s e gram m arians to in d ic a te th a t th e §
o p e ra tio n s in q u e stio n a re o p tio n a l. But when th e ru le c o n ta in s b o th th e name o f a gramma­
ria n and th e word show ing o p tio n i . e . vS e tc , P m en tio n s such a name fo r h o n o ris causa
3?
(p u ja rth a ) . But some modern sc h o la rs b e lie v e th a t P w ants to n o te th e d iffe re n c e s in usage
and to make th e ru le o p tio n a l a c c o rd in g to th a t gram m arian, when he m entions th e name o f a
25* '
*
: 5 :
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gram m arian alo n g w ith th e word (via
e tc ) showing o p tio n . W ithout g iv in g th e name, P m entions
udicam (o f n o rth e rn e rs ), pracam (o f e a s te rn e rs ) and acaryanam (o f th e te a c h e rs , i . e . gramm­
a ria n s ) some s c h o la rs b e lie v e th a t th e words udicam e tc r e f e r to th e a re a in which c e r ta in
usage is found and a ls o to sch o o ls o f gram m arians. W hile, a c c o rd in g to some s c h o la rs , th e
ru le s c o n ta in in g th e names of gram m arians and th e words showing o p tio n re fe r n o t to sc h o o ls
39
b u t to d ia le c ta l u sa g e s.

2 .1 . The occurance o f th e names o f P ’ s p re d e c e sso rs in th e Agt is lis te d h ere in th e San- f/W


s k r it a lp h a b e tic o rd a r.
( 1) A p is a li - V I.i.9 2 . (p u ja rth a )
(2) K isyapa - I . i i . 2 5 . (p u ja rth a ) A lso w ith Gargya & Galava V I I I .iv . 6 7 . (p u ja rth a )
(3) rG ||y a - V III . i i i .2 0 . (p u jirth a ) a ls o w ith G ilava v id e - VII . i i i .9 9 . (p u ja rth a )

(4) Galava - VI . i i i . 6 1 . (p u ja rth a ), V I.i.7 4 . (v ib h a s a rth a ), a ls o w ith Gargya vidd


X V I I . i i i . 99. (p u ja rth a )
(5) Cakravarm an - V I .i. 130 (v ib h a sa rth a )
(6 ) B hardvaja - V I I .ii.6 3 . (v ib h a sa rth a )
(7) Vakatayana- I I I . i v . 111. (v ib h a sa rth a ) , V I I I . i i i . 18. (p u ja rth a ), V III. iv . 50. (piljartha)

(8) S akalya > 1 .1 .1 6 . (v ib h a s a rth a ), V I .i. 127. (p u ja rth a ), V I I I . i i i . 19. (v ib h is irth a ) ,


V I I I .iv . 51. (p u jirth a )
(9) Senaka - V .iv .1 1 2 . (p u ja rth a )
( 10 ) Sphotayana - VI . i . 123. (p u ja rth a )

The usage of th e d if f e r e n t p a rts o f th e co u n try known to P , w ith o u t m en tio n in g th e


2 .2 .
name o f g ram m arian s is lis te d as under :

(1) udicam - I I I . i u . 1 9 . ( u ib h a s a r th a ) , I V . i . 1 5 3 . ( u a i c i t r y a r t h a ) , I V . i . 1 5 7 . ( p u ja r th a ) ,1 V.
i i i . 3 2 . (v/ibha'sa ’r th a ) , V I I . i i i . 4 6 . ( u ib h a s a r th a )
(2 ) p racam - I . i . 7 5 . ( u ib h a s a r th a - B h a s 3 u r tti) , I I I . i . 9 0 . ( u ib h a s a r th a ) , I I I . i u . 18 . (u ib h ­
a s a r t h a ) , I V .i .4 3 . ( u ib h a s a r th a ) , I V . i . 1 6 0 . ( p u ja r th a ) , V .i i i .8 0 . ( p u ja r th a ) ,
V .i i i .9 4 . ( p u j a r t h a ) , V .iu .1 0 1 . ( u ib h a s a r th a ) , V I I I . i i . 8 6 . ( u ib h a s a r th a )
(3 ) ’
a cary an am - V I I . i i i . 4 9 . ( n i t y i r t h a ) , V I I I .i v . 5 2 . (p u ija rth a ) I
(4 ) sa ru e sa m - VII . i i i . 100 . ( n ity a r th a ) , VI11 . i i i ,2 2 . ( n ity a r th e )
(5 ) ekesam - V I I I . i i i .1 0 2 . ( u ib h a s a r th a - Pdm)
I
I
2 .3 . The p r e - p a n in ia n g ra m m a ria n s n o t o c c u rin g in th e A s t. II
The 16 p r e - p a n in ia n g ra m m a ria n s , n o t m e n tio n e d by P in th e A;s t a r e d is c u s s e d f u l l y by I
40. .
P t , Y u d h ifth ira M im am saka. T hey a r e S iu a m a h e su a ra , B r h a s p a ti, I n d r a , V ly u , B h a ra d u a ja , B ha- 1
Ca-xayaria, /
g u r i , P a u s k a ra s a d i , A« i's a k r ts n a , S a n ta n u , V a iy a g h ra p a d y a , M ad h y an d in i , R a u d h i, S a u n a k i, G au-
41 I
tam a an d V y id i. No d o u b t, some o f th e s e e a r ly te a c h e r s a r e r e f e r r e d to by th e c o m m e n ta to rs
b u t i t i s im p o s s ib le f o r u s to f in d o u t a s in g le r u le in th e A s t. a s o f p r e - p a n in ia n w ork
§
d e f i n i t i u e l y , b e c a u s e no c o m p le te work w hich i s a c c e p te d a s p r e - p a n in ia n w ork re m a in e d
f w ith u s , e x c e p t some fra g m e n ts o f o ld t r e a t i s e s .
O
2 .4 . P ro b a b ly i t i s a c c e p te d by
th e s c h o la r s ' t h a t y is k a f lo u r is h e d b e fo re P . No r e f e r e n c e ,
o f y i s k a , h o u e u e r i s g iu e n byP in th e A s t, e x c e p t a q u o ta tio n o f a p a tro n y m ic name y is k a
( l l . i u . 6 3 . ) w hich a lo n e can n o t p ro u a t h a t P knew Y a sk a , th e a u th o r o f th e N ir u k ta , a ru n n -
V/
: 7

in g commentary of th e N ig h an tu . On th e o th e r hand, Yiska does not re fe r to P anywhere in th e


N iru k a. But a c c o rd in g to soma s c h o la rs , Yaska u ses th e sam jnas lik e upadha (o ceu rin g th ric e ^
in th e n iru k ta I I .i.,
a th ip y upadhalopo b h a y a ti - jagm atur - jagm ur i t i , I I . i . , ath ap y upadh-
_ _ bhyRseyia _
avikiTro b h a v a ti - ra ja d a n d- iti IV . 12. _adina^ u p a jh ite n a upadham a d a tte ) , abhyasa (o ceu rin g inJ|>
th e n iru k ta I I . i i i . 2 . , 3 , V .12, X 4 2 ), ab h y asta (o ceu rin g in th e N irukta 1 1 .1 2 , I I I . 10, IV .
42
2 3 , 2 5 , VI .3 .) , guna (X .1 7 ), in th e sen se in which P u ses them . These e v id e n c e s show th a t ^
Yaska m ight have flo u ris h e d a f te r P w h ile , a c c o rd in g to O r. B e lv a lk a r, P does n o t give any
ru le fo r th e word su ry a , th e w ife of surya (su ry a p a tn i) nor does he g iv e th e ru le to form th e
43
word ’’a p lrn a ” o ceu rin g in th e N iru k ta . R a t. g iv e s two v a r ttik a s to e x p la in th e words lik e ^
'•p ra rn a , rn arn a but om its th e word a p a rn a . The developed s p e c u la tio n s in th e S a n s k rit gramma-'
•=
rr a s noted in th e A ft, fav o u r th e a n te rio rn e s s o f Y iska b u t th e above m entioned ev id en ces
45
re q u ire more re se a rc h b e fo re s e ttlin g th e d a te o f th e se g re a t te a c h e rs . I
2 .5 . The works known to P a n in i.
^ Very sc a rc e a s th e so u rc e s o f th e lite r a r y works - known to P a r e , i t would be in te r e s t
H in g , w ith re fe re n c e to h is own w orks, to know ab o u t th e works o f which he knew. The l i t e r a ­ I
known P
1
tu r e to has been re fe rre d to in th e fo llo w in g fiv e ways -
* 1
1. D rsta
( I V .ii.7 ) , 2 . P ro k ta ( I U .i i i . 101) , 3 . U pajnata ( lV .iii.1 1 5 ) , 4 . K rta ( iV .iii
8 7 ), 5 , Vyakhyana ( lV .iil.6 6 ) .
1 . O rsta lite ra tu re :- T h is c o n s is ts o f th e re lig io u s lite r a tu r e th a t has been r e a liz e d *
by th e g re a t s e e rs . In th is a re in clu d ed th e m elodious p o e try o f th e Sam aveda, th e su k ta s of X
* 46 1
th e Rgveda and adhyayas and an u v ak as.
2 . P ro k ta (prom ulgated) l i t e r a t u r e : - T h is lite r a tu r e c o n s is ts o f th e te x tu a l s a c tio n s
4?
lik e T a itV riy a , K ath a, and K alapa s e c tio n s o f th e K rsn a-y aju rv ed a a s w ell a s th e a n c ie n t
^ _ 48
Brihmana g ra n th a s and th e a n c ie n t K a lrip a su tra s. I t is rem arkab le th a t n o n -v ed ic a s th e 8 h i-
49
k s u -s u tra s and N a ta -s u tra s a r e , th e y a re in c lu d e d in th is lo r e . The raso n of th e same may be
e x p lain e d th a t th e a ttitu d e of th e composer a c iry a s of th e B h ik su su tra s and th e N a ta su tra s
was th e same a s th e a n c ie n t o r ie n ta l tr a d itio n s o f th e te a c h e r; and th e le v e l of th e ir sc ien -
50
t i f i c c r itic is m and a n a ly s is was f a ir ly s c h o la s tic . By and by th ey were a ls o b e lie v e d to be
51
e q u iv a le n t to th e Uedas.

3 . U pajnata l i t e r a t u r e : - The lite r a tu r e uhich was seen by some prom inent se e ru a s c a ll-
_ ^52
ed th e U pajnata lite r a tu r e ( I U .i i i .1 1 5 ). I t was a ls o deemed to be p rim ev al a c ik h y a s a . The
works of A p is a li, K a sa k rtsn a , S akatayana and P
a s d a s s ifie d under th is s e c tio n a re known a s
P ro k ta . However th e lite r a r y co m p o sitio n o f P may be term ed P ro k ta a s w ell a s U p a jn a ta. The
sc ie n c e o f P was u s e fu l n o t o n ly to any one p a r tic u la r s e c tio n o f th e l/edas bt)t to a l l of
them to g e th e r e q u a lly . The le a rn e rs o f a newly composed volume were named a f te r th e com poser
o f th e s c ie n tif ic volume ( lU .ii.6 5 ) a s th e le a rn e rs o f th e work c o n ta in in g e ig h t books o f P
were c a lle d 'a s^ a k a h p a n in iy a h ’ and dasakah v a iy a g h ra p a d iy ih to o in t he same way.

4 . K rta lite ra tu re ;- The works named a f t e r th e name o f th e ir s p e c if ic composer c o n s i-


53
s te d of th e volum es o f such s e c tio n s . Such works were known from th e ir s u b je c ts and c o n te n ts .
P has given th e names o f S isu k ra n d iy a , In d ra ja n a n iy a and Yamasabhiya a s th e illu s tr a tio n s o f
such works ( lU .iii.8 8 ) . The a u th o r of th e Kas g iv e s S au b h ad ra, Y ^ y ita e tc a s th e illu s tr a tio n s
of th e same.
5. Uyakhyana;- The works which were not composed originally and which were composed
54
on the religious subjects or the subjects of folk lore were classified under this section.

Ue shall now try to trace out in brief which specific works in the above mentioned

sections were known to P .

The Bahvrc, Saunaka and Paila sections of the Pgv/eda and the subordinate sections of
* _ _ £ 55
the Rgveda like Baskala and Mandukya were familiar to P. He was also familiar with the
— 56
^ Tittiri, Varatantu, Khapdika, Ukha , Katha and Kalipa sections 6f the Krsnayajurveda . The

arcika and geya sections of the Samaveda also were known to him (lU.iii.72., III.ii.68.), P

also refers to Flauda and Pippalada , the two carapas of the Atharvaveda (UI,i.174.).

Among the Brahmana granthas, he refers to the Kauditaki brahmana of thirty adhyayas
f
57
and aitareya brahmana of forty adhyayas. He also refers to the Kalapa granthas. P refers to
the word 'anubrahmana 1 which signifies, according to Kis, a grantha quite similar to brahm- jwj

f 5
ana.
8 P also possessed the knowledge of, according to Libich and Thieme, the Upanisadas like M5J
the Brhadaranyaka and the CHandogya. Ue also find the references of ancient kalpasutras in

the Ast.
9 *

A,mong the literature, other than that of the Uedic one, Uastuvidya , Angavidya, !3iksa,
m^
1

Uy'akarana, Fluhurtavidya etc are also referred to in figayanadi class (lU.iii.73) . In the Bhi

& ksusutras, the word bhiksu means a brahmana ascetic. Still then, the reference of a speaker
X of Nandi (lll.ii.2l), the reference of poems composed in sloka and gatha (III .ii .23)also are
: 10 :

fou n d in h is w o rk . P a t an d K is c i t e th e a n c ie n t a k h y in a g ra n th a s o f Rama (O am adagni) an d


59
Y a y a ti a s i l l u s t r a t i o n s . P a t a ls o g iv e s th e nam es o f V a s a v a d a tta , S u m a n o ttri an d B h a im a r-
a t h i a s th e i l l u s t r a t i o n s o f th e A k h y a y ik a s. The w orks known to P i s a s u b je c t r e q u ir in g
a deep s tu d y and an in d e p e n d e n t r e s e a r c h . H ere th e id e a i s o n ly to o f f e r a g lim p se o f th e
60
sam e .
2 .6 . The a c c e s s o r ie s to th e A s ta d h y ly i.
The t r e a t i s e s , c lo s e ly r e la te d w ith th e A s t. a r e D h a tu p a th a , G a n a p a th a , U n a d is u tr a s ,
P h i t s u t r a s , L in g a n u sa sa n a an d S ik s a . W ith o u t th e s e t r e a t i e s to th e A s t, one can n o t g ra s p
P ’ s gram m er. The D h a tu p a th a (DP) i s a l i s t o f v e rb a l r o o ts an d g e n e r a lly a s c r ib e d to S a k -
a ta y a n a , th e a u th o r ity o f e ty m o lo g ic a l s c h o o l o f g ra m m a ria n s. Some s c h o la r s l i k e L ie b ic h ,
P aw te e tc th in k th a t th e DP i s a work o f P ’ s p r e d e c e s s o r an d P ta k e s i t o v e r from h is p r e -
61 ,
d e c e s s o r s . P aw te g iv e s th e a u th o r s h ip o f th e DP to S a k a ta y a n a . Not o n ly th e m odern s c h o la r s
l i k e j^awS te e tc b u t o ld co m m en tato r l i k e D in e n d ra b u d d h i a ls o d o es n o t a c c e p t P a s th e a u th o r
o f th e DP. D r. B e lv a lk a r p r o p e r ly b e lie v e s t h a t th e DP i s a w ork o f P b e c a u se th e f u n c tio n s
o f th e a n u b a n d h a s (m a rk e rs) in th e r u le s an d th e DP a r e in a c c o rd w ith e a c h o th e r . M o reo v er
63
P m e n tio n s th e r u le s r e g a r d in g th e v e r b a l r o o ts in a c c o rd w ith t h e i r o c c u ra n c e in th e D P.
The o th e r im p o rta n t a c c e s s o r i a l t r e a t i s e t o th e A s t. i s th e g a n a p a th a (GR)’ . T he g a g a s a r e
th e g ro u p s o f w ords w h ich u n d e rg o th e s im ila r g ra m m a tic a l c h a n g e s . I t i s P ’ s p e c u lia r
l
d e v ic e t h a t he ta k e s th e f i r s t worti o f th e g rou p o f th e w o rds an d a d d s th e word ’ a d i to i t 1

to d e n o te a l l th e w ords o f t h a t g ro u p e .g . ’ P rs* from th e g ro u p o f th e w o rd s p r a , p a r a , e t c . ^


l
H ence p r a d i i s c a lle d a g a p a . S e e in g th e c lo s e c o n n e c tio n o f th e GP w ith th e A s t ., we may
64
conclude that the author of the Aft and the GP is the same.The unadi sutras provide for in­
troducing certain affixes to addto the verbal roots to derive nominal bases. These rules are <
t|

known as unadi because the first rule provides for affixing 'un' to a series of verbal roots %
to derive nominal bases such as kr + un karu (artisan), va+ un vayu (wind). The scholars %
are of the different opinions about the authorship of the unadi rules. According to Dr. Bel-
65
valkar the unadi rules are the work of P. The commentators are also not unanimous about the
authorship of the unadi rules. Some attribute them to P, while according to some, they are <
fjy

'66
ascribed to Sakatayana. Some commentators attribute them to Katyiyana. Ue may conclude that

P knows the unadi rules well and most of these rules go to the earlier period than P's time.*

The phit rules are the rules that are provided for accentuation of nominal bases according m
to their phonological shape and meaning. For example, the first rule states that the final Hr

vowel of a nominal base (phis) is udatta (of high .


pitch) These rules are known as phit rules
because these rules concern with phis, the term denoting a nominal base, for which P uses the
term Pratipadika . These rules are attributed to Santanava (or Santanu) . No doubt, these rules'^

are post-paninian but were knoun to Patanjali. The Lihganusasana states the rulesbased on ^
I
I
the structure and meaning of the nominals to discribe their gender i.e, the third rule states

that five bases ending in "r" are feminine:matr , duhitr, svasr etc. In the Ast, there are
rules regarding gender. For example, paravallihgam dvandvatatpurusayoh (II .iv.26) which

states that the gender of a dvandva or a tatpurusa compound is that of the subsequent member.
Most of the scholars believe that P has not composed the text of the Lihganusasana and the
68 , _
text nou we have is the work of a person other than P. The Siksa texts deal with particular
. 12 : W
aspects of phonetics in connection with branches of Medic texts. Some %iksa texts treat gen­

eral aspects of Sanskrit phonetics. Ue have tuo Siksa texts, one in a verse style and the |
j
jj
>

other in a sutra style, known as Paniniya-siks'as. The scholars gave the different opinions ■W

. 6 .
about the authorship of these tuo texts.
g Discussing in details, Dr. Cardona concludes that ^m
P miaht have composed either of the siksa texts. The paribhlsas are, no doubt, ascribed to
71
Vyadi .'According to Dr. K.V. fibhyankar, Uyadi flourished after P but before Patanjali. V

3. The Panini school in the Sanskrit grammar: a brief account.

3.0. P does not intend to teach Sanskrit language by composing the Ast to those, for whom

Sanskrit is unfamiliar. In his time, Sanskrit was a spoken language. Hence it was not a pro ­

blem for P to teach Sanskrit. His grammar attempts very successfully to formulate maximally

concise and constistent rules for the formation of Sanskrit forms and sentences. Thus P has
given a thorough analysis of Sanskrit language. He follows the discriptive method of lingu- X,

istics. X

3.1. P has composed his Ast with expertness and Kat added to its merit by adding his var-
72 -
ttikas, uhich correct, modify or supplement the rules of the fist,Kit has formed about 4000

varttikas on nearly 1500 rules of Ast. According to Goldstucker, tleber and Burnell, Kat cri-
73 %
ticised P by his varttikas and Pat replied in justification. But Dr. Kielhorn properly

thinks that Ka"t wrote varttikas not to find merely faults in the Ast
* *
but he tried to justi-
** '

fy the rules according to the usage of his time. Pat has no prejudice for Kat as Dr. Gold-
74 *
stucker thought. According to Dr. Belvalkar, Kat flourished betweenSQO-SSn
: 13 : ||
¥
f
75
P a ta n ja li w ith h is magnum o p u s , th e M ah ab h asy a, a g r e a t com m entary on th e b o th P ’ s r u l e s an d
- - * 76
K a t ’ s v a r t t i k a s . P a t d is c u s s e s th e m a tte r f u lly an d s u p p lie s u s w ith a fu n d o f iivforma t i o n .
R e a lly MBh i s an e n c y c lo p a e d ic work in a lu c id an d e x h a u s tiv e s t y l e an d e x c e ls o th e r commen ­
t a r i e s l i k e th o s e o f S a b a ra sv a m i and S a n k a ra . P a t h as com m ented 1228 r u l e s o f P ’ s gram m ar in Hr

85 a 'h n ik a s . He a ls o c o n tr ib u te d to th e p h ilo s o p h y o f S a n s k r it gram m ar w h ich i s a f te r w a r d s


d e a lt w ith f u l l y in th e V ak y ap ad iy a o f B h a r tr h a r i. A c c o rd in g to O r. B e lv a lk a r , P a t b e lo n g e d W
77 * Sb
to 150 BC. W

T h is i s th e f i r s t p e r io d o f P ’ s s c h o o l o f g ram m ar, th e p e rio d o f th r e e s a g e s (m u n itra y a ) ¥


T h ese th r e e g r e a t te a c h e r s g av e th e r u le s to th e s c ie n c e o f gram m ar. T hey s tu d ie d in deep
th e l i v i n g la n g u a g e o f t h e i r tim e an d made c o n s id e r a b le c o n tr ib u tio n to th e f i e l d o f S a n s ­
k rit gram m ar.

3 ,2 . K a iy a ta , th e so n o f 3 a iy a ta o f K ash m ir w ro te a le a r n e d co m m en tary , P ra d ip a on th e KIBh


in th e 1 1 th c e n tu r y . N ages& a , a re p u te d g ram m arian o f th e 1 8 th c e n tu ry w ro te a com m entary
S known a s U dyota on th e P r a d ip a . Nages&a a ls o w ro te some renow ned w orks on S a n s k r it gram m ar
an d o th e r I n d ia n s c ie n c e s . In th e f i f t h c e n tu r y , B h a trh a ri w ro te , on th e M8h a le a r n e d com -
A78
m en tary named D ip ik a w h ich i s n o t a v a ila b le in f u l l now .

3 .2 .1 . The se c o n d p e r io d o f th e d e v e lo p m e n t o f P ’ s s c h o o l s t a r t s from th e s c h o la r ly g lo s s o f
Vama^na an d D a y a d ity a o f th e 7 th c e n tu r y , known a s K a s ik I b e c a u se it i s s a id to h av e b een
com posed in K a s i, a h o ly c i t y in I n d ia . The K a s ik a , th e j o i n t w ork o f Vamana an d D a y a d ity a
14

runs over each and every rule of the Ast in a scholarly but simple style. It is however be ­

lieved that the gloss on the first five books was written by Dayaditya and on the remaining
79
three books, it was composed by 1/amana. It follows the MBh but omits the scholarly discuss­
ion occuring in the MBh. It presents the whole text of the Ast with anuvrtti etc. preserving ^
the ancient grammatical traditions. Hence it can be properly said that the Klsika" is the

Bible for the students of P.Dinendrabuddhi , a Budhist scholar of 8th century wrote a scho ­

larly gloss - the Kasika viva ranapan jika , also known as Nyasa on the Kasika. He belonged to
80 ’

the eastern school of grammar. Haradatta of a Dravidian Brahmin family of soudhern India

wrote a learned commentary known as Padamanjari on the Kasika in about 11th century He

followed the MBh closely. The Bhagavrtti, attributed to Shartrhari is an old treatise on the ft
* 81 ' M
Ast which is available in a fragmentary form and whose authorship is still uncertain. Puru- ft

r-Sottamadeva, probably a Budhist grammarian of the eastern school, in Bengal wrote a commen- ft

try named Bhasavrtti in 12th century on the Ast.


82 He omited the vedic rules. He also wrote ft
Q
some other works on Sanskrit grammar. Bhattoji Diksita , the stalwart grammarian of 17th can- ft
*
tury wrote a scholary commentary named ’

Sabdakaustubha” on the Ast, which is not available in ft

full now. Annambhatta ’s flitaksara, written in 16th century, a commentary on the Ast is worth ft
quoteing. ' :
V\§Vesvarasuri and Suarni Dayananda Sarasvati composed the commentaries on the Ast<|f
84
in the 19th and 20th centuries respectively.

3.3, Before going to enlist the grammarians of the prakriya branch of the Paninian school

of grammar, we discuss briefly the important difference between the old branch and the pra ­

kriya branch of P ’s school of Sanskrit grammar. Sanskrit was a spoken language when P compo*
15 1
se d h is tre a tis e on
S a n s k r it gram m ar. H ence P d id n o t in te n d to te a c h S a n s k r it, n o r d id he l
a r r a n g e th e r u le s in h is t r e a t i s e in a c c o rd a n c e w ith th e p r o c e s s ( p r a k r i y a ) . P ta u g h t h is
r u le s to a n a ly s e th e la n g u a g e in a p r e c is e s t y l e . The b r e v ity i s th e s o u l o f h is g ram m ar. l
But when S a n s k r it l o s t i t s p la c e a s a sp o k en la n g u a g e , th e t r e a t i s e e x p la in in g th e p ro c e s s l
was r e q u ir e d . The g ra m m aria n s l i k e D h a r m a k ir ti, l/im a la s a r a s v a tl e tc g av e th e d i f f e r e n t o rd e r l
I to P 's r u l e s to f a c i l i t a t e th e p r o c e s s . But th e y d id n o t c o v e r a l l r u le s o f P 's gram m ar. f
D h a r m a k ir ti, a B u d h ist s c h o la r com posed th e R u p a v a ta ra , in w hich th e c h a p te r s a r e c a lle d
85
" a v a ta r a s " . The a u th o r b e lo n g s to 1 2 th c e n tu r y . V im a la s a ra s w a ti w ro te a t r e a t i s e nam ed R upa-
86
m a la . The c h a p te r s o f th e t r e a t i s e a r e named m a ils . The a u th o r f lo a r is h e d in 1 3 5 0 . Ramac&fT " ’1 ‘
J|.
1% 87
d r a , th e so n o f K rsria c a ry a o f 1 4 th c e n tu ry com posed th e P rak riy eM < au m u d i w hich becam e a
m odel f o r B h a tto ji D ik s ita in co m p o sin g th e S id d h a n ta k a u m u d i . R am acandra t r e a t e d o n ly 2470
r u le s o f th e A s t. V itth a la c a r y a 1s com m entary P ra s a d a i s th e m ost fam ous com m entary am ong ^
” " _ 88
o th e r c o m m e n taries on th e P ra k riy a k a u m u d i. He b e lo n g s to a p e r io d n o t l a t e r th a n 1 5 2 5 . T he
com m entary P ra k ls a o f K rsn a on th e P ra k riy a k a u m u d i i s w o rth q u o tin g . A ll th e s e g ra m m arian s
^ o f th e p r a k r iy i b ra n c h o f P 's sc h o o l t r i e d to a r r a n g e P ’ s r u le s a c c o r d in g to p r a k r iy a b u t
B h a tto ji D ik s ita s u rp a s s e d them a l l . He n o t o n ly t r e a t e d a l l r u l e s a lo n g w ith K i t 's v 'a r-
t t i k a s a lo n e b u t a ls o d e a l t w ith th e D h atu p ath st, th e G a g a p a th a , th e u n a d i r u l e s , th e L ih g a n -
u ia s a n a , th e S ik s a t e x t . He was a s ta lw a r t g ram m arian an d a u th o r ity n o t o n ly upon P ’ s sc h o o l
*

b u t a ls o upon o th e r s c h o o ls o f S a n s k r it gram m ar. I n a c c o rd a n c e w ith p r a k r i y i , we f i r s t tim e ,


g e t th e t e x t o f P f u l l y d is c u s s e d by D ik s ita . Hence a c c o rd in g to some s c h o la r s , th e SK s u p -
89
e r c e d e s th e o th e r S a n s k r it t r e a t i e s o f th e P ln in ia n s c h o o l o f S a n s k r it gram m ar. B ut i t i s
16

o b v io u sly seen th a t th e gram m arians o f th e p ra k riy l branch of P 's sch o o l a rra n g e d th e ru le s


of th e A st in acco rd an ce w ith th e p ro c e ss so th e o rig in a l o rd er of th e r u le s , which is th e #
m ost im p o rta n t fe a tu re o f th e P 's tr e a tis e i s d is tu rb e d . Hence, to u n d erstan d th e ru le s p ro - ^
p e rly w ith th e ir fu n c tio n s became d if f ic u lt in th is new arrangem ent o f P 's r u le s . The g lo s s ,
th e re fo re became n e c e ssa ry on each and ev ery ru le - o f th e A st. S t i l l some im p o rtan t fe a tu re s
W.
lik e th e a n u v r tti, th e a d h ik a ra , th e a s id d a tv a e tc re q u ire th e know ledge of th e o rd e r o f th e W

o rig in a l te x t o f P ’ s grammar. Some s c h o la rs c r itic is e d th e neu arran g em en t of th e ru le s p ro ­


p e rly . Mr. C olbrook w r ite s , ’’ But s u tra s of P in in i, th u s d etach ed from th e ir c o n te x t, a re
u h o lly u n in te llig ib le w ith o u t th e co m m en tato r's e x p o sio n . They a re in d eed uha.t S ir W illiam
90
Donas has somewhere term ed them dark a s th e d a rk e s t o ra c le .

B h a tto ji O ik sita a ls o composed auto-com m entary named Praudhamano^ma on th e SK. He b e -


91
longed to 16th c e n tu ry . H is d is c ip le V arad araja composed th re e a b rid g e d e d itio n s o f th e SK.
They a re th e L aghusiddhantakaum udi , th e M adhyasiddhlntakaum udi and th e S arasiddhantakaum udi .
The Laghu and Brhacchabdendusekharas of Nagesa a re le a rn e d com m entaries upon th e SK . Among
th e la rg e number of com m entaries on th e SK , th e T a ttv a b o d h in i^ o f D nanendra S a ra s v a ti is sch ­
o la rly and th e 8llamanorasma of l/asudeva V ajapeyi is p o p u la r among th e s tu d e n ts of S a n s k rit
grammar. B h a tto ji is c r itic is e d by G ak rap an id atta and D agannatha in th e Praudham anoram a-
92
khandana and th e M anoram lkucam ardini re s p e c tiv e ly . N lrly a n a b h a tta in 16th c e n tu ry composed
a le a rn e d tr e a tis e named P ra k riy ls a rv a s v a and tre a te d a l l th e ru le s o f P in th e d if f e r e n t
%
s ty le th a n th a t of D ik s ita 's .
§
&
17

3.4. Paqinian school on semantics and philosophy of Grammar.

Indian sages were interested in and familiar with philosophy of grammar from the early
time. Ue find such thoughts in the earliest treatise of Yaska but fully treated in the MSh,
the Magnum opus of Patanjali. Ue have three treatises of P*s school of Sanskrit grammar,con- ^
earning with semantics and philosophy of grammar.

Bhartrhari composed his learned treatise named Vakyapadiya with a gloss on 1st and 2nd %
* 93
% Kandas in the fifth century, which attracted the attention of the linguists all over the
«1„ * 1
world. Kaundabhatta composed the ^yakaranabhusana, infact a commentary on his uncle Bhattoji'

verses on grammar, known as the l/aiyakaranasiddhantakarika, Kaundabhatta also abridged his

treatise as the Vyikaranabhusanasara .


^
Nagojibhatta, also known as Nigesa _
composed the Vaiyi-

karanasiddhantalaghumanjusa on philosophy of grammar.


l
4, The Astldhyayl:- The best specimen of the sutra style. I
4.0, P has been praised for his concise style by western and native Sanskritists. For the

sake of brevity and precision, P chooses the sutra-style for his treatise i.e, the Ast.

4.1. The Ast is a work of sutras or rules ,and a sutra is themost concise fo^m of a saying
which otherwise takes many words in expression of the same thing. The word sutra is that
94
which tersely informs its content. In other words, a sutra means a short phrase or a small
^ comprehensive group of words. The Sabdakalpadruma fairly defines it as,alpaksaram asandigd-
ham saravad visvatomukham/astobham anavadyam ca sutram 3utravido viduh#
In th i3 re s p e c t, th e A st is th e b e s t specim en o f th e s u tr a - s ty le . P has ta k e n g re a t
%
p a in s to en su re th a t th e m a te ria l is p re se n te d a s b r ie f ly and c o n c is e ly a s p o s s ib le . A ccord ­
in g to G o ld stu c k e r, th e s'u tra s ty le may have a ris e n in th e s c a rc ity o f th e m a te ria l fo r
96
l w ritin g o r a s B elv alk ar s u g g e s ts , h is o b je c t may have been to g iv e h is s tu d e n ts a id s to
97
memory.
I
Types of P
I 4 .2 , r u le s :- has composed th e ru le s w ith an eye on b re v ity so much so th a t b re ­
v ity h as s in c e become th e so u l o f S a n s k rit gfammar. P has composed th e A st in th e s u tra s ty le 1
w ith a view to e x p la in in g th e g re a te s t m eaning by th e s m a lle s t number o f w ords. A ccording to
th e tr a d itio n , th e se s u tra s a re o f s ix ty p e s . They a re a s -
I
sam jna ca p a rib h ls a c a , v id h ir niyama eva ca / I

a tid e s o 'd h ik a ra s ca, sadv idham su tralak ^an am jf I
Ue p roceed to d is c u s s each o f them f u lly .

X 4 .2 .1 . Sam jnl s u tra s (T ech n ical TBrms) The word sam jna is d e riv e d from sam + j n a , It means a
|| s h o rt w ording to convey am ple sen se - M sam jn ay ate* n ay l lti sam jn l ,( . As in norm al s o c ia l lif e ,^
we can g e t s u r ity and c e r ta in ity by m aking sam jn as. In th e gram m atical tr e a tis e to o , sam jnas
a re made to b rin g b r e v ity , c la r ity and c e r ta in ity . The ru le s e x p la in in g sam jnas a re c a lle d
sam jn l r u le s . For exam ple, v rd d h i is a sam jna and a ru le I . i . 1 . v rd d h ir Id a ic e x p la in s
v rd d h i. Hence th is ru le i s c a lle d a sam jna r u le , Most o f th e sam jnas a re ta u g h t by P in th e
v „ 99
firs t book of th e A st so th e firs t book is counted a s th e sam jnadhylya by th e com m entators.
19

4 .2 .2 . P a rib h a sa s u tra s (meta ru le s ) A p a rib h a sa is a ru le th a t h e lp s us in te r p r e ts and


ap p ly th e ru le very p ro p e rly and is a ls o a p p lic a b le in th e l a t t e r o r th e form er ru le s th a n
100 1
i t s own num ber. I f a c o n f lic t o ccu rs betw een tu o r u le s , th e p a rib h a s l ru le h elp s c la r if y
th e ir m eaning and u sag e, d .g . m ider gunah ( V I I .iii .8 6 ). I t means guna i s s u b s titu te d in
p la c e o f ’’m id ’ . Now i t becomes vague h ere u h ich l e t t e r from m -i-d -is to be s u b s titu te d ? Here
'
f th e p a rib h a sa ru le ik o g u n a-v rd d h i ( l .i .3 ) comes to our h elp and s p e c if ie s th a t guna uould
be in th e "ik " vow els o f "m id 11.

The
o th e r im p o rtan t fu n c tio n of p a rib h a sa is to s p e c ify a niyama in p la c e o f an a n i-
101 * ■

^ yama. For exam ple, P te a c h e s a p a rib h a sa ru le - v ip ra tis e d h e param karyam ( l .i v .2 ) . Here


v ip ra tis e d h e means o p p o sitio n o f ru le s of eq u al fo rc e . V ip ratig ed h a o ccu rs uhen two ru le s
% having d if f e r e n t o b je c ts in v ieu come
in th e scope of o p e ra tio n sim u lta n e o u sly in a p ro p e r
c a s e . For exam ple, su p i ca ( V I I .i i i .102) . I t means th a t b e fo re a case - en d in g b eg in n in g .

w ith yan p ra ty a h a ra , th e f in a l "a" of a nom inal stem is a ls o le n g th e n e d . So rlm a + bhylm


ramabhyam. W hile bahuvacane jh a ly a t ( V I I I .i i i .103) s ta te s th a t b e fo re a case - ending beg ­
M
in n in g w ith jh a l p ra ty a h a ra , '‘e ” is s u b s titu te d fo r th e f in a l s h o rt Ha o f a nom inal stem .
So rim a + su < ram esu. But uhen th e p lu ra l case a f f ix "b h y as ” fo llo w s, u h ich ru le sh o u ld be
a p p lie d ? The l e t t e r "bha" b elo n g s to both o f th e p ra ty a h a ra s i . e . yan and jh a l. An aniyam a
o ccu rs h e re . T his aniyama i s so lv ed by a p a rib h a sa ru le v ip r a ti. ( I . i v . 2 ) . T h is ru le o rd a in s
th a t th e l a t t e r ru le sh o u ld be b rou g h t in fo rc e . So rama + b h y asX rlm ebhyah. The p a rib h ls a
ru le s a ls o fu n c tio n in th e c o rre c t fo rm a tio n o f th e w ords. The ru le s s ta tin g such p a rib h a s a s
a re known a s p a rib h a sa s u tr a s .
20

4 .2 .2 . (1) Samjna and p a rib h a sa ru le s a re read to g e th e r b ecau se they a re c lo s e ly co n n ected ;


* 102
however th ey a re d if f e r e n t from each o th e r. The p a rib h a sa ru le is read ju s t a f te r a sam jna
ru le w ith which i t is co n cern ed . Thera is one more im p o rta n t d iffe re n c e betw een sam jna and
p a rib h a sa r u le s . T hat i s , th e sam jna ru le does n o t become th e p a rt o f th e ru le w ith which
i t is concerned and i t g iv e s only in fo rm a tio n , w hile a p a rib h a s l ru le becomes th e p a r t and
p a rc e l of th e ru le w ith which i t is concerned and both th e ru le s make a w h o le.F o r exam ple,
ik o gunavrddhi (Ii.i.3 ) i s a p a rib h is a r u le . I t means th a t whenever guna or vrddhi is e n jo ­
in e d by u sin g th e term guna o r v rd d h i, i t ta k e s p lac e in ik vow els o n ly , m ider gugah (VII ,
iii.8 2 ) is a v id h iru le . ik o . ( I . i . 3) becomes th e p a rt and p a rc e l o f m ider gunah and becomes
a w hole. W hile a sam jna ru le adeh gunah ( l .i .2 ) would su g g e st th a t th e vow els a , e and o
a re term ed "g u n a". I t only e x p la in s what guna is., but does n o t become th e p a rt o f a ru le
w ith which i t is co n cern ed .

4 .2 .3 . V idhi s u tra s (o p e ra tio n a l ru le s ) A


ru le th a t s ta te s an o p e ra tio n o r v id h i is
counted a s a v id h i su or an o p e ra tio n a l r u le . For exam ple, v rd d h ir e c i ( V l.i.8 8 ) .

4 .2 .4 . niyama s u tra s ( r e s tr ic tio n s ) The ru le th a t d e fin e s th e s p e c if ic a tio n of th e g ra ­


m m atical o p e ra tio n s is c a lle d a niyama r u le . When more th an one gram m atical o p e ra tio n s a re
a v a ila b le , a ru le is made fo r a p a r tic u la r o p e ra tio n . Then th e o th e r e x is tin g o p e ra tio n s
would become in e f f e c tiv e . The ru le th a t s ta te s such a ru le is c a lle d a niyama s u tr a . In
c e rta in c a s e s , even i f a gram m atical o p e ra tio n is made by one p a r tic u la r ru le o r r u le s , an
a n o th e r ru le is made fo r th e same o p e ra tio n , th en i t is c a lle d a niyama r u le . For exam ple,
; 21 :

ekaca upadese. (UII.ii.10) prohibits idagama after the root kr in the perfect tenss(lit) The

prohibition of the idagama after the root kr is selfsustained. Still by making a rule krsrbhr..
(UII.ii.13), P prohibits the idagama again after the root kr etc in the perfect tense. So

UII ,ii,13 is a niyama rule. The rule kr etc (UIl.ii.13) limits the scope of the rule ekaca.
(UII.ii.10) and specifies that the said prohibition is applicable only in the root words

krsr etc and idagama would occur in all the other roots formerly whose idagama is prohibited ^
by UII.ii.10.

% 4.2.5. Atideia sutras (extention rules) A rule which extends its properties or attributes
«
X to some other given item which it would not itself have been applied otherwise, is called an m
S ' atidesa rule (extention rule) .

4,2.5. (1) Before going to discuss about an atidesa rule, it is necessary to understand about
1

i
two words, sthani and adesa. The word that is substituted for some original word is called

adesa, or a substitute and the original word for which the substitution is made, is called
1
sthani. For example, aster bhuh (II .iv.52) . Here "as" is an original word and it is substi ­

tuted by the word bhu. So "as" is sthani and the latter one V.e. bhu is an adesa. When an

ardhadhatuka affix is applied, bhu is the substitute of the verbal root "as" Now "as” is a
1 1
dhltu by 1.3.1, but here bhu is not a dhatu. It is a substitute and different from the ver ­

bal root bhu (sattayam) By the virtue of sthanivada, (l.i.56) bhu, the adesa is also attri ­

buted the dha tusamjnatva .

4,2.5, (2) There are two types of atidesa. i.e. (a) karyltide&a and (b) rupltidesa.
(a) karyatidesa - For grammatical operations, to take a root-word for an another one just

like it, is called a karyatidesa. In the above mentioned illustration, bhu is a substitute

for "as 1
* in II.iv.52. Here for the grammatical function, bhu is thought to be like "as" .
X
Hence it .gives a good example of a karyatidesa.

(b) rupatidesa - Uhen the presence of a certain form is assumed for the grammatical function,

it is called a rupitidesa. Because of the elision of a certain form, the grammatical funct ­ %
ion can not occur. So the form in elision may be assumed to be present there for the said
HI operation. It is a rupatidesa. For example, kr + atus^ kr + atus by iko yan aci (t/I.i.77).

Now by ekaco due. (VI.i.1) "kr M should be reduplicated. But there is no vowel (ac) in '
‘kr ” .
Hence the reduplication is here inapplicable. But by the uirtue of I.i.59. ’
(dvirvacane ci)

"rM in "kr” uould be deemed as "r" and it would again be ’


’kr ” . Here "r" has been assumed to
function in place of elided "r". So it is a rupatidesa. The affix "vat" or "mat" is seen in
103 "
H the atidesa rules. Sometimes, it is to be understood.

4.2.6. Adhikara sutras (headings) Uhen a complete rule passes on into the following
rules upto the certain limit it is called an adhikara suitra (a heading) for example, karake

(I.iu.23). This rule goes upto I.iv.55. Hence it is an adhikara rule.

4.2.7. uibKasa sUtras (option rules) The option rules and the negative rules are not in­

dependent rules. The rule making option in the general rule is an option rule. For example
karmany an (lll.ii.1) is a general rule,, while ato'nupasarge kah (III.ii.3) makes option to

III.ii.1. So it is an option rule.

mi
X
4.2.8. Nisedhasutras (negative rules).

The rules stating the negation of a certain operation is a negative rule. For example
naj jhalau (I.i.10) is a negative rule to tulyasya. (I.i.9) Among the six types of rules :

* samjna rules (definition), paribhasi rules (meta rules), vidhi rules (operation rules) and
1
a
atidesa rules (extension rules) may have negations, For example -

(a) samjna rules:- I.i.10. is a negative rule to I.i.9.

(b) paribhasi rules:- I.i.4. is a negative rule to I.i.3.

(c) vidhi rules:- II.ii.10. is a negative rules to II.ii.8.

(d) atidesa rules:- I.ii.18. is a negative rule to I.ii.5.


104
adhikara rules have no negations. According to some Scholars, niyama rules have no negations
: 25 :

4.4. The number of rules in the Astadhyayi

S 4.4.1. According to the tradition, the Ast consists of 3995 rules inclusive of 14 Mlhesvara

rules known as pratyahara rules. A well known stanza of Svarasiddhantacandrika runs as -

catuhsahasrl sutrlnim pancasutravivarjita/


_ 105
astldhyayi paniniya^ sutrair mihesvaraih saha /f
106
According to some scholars, the rules in toto are 3996 including the 14 Mahesvara rules.
According to the Bohtlingk edition, which is considered a standard work in Europe and other
107
countries even today, the total number of rules are 3997 inclusive of the 14 pratyahara

rules. In accordance with this edition, the number of rules, adhyaya and padauise would be

as under :

%
Adhvlva X Pada I 1 Pada II X Pada III )
[ Pada IV X Total
r

75 73 93 110 351
II
72 38 85 268
73 )
III
150 188 176 117 631
AI
178 145 168 144 635
A
136 140 119 160 555
VI 223 199 139 175 736
IIA
103 118 120 97 I 438
IIIA
74 108 119 68 369
| :
TOTAL £ 86£
f !H
Y
I 3997
= — — —
X —
T — ' — — — — —— »— —s a — — «■» ■
. — —- ,*—— ,«•*.
— —— » —— —M P p. — — —mm —
— ^-— m -»
-
a tta O ijn a s u an d P t. Y u d h is th ir a Mitnamsaka h av e e d ite d th e A.st in a c c o r d -
’ *
4 .4 .2 . P t. B ra h m a d108
a n c e w ith th e WBh t e x t . The num ber o f r u le s o f t h i s e d itio n a c c o rd in g to a d h y a y a an d p id a i s
a s fo llo w s -
adhyaya^jT Pada I ^ Pada II ^ ".P a 'd a III P ad a IV 1 T o ta l y

74 73 93 109 349
II
71 38 73 85 267
1
III
150 188 176 117 631 L
X
IV 176 144 166 144 630 l
LX
135 140 119 160 T 554
in X

I in
217 198 138 175 728
I
103 118 119 97 437
V III 74 108 119 67 A
368
Ii
X
• *y I
•A •
TOTAL 7 3964
A
Y
14
I
v

t
A
V 3978 $
I
A
I
I
4 .4 .3 . The num ber o f r u le s in th e B o h tlin g k e d . t a l l i e s w ith t h a t o f th e N irn a y a s a g a ra e d . ^
an d t h a t o f th e e d . by 3 .C . Vasu b u t so m etim es th e y d i f f e r in th e w o rd in g o f th e r u l e s . T he
M im am sak a's e d . c o u n ts 19 r u l e s l e s s th a n th e s e e d i t i o n s . Ue h av e s t r i c t l y fo llo w e d th e

B o h tlin g k e d . o f th e ft»st few o u r r e s e a r c h .
27
X
X 4 .4 .4 . A ccording to D r. F. K ie lh o rn , th e te x t a c c e p ted by th e Kas d if f e r s from th e tex t,
a c c e p te d by th e WBh in only 58 r u le s . 10 ru le s from th e s e r u le s a re a lto g e th e r fre s h a d d i ­
i tio n s , 9 ru le s a re a r e s u lt o f s e p a ra tin g o r ig in a l 8 ru le s in 17 ru le s by th e yogavibhaga
109
I and in 19 ru le s new words have been in s e rte d in to th e o rig in a l ru le s .
j
i 4 .4 .5 . The Kas is blamed
fo r th e d iffe re n c e in th e number of ru le s in th e Ast and is a ls o » *

accu sed by some s c h o la rs th a t th e Kas has in s e rte d a l l th e im provem ents made by CandragomI
110
in to th e te x t o f th e A st. But n o t only th e K ls , b u t th e te c h n iq u e of th e yogavibhaga o f
II
P a ta n ja li, th e v lr ttik a s o f K atylyana a re a ls o supposed to be re sp o n sib le fo r th e d if f e r e ­ I
nce of th e te x t.
5. A stld h y a y i, th e V ylkarana sabdanusa ”sana . I
5 ,1 , P 's grammar is alw ays and e m p h a tic a lly named a s v y ak aran a. The o b je c t o f vyakarana
I
_~111
i s to a n a ly se w ords. Hence a ls o term ed a s sab d a'n u sasan a , The word sab d an u sasan a , h e n -
i t is 112
II
c e , sta n d s fo r grammar. The grammar i s what a n a ly se s th e words by p r a k r ti and p ra ty a y a - I
v y a k riy a te anena i t i vyakaranam . G o ld stu ck er e x p la in s th e word v y lk aran a a s -
Vyakarana means "u n d o in g ", i . s . a n a ly s is , and P a n in i's grammar is in te n d e d to be I
a lin g u is tic a n a ly s is , i t undoes words and undoes se n te n c e s w hich
c o n s is t o f w ords; i t ex ­ I
am ines th e component p a rts o f a w ord, and th e re fo re te a c h e s us th e p ro p e rtie s o f b ase and
a f f ix and a l l th e lin g u is tic phenomena co n n ected w ith b o th ; i t exam ines th e r e la tio n in
s e n te n c e s , of<?one word to a n o th e r, and lik e w is e u n fo ld s a l l th e lin g u is tic phenomena w hich
113
a re in s e p a ra b le from th e m eetin g o f w ords. The A st is th e r e f o r e , r ig h tly c a lle d a sab d an u s- ^
asan a, a grammar o f w ord.
I
5 .2 . A stad h y ay i, th e title .
P h as composed h is grammar in th e e ig h t books, i.e , adhyayas so it named A s^adhy-
is
Il
114 _ 115
a y i, Ai^taka o r A s tik l. I t is a ls o known a's P an in iy a because i t has been p rom u lg ated by P .
It 1
_116 I
a ls o b ears th e t i t l e , th e V r ttis u tr a . The Kas fre q u e n tly u ses th e term a k a lak a grammar fo r
117
l|
th e A s t. In th e days of P, th e gram m arians were ta k in g much in te r e s t in fix in g th e ru le s r e - I
118
g ard in g th e te n s e s , i . e . p a ro k sa , ad y atan a e tc . P , who had a tru e in s ig h t o f th e e x p e rt lin g ­
u i s t , l e f t th is c o n tro v e rs ia l p o in t o f In d ia n grammar in th o se days and sta n d in g a lo o f , he
119
II
l e f t i t to usage s o , in th is s e n s e , P ’ s grammar is re fe rre d to a s an ak alak a grammar.
5 .3 . The p e c u lia r itie s o f th e A sta d h y ly l.
I
For th e
b re v ity and p re c is io n , P has d isp la y e d some p e c u lia r d e v ic e s in h is grammar. 1
Ue proceed to d is c u s s them in fo llo w in g s e c tio n s .
I 5 .4 . (1) The
th re e p e c u lia r itie s o f th e Ast a re w orth n o tin g . The th re e ty p e s o f r e c ita tio n
o f th e A st a re (a) A nunasika r e c ita tio n (b) S v a rita r e c ita tio n and (c) S am h iti r e c ita tio n .
(a) A nunasika r e c ita tio n :- A ccording to I.iii.2 , th e an u n asik a vowel read in u p ad -
l
esa ( l.iii.2 ) is term ed it. Such a vowel is to be marked w ith an anuriSsika m ark. A ccording
to some a u th o r itie s , such vow els were marked w ith an an u n § sik a mark in P ’ s tim e b u t th e n
l
th e y were read w ith o u t th e m arks and ta u g h t by th e te a c h e r w hich vow els w ere a n u n ls ik a s ,
w h ile some s c h o la rs b e lie v e th a t th e te x t o f th e A st was same as i t is to d ay b u t th e an u n -
l
120
a s ik a s (n a s a ls ) a re deemed by th e tr a d itio n .
I
(b) S v a rita r e c ita tio n :- A ccording to I . i i i . 1 1 , th e a d h ik a ra ru le s (h ead in g s) w ere
|
ft
: 29 :

m arked w ith a s v a rita mark b u t now adays, such a mark is n o t in vogue. Soma a u th o r itie s b e ­
lie v e , on th e c o n tra ry , th a t fts t was read in e k a s ru ti from th e b eg in n in g and marks were n o t
121 "
u sed b u t ta u g h ttr a d itio n a lly . 1
(c) Sam hitS r e c ita tio n :- Some s c h o la rs b e lie v e th e Sam hita r e c ita tio n of th e A,st.
• *

P ro b a b ility o f th e Sam hita r e c ita tio n i s a c c e p te d because us fin d some p ro o fs o f th e Sam hita I
122
r e c ita tio n in S a n s k rit te x ts .
5 .4 . (2) The use of e l l i p t i c a l s e n te n c e s :- I
The co n tem p latio n o f th e fts t u i l l , c le a r ly showth a t th e copula is n ev er s ta te d in
th e ru le s , ex cep t some
r u le s . U su ally i t is th e c o n te x t th a t en ab les us to su p p ly th e c o rre ­
I
c t form . For exam ple, a d ir an ty en a sah eta ( l.i.7 1 ) u i l l be c o n stru e d as "an ty en a ita saha
I
I d ih svam rupam (m ad h y ap atitan ca g r'a h a y a ti .) " . I
5 .4 . (3) A change in a case a c c o rd in g to th e c o n te x t.

The b re v ity i s sa id to be th e so u l o f P 's grammar. For th e sake o f b re v ity , P has


a c c e p te d th e e l l i p t i c a l c o n s tru c tio n fo r th e A ft. Each ru le o f th e A st is assum ed to be a
com pldte se n ten c e b u t seldom do ue come a c ro s s a ru le w ith a l l i t s com ponents e x p re s s iv e ly
s ta te d . Houever th e w ords, w hich a re a c tu a lly n o t p re s e n t in th e ru le b u t which a re to be
u n d ersto o d a s th e c o n s titu e n ts o f th e sa id r u le , come in to th e ru le by th e tech n iq u e of
a n u v r tti. In th is way, th e a n u v rttS word or words from) th e p re c e d in g ru le undergo th e
change in th e case te rm in a tio n s so as to s u it th e c o n te x t. I t is known a s " v ib h a k ti-v ip a r-
123
inam a" in P 's gram m atical tr a d itio n . For exam ple, th e word k a r tta r i in lo c a tiv e s in g , from
% I I I . i . 68, comes in to I I I . i . 87. and tu rn s i t s e l f in to nom.
s in g , k a rtta ^ so a s to s u it th e
c o n te x t. B esid es t h i s , som etim es th e uord from th e p re c e d in g r u le , when coming in to th e su b ­
l
seq u en t ru le s tu rn s i t s e l f in to a verb, so a s to s u it th e c o n te x t. For in s ta n c e , s a m a s a h fll.
*^

i , 3 ) , uhen i t is read 'in a k s a s a la k i. ( I I .i.1 0 ) is changed to a verb in a 3rd p erso n p lu r a l,


lI
I i .e .s a m a sy a n te , in th e agreem ent w ith th e s u b je c t a k s a s a la k i. e tc in 3rd p erso n p lu ra l.S o m e ­
tim es th e c o n te x t re q u ire s much more to be read in a ru le to com plete th e m eaning. In such
a c a s e , th e tr a d itio n a lo n e comes to our h e lp . For exam ple, in ik o gunavrddhi ( I .i .3 ) th e
I
words guna and v rdd h i a re read from th e p re c e d in g ru le s i . e . I . . 1'. & I . i . 2 . , and changed
i
’’ gunena vrddhya ca ” a c c o rd in g to th e c o n te x t. But th e uord ’
’sisyaniane" i s to be su p p lied in
l
I
th e c o n te x t. Thus th e ru le w ill be read a s ” gunena vrddhya ca sisyam ane gunavrddhi ik ah s y -
a tim ” .
I
I 5 .4 . (4) The words w ith o u t case te rm in a tio n s
I t is a uellknow n dictum in P ’ s g ram m atical tr a d itio n th a t th e words w ith o u t case
124
a f f ix e s sh ould n o t be u sed . S t i l l we have a numbers o f illu s tr a tio n s in th e A st, of th e
w ords, which a re used w ith o u t case a f f ix e s . A ccording to some s c h o la rs , th e y a re tak en from
th e p reced in g works d ir e c tly and not o f P ’ s own, o th erw ise P ’ s a ttitu d e to use such words
125
i s n o t o b v io u sly se e n . E x iste n c e o f such words demandsmore re s e a rc h .
5 .4 . (5) The n ip ita n a ru le s - T here a re some ru le s in th e A st w hich a re known a s th e n ip ita -
na r u le s , in P a n in ia n tr a d itio n . Uhen th e words which a re n o t d e riv e d by or in acco rd w ith
th e ru le s o f th e A st, th ey a re tak e n a s th ey a r e , and th o u g h t c o rre c t th ro u g h th e n ip a ta n a
126
ru le s by P . The n ip a ta n a s a re p re se n te d in m an ifo ld s e n s e s , th e n ip a ta n a o f augm ents, of
¥i
I
affixes etc.
127 when P reads the words through the nipltana rules, it is not to be understood **
X
f
that such words are unable to be derived but for the sake of brevity, the nipUtana is laid
128 _ ' '
I
down. The following karika states the functions, of the.nipatana -
I
aprapteh prapanam capi, prapter vlranam eva ca/
* 129
adhikarthavivaksa ca , trayam etan nipatanam^ ' . ,
I
I
5.4, (6) Some minor, devices in the Astadhyayi.

(a) Use of plural forms:- In a peculiar sense, P has employed the plural forms.

For example, in IU.ii.109, the word "madra" is read in plural, "Madra" is known for two

senses, i.e. the name of country and happiness. Uith a view to including the name of coun­

try, it is read in plural.


l
I (b) The association of the words > By the mention of the words together, P teaches

the meaning which is not said. For example, the word "nava" is read in II.i.49, known in
|
two sensss i.e. nine and new. Here the word "naya" is associated with the word "purina",

so it should be understood in the sense of "new" but not in the sense of nine.
I 130
(c) The nipatana rules are made to conclude peculiar meaning. For instance, the
I
I word "bhojya" is read in UII.iii.69. The nipatana of this word limits its meaning only to
131
abhyavyavaharya (eatible food).

(d) The reading of a word again t- It is P ’s peculiar device that he reads again
the word, however it comes through the chain technique to indicate a peculiar sense. For H
example, the word "karma" is already read in I.iv,46 and it can be understood in I.iv.49
:3 2 :
by th e ch ain te c h n iq u e . But P re a d s th e word "karm a" a g a in to e lim in a te th e word "ad h ara"
132
( I .iv .4 6 ) , o th e rw ise i t would o ccu r in l.iv .4 9 . alo n g w ith th e word "karm a".
(e) The a d d itio n o f p e c u lia r words U ith a view to m en tio n in g th e d is tin c tiv e s e n -
se, P adds th e words nama, akhya e tc to th e w ords. For in s ta n c e , P
u ses th e word akhya w ith X
I
133
th e word sth ey a in I .iii.2 3 , to in d ic a te th a t th e word sth ey a is a p p lie d only fo r a r b itr a to r .
Thus th e word akhya sta n d s fo r " tittle " .
(f) R eading o f a word a g a in in th e same to p ic s - Som etim es, P re a d s th e word a g a in
in th e same to p ic in a p e c u lia r s e n s e . For exam ple, th e word "h a v is" is read in V .i.2 . and
a g a in read in V .i.4 . In doing s o , P w ants to in d ic a te th a t th e word h a v is o ccu rin g in V .i.4 .
134
f h as a s p e c ific se n se .
(g) Use o f non-compound words P som etim es does n o t form compounds to in d ic a te th e
d is tin c tiv e s e n s e . For exam ple, in V .ii.47. th e compound o f
th e words guna and nim lna can be
form ed fo r th e sake o f b re v ity . But P read s gunasya nimane in s te a d o f m aking compound guna-
135
nim ane. In doing so , B w ants to m ention th e o n en ess of th e word guna.
(h) Use o f synonyms to g e th e r :- Som etim es, P re a d s th e synonyms to g e th e r in a ;p e- #
c u lia r se n se . For exam ple, in I I I . i i .1 8 8 . th e words "m ati" and "buddhi" a re synonym s. A cco rd -# ,
in g to th e com m entators, th e s e synonyms a re used in th e d if f e r e n t se n se , m ati is fo r "a d e -
136
s ir e " (icc h a ) and "buddhi" is fo r i n t e l l e c t . #
( i) Use o f o v erw o rd in g :- Sometimes P u ses th e words which se e m 'to be red u n d an t at w
firs t in s ta n c e b u t he does so to in d ic a te th e d is tin c tiv e s e n s e . For exam ple, he read s th e I
9& 1
I
33

word "Sabda" in V I.ii.1 0 3 a lo n g u ith th e word " d ik " , which a t th e f i r s t in s ta n c e , seems to be


m e a n in g le ss. But P u ses th e word "d ik ” fo r th e in c lu s io n of b o th th e w ords, k a la , in d ic a tin g ^
137
d ire c tio n and k a la in d ic a tin g c o u n try .
(j) How to c o n stru e th e ru le s o f th e A stad h y ay i. ’

M ostly P has used fo u r c a se s in th e A st i.e . pratham a (a nom inative c a s e ), pancam i


(an a b la tiv e c a s e ), § a s th l (a p o sse ssiv e c a se ) and saptam l (a lo c a tiv e c a s e ). A ll th e se fo u r
I1
c a se s a re used to g e th e r in s e v e ra l r u le s , w h ile in some r u le s , le s s c a se s th a n th e s e fo u r
lI a re u sed . Som etim es, d v itiy a (an a c c u s a tiv e case) and t r t i y a (an in s tru m e n ta l case) a re used l
l to o . I f we g iv e th e numbers 1 , 2 , 3 e tc to th e cases p rath am a, d v itiy l, tr tiy a e tc r e s p e c ti ­
v e ly , th e s e numbers sh ould read 5761 in th e o rd e r, to c o n stru e th e ru le s o f P 's grammar. Ue l
sh o u ld , th en p ro v id e a verb w hich i s g e n e ra lly m issin g in th e r u le s ,a s d isc u sse d in 5 .4 . (2;)
I to com plete th e se n se . In c a s e , le s s cases th a n th e se fo u r a re u sed , th e o rd e r o f th e numbers
fl
f o f cases i . e . 5761 w ill be th e sam e. For exam ple, in V I.i,8 4 . ad gunah^the words "sam h itay lm ”
" a c i" , "p u rvap aray o h " and "ekah" a re read th ro u g h th e c h a in te c h n iq u e . Now, i f ue p u t th e
* *
l
1
1"
above m entioned words a lo n g u ith th e r u le id gunah, a c c o rd in g to th e o rd e r 5761 and p ro v id e
I a s u ita b le v e rb , g e n e ra lly added to th e word in a n o m in ativ e c a s e , th e ru le ad " gunah u i l l
I1 run a s i t (5-1) a c i (7-1) sam hitayam (7-1) p u rvap aray o h (6 -2 ) ekah (1-1) gunah (1-1) (ad esah )
s y a t (v e rb ). P has used th e s e fo u r c a se s i . e . p ra th a m i, p an cam i, s a s th i and sap tam i in th e
fo llo w in g sen se !-
(a) pratham a : (any item ) ta k e s p la c e ^
(b) pancam i : a f te r (any item ) ■W
^ I
34

.(c ) s a s th i :
o f, or in p la c e of any item
*
(d) sap tam i : in o r in th e sen se o f "what fo llo w s ’ (p arasap tam i) , when any item is
to be u n d ersto o d in th e fo llo w in g ru le s (v is a y a -s a p ta m i , which is c o n tra s te d to a p a ra s a p t ­
am i) and in th e sen se o f cause i . e . in any item caused by any item fn im itta -s a p ta m i) . The
sap tam i in th e A.dhikara su s i s to be u n d ersto o d a s v is a y a s a p ta m i .
X
F ir s tly , th e a d h ik a ra s (headings) and th e words comming th rou g h th e tec h n iq u e of
be c o n sid e re d , when we c o n stru e th e ru le s o f P*s grammar.
Ian a n u v rtti sh o u ld Ii
6 .0 . The c o n te n ts o f th e A stld h y a y i, in b r ie f .
P ’ s grammar is d ev id ed in to 8 books i . e . adhyayas and each book is su bdevided in 4
II
q u a rte rs i . e . padas to 3 u it th e gram m atical fu n c tio n s and mnemotic p u rp o se . Each q u a rte r I
c o n s is ts o f to p ic s i . e . p ra k a ra n a s which c o n ta in ru le s i . e . s 'u tra s . The ru le s a re formed by I
e x h a u stiv e and s t i l l c o n c ise lan g u a g e . In th e fo llo w in g p a g e s, we p roceed to d isc u ss in b r ­ I
*
i e f , th e c o n te n ts o f th e A st. * *
I
6 .1 . 1 st Book In th e f i r s t book, m ost o f th e sam jnas alo n g w ith th e p a rib h a s ls have I
been d isc u sse d . M oreover, n e c e ssa ry ru le s fo r co m p o sitio n w ith re g a rd to th e two ty p e s of I
p ad as o f th e v a rb a l ro o ts i . e , atm anepada and parasm aipada have been d e a lt w ith . The ru le s I
re g a rd in g th e karaka a ls o have been ex p lain ed h e re . I
6 .2 . 2nd Book :- In th e f i r s t two q u a rte rs o f th is book, th e ru le s re g a rd in g th e sam -
a sa (compounds) have been g iv e n . In th e th ir d q u a rte r, th e rem ain in g u ses o f cases in th e I
k lra k a e tc a re d is c u s s e d . In th e fo u rth q u a rte r o f th e book, some compounds lik e dvigu e tc , I
.1
* 35 :

th e s u b s titu te s of th e v e rb a l ro o ts have been e x p la in e d . The q u a rte r ends u ith th e d is c u s s ­ 1


io n of th e e lis io n o f a f f ix e s .
6 .3 3rd Book T his book form s a very im p o rta n t p a rt o f P 's grammar, a s i t is p e r ta -
I
in in g to th e tih a n ta (v e rb a l in fle x io n s ) and th e k rd an ta (p rim ary d e r iv a tiv e s ) .
m 6 .4 . 4 th Book S- The a f f ix e s which a re known a s th e ta d d h ita (seco n d ary d e riv a tiv e s )
II
a re d isc u sse d in th is book. *
6 .5 5 th Book The d is c u s s io n o f th e ta d d h ita is co n tin u ed in th is book.
6 .6 . 6 th Book In th e f i r s t q u a rte r o f th is book, P d e a ls u ith th e ru le s of re d u p li ­
c a tio n (abhyasa) o f th e v e rb a l ro o ts and th e ru le s o f co m b in atio n and th o se o f a c c e n ts . In
th e second q u a rte r o f th e book, th e a c c e n ts o f th e compounds a re d is c u s s e d . In th e th ird
q u a rte r, th e changes in th e f i r s t member o f th e compounds a re d e a lt u ith . In th e fo u rth qu ­ s
a r t e r , th e changes ab o u t l e t t e r s , when a f f ix e s a re added to th e ah g a, a re e la b o ra te d .
6 .7 . 7 th Book S- L ike th e fo u rth q u a rte r o f th e 6 th book, in th is book a ls o , th e re is
a d e s c rip tio n of th e changes o c c u rin g in th e ahga due to th e a d d itio n of th e a f f ix e s to i t .
I
These changes a r e q u ite s im ila r to th e m orphophonem ics, an im p o rta n t a s p e c t o f a modern l i n ­
g u is tic s . I
6 .8 . 8 th Book The com plete 7 books and th e f i r s t q u a rte r o f th is book a re known a s
I
s a p a d a -s a p ta d h y iy i , u h ile rem ain in g th re e q u a rte rs of th e book b ear th e name tr ip a d i. The I
o rd e r o f th e ru le s in th e tr ip a d i b e a rs a g re a t im p o rtan ce in th e fu n c tio n s of P 's grammar.
The second q u a rte r o f th e book, th e firs t one o f th e tr ip a d i s ta r ts w ith th e w ell known I
56

paribhasa rule - purvatrasiddham. It maans that let the last three quarters (tripadi) of the

Ast be considered as invalid uith reference to the first seven books along with the first
+ *

quarter of the 8th book (sapadasaptadhyayi) and in the last three quarters of the 8th book

(tripadi) too, the subsequent rule uith reference to the preceding one be considered invalid,

X In the first quarter of the tripadi, the rules regarding accentuation, the elision of some

items i.e. samyoganta etc, are discussed. In the second quarter of tripadi, the rules regard ­
ing combination are dealt uith. In the last quarter of the tripidi, the topics like natva,

retroflexion etc are discussed.

7.0, Samjnas or technical terms in the Aistadhyayi.

7.1. P has discussed most of the technical terms or samjnls in the first book of his
138
grammar. Hence the book is given the name !,samjnadhyaya" by some authorities.and the remain ­

ing samjnas are enumerated in the different parts of the A,st in accordance with the purpose.

P has enumerated uell nigh 100 samjnas totally of which 68 samjnas are given in the first

book of his grammar* and the remaining samjnas are taught in the different parts of the Ast.

The following table makes it clear.


7 .2 . In o rd e r to make h is stu d y c o n c ise , c le a r and c o n v e n ie n t, P has used sym bols known
a s sam jn as. P has used th e word sam jna in tw o -fo ld se n se , one i s in a te c h n ic a l sen se sam-
“ 139
jnayate ’ nayl i t i samjna, the word samjna which is formed with the instrum ental 9u ffix 'a h '.
140
Here a samjna means a s h o rt w ording to convey am ple s e n s e . In th e second s e n s e , th e word
141
sam jna means sanipratyaya o r a name, in some in s ta n c e s , h av in g ety m o lo g ical a s w ell a s con ­
v e n tio n a l m eanings such a s S u rp arn ak h l e tc and in some c a s e s , havingonly a c o n v e n tio n a l
m eaning such a s p a n c a la h , v aran ah e tc . The word samjna is used only fo u r tim e s in th e whole
142
o f P ’ s grammar in th e sen se o f a te c h n ic a l term . U h ile i t is used in as many a s 63 ru le s
143
u n ifo rm a lly in th e lo c a tiv e c a se except in one I .i i .5 3 in th e sen se o f a p ro p e r name.
i 38 :
144
7 .3 . For th e sake of b re v ity , c la r ity and p re c is e n e s s , P has coined th e te c h n ic a l term s
* in th e A st, Every sam jna su g g e sts a d e f in ite term used in a p a r tic u la r g ram m atical o p e ra t- X
145 **
io n .
7 .4 .1 . Samjnas and th e ir c la s s if ic a tio n :-
A ccording to some s c h o la rs , P a t. p u ts th e sam jnas in tu o m ajor d iv is io n s : (l)k rtr-
ima sam jnas o r a rtific ia l term s such as t i , ghu, bha and th e lik e which a re co in ed by th e
146
a u th o r (2) a k rtrim a sam jnas a re term s such a s av y ay a, sarvanam a e tc . A ccording to th e same

a u th o r itie s k *rtrim a sam jni is a g a in su b d iv id ed in w ' to tu o groups : (1) th e sam jnas th a t a re
seen to be e n tir e ly a r b itr a r y lik e ti, ghu, bha and th e lik e and (2) th o se th a t a re a b b re ­
v ia tio n s o f lo n g er w ords, and th e th ir d c a te g o ry , which is to be added to i t i s th e c a te g -
147
ory o f th e term s lik e k r t, b a h u v rih i etc<i Now i t is obvious th a t P at does n o t mean th e sam>
Vt_ M w
, w
jn a s , ghu e tc a s k rtrim a and th e sam jnas av y ay a, sarvanam a e tc a s a k rtrim a in th e above
ti %

„ —
m entioned s e n s e . I t is to be n o ted th a t P at w ants to s ta te a g e n e ra l u ieu th a t th e sam jnas
used by th e p eo p le a s thenam es a re a k rtrim a sam jn as, w h ile th e sam jnas co in ed by th e gram -
148
m arian fo r th e gram m atical fu n c tio n s a re k rtrim a sam jn as. Thus we conclude th a t ’ k rtrim a*
( a r tif ic ia l) and ’ a k rtrim ’ (n a tu ra l) a re n o t tu o c la s s e s of th e te c h n ic a l term s o f P, b u t
th ey a re tu o c la s s e s of sam jnas in g e n e ra l. In P ’ s grammar a l l te c h n ic a l names a re k rtrim a
and both th e term s k rtrim a and a k rtrim a a re found m entioned by P . But in m a tte r of a gram -
* '1 4 9
m a tic a l o p e ra tio n , th e a r t i f i c i a l (k rtrim a ) g e ts p re fe re n c e over th e n a tu ra l (a k rtrim a ) .

* ■
*

The sam jnas lik e avyaya e tc a re - some a u th o r itie s b e lie v e , m ahati sam jn as. T hese a re s e lf
150
e x p la n a to ry term s and a c c o rd in g to some a u th o r itie s ,a r e th o u g h t to be borrow ed by P from
1S1 X
th e o ld tr e a tis e s .
7 .4 .2 . U ith a n o th e r p o in t o f view , some a u th o r itie s d iv id e sam jnas used by P in a te c h n ic a l
s e n s e , in to two broad c a te g o rie s . The f i r s t i s th o se sam jnas which a re r e la te d to u o rd in g V
JJ52 ^ ^ ft
(sa b d a ). Hence th ey a re known a s sab d a-sam jn as. The second one is th o se sam jnas th a t a re r e - -w
153 „

la te d to th e m eaning, so th ey a re c a lle d a rth a sa m jn a s. For exam ple, v rd d h i, guna, samyog&etc


a re labdasam jnas because th ey d en o te some s p e c if ic words a s th e ir sa m jn ls. W hile v ib h a sa ,
lo p a , sam prasarana and th e lik e a re a rth sa m jn a s fo r th ey d en o te only th e se n se o r meaning
of th e words a s su c h . A ccording to some s c h o la rs , one more c a te g o ry such a s dharm asam jna
15 4

■ •
sh o u ld be added to th is l i s t . For exam ple, u d a tta , anuda t t a and s v a rita a re' f dharm sam jnas a s
th ey re fe r to th e dharma o r p a r tic u la r c h a r a c te r is tic of vow el.
7 .4 .3 . I t is o b v io u sly seen th a t th e re a re two p e c u lia r itie s o f some of th e s e sam jn as.
Some of th e te c h n ic a l term s a re m erely te c h n ic a l names such a s guna, v rd d h i e tc , w h ile some
o f them a re n o t only te c h n ic a l names b u t th ey a re a ls o c la s s names such a s ay y ay a, sa rv a n a -
ma, atm anepada e tc . Some s c h o la rs b e lie v e th a t v rd d h i, guna, samyoga e tc a re v a rn a -sa m jn ls
155 s
b ecau se th ey do n o t d en o te words b u t th ey d en o te l e t t e r s (v a rn a s ).

7 .4 .4 . At th e f i r s t s ig h t, i t seems th a t P has m entioned th e te c h n ic a l names h ap h azard ly


156
a s some s c h o la rs b e lie v e , b ecau se he has n o t g iv an a l l o f them in th e f i r s t book o f h is
grammar, which is a book on th e te c h n ic a l te rm s . But th e co n tem p latio n o f th e A st, c le a rly
157
shows th a t P has done i t p u rp o se ly . The term s w id ely a p p lie d a re arran g ed in th e f i r s t two
books and th e r e s t whose a p p lic a tio n is lim ite d fo r a c e r ta in to p ic a re g iv en in th e con*
e a rn in g to p ic s . In th is way, th e re a re two ty p e s o f sam jn as. The f i r s t ty p e o f th e sam jn ls
i s re la te d to wide sp h ere w h ile second one is lim ite d fo r a c e r ta in to p ic . H ence, though
th e re is resem blance of re d u p lic a tio n , th e term 'a b h y a sa 1 can n o t be a p p lie d in th e abhyasa
to p ic of th e 8 th book.
7 .4 .6 . The v a rio u s ty p e s o f sam jn asas d isc u sse d above, can be p u t d ia g ra m a tic a lly a s u n d e r. “j|j,

sam jn is
T ech n ical names C onventional names
(k rtrim a ) (a k rtrim a )
----- ,

In acco rd w ith samj'fti O ccupation


(vyaptim atjja)

----------,
I
----
sabda-_ a r th a - dharroa- varpa- O ccupied L im ited >vs
saihjfta sam jna 3afiijna sam jna

7 .4 .7 . The sam jrils used by P in h is grammar a re now e n lis te d h ere w ith e x p o s itio n in b r ie f
in S a n s k rit a lp h a b e tic a l o rd e r
( a )

(1) a n g a -(I . i v .13) (stem ) I t is d e fin e d a s - A fte r w hatsoever th e re is an a f f ix added to ,


w hether v e rb a l ro o t or nom inal b a se , th e w ord-form having th a t a s i t s b e g in n in g , is term ed
an a h g a , when th e a f f ix fo llo w s i t . For exam ple - vana + am ^.vana + n + am (V II.i.5 4 ) —
vana + ham. Here by th e v irtu e o f I .iv .1 3 , th e lo n g vowel is s u b s titu te d fo r f in a l of th e
*
noun stem i.e . v an a. So i t is vananam.
(2) ad h ik arap a (l.S v .4 5 ) (R e c e p tac le s u p p o rt.) I t is e x p la in e d a s - S u b stratu m (ad h ara) is
: 41 :

term e d a d h ik a r a n a . S u b s tra tu m i s t h a t in w h ich th e


a c tio n i s s u p p o rte d o r lo c a te d . By I I . i i i . sI
1 3 6 , th e a d h ik a ra n a ta k e s 7 th c a s e . F o r e x a m p le , sth a ly a m p a c a t i . S u b stra tu m i s th r e e f o ld (a)
R e g a rd in g th e c o n tr a c t, a s se e n in 'k a te I s t e ’ (b) R e la tin g to th e v is a y a i . e . ’ m okse ic c h a
fIa s t i ' (c ) (on e t h a t i s ) a ll- p e r v a d in g i . e . s a rv a s m in n a tm a ' s t i . A d h ik a ra g a i s a k a ra k a an d II
l h a s b een d is c u s s e d from I . i v . 4 5 ^ 4 8 .
If
l (3) a n u d a tta ( I .ii,3 0 ) (G ra v e ly a c c e n te d ) . I t is d e fin e d a s - The vow el t h a t i s p ro d u c e d
from th e lo w e r p a r t o f th e p a r t s o f a r t i c u l a t i o n su ch a s p a la te e t c , i s te rm e d g ra v e ly a c c e n ­
For ex am p le ’ a ’ in a r v a n . ^
lI t e d .
(4 ) a n u n a s ik a ( I . i . 8 ) ( n a s a l.) a n u n a s ik a i s d e fin e d a s - T h a t w hich i s p ro n o u n c e d by th e n o se ®
I a lo n g w ith th e m outh i s te rm e d a n u n a s ik a ( n a s a l ) . F or e x a m p le , in a b h ra am ap ah (Rgveda V. ®

4 8 .1 ) a m i s a n u n a s ik a . - ^
(5 ) ap ad an a ( l .i v .2 4 ) (A b la tio n ) I t i s e x p la in e d a s - T h a t w hich i s firm (d h ru v a ) when s e p a ra
t i o n ta k e s p la c e (a p a y e ) i s te rm e d a p a d a n a . By I I . i i i . 2 8 an ap ad an a ta k e s an a b la tiv e c a s e

(p an cam i) A padana i s a k a r a k a an d d is c u s s e d from I .i v .2 4 t r 3 l . F o r ex am p le - g ram id a y l t i .

(6 ) a p r k ta ( I .ii.4 1 ) (A>
s u f f i x c o n s is tin g o f a s in g le p h o n em e.)
I t i s d e fin e d a s - Ain a f f i x ( s u f f ix ) c o n s is tin g o f a s in g le l e t t e r i . e . phonem e i s
te rm e d a p r k ta . F or exam ple ’ s ’ o f n o m .s in g . s u . By th e v i r t u e o f I . i i . 4 1 , 's ’ in n o m .s in g .
’ s u ’ i s a p r k ta . H ence by V I .i .6 7 , th e a f f i x s ( u ) i s e lid e d a f t e r v ac i . e . v ac + s u < v ac + s
^ vak
(7 ) a b h y a s ta ( V I .i . 5) ( R e d u p lic a te d .) ||
I : 42 ;

l b o th a re c o lle c tiv e ly c a lle d ’ a b h y a sta * . For exam ple, d a d a 'ti.


I t is e x p la in e d a s th e
Here dad of th e v e rb a l ro o t da (to g iv e) is an ab h y asta by VI . i . 5 . By V I I .i. 4 , ’ at* is su b ­
I s t i t u t e fo r jh a and ue have th e form d a d a ti.
(8) abhyasa ( V I .i. 4) (The
f i r s t member o f a re d u p lic a te d form )
ll
I t is d e fin e d a s - The f i r s t o f th e two i s term ed ab h y isa (R e d u p lic a te ). For example
hu + 1
ti< -h u h u + t i ( V I .i, 4 ). Here th e f i r s t member "Hu* o f hu-hu i s an abhyasa by VII .iv .6 2 ,
jhuhu + ti^ -ju h u + ti (V III.iv .5 3 )-l ju h o ti (VII . i i i .8 4 ).
|
0)

(9) a v a sln a (I,iv .1 1 0 ) (Pause - vacuum) I t is ex p lain ed a s - The ab sen ce o f th e le tte rs i


term ed a v a sa n a . For exam ple, in non. s in g , rama + r (by V I ll.ii.6 6 ) Here a f t e r ’ r* th e re is
vacuum (no s y lla b le ) By I .iv .1 1 0 . ’ r ’ is av asan a ,<ramah (V III . i i i . 1 5 ) .
(10) avyaya ( l.i.3 7 ) (Tha in d e c lin a b le )
I t is d e fin e d a s - The word ’ svar* e tc and th e n ip a ta s ( p a r tic le s v id e I .iv .5 6 ) a re
c a lle d av y ay a. The avyaya lo s e s i t s case a f f ix e s by I l .i v .8 2 . K as. c ite s an o ld s ta n z a X
re g a rd in g th e c h a r a c te r s tic s o f th e avyaya - X
sa d rsa m tris u liih g e su , sa rv a su ca v ib h a k tis u /
f
vacanesu ca s a rv e s u , yanna v y e ti ta d avyayam ^
I
§
It means th e avyaya i s th a t
u h ich is in v a ria b le in a l l th e g e n d e rs, cases and numbers and
which is not u n d ergo in g a ch an g e. The words lik e racah rem ain as racah in a l l th e genders
numbers and c a s e s . The avyaya i s d isc u sse d from 3 7 -4 1 . I .i. f
(11) avyayibhava ( I I , i . 5) (The in d e c lin a b le compound).
: 43 :

I t i s e x p la in e d a s - The in d e c li n a b le (a v y a y a ) i s com pounded w ith s e n s e o f an i n f l e c t ­ *


iv e a f f i x ( v ib h a k ti) e t c , a n d com pound so fo rm ed i s term ed a v y a y lb h lv a ( I I . i . 6 ) . When t h a t
u h ic h was n o t in d e c lin a b le , becom es in d e c lin a b le , i t i s te rm e d a v y a y ib h a v a . I t i s a s e l f
e x p la n a to r y te r m . In th e a v y a y ib h a v a com pound, th e se n se o f th e f i r s t o f i t s m em bers i s
m ain o n e . The com pound becom es in d e c lin a b le by I .i.4 1 and lo s e s th e c a s e a f f i x by I l.iv .8 2 .
The a v y a y ib h a v a com pound i s d is c u s s e d from I I .i .5 - i 2 1 . F or ex am p le 'a d h i s t r i ' k a th a v a r t t a t e
{ a )

(1 2 ) A tm anepada ( l.i v .1 0 0 ) (ta n an d ana a f f i x e s .)


The term 'atm an ep ad a i s d e fin e d a s - The p r a ty a h a r a ta n (n in e a f f i x e s c o n ta in e d under
th e p ra ty a h a ra t a n , c o in e d from l l l . i v . 7 8 ) an d an a (tu o a f f i x e s sa n a c an d k a n a c ( I I I . i . 83
an d I I I . i i . 106 r e s p e c ti v e ly ) a ls o c a n a s and & anan u h ic h a r e s u b s t i t u t e s o f ’ l a ' (by I l l . i v .
77) a r e term ed a tm a n e p a d a . F o r e x a m p le , la b h e e t c . The atm an ep a d a i s d is c u s s e d from I . i i i .
12?77.
(1 3 ) S m a n trita ( I I . i i i . 4 8 ; ( v o c a tiv e )
The te rm a m a n tr ita i s d e fin e d a s - The w ord in a n o m in a tiv e c a s e , in th e se n se o f v o ­
I c a tio n i s te rm e d a m a n tr it a . The a m a n tr ita w ord ta k e s a d y u d a tta a c c e n t by V I . i . 1 9 8 . F or e x ­
am p le ’ a g n e’

(14) a m re d ita ( V I I l ,i ,2 ) (The se c o n d member o f a r e d u p lic a te d fo rm ). The te rm a m re d ita i s


1
e x p la in e d a s - Of t h a t u h ic h t u i c e u t t e r e d , th e l a t t e r word form i s term ed a m r e d ita . By
i th e v ir tu e o f V I I I . i i . 9 5 , th e a m re d ita u o rd becom es p lu ta , f o r ex am p le o a u rI .c a u r j ^ e t c .
I a d it
I : 44 :

(15) ard h ad h atu k a ( I I I .i v , 114) (A ll v e rb a l te rm in a tio n s o th e r th an tin and s i t ( I I I . i v . 113)


The term is e x p la in e d a s - The a f f ix e s , o th e r th an tin and s i t ( v .I I I .iv .1 1 3 ) a re term ed ar-
i f
I
d h a d h itu k a . I t means th e p e rs o n a l endings o f th e v erb s in th e p e rfe c t te n s e ( l i t ) and th e
b e n e d ic tiv e mood ( a s ir lin ) a re c a lle d a rd h a d h a tu k a . Being ardh ad h atu k a a f f ix e s , th ey ta k e
l
th e idagama and v il)aran a i s n o t added b e fo re th e s e a f f ix e s , to th e v e rb a l r o o ts . For exam ple,
l
l la v ita e tc . The term is d is c u sse d from I I I . i v . 114-117.
l (i )

S (16) it ( l.iii.2 ) (E x p o n en tial marks'*, an in d ic a to ry l e t t e r .)


The term is d e fin e d a s - The n a sa l vow els in o rig in a l sta te m e n t a re term ed * i t ’ Upad
esa is an o rig in a l in s tr u c tio n . T ra d itio n a lly d h a tu , ^ Q tr a , g an a, u n a d i , sa b d a n u S a sa n a ,lin
I
g a n u iasa n a , agam a, p ra ty a y a and a d e s a ;th e s e n in e a re known a s u p ad esa. The term i t is d is ­
f
cu ssed from I . i i i . 2 - 9 . For exam ple *u in su (n o m .sin g .) is ’ i t ’ .
( u )

(17) uttam a (I.iv .1 0 7 ) ( l.iv .1 0 1 ) ( F ir s t p e rso n , th e H ig h e s t.) The term is ex p lain ed a s -


Uhen th e pronoun asmad e ith e r u n d ersto o d o r e x p re sse d , is th e a tte n d a n t word in agreem ent
w ith th e v e rb , th en th e re is th e v e rb a l te rm in a tio n term ed F ir s t p erso n o r h ig h e s t. For ex - ^
am ple, aham gaccham i,
(18) u d itta ( I .ii.2 9 ) (A cu tely a c c e n te d .)
The term u d a tta is d e fin e d a s - Avowal produced from th e upper p a rt o f th e p o in ts of
a r tic u la tio n such a s p a la te e tc w ith th e ir p a r ts , is term ed u d a tta o r a c u te ly a c c e n te d . The
first vouel of an affix is udatta by III.i.3. For example kr + tavyam<f kartavyam.
•*

(19) upadha (l.i.65) (The penultimate phoneme) ^


The term upadha is defined as - The letter immediately preceding the last letter is
termed upadha or the penultimate phoneme. For example, in pac, bhid, budh^ a, i, u are penu- ^
ltimate letters respectively. In bhid + trc, *i * 1
in bhid is termed upadha by I.i.65. Hence

guna is substituted for 'i' of bhidsbhetta , by UII.iii.86.

(20) upapada (III. i. 92) (Uord in proximity to which it is. subordinate, the dependant word).

The term upapada is explained as - In the heading dhatoh (refering to verbal roots)

the uord in the locative case (saptami) is termed upapada.* For example, in III.ii.1 i.e.

karmany an, the uord 'karma* is put in the locative case. The locative case is used in three
fold sense i.e. parasaptami, nimittasaptami and visayasaptami . There is not any of above

mentioned senses in the uord karmani exhibited in the locative case. So it means that when ,

the word denoting 'karma' (object) is an upapada, the affix an is added to a verbal root,

So kumbham karoti<kumbha + kr + an< kumbhakarah.

(21) upasarga (l.iv.59) (A preposition, a particle joined to a verb or noun denoting act ­
* ion.)

The term upasarga is defined as - Uhen the particles pra, para etc (I .iv.58) compos­

ited uith a verb, they are termed upasarga. They are a sub-division of the nipata (a parti'

cle) exhibited in I.iv.56. For example 'pra* in ‘prapya*. The term upasarga is discussed

from I.iv.59-82.
%

(22) u p a sa rja n a ( I .ii.4 3 ) (The secondary w ord.) I


The term
u p a sa rja n a i s d e fin e d a s - In th e ru le s r e la tin g to th e compounds (sam isas) I
*
th e word read in th e n o m in ativ e c a se , is term ed u p a s a rja n a . For example sa a ♦s th i ( I I . i i . 8 ) .
The word term ed a s u p a sa rja n a is to be p la c e d f i r s t in th e compounds by th e v irtu e o f I I . i i .
II
3 0 . Hence devasya grham < devagrham ( I .i i .4 3 , I I . i i . 8 , and I l . i i . 3 0 ) . The term u p a sa rja n a is I
I d isc u sse d from I . i i . 4 3 -44 . I
( e )

(23) %kavacana ( l.iv .1 0 2 , I .iv .2 2 ) (s in g u la r)


I
. i
I I
There a re th re e tr a id s o f c o n ju g a tip n a l a ffix e s u h ich a re term ed pratham a ( lo u e s t) e tc 1
I ( l .i i .2 9 ) As re g a rd th e se th re e tr a id s , th e e x p re ssio n fo r ’ o n e ’ in each tr a id is term ed
X ekavacana o r s in g u la r. For exam ple tip (3rd p erso n s in g .) ?

( k
l
(24) karana ( I .iv .4 2 ) (In stru m e n t, th e m eans, by uhich an a c tio n is e ffe c te d ) The term
k aran a i s e x p lain e d a s - T hat u h ich
is e s p e c ia lly a u x ilia ry in th e accom plishm ent (o f th e
a c tio n ) i s term ed k a ra n a . For exam ple, d ltre n a lu n a ti. Here d ltr a is k a ra n a . karana ta k e s
|
II
th e in s tru m e n ta l case by I I . i i i . 1 8 . I t is d is c u sse d from I.iv « 4 2 -4 4 . I
(25) k a r tr ( l.iv .5 4 ) (The a g e n t o f an a c tio n , s u b je c t o f a se n ten c e ) The term k a r tr is
d e fin e d a s - The in d ep en d en t one ( r e la tiv e to o th e r k a ra k a s) u h ich is a b s o lu te and p r in c ip a l I
so u rc e o f a c tio n is term ed k a r tr . For exam ple, D evadatta in D evadatto g a c c h a ti. k a r tr is one
* *

o f th e s ix k a ra k a s, and ta k e s th e in s tru m e n ta l case by I I .i i .1 8 in th e p a s s iv e v o ice and th e i


: 47 i

n o m in ativ e case by I I . i i i . 4 6 in th e a c tiv e v o ic e . The term i s d isc u sse d from I . i v . 5 4 -5 5 .


(26) karma ( l.iv .4 9 ) (The
o b je c t o f an a c tio n ) Uhat th e a g e n t ( l.iv .5 4 ) seek s most to en ­
com pass, is term ed karma o r o b je c t. For exam ple, ^ a ta m ' in katam k a r o ti. karma is one o f
th e s ix k a ra k a s and ta k e s th e a c c u s a tiv e case by I I . i i i . 2 in th e a c tiv e v o ic e and th e nom­
in a tiv e case by I I . i i i . 4 6 in th e p a ssiv e v o ic e . The term is d isc u sse d from I . i v . 4 9 -53 .
(27) karm adharaya ( I .ii.4 2 ) (The
a p p o s itio n a l d e te rm in a tiv e compound) The term k arm ad h ir-
aya is d e fin e d a s - & ta tp u ru s a compound, o f which a c a se o f each member i s th e sam e, i s
term ed karm adharaya o r th e a p p o s itio n a l d e te rm in a tiv e compound. For exam ple - n ilo tp a la m .
The karm adharaya compound i s a v a rie ty of th e ta tp u ru s a compound.

(28) k arm ap rav scan iy a (A


p a rt o f sp eech used to d en o te an a c tio n , c o n s is tin g o f
( I . i v . 83)
a t i , adhi e tc , a p re v e rb .) The term k arm ap rav acan iy a i s e x p lain e d a s - T hat which q u a lif ie s
o r speaks a b o u t an a c tio n (Mbh) is term ed k arm ap rav acan iy a. The term i s g iv en to a group o f
n ip a ta s , which th e u p asarga c o n s is ts o f, b u t th e u p asarg as a re used w ith v e rb s , w h ile th e
karm apravacaniya i t s e l f d e n o tes th e a c tio n and i t i s n ev er used w ith v erb s a s th e u p a sa rg a s.
For exam ple, su in su stu tam b h a v a ta . I t does n o t ta k e co m b in atio n al changes lik e th e u p a s-
N

a rg a . The k arm ap rav acan iy a, g e n e ra lly governs th e a c c u s a tiv e case by I l . i i i . 8 . T his term is
d isc u sse d from I . i v . 8 3 -98 .
(29) k arak a (In stru m e n t of a c tio n ) P does n o t d e fin e th e term k arak a b u t u se s
( I .i v . 23) it
a s an a d h ik a ra ru le k arak e ( I . i v . 2 3 ). I t is e x p lain e d a s - The c a p a c ity in which a th in g
becomes in s tru m e n ta l in b rin g in g o u t an a c tio n , i s term ed k a ra k a . T h is c a p a c ity i s looked upo¥

in th e fo llo w in g k a rik a ¥
k a rta karmakaranam^ sam pradlnam ta th a iv a ca /
ap ad an ad h ik aran e ca^ ityevaih k a ra k in i s a t / /
The six k a ra k a s a re d is c u sse d from I . i v . 23-55 and k ira k a -v ib h a k tis a re tr e a te d from I l.iii. II
1 -7 3 . I
(30) k rt ( I I I .1 .9 3 ) (The c la s s o f prim ary a f f ix e s used a s s u ffix e s used to form th e nouns I
from v e rb a l ro o ts ) The term k r t i s d e fin e d a s - ftny a f f ix e x c e p t tin ( te n s e - a f f ix e s ) a p p li- I
c a b le to th e v e rb a l b a s e s , is term ed k r t. For in s ta n c e , k r + ta v y a t^ kartavyawiU' The words I
form ed by th e s e a f f ix e s a re c a lle d p ritip a d ik a s by I . i i . 4 6 . The term is d isc u sse d from
I I I ,i.9 3 - I I I .iv .1 1 7 .
(31) k rty a ( I I I . i . 95) (The c la s s o f a f f ix e s form ing th e fu tu re p a ssiv e p a r tic ip le ) The term
k rty a is n o t d e fin e d by P b u t i t is used a s a te c h n ic a l term in th e sen se o f k r t a f f ix e s 1

p o sse ssin g th e sen se o f **should be done** P u ses th e term k rty a a s an a d h ik a ra ru le ( I I I .1 .
95) and m en tio n s k rt a f f ix e s th e re in which a re to be term ed k rty a . For exam ple, kr + ta v y a t< I
kartavyam (sh o u ld be d o n e ) . T here a re seven k rty a a f f ix e s as m entioned by th e fo llo w in g I
k a rik l :-
tavyam ca tavyatam cin iy aram kelim aram ta th i /
I
yatam nyatam kyapam c a iv a , sa p ta k rty a n p ra c a k sa te H
I
The k rty a a f f ix e s a re d isc u sse d from I I I . i .9 5 -1 3 3 .

a
49
( 8 )

(32) g a ti ( l . i v . 60) {A p re p o s itio n ) The term g a ti is d e fin e d a s -The words p ra , p a ra , e tc . %


a re term ed g a ti u h ile in co m p o sitio n w ith a v e rb . For example ’ ufo. ’in u tp a ta ti. The term
g a ti is d isc u sse d from l . i v . 6 0 -8 2 . I
(33) guna ( l .i .2 ) (The vowel phonemes
a , e and o) The term gu$a is d e fin e d a s - The v/ouels I
a , e and o (th em selv es o r form ed by th e ru le s ) a re term ed guga. For exam ple 'a ' in brahm ar- I
\
s ih , (vid e I .i .5 1 ) , ’ e ’ in mahesah a n d ’o ’ in suryodayah. The term guna is d isc u sse d from
I .i .2 - 6 . II
(34) .
guru ( l . i v . 11) (P ro s o d ic a lly long vow el, heavy) The term is d e fin e d a s - A s h o rt vowel
im m ed iately b e fo re a co n ju n ct conso nant and a lo n g vowel a r s term ed g u ru . For exam ple, ’ ’ i
i
I in sik sa and in n a d i. The term guru is d isc u sse d from l . i v . 11-12.
(35) g o tra (lV .i.1 6 2 ) (The a f f ix e s used fo r form ing p atro n y m ic and m atronym ic nam es, th e
grandson and h is d e sc e n d a n ts) The term g o tra is ex p lain ed a s - A d e sc e n d a n t, b ein g a g ran d ­
son o r a s t i l l low er o ffs p rin g i s term ed g o tra . For example g lrg y a (th e grandson o f g arg a) .
l
I ( gh )

(36) gha( l.i.2 2 ) (The co m p arativ e and s u p e rla tiv e a f f ix e s ta ra p and tamap)' The term gha
is d efin ed a s - The a f f ix e s ta ra p and tamap a re term ed gha. For exam ple, k u m aritara »
kum ari + ta r a < k u m aritara by I V .iii.4 3 .
l
(3?) ghi ( l . i v . 7) (A nom inal stem ending in *i 1 o r 'u* o th e r th an th e word sa k h l) The term
ghi is d e fin e d as - The r e s t o f th e words ending in *i * o r ’ u ' ex cep t th e word ’ sak h i%
I
.."=vfe I
50

F o r e x a m p le , a g n i ( f ir e ) The n o m in al stem c a lle d g h i ta k e s g u n a - s u b s titu tio n in d a tiv e , a b l ­


a tiv e an d g e n itiv e s in g u la r by l/ll . i i i .1 1 1 , so agni*t n a s -^ a g n e + rta s < a g n e s ( V I .i.1 1 0 ) an d
th e n a g n e h . The te rm g h i i s d is c u s s e d from I .iv .7 - 9 .
(3 8 ) ghu ( l.i.2 0 ) (The
v e r b a l b a s e s da an d dha e x c e p t dap an d d a ip ) . T he te rm ghu i s e x p la ­
in e d a s - T he v e r b a l b a s e s h a v in g th e form o f da ( to g iv e ) an d dha ( to p la c e ) e x c e p t dap an d
d a ip a r e te rm e d g h u . T h e re a r e f o u r v e r b a l b a s e s in da i . e . d u d a n , d a n , do an d den an d tw o
v e r b a l b a s e s in dha i . e . d u d h in an d d h a t,d a p i s f o r two v e r b a l b a s e s i . e . dap an d d a ip (by
p a ri, underI I I .i v .1 9 ) F or ex am p le p r a n id a d a ti e t c . B ecau se o f th e v e rb a l b a s e s b e in g g h u ,
|I th e ’ n a ' in ’ p r a n i ' i s ch an g ed in to r na* by VII I .iv ^ 1 7 .
( t ,)

l (39) t i ( l.i.6 4 ) (The f i n a l s y l l a b l e b e g in n in g w ith a v o w el) The term t i is d e fin e d a s -


The f in a l p o r tio n o f a w ord b e g in n in g w ith th e l a s t among th e v o u e ls in th e uiord i s te rm e d
F or ex am p le 'i t ' in a g n i c i t .
1 ti.
l ( t ) I
%
(4$ ) ta tp u r u s a ( l l . i . 2 2 ) (A c la s s o f com pounds in w hich th e l a s t member i s q u a lif ie d by
l th e f i r s t one w ith o u t lo s in g i t s g ra m m a tic a l in d e p e n d e n c e ) . The te rm ta tp u r u s a i s n o t d e f i ­ I
l ned by P b u t i t i s u sed a s a n a d h ik lr a r u le ( l l . i . 2 2 ) W ith a v ie u to in c lu d in g th e com pounds I
o f th e sam e n a tu r e , P d o es n o t d e f in e i t an d d is c u s s e s th e ta tp u r u s a com pound from I I . i . 2 2 - I
l l . i i . 2 2 . The m ajo r d iv is io n s o f th e ta tp u r u s a compound a r e (1 ) v ib h a k ti- ta tp u r u s a ( l l , i . 2 4 )
(2 ) s a m ln a d h ik a ra n a -ta tp u ru s a o r k arm ad h ara y a ( I . i i . 4 2 ) (3) s a h k h y i- ta tp u r u s a o r d v ig u ( I I .
1
lI
W
51 V/. Vr
•y
t
i.52) (4) avyayatatpurusa (II.ii.1-3) (5) vyadhikarana-tatpurusa .
(I I .ii .5);.i.
(6) _
nan-tatpur£js^ I
Cfl

(II .ii.2-6) (7) upapada-tatpurusa (ll.ii.19) (b ) pradi- tatpurusa (II .ii.18^)t(9) namul-tatpii-

rusa (ll.ii.20) (10) mayura~vyamsa kadi- tatpurusa (ll.i.72). However these dsit/i,sions are not

mentioned by P, the commentators divide them clearly as noted above. (Example :*«.ra^ap u.rbsah) ‘ 1 s i

(41) tadanta (l.i.72) (Coming to an end by that, ending in that) The term tadanta is defined

as - Let an adjective (by which an injunction is made) denote that which ends with it and ^
also its own form. For example^erac (ll|.iii,56) enjoins the affix ac to the root ’i ’ and H
also others ending in 'i'. Here eh is an adjective through which an injunction is made.
Hence eh stands for both 'i ’ ityasya dhatoh and ikarantasya dhatoh. Thus we have it ao = H
ayafy and ci + ac = cayah. This is an important feature of the ft.st in the interpretations of

its rules. This feature is especially helpful to those adhikara words coming into the subse- ^
quant rules. For example pratipadikat (lV.i.1) is read into the large number of the subsequ- H
ent rules. In the subsequent rules, the words atah (IV.i.4)^ yanah (IV.i.16) etc are read,

which becone the adjectives of the word ’pratipadikat ’ .So atah^yanah etc mean adantat, yan- ^
antat by I.i ,72.

(42) tadraja (IV.i.174) (The taddhita affixes given in the rules IV.i. 168-174, added to

the nouns of a race for forming the nouns of its chief) . The term tadrlja is explained as -

These viz the affixes mentioned from IV.i. 168-174 are called tadraja. These affixes are

applied to such words which mean both the country and the warrior-race. For example, panca-

lah, the son of Pancala and inhabitant of Pancala country.

%
: 52 : %

( d )

(43) d irg h a ( l.ii.2 7 ) (The p ro s o d ic a lly lo n g vow el) The term is d e fin e d a s - A vouel whose
Il
tim e is th a t o f lo n g u M
is term ed d irg h a . For exam ple, M in g a u ri.
i I
H (44) dvandva (A
c o p u la tiv e compound) The term dvandva is e x p la in e d a s - Uhen a
( l l .i i .2 9 )
s e t of s e v e ra l uords ending w ith case a f f ix e s sta n d s in a r e la tio n e x p re s s ib le by ’’an d ” (c a ),
l
th e s e t i s made in to a compound, and th e compound so form ed is term ed dvandva. For exam ple, l
p lak san y ag ro g h au .
H (45) dvigu ( l l .i .5 2 ) (Kind o f a ta tp u ru s a compound
i n ’ which th e f i r s t member is a n u m eral,
lf
th e num eral d e te rm in a tiv e com pound). The term dvigu is d e fin e d a s - In a c a s e , u h ere th e
sen se is th a t o f a ta d d h ita a f f ix o r uhen an a d d itio n a l member comes a f te r th e compound, o r
uhen an a g g re g a te is to be e x p re sse d , th e compound, of w hich, th e f i r s t member i s num eral,
is term ed d v ig u . For exam ple, pancakapal'ah, p a n c a v a ti e tc . The dyigu compound is a s u b -d iv i ­
sio n of th e ta tp u ru s a compound and i t is d e c lin e d in th e n e u te r gender and s in g u la r number
c f paR capatram . Uhen i t ends in a , th e fem in in e a f f ix h i is a p p lie d g e n e ra lly e .g . p a n c a v a ti I
e tc .
(46) duiuacana (I.iv .1 0 2 ) (d u a l) The term dvivacana is d e fin e d a s - These th re e tr a id s of ^
c o n ju g a tio n a l a f f ix e s have been term ed pratham a e tc . As re g a rd th e se th re e e x p re s s io n s , in
each tr a id , th e e x p re ssio n s fo r two a re term ed dvivacana o r d u a l. For exam ple, g acch atah
nayivah e tc .

i
53

(47) dhatu ( I .iii.1 ) (A


v e rb a l stem ) The term dhatu is e x p la in e d a s - The words b eg in n in g
w ith bhu (to become) and va (to blow) d e n o tin g a c tio n a re term ed dhatu o r a v e rb a l b a se .
For exam ple, b h a v a ti. A ccording to some a u th o r itie s va in I . i i i . 1 is fo r su sp icio u sn ess(M b h
e tc ) w h ile some ta k e i t a s a v e rb a l ro o t (Pdm a te ) P m entions secondary v e rb a l b ases by
I I I . i . 32 (v id e - p ra ty a y a d h itu -s a m jn a ) . The fo llo w in g ta b le g iv es th e a n a ly s is o f th e v e rb a l
ro o ts prim ary as w ell a s se c o n d a ry .
dhatu

P rim ary Secondary

1 bhu 2 ad 3 hu 4 d iv 5 su 6 tu d 7 rudh fj ta n 9 k ri 10 cu r

d h a tu ja d h a tu nama dhatu
(d e riv e d from v e rb a l b a se s) (d e riv e d from nom inal b ases)

1 2 % 4
n ija n ta san n an ta yananta y an lu g an ta t
4
k y a ja n ta kam yajanta kyananta k y a^an ta n in a n ta k v ib an ta p ra k irp a
(M iscellan eo u s)
54

( n )

(4 8) nadi (l.iv .3 ) (The fe m in in e e n d in g s - i an d u) The te rm n a d i i s d e f in e d a s - The - w o rd s *


|| e n d in g in lo n g i an d u , b e in g nam es o f fe m a le s a r e te rm a d n a d i. F or e x a m p le , k u m a ri. T he a u - %
X gm ent a t i s ad d ed to th e c a s e e n d in g s o f th e d a tiu e , a b l a t i u e an d g e n it iu e s in g u la r a f t e r t h e *
•W n o m in al ste m s te rm e d a s n a d i by V l l . i i i . 1 1 2 . So k u m ari + n e -^ k um ari + a + ne ^ k u m a ry a i . The

te rm n a d i i s d is c u s s e d from I , i u , 3 - 6 . X

(49) n ip a ta (I .iu .5 6 ) (A;


p a r t i c l e ) P d o e s n o t d e fin e th e te rm n ip a ta b u t he h a s e n u m e ra te d
it in a g ro u p o f w o rd s, ’ c a ' e tc i . e . c a d i. T he te rm n ip a ta i s th e te rm g iu e n by th e a n c ie n t
'll g ram m arian s an d it was one o f th e fo u r c a te g o r ie s o f w o rd s , i.e . nam a , " a k h y a ta , u p a sa rg a an d %

>
n ip a ta . (V id e - N iru k ta , 1 .1 . N iru k ta & S s tra , B h a g a u a d a tta A m rta s a ra E d .V s. 2021 , P .4 ) P d o es l
n o t ta k e n ip a ta s a s an in d e p e n d e n t c a te g o ry o f w ords b u t he c o u n ts them a s a s u b a n ta . (V id e - l
su p tih a n ta m padam 1 . iu .1 4 ) N ip a ta s a r e a u y a y a s by l . i . 3 7 an d lo s e t h e i r c a s e te r m in a tio n s by lI
I I . i u . 8 2 . The te rm n ip a ta i s d is c u s s e d from I . i u . 5 6 -9 7 .
(5 0 ) n is th a ( l . i . 2 6 ) ( P a r t i c i p i a l s u f f ix e s ta an d ta u a t) The term n is th a i s d e fin e d a s -
1 1 4 »

The a f f i x e s (k ) ta an d (k ) ta u a t (u) a r e te rm e d n i s t h a . The, in d ic a to r y ’ k ' p r e u e n ts u rd d h i ^


by I .i.5 . F o r e x a m p le , k r ta h , k rta u a n e t c . m
( p ) 1

(51) pada (I .iu .1 4 ) (An


i n f l e c t e d w o rd , a. w ord form te r m in a tin g in e i t h e r sup o r t i n ) The
te rm - p ad a i s d e fin e d a s - T h a t w hich en d s in sup (c a s e a f f i x e s by I V .i .2 ) o r in t i n ( t e n s e -
a f f i x e s by I I I . i u . 7 8 ) i s te rm e d p a d a . F or ex am p le brahm ana + ja s < b ra h m a n a h , p a c + t i p ^ l
•S S sfe /
pac + sap + tip - 4 p a c a ti. The term is d is c u sse d from I . i v . 1 4 -17 .
(52) parasm aipada ( l.iv .9 9 ) (The p e rso n a l en d in g s of th e A ctiv e V o ice). The term p a ra sm a i-
pada is e x p lain e d a s - The s u b s titu te s of " l a ” a re term ed p arasm aip ad a. T here a re 18 p e rs o - ||
n a l endings com prised in th e t i n p ra ty a h a ra . The firs t n in e p e rso n a l en d in g s a re c a lle d p a ­
rasm aip ad a, in th e tin p ra ty a h a ra . For example-, n i + sap + tip < n a y a ti. The v erb s which ta k e
b o th th e p e rso n a l en d in g s i.e . parasm aipada and atm anepada a re term ed ubhayapada v e rb s . For
exam ple, d a^d ad S ti and d a tte . The term parasm aipada
is d isc u sse d from I . i i i . 7 8 93. —

X (53) p rag rh y a ( l.i.1 1 ) (U ncom binable by euphonic r u le s , to be pronounced s e p a ra te ly .) The


term pragrhya is d e fin e d a s - A dual case a f f ix ending in i , u or a , i s term ed p ra g rh y a . For
exam ple, agnlrt iti^ a g n l Here
th e vow els " i" in an g n i and an i n i t i a l " i" in
iti. iti do n o t
adm it of euphonic co m b in atio n by V I .i. 101. The term p rag rh y a is d isc u sse d from l . i . 1 1 -19 .
(54) p ra ty a y a ( I I I . 1 .1 ) (An a f f ix ) The term p ra ty a y a is ex p lain ed as -The term p ra ty a y a is
th a t which is p lac e d a f te r th e base ( p r a k r ti) . The term p ra ty a y a is read in I l l . i . 1 as ad h -
ik a ra which c o n tin u e s up to th e end o f th e f i f t h book. The term p ra ty a y a i s , th e re fo re n o t
m erely a term but a com prehensive term (m ahasam jna) , s tre tc h e d up to h a lf o f th e A st. The
p raty ay a-sam jn a w ith i t s v a r ie tie s can be p u t d ia g ra m a tic a lly a s under :

T able - 1

p ra ty a y a

5 up tin k rt ta d d h ita d h atu s tri


56

Analytically the pratyaya-samjna can be put in a diagram as under :


*
Table - 2.

pratyaya
X

krt taddhita Other than krt and


taddhita

kr.tya nistha sat sit sarva.


' + Irdha. in
the adhikara
dhatoh(III.i.91)
ardha .
sarva
( r~:
tadraja vibhakti Other than
tadraja and vibhakti

(55) pratyayadhatu (III.i.32) (Secondary verbal bases) The term pratyayadhatu is defined

as - A,ll the words ending with the affixes san etc are termed dhatu. For example, cikirsati
1
(56) pratyahara (l.i.71) (The abbreviated term) The term pratyahSra is not used by name in ^
the A§t, but it is frequently used by the grammarians of PS school of Sanskrit grammar. The

term pratyahara is defined as - Let the initial (letter) together uith the final indicatory

(letter) consistute a term for itself and the intervening letters . This abbreviated term is
called pratyahara. For example, ac, hal etc. (Vide it - samjna topic!!.)

(57) pratipadika (l.ii.45) (A nominal stem) The term pratipadika is defined as - The word

having signification, but which is neither a verbal root, nor an affix is termed pratipadika

. _. _ _
__ ._
___ ___ ___
57

T he form s e n d in g in k r t a f f i x e s , o r ta d d h ita a f f i x e s o r com pounds a r e a ls o te rm e d p r a t i p a d i -


k a s . F o r e x a m p le , d i t t h a (a w ooden e le p h a n t) The term p r a ti p a d ik a i s d is c u s s e d from I . i i . 4 5 -
46.
(58) p ra d i ( I .i v .5 8 ) (The p r e f i x g ro u p b e g in n in g w ith p ra e t c .) The te rm p r a d i i s e x p la in e d
a s - The w ords p ra e t c , when n o t s ig n if y in g s u b s ta n c e s a r e te rm e d n ip a ta , The w ords l i s t e d
in p r a d i g ro u p a r e p r a , p a r a , a p a , sam , a n u , a v a , n i s ( r ) , d u s ( r ) , v i , a n , n i , a d h i, a p i , a t i , J |
s u , u t , a b h i, p r a t i , p a r i an d u p a . The te rm i s a s u b - v a r ie ty o f th e n ip a ta -s a m jn a an d i s ^
d is c u s s e d from I . i v . 5 8 -6 0 . M

H (59) p ra th a m a ( I .iv .1 0 1 ) (Thet h i r d p e rs o n , th e t h i r d p e rs o n e n d in g s) The te rm p ra th a m a i s


d e fin e d a s - In th r e e t r a i d s o f th e p r a ty a h a r a t i n i . e . b o th th e s e t s p a ra s m a ip a d a and a tm a -
n e p a d a , f i r s t t r a i d among them i s term ed p ra th a m a . F o r e x a m p le , d rs + sap + t i p -c p a s y a ti . Up

(6 0 ) p lu ta ( l . i i . 2 7 ) (ft p r o lo te d v o w el) The te rm p lu ta i s d e fin e d a s - The vouiel w hose tim e


is th a t o f th e p r o lo te d Ug ( i . e . o f th r e e m a tra s ) i s te rm e d p l u t a . F or e x a m p le , D e v a d a ttig
a n v a s a . The f i n a l vow el in D e v a d a tta i s p r o lo te d o r p l u t a . I t s p lu la c h a r a c te r i s in d ic a te d
in b ig 3 a t i t s e n d .
( b )

(61) b ah u v a can a ( l.iv » 1 0 2 ) ( p lu r a l) The te rm b a h u v a can a i s d e fin e d a s - T h e se th r e e tra id s


o f c o n ju g a tio n a l a f f i x e s h av e b een term ed p ra th a m a e t c . As re g a rd th e s e th r e e , e x p r e s s io n s ,
in e a c h t r a i d th e e x p re s s io n f o r many is te rm e d b ah u v acan a o r p lu ra l. F o r e x a m p le , pasyam ah

t
n ay am ah , e tc .
|
S
(6 2 ) b a h u v rih i (II • i i .2 3 ) (T he com pound in w h ich com ponent m em bers d e s ig n a te so m e th in g e ls e 'H
: 58 :

The term bahuvrihi is not defined by P, but he has termed bahuvrihi to those compounds ,which

are not given in any rule above. II.ii.23 is an adhikara rule and goes upto II.ii.28.

( bh )

(63) bha (l.iv.18) (A nominal stem before suffixes beginning with My M or vowels) The term

bha is defined as - Uhen an affix having an initial wy H or a vowel, being one of the affixes,
beginning with su (lV.i.2) and ending in k (V.iv.151) Follows, not being sarvanamasthana (I. H
i. 42-43), then what precedes, is termed bha. For example, sala+ cha (lV.ii.114) Because of

being bha, the last vowel of slli is dropped and then we have salat+ cha <1 sal + chaSal +

iya -<■ saliyalp (VI,iv,148) The term bha debars the application of the term pada . The term bha

is discussed from I.iv. 18-20.

( m ) .

(64) madhyama (l.iv.101) (The second person, the second person endings) The term madhyama

is explained as - In the three traids of the pratyahlra tin (i.e. both the sets of parasmai-

pada and atmanepada) the second traid among them is termed madhyama,- or second person. For

example, gacchasi, nayasi etc.

( y ) w
(65) yuvan (I\/.i,163) (The younger descendant of any one, an elder being still alive) The H
term yuvan is defined as - Uhen one in a series of descent beginning with a father etc. is

alive, the descendant of a grandson or still lower descendant is termed yuvan only. For ex ­
* ample, gargflh^ girgylyanah. The term yuvan is discussed from I \1 .i .163-167,
4?
59
!
( i' ) «
(66 ) la g h u ( l .i v .1 0 ) (k p r o s o d ic a lly s h o r t v o w e l, l i g h t ) T he term la g h u i s .d e f i n e d a s - & m*

H
s h o r t vow el i s te rm e d la g h u . F o r ex am p le, n in ’'b h id " i s la g h u .
i m
(67 ) lu k ( I . i . 6 1 ) (E lis o n o f a s u f f ix ) The term lu k i s d e f in e d a s - The e l i s i o n o f an a f f i x H
when c a u se d by th e term lu k , is term e d lu k . F or e x a m p le, s tu + sap + tip«<: s tu 4- t i p ( e l i s i o n
o f £ap by I .i.6 1 ) < s ta u ti (by VII .iii .8 9 ) .

(6 8 ) lu p ( I .i .6 1 ) ( E lis io n o f a s u f f i x , le a v in g th e g e n d e r an d num ber o f o r ig in a l stem u n ­


a l t e r e d , v id e I . i i . 5 1 ) The te rm lu p i s d e f in e d a s - The e l i s i o n o f an a f f i x , when c a u se d by
th e term lu p , i s term ed lu p . F or ex am p le, v a ra n a h .
(69 ) lo p a ( I ,i,6 C ) ( E lis io n ) The term lo p a i s d e fin e d a s - The d is a p p e a ra n c e (o f a n y th in g
p r e v io u s ly a p p a ra n t) i s te rm e d lo p a o r e l i s i o n . F or e x a m p le , j a s < a s by I . i i i . 6 , 9 «
( v )
(705 v ib h a k ti ( I .iv ,1 G 4 ) (The i n f l e c t i o n a l c a s e a f f i x e s o r te n s e a f f i x e s ) The term v ib h a k ti
i s e x p la in e d a s - Thet r a i d s o f c o n ju g a tio n a i a f f i x e s an d c a s e a f f i x e s a r e te rm e d v ib h a k ti.
F o r exam ple g a c c h a ti, p u ru stah e t c .
(7 1 ) .
v ib h a s a ( l . i . 4 4 ) ( o p tio n ) The te rm v i b h l s a .i s d e fin e d a s - The n e g a tio n o r o p tio n i s
* *■

te rm e d v ib h a s a o r p p tio n . The co m m en tato rs m e n tio n th r e e k in d s o f v ib h a s a v i z . (1) p r l p t a v i -


b h asa (2) a p r a p ta v ib h a s a an d (3) p r a p ta p r a p ta v ib h a s a .
(72) v rd d h a ( I .i .7 3 ) (A, n o m in al stem w hose f i r s t s y lla b le is a v rd d h i ( I . i . 1) s y l l a b l e i . e .
a , a i o r a u .) The term v rd d h a i s d e fin e d a s - T h a t word w hose firs t vow el among th e v o w els
is a v rd d h i vow el ( l.i.1 ) is term ed v rd d h a . For e x a m p le, " a " in ?l
s a i l , ,!a i in a itik a y a n a and
t "au" in aupam anyavah. S a la , b ein g vrddha, ta k a s th e a ffix ^ 'c h a " by I U .ii.1 1 4 . (Uide term
1
n bha w.) The term vrddha is d is c u sse d from I . i . 73-75. II
(73) v rdd h i ( I . i . 1) (The vowel phonemes a, ai and au) The term vlrrddhi is d e fin e d a s - The I
vowel phonemes a, ai and su (th em selv es o r form ed by ru le s ) a re term ed v rd d h i. fo r exam ple,
"a" in a s la y a n a , w M in a itik a y a n a and "au" in aupagavah. The term v rd d h i is d isc u sse d
* ai I
from I .i .1 - 6 .
( s ) I
(74) s lu ( l.i.6 1 ) (E lis io n of th e p re s e n t m arker of th e th ir d v e rb a l c la s s n hu ” - I I .iv .7 5 ) , I
1
1
The term " s lu is ex p lain ed a s - The e lis io n of an a f f ix , when caused by th e term n s lu is M
1
term ed, s lu . The s p e c ific fe a tu re o f th e e lis io n of th e p re s e n t m arker sap by th e term s lu is
th a t i t cau ses re d u p lic a tio n o f th e ro o ts to which i t i s a d jo in e d . For exam ple, hu sap +
tip < hu + s lu + tip ( I I .iv ,7 5 ) < hu + tip ( I . i . 6 l ) < ju h o ti (re d u p lic a tio n , by U I.i.1 0 ).
( s )
(75) sa s ( I ,i.2 4 ) (The num erals ending in ” s" o r "n ” ) The term sa s is d e fin e d a s - The num­
e r a ls (samkhya ending in " s ” o r wn w, a re term ed fa s and th e num erals ending w ith th e a f f ix
d a ti is a ls o term ed s a s . For exam ple, s a s , pa'ncan, k a ti e tc . The p lu ra l c a se a f f ix e s ja s and
I
sa s (nom i. and a c c u . p i.) a re e lid e d a f te r th e num erals term ed sas by V I I .i. 2 2 . The term fa s
I
is d is c u sse d from I . i . 2 4 -2 5 .
II
( s )
I
(76) sat, ( I I I . i i . 127) (The ‘
p a r tic ip ia l s u ffix e s s a tr and san ac) The term s a t is d e fin e d t
as - These two (s u ffix e s ) Ija tr and ^an ac ( I I I . i i , 124) a re (c o lle c tiv e ly ) term ed s a t. The
61
I
te rm s a t i . e , s a t r an d s a n a c r e p la c e s n o t o n ly th e a f f i x e s o f th e p r e s e n t te n s e b u t a ls o l
so m etim es th e a f f i x e s o f f u t u r e . ( l l l . i i i , 1 4 ) F or e x a m p le , k u rv a n , k a r is y a t e t c .
(7 7 ) sam asa ( ll.i,3 ) (The com pound w ord) T he te rm sam asa i s e x p la in e d a s - The c a s e i n f l e ­ i
c te d w ord may b e com pounded u ith a c a s e i n f l e c t e d u o rd u ith w hich i t i s c o n n e c te d in s e n s e . I§
P h a s m e n tio n e d fo u r p r in c ip a l k in d s o f th e com pound v iz . (1 ) a v y a y ib h a v a ( 2 ) ta tp u r u s a (3)

b a h u v rih i an d (4 ) d v a n d v a . The term sam asa i s d is c u s s e d u p to I I .ii.3 8 .


(7 8 ) sarv an am a ( l . i . 2 7 ) (P ro n o u n s , - a g ro u p o f u o rd s b e g in n in g
u ith th e e x p r e s s io n s a r v a ,
c o m p ris in g r e a l p ro n o u n s an d a s e r i e s o f p ro n o m in a l a d je c tiv e s ) The te rm sa rv a n lm a i s e x p la ­
in e d a s - The u o rd s s a rv a an d th e r e s t a r e te rm e d sarv an am a (p ro n o u n ) The te rm i s d is c u s s e d
from I . i . 2 7 -3 6 .
(79) sa rv a n a m a sth a n a ( l . i . 4 2 ) (The f i r s t f i v e c a s e - e n d in g s , e x c e p t o f th e n e u te r g e n d e r
an d a ls o nom. p i . and a c c u . p i . a f f i x e s o f th e n e u te r g e n d e r i . e . s i ( i ) ) The term s a rv a n a -
sp asth an a i s d e fin e d a s - The s u t ( F i r s t f iv e c a s e a f f i x e s ) e x c e p t o f a n a u te r g e n d e r i s te rm e d
s a r v a n lm a s th a n a . s i (n o m in a tiv e an d a c c u s a tiv e p l u r a l s o f a n e u te r g e n d e r) (\/id e - V I I .i.2 0 )
i s term ed s a rv a n a m a s th a n a . T he te rm sa rv a n a m a sth a n a i s d is c u s s e d u p to I . i . 4 3 .
(8 0 ) s a v a rn a ( I . i . 9 ) (A hom ogeneous l e t t e r , b e lo n g in g to th e sam e g rou p o f so u n d s) T he te rm
s a v a rn a i s d e f in e d a s - Two so u n d s h a v in g th e sam e p o in ts o f a r t i c u l a t i o n an d e f f o r t a r e
*
m u tu a lly h o m o g en eo u s. In s p i t e o f h a v in g th e sam e p o in ts o f a r t i c u l a t i o n an d e f f o r t , th e a c
so u n d s an d h a l so u n d s a r e n o t hom ogeneous m u tu a lly . T h is te rm i s d is c u s s e d u p to I . i . 1 0 .
(8 1 ) sam khya ( l . i . 2 3 ) (A n u m e ra l) The term sam k h y l i s d e fin e d a s - The u o rd s bahu (many)
gapa (g ro u p ) an d th e w ords e n d in g in th e a f f i x v a tu ( V .ii.3 9 ) an d d a ti ( V .ii.4 4 ) a r e te rm e d I
sam k h y a. F or ex am p le bahudha 1, k a tid h a e t c .
(8 2 ) sam p rad an a ( l .i v .3 2 ) (T he id e a e x p re s s e d by a d a tiv e c a s e , r e c ip ie n t) The term sa m p ra ­ I
d an a i s d e fin e d a s - H e, f o r whom th e o b je c t o f h is a c tio n ( l .i v .4 9 ) i s in te n d e d by th e a g e n t
(v id e - I .i v .5 4 ) i s term ed sa m p ra d a n a . The sam pradana. i s one o f th e s ix k a ra k a s an d ta k e s a I
d a tiv e c a s e by I I . i i i . 1 3 . F o r e x a m p le , niaqavakaya b h ik sam d a d a t i . The term sam p rad an a i s
d is c u s s e d from I . i v .3 2 - 4 1 . I
(8 3 ) sa m p ra sa ra n a ( l . i . 4 5 ) ( V o c a liz a tio n o f th e sem iv o w els (y a n ) The te rm sa m p ra sa ra n a i s
I
d e fin e d a s - (T h a t) th e ik v o w e ls ( i , u , r a n d l ) w hich r e p la c e th e se m i-v o w e ls i . e . yan
* » *
I
(y , v , r and l ) i s - term e d s a m p ra s lra n a . F o r e x a m p le , sv ap + ta •«£ sup + ta ( V I .i.1 5 ) < s u p ta h .
I
(8 4 ) sam buddhi (II .iii.4 9 ) (V o c a tiv e s in g u la r , th e n o m in a tiv e s in g u la r in v o c a tio n ) The
te rm sam buddhi i s d e fin e d a s - In th e s e n s e o f a d d r e s s in g , th e s in g u la r num ber o f th e firs t
I
i
c a s e a f f ix e s i s te rm e d sam b u d d h i By th e v i r t u e o f V I .i.6 9 , th e w o rd , term ed sam buddhi d ro p s
i t s c a s e e n d in g v iz h e ~ Rama?
(85 ) sam yoga ( l.i.7 ) (C o n ju c tio n o f c o n s o n a n ts , a c o n ju n c t c o n s o n a n t) The term sam yoga i s
d e f in e d a s - c o n s o n a n ts (h a .lah ) u n s e p a ra te d by a vow el a r e te rm e d sam yoga o r c o n ju n c t co n ­
M
s o n a n ts . F o r e x a m p le , ,!k k in k u k k u ta . The te rm sam yoga a p p lie s to th e w h o le o f th e c o n ju ­
n c t c o n s o n a n ts j o i n t l y an d n o t s e p a r a te ly .
(8 6 ) sa m h ita ( I .iv .1 0 9 ) (D u n c tio n o r c o m b in a tio n o f phonem es a c c o rd in g to e u p h o n ic u s a g e )
The te rm sa m h ita i s d e fin e d a s - The c lo s e s t (p a ra h ) p ro x im ity (s a n n ik a rs a h ) o f l e t t e r s
%
(th e re b ein g th e in te rv e n tio n of h a lf a p ro s o d ia l m easure betw een them - k a s .) is term ed
sa m h ita . For exam ple, dadhi + a tr a d ad h y atra (VI .1 .7 7 ) The s u b je c t o f th e term sam h ita is
shown in th e fo llo w in g k a rik a (SK on Msus) ,
I
sam h itaik ap ad e n i t y i , n ity l d h itu p asarg ay o h /
n ity a sam ase, vakye tu , sa vivaksam a p e k sa te /
It means th e sam hita is com pulsory in one w ord, in a verb and p re p o s itio n and in a compound.
But in a se n te n c e , i t i s in acco rd w ith s p e a k e r's d e s ir e . T here a re main th re e v a r ie tie s o f
158
sa n d h i, a p o p u la r term fo r s a m h itl. They a re (1) svarasam dhi (2) v y an jan a-sam d h i and (3)
159
v is a rg a sam dhi.
(87) sirv a d h a tu k a ( i l l . i v . 113) (ftll p e rs o n a l en d in g s com prised in th e singlum 't i n ' and
o th e r a f f ix e s c h a ra c te riz e d by th e e x p o n e n tia l m arker ws M.) The term sarv ad h atu k a is e x p la ­
in ed a s - A ll p e rso n a l en d in g s ( H I .iv .7 8 ) and a l l a f f ix e s h av in g an in d ic a to ry Ms n a re
term ed s a rv a d h itu k a . For exam ple, pac + sap + tip p a c a ti.
(88) (A
cercu m flex ly a c c e n te d vow el, m ixed to n e produced by th e com bina ­
s v a r ita (1 .1 1 ,3 1 )
tio n o f h ig h and low to n e s) The s v a r ita is d e fin e d a s - The vowel th a t h as th e co m b in atio n
o f a c u te and grave to n e s , is term ed s v a r ita , o r c irc u m flex a c c e n t. For exam ple, kva.
( h )
(89) h e tu ( I .iv .5 5 ) (The a g e n t in th e c a u s a tiv e ) The term h e tu is d e fin e d a s - That w hich
i s th e c a u sa l a g e n t th e re o f is term ed h e tu o r th e a g e n t in th e c a u s a tiv e , a s w ell a s a g e n t
For exam ple, k lr a y a ti.
(90) h rasv a (1 .1 1 .2 7 ) (The p ro s o d ic a lly s h o rt vowel) The term h rasv a is d e fin e d a s - A

vowel whose tim e is th a t o f s h o rt wu ” is term ed h rasv a o r M M


s h o r t. For exam ple, u in madhu
8 .0 . T e c h n iq u e o f A n u v r tti. II
P i s u n p a r a lle le d in h is econom y o f w o rd s. The b r e v ity i s th e s o u l o f h is gram m ar. He
160
h a s n e v e r u sed ev en a s in g le l e t t e r t h a t i s u s e le s s f o r h is t r e a t i s e . The w e ll known p a r ib h - I
I s a th e re fo re ,, s a y s t h a t th e s tu d e n ts o f gram m ar, o v e r th e s a v in g o f h a lf a m a tra ( p r o s o d ia l I
%
161
le n g th ) r e jo ic e a s much a s o v e r th e b i r t h o f a s o n .
8 .1 . P h a s d is p la y e d some te c h n iq u e s to b r in g economy an d p r e c e s io n in h is g ra m m a tic a l
H tre a tis e , A n u v r tti i s one o f th e m . The w ord a n u v r t t i i s d e r iv e d from an u + v r t ( to fo llo w ) I
Uhen a w o rd, o r w ords from th e p re v io u s r u le fo llo w in to th e s u b s e q u e n t r u le o r r u le s f o r
% th e sa k e o f in te n d e d p u rp o s e , i t i s known as a n u v rtti.
I
I
8 .2 . Uhen a word
o r w ords fro m th e p re v io u s r u le fo llo w in to th e s u b s e q u e n t r u le s w ith o u t
162
d ro p p in g any in te r v e n in g r u le i s knowna s th e a n u v r t t i l i k e th e stre a m o f a r i v e r . F or e x a - I
si
I m p le , (1 ) u p 4a d e.s e 'j a n u n a s ik a i ­t ( I . i i i . 2 )
(2 ) h a l antyam ^u p ad ese, i_t7
( l.iii.3 ) I
I (3) na v ib h a k tau tusm ah
j/u p a d ese, it,7 ( I . i i i . 4 )
I (4) a d i r n itu d a v a h 7 u p a d e s e , i£ J ( l . i i i . 5 )
i (5) §sah p ra ty a y a sy a T ^ p a d ese, i t7 ( l . i i i . 6 )
(6) c u tu T u p a d e le , ijt7( l.iii.7 )
(7) la la k v a ta d d h ite j^ Jpadese, it7 ( l.iii.8 )
B u t, f o r th e sa k e o f rem o v in g a m b ig u ity , so m e tim e s, th e c h a in i s b ro k e n , th o u g h th e
in te n d e d w ord m ig h t h av e come in to th e s u b s e q u e n t r u le by th e a n u v r t t i . As f o r e x a m p le, in
I . i v . 4 9 ( k a r tu r ip s ita ta m a m k a rm a ), th e w ord karm a i s in tr o d u c e d by P , e v e n th o u g h he c o u ld
: 65 :

have availed of it by anuvrtti from I.iv.46 (adhisinsthasam karm) . But P by repeating the
163
word karma in I.iv.49, ingeniously suggests a change of topic from I.iv.49 onwards. In I.iv.
46, the word karma is associated with adhara (substratum) - which is following from I.iv, 45.

This means that the section I.iv. 45 to I.iv. 48 treats the karma-samjna of adhara objects,

while from I.iv.49 the topic changes, as P now discusses the karmasamjna of words other than
164
adhara.

Sometimes, in anuvrtti where certain words or words are not applicable to the condi ­

tion in the subsequent rule, F


> does not seerfl to insist on their continuation. For example,in
IU.i.82 (aamarthanam prathamad va) the anuvrtti of "samartha" is coming from II.i.1 (samart-

hah padavidhihl By the repetition of the word "samartha", P suggests that here the word sam-
/»'<5 _165
X, artha is in the sense of akrtasamdhi-karya . The students of P are always found practical.

They do not seem to insist on all the steps of prakriya everywhere. Thus in deriving the form

sedusi, they would not insist on the idagama to suffix "vas" and to drop it afterwards, due
H to samprasarana . Instead, without adding "i" to "vas” , they would like directly to changs
166
"vas" into "us", - when "i" is added to it.

Sometimes, P reads the word again to denote a specific operation, however the word

could have been read by.anuvrtti from the previous rule. For example, in spite of taking an

from IU.i.83, by anuvrtti, p reads an again into IU.ii.77 for the sake on indicating that
167
this su debars IU.ii.85.

Moreover, it is to be noted that though uhole su is coming into the subsequent rules

by anuvrtti, the relevant portion of that su is to be understood in to the subsequent rules


when a ll words
a re n o t re le v a n t to th e su b seq u en t r u le s . For exam ple, u h o le su n y ip p ra tip a -
d ik a t (IV .i.1 ) is coming in to th e su b seq u en t r u le s , y e t only th e word " p ra tip a d ik a t" of th is
168
s u , being re le v a n t comes in to striy a m ( I V .i.3 ) .
ft
Sometimes a
p o rtio n of a word of th e p re v io u s ru le comes in to th e fo llo w in g ru le by
a n u v r tti. For exam ple, from I V .i.2 6 , sam khya , a p o rtio n o f a uord - samkhyavyayadeli i s to be
read in to IV .i.2 7 , w h ile th e rem ain in g p o rtio n of th a t uord i . e . avyayadeh sh o u ld cease to
169
be v a lid .

H 8 .3 . Uhen a word or words from th e p re v io u s ru le come in to th e su b seq u en t r u le s , d rop p in g


th e in te rv e n in g riia o r r u le s , lik e a jump o f a fro g , such a n u v r tti is known a s M an d u k ap lu ti .
I t is so named because th e word from th e p re v io u s ru le does n o t o ccu r in to some in te rm e d ia te
170
ru le s as a fro g does not to u ch an in te rm e d ia te p la c e when i t jum ps. For exam ple, th e word
k a r tta r i i s read in I I I . i . 68 and i t comes u p to I I I . i . 82. Then i t is n o t read in to I I I .i .8 3
to 86, because i t is n o t re q u ire d th e r e , and because o f i t s req u irem en t i t is a g a in read
H
in to I I I . i . 8 7 . I t is a good exam ple of M andukapluti b ecau se " k a r t t a r i comes in to I I I ,i* 8 7 ,
le a v in g th e in te rv e n in g ru le s I I I . i . 8 3 -86 . I t g e ts th e nom. s in g , case a f f ix a c c o rd in g to
171
v ib h a k tiv ip a rin a m a to s u it th e c o n te x t.
8,. 4, Uhen, though i t is s tra n g e , a word o r words from th e su b seq u en t ru le a re ta k e n in to
172
th e p re c e d in g ru le s , - i t is th e a n u v r tti known as a p a k a rsa . For exam ple,
(1) s a s th i I I . i i . 8 . (na n ird h a ra n e )
4
t ' -t
(2) na n ird h a ra n e II.ii.1 0 .
Here th e whole ru le I I . i i . 1 0 is dragged up in to th e p re c e d in g ru le I I .ii.8 . Hence such
anuvrtti is known as an apakarsa.

8.5. It is interesting to note that P has used the particle "ca» for the sake of anuvrtti. q
For instance -
(1) bahugaqavatudati samkhya I.i.23.
(2) snantah sat (samkhya) I .1.24.
(3) dati ca (sat, samkhya) I.i,25.
In this traid of rules, the word nsamkhya*comes into I.i.25 by the particle "ca" .It

is also to be noted that the anuvrtti made by nca H ends from- the rule where the particle 'ca ^
t 173
is enumerated. For example,
(1) kopadhad an IV.ii.132.
(2) kacchldibhyas ca (an) IV.ii.133, Hr

„ In above mentioned rules, the anuvrtti of the affix an ends from IV.11.133 because

ca is read in this rule. It should also be noted that the words, w(len repeated from the pre-

ceding rule, get the construction in accordance with the context.

In spits of the great importance in his grammar, P has no where used the word anuvr ­

tti by name. Moreover, on what occasions, such anuvrtti should^be recoursed and how far it
«
is to be extended, are determined by authoritative commentators.

9.0. Technique of Adhikara.


1
P has no where used the word anuvrtti in Ast, though he has used the word adhikara

(l.i.11) which has close


e connection with the anuvrtti. 1
9*4 /
: 68 :
I
x f
9 .1 . Uhen th e a n u v rtti o f a whole ru le co v ers a long a re a , i t is known a s a d h ik a ra . I t
a f f e c ts each and every ru le to th e c e rta in lim it, u h ile^ io h e n th e word of th e p re c e d in g
f ru le goes in to th e lim ite d no o f subsequent ru le s i t is known a s a n u v r tti. M oreover, i t
sh o u ld be n o ted th a t th e A dhikara as such i s s u b je c t to req u irem en t and n o t lik e a stream of
175 _
a r iv e r . The ad h ik ara ru le is marked w ith c irc u m fle x a c c e n t. The a d h ik a ra ru le s b ear g re a t
im p o rtan ce in P ’ s grammar.
1 0 .0 . T echnique of ftnubandhas.
The word anubandha is , however no-w here used by P , in h is grammar, b u t i t is fre q u -
f
)

e n tly used by p a t r ig h t upto N agesa, th e gram m arians of P 's S ch o o l. P has used th e s e lf e x -


,
p la n a to ry term /" i t " , d e riv e d from " i" (to go) - th a t which is to be d ro p p ed , in ste a d of th e
176
term "anubandha". The term anubandha is d e riv e d from anu + bandh (to tie ) m eaning "what is
X 177
a tta c h e d to " . a tta c h e d to a stem , te rm in a tio n , augm ent o r a s u b s titu te to in d ic a te th e
I t is
J ^ o ccu ren ce of some s p e c ia l m o d ific a tio n s such a s v ik a ra n a , agawa., guija o r v rd d h i , a c c e n t e tc
b u t w hich, when th e word is co m p letely form ed, is v an ish ed and is c a s t o f f , in consonance
178 I
<j| w ith th e d e sig n a tio n ’’i t " g iv en to i t .

1 0 .1 . For th e sake of b re v ity , P has d isp la y e d th e te c h n iq u e of anubandhas. T h at,w h ich


l e t t e r s a re to be d e c la re d " it” o r a s anubandhas, is d is c u sse d by P in th e th ir d q u a rte r o f
I
th e f i r s t book of h is grammar. These ru le s a re a s under : - I
(1) u p ad ese ’ j an u n asik a i t I . i i i . 2 .
(2) h a l antyam (u p a d e s e ,it) I.iii.'O " . I
(3) na v ib h ak tau tusm ih (u p a d e s e ,it) I .iii.4 .
: 69 :

1 (4) a d ir rd -tu ~ d ay ah (u p ad ese, i t ) I.iii.5 .


(5) sah p ra ty a y a sy a (u p ad ese, it) I .iii.6 .
(6) cu tu (up ad 8 se, i t ) I . i i i . 7.
(7) la -s a -k v a ta d d h ite (u p ad ese, it) I . i i i . 8.
(8) ta sy a lopab I .iii. 9-.

1 0 .1 .1 . The an u n asik a (n a sa l) vow els in upadesa a re c o n sid e re d a s to be ’ ’ . Here upadesa


it
179
means o rig in a l in s tr u c tio n . The n a s a lity of vow els i s , now n o t found m arked. Some a u th o r iti-
180
es b e lie y e th a t i t was marked in th e a n c ie n t tim e b u t nowadays i t i3 n o t se e n . Hence th e
181
n a s a lity i s , now a s c e rta in e d by tr a d itio n only.^
1 0 .1 .2 . A ll f in a l co n so n an ts b ein g read in upadesa a re c o n sid e re d to be ‘ it* ( I .iii.3 ) . But
th e l e t t e r s of t-g ro u p d , dhjand ’ n* and th e lle tte r s " s ’ and 'm b eih g in u p ad -
i . e . t , th , 1

esa and f in a l o n es, when th ey a re a s th e p a rt of v ib h a k ti, a re n o t d e c la re d a s ’ it* ( I . i i i .


182
4 ). Here P has a p p lie d th e word v ib h a k ti in a w ider se n se . I t d e c la re s th e o p tio n to I . i i i .
3 . The f in a l co n so n an ts n , t e tc . th e re fo re in Raman, S arvasm in , Ramat e tc a re n o t dropped
in s p ite of th e fo rc e of I . i i i . 3 .
1 0 .1 .3 , Som etim es, th e anubandhas stan d a t th e b eg in n in g of a w ord. These anubandhas a re n i ,
tu and du, which a re c o n sid e re d a s ’ ( l . i i i . 5 ) . Here i t sh o u ld be noted th a t tu and du
'i t
in I . i i i . 5 a re n o t th e same a s u d it tu d en o tin g t-g ro u p . The illu s tr a tio n s o f th is ru le a re
g iv en from DP. tr a d itio n a lly f,f n is ananubandha when i t i s read I n upadesa and sta n d s a t
f
th e b eg in n in g of a f f ix e s ( I . i i i . 6 ) . The l e t t e r s of c-group and t-g ro u p i . e . c , ch , j , jh ,h
and t , th , d , dh, n , whan read in upadesa and sta n d in g a t th e b eg in n in g o f a word a re d e c la -
,1>yh i
70

red as ’it*. (I.iii.7) And the letters Ml n and ’


’s'* and the letters of k-group i.e. k, kh, g,

gh and "ft" are considered as ’it ’, when read in upadesa, standing at the beginning and not reaj

in taddhita affixes. (I.iii.8)

o
.1.4. The letters designated wit n or anubandha are to be elided. It means., they are not the
183
integral part of the word they form.

o
.1.5. P has used all the vowels except Mai" and "au” and all the consonants except ch, jh,

th, dh, th, d, dh, ph, b, bh and h as anubandhas, however he has used some of these excluded

letters as anubandhas, as sthanins. These letters are kh, gh, ch, jh, th, dh, ph, y and v
(though y and v are designated as anubandhas also). Thus the letters not utilised by P for H
achieving economy are d, dh, b and h. Thus two vowels "ai" and "au” and four consonants i.e.
d, dh, b and h, totally six letters are not used by P in his grammatical treatise. Though in ^
'it'-samjna rules y, v and r are not counted by P but they are enumerated in Msus as anuban-

dhas. Thus including the anubandhas, enumerated in flsus, P has used 22 consonants i.e. all
letters of k-group, three letters of c-group (i.e. c, j and n) , three letters of t-group
(i.e. t, d and n) two letters of t-group (i.e. t and n) two letters of P-group (viz. p and m)

all semivowels i.e. y, v, r and 1 and three sibilants i.e. s, $ and s and all the vowels

except ’
’ ai ” and '

au". The vowels a, u, 1, e and o are found used as anubandhas in OP only.

The long r is nowhere,


nowhere found used
usad as an anubandha. Hence ten vouels and twenty two consonants;
184
thirty two letters in tato are used as anubandhas by P in his grammatical treatise

*
U *0*
T e c h n iq u e o f th e a b b r e v ia te d te r m s .
F o r th e sa k e o f b r e v ity an d p r e c is io n , P h a s d is p la y e d some te c h n iq u e s in h is gramma
185
i.e . A s t. The te c h n iq u e o f a b b r e v ia te d te rm s o r p r a ty a h a r a s i s one o f th e m .
1 1 .1 . T h e re a r e 14 r u le s o u ts id e th e A st t e x t t r a d i t i o n a l l y known a s fla h e sv a ra - s u tr a s
186 * ’ #
(flsu s) . A c c o rd in g to a le g e n d , th e y a r e h an d ed to P by M ahesa ( g r e a t God S iv a ) a t th e en d o f
187
h is ta n d a v a d a n c e . However e m p h a tic a lly P ’ s co m m en tato rs c o n tr ib u te th e a u th o r s h ip o f th e s e
188
r u le s to M ah esa, th e in tim a te r e l a t i o n o f th e s e r u l e s , w ith th e A st t e x t w e ll p ro v e s t h a t
189
th e a u th o r o f A st t e x t an d th e s e 14 r u le s i s one an d th e sam e p e rs o n , p a n i n i . T h a t th e s e r u ­
le s re a d o u ts id e th e A st t e x t d o e s n o t p ro v e th e d i f f e r e n t a u th o r s h ip o f th e s e r u le s th a n
190 191
t h a t o f A st t e x t , a s some a u t h o r i t i e s s a y , f o r , th e s e r u le s known a s - a k sa ra sa m im n a y a a r e
* * “

g ro u p ed a s s e p a r a te ly by P a s GP , DP e tc a r e g ro u p ed by h im .

1 1 .2 . The 14 fla h a sv a ra r u le s a r e a s u n d e r :

(1) a /i / u / N (2) r / 1 / K (3) e / o / N (4) ai / au / C

(5) h (a ) / y (a) / v (a ) /
r ( a ) / T (6) 1A/N (? ) n (a ) / m (a) / h (a ) / n (a ) /n { a )/M
(8) jh (a) / bh (a) / N (9 ) g h ( a ) / d h (a ) / d h (a ) / 5 (1 0 ) j ( a ) / b (a ) / g (a ) /d < a ) /
d (a ) / S (11) kh (a) / p h (a ) / c h (a ) / th ( a ) / th ( a ) / c (a ) / t ( a ) / t ( a ) / 1
1

(12) k ( a ) / P (a) / Y (13 ) s ( a ) / s ( a ) / s (a) / R (14 ) h (a ) / L

1 1 .3 . The c o n s o n a n ts a t th e end o f fls u s , h e re shown in c a p i t a l l e t t e r s a r e ’ it* by I . i i i .


3 . T h ese ’ i t ' l e t t e r s a r e in d ic a to r y l e t t e r s w hich a r e to be d ro p p ed by I . i i i . 9 , an d th e y
a r e n o t to be c o n s id e re d a s a p a r t o f th e p r a ty a h a r a s th e y form . P in o th e rw o rd s h a s u se d 14
72 :

anubandas to coin pratyaharas. An akara in Flsu 6, by some authorities, is considered as 'it*


192 „ "
have not been
by I.iii.2 for coining ’rA* pratyahara. In the first four Rsus, the vowels 193 1
passed through euphonic combination by P with a view to teaching them clearly. The lengthened

forms of a , i, u and r are not mentioned in the text of Hsus, by


P , because these short vow-
‘ 194
els are representatives of thair homogeneous letters, e and o are not homogeneous letters to
195
ai and au respectively hence they are put into two different rules. An akara in h(a) etc here!
196
put in brackets, is for easy pronunciation.

11.4. At a glance, it is clearly seen that the popular order of sanskrit alphabet in which A
the letters are horizontally arranged, according to their points of articulation, is purpose-X

fully changed by P. The new arrangement in which letters are vertically arranged is not in *
197 M
accordance with the points of articulation but according to the manner of articulation, for 3||

practical requirement of his grammar, P, putting aside the popular arrangement of letters,

adopts the new arrangement to coin the shortest expressions pithily serviceable to his gram ­

matical work.

11.5.1. Arrangement of vowels 5-

It can be apparantly seen that P, in teaching the vowels, puts aside the popular
t
ft
arrangement of the letters, of the pratisakhya and siksa texts. VPr teaches eight vowels -

viz a, i, u, and r and their lengthened forms. It excludes Ir, while TPr gives short 1- with

lengthened and prolated forms of a, i and u. To suit the grammatical operations, the list of
f
short vowels is split into two rules. The first rule presents three more frequent letters
% 1
w hile second ru le p re s e n ts two le tte rs of which th e la s t one is ex trem ely r a r e . The le n g th ­
ened and p ro la te d form s a re n o t given b e c a u se , in P ’ s grammar s h o rt vow els a re r e p r a s s n ta ti- I
l 198
ves of them b o th , ftfte r te a c h in g s h o rt v o w els, P g iv es fo u r diphthong l e t t e r s in two r u le s , I
i . e , 3rd and 4 th . The f i r s t s e t of th e d ip h th o n g vow els, p re s e n te d in 3rd r u le , is th e re s u -
199
lI b in atio n and th e second s e t p re se n te d in th e 4 th ru le is th e r e s u lt of th e
I td. of guna' co m200 II
v rd h i co m b in atio n . These d ip h th o n g vowels a re not accep ted a s o rig in a l vow els and so th ey
*A _ 201
a re given th e name - sam dhyaksarani (compound le tte r s ) by p ra tis a k h y a te x ts . But i t is o b v i ­
1
o u sly seen th a t in th e d ip h th o n g vowels o f th e f i r s t s e t, two p a rts a re mixed lik e w ater
202
w ith m ilk , so th ey a re n o t s e p a ra te ly h eard in e and o, w h ile in th e d ip h th o n g vow els of
th e second s e t, two elem en ts a re n o t mixed lik e m ilk and w ater because o f p rep o n d eran ce o f
*
203
i and u over p re c e d in g vowel " a " , so th ey a re h eard as ” a i f’ and au re s p e c tiv e ly . The term s
guna and v rd d h i th em selv es a re s e lf e x p la n a to ry term s showing th e ir mixed n a tu re . In th e
guna. vow els enum erated in flsu 3 , th e euphonic changes have once ocGured and in th e second
s e t v iz v rd d h i vow els, th e euphonic changes o ccu r tw ic e . Hence th ey a re d e sig n a te d a s v rd d h i
vow els - ex ten d ed vow els. P th e re fo re f i r s t l y te a c h e s sim p le vow els. Then he enum erates guna
vow els and la s tly he g iv es v rd d h i vow els. Thus i t is obvious th a t in th re e p rin c ip a l s e ts ,
vow els a re a rra n g e d in th e ir n a tu ra l o rd e r alo n g w ith fo u r liq u id s (semi vow els) b eg in n in g
H
w ith th e l a s t l e t t e r ” h in acco rd an ce w ith th e euphonic ch an g es. The fo llo w in g c h a rt w ill
make i t c le a r .
1
74
e
1 Short Vouels u
(Msus 1 - 2)
f
e i S
' IA *
i
torr
2 Long Vouels i u r
+ e/f »
i/i + u/u + r/r +
• *
e/p
i/i u/u r/r

Guna Vouels e o a (r) a{l) I .i .2 ,1 .i .51,

(Mau-3) a /a + a/a + a/a + a/a +■ VI .i.87.


i/i u/u r/r i
* «
4 i 4'
IS*T*I *L*T* I *

Vrddhi Vouels ai au a (r) a (1)


*88*1*IA
(Msu-4) a/a + a/a + a/a + a/a
e/ai o/au r/r + i

Dipthong Vowels ax au I .i .1-2 .

(Msus-3-4)
ft
* n
(a) hrasva *8^*1*I
t i t u
substitutes
u*r ia
(b) yan substi­ f A A
t
tutes*

n
(c) samp ra^jsarana
Si?’T rI
1
substitutes 1
(d) ayadi substi­ e ■£. a + i -4 ay ia Bi*r
tutes o < a + u < av
ai<£ a + e «c a + a + i ay
4
au a + o < a + a+u <*
L 5v

1
75

11.5.2. Arrangement of consonants

In the popular order of the Sanskrit alphabet, the consonants are arranged horizon ­
X
tally according to the points of articulating organs preceding from the back the mouth to

the front the lips. The following table shows it clearly.


f
^ Unvoiced
J
The place of Voiced
articulations consonants consonants \
/

Sibi- A Stops (nasal)Y


(nasal) Liquids
lants A______
Sr. Group Abbre­ Aspi­ Unasp ­ I Aspi- X" Unas'p-i Aspi- | Unasp- Aspi­
No. viated rated ,irated A ra ted ir a te d A
| r a te d A ir a t e d rated
T erm

r ** .
. .. . *
"'
V" .
. . ■ *
v. . 1 .... y .. ....

Velar ku kh g gh h
no
x Palatal *
s ch j jh n y
>
t
Y Retrofiexy
i
tu
s
t
»
th d 0
dh n
A
o
Dental A tu t th d dh

Labial ylpu P ph b bh m

Before going to discuss the varga arrangement made by P, it is to be noted that


after teaching vowels, he enumerates liquids (semi vowels) headed by f,h M an aspirated

voiced sound contrasting with voiceless aspirate sound "hH of sibilant list comprising in

sal pratyahlra. Thus ”h" occurs twice in Flsu 5 and Msu 14. For twice occurence of "h ” , the

traditional explanation is given that it is for coining some pratyahiras to suit the gramm-
& : 76 :
204 f
f a t i c a l o p e r a tio n s . P s e p a r a te s " l" from th e l i q u i d l i s t to c o in some p r a ty a h a r a s an d f o r d s~
205
b a r in g from a t p r a ty a h a r a . The liq u id s a r e g iv e n soon a f t e r te a c h in g v o w els b e c a u se th e y a r e
w ith v o w els ( s u p r a , v id e a c h a r t g iv e n on P .7 4 ) Then P r e a r r a n g e s th e v a rg a
two l e t t e r s
i c lo s e ly r e l a t e d f i r s t in each g ro u p (v a rg a ) a r e v o ic e le s s c o n s o n a n ts whose f i r s t -
I o rd e r in w h ich X
I member i s u n a s p ir a te d an d se c o n d one i s a s p i r a t e d . The re m a in in g th r e e l e t t e r s o f each g ro u p

I a r e v o ic e d c o n s o n a n ts o f w h ich t h i r d an d f i f t h l e t t e r s o f each g rou p a r e u n a s p ir a te d an d


f o u r th o f each g rou p i s a s p i r a t e d so u n d . T hen come th e liq u id s w hich a r e v o ic e d u n a s p ir a te d I
i s o u n d s . L a s tly com es th e s i b i l a n t group o f w h ich a l l l e t t e r s a r e v o ic e le s s a s p ir a te d s o u n d s .
I n s te a d o f a r r a n g in g th e c o n s o n a n ts in k a - c a - ta - ta - p a g ro u p s , h o r iz o n ta lly a s th e y a r e in
th e p o p u la r o rd e r an d m a in ta in e d in H sus f o r v o w els an d l i q u i d s , he a r r a n g e s them v e r t i c a l l y II
in c a - p a - k a - ta - ta g ro u p s in a c c o rd a n c e w ith th e m anner o f th e a r t i c u l a t i o n . T h is o rd e r i s
c o n tin u e d from Hsu 7 -1 0 . The n a s a ls a r e g iv e n so o n a f t e r te a c h in g liq u id s b e c a u s e by som e
206
a u t h o r i t i e s , th e y a r e in c lu d e d in th e se m i-v o w e l l i s t an d h av e h o m o g e n e ity . T hen P te a c h e s
a s p ir a te d v o ic e d so u n d s in tw o H su s. The so u n d s jh a an d bha a r e s e p a r a te d from th e v o ic e d
207
a s p ir a te d g ro u p to s u i t th e g ra m m a tic a l f u n c tio n s . Then he te a c h e s u n a s p ir a te d v o ic e d so u n d s
in a s in g le Hsu 1 0 . Then P e n u m e ra te s u n a s p ir a te d an d a s p ir a te d v o ic e le s s so u n d s in two H su s
i . e . 1 1 -1 2 . T hen P form s th e 1 2 th Hsu to s e p a r a te ka an d pa so u n d s from t h a t l i s t to d e b a r
208
th e s e l e t t e r s from c a r p r a t y a h i r a . L a s tly in tw o H su s, s i b i l a n t s - a s p ir a te d v o ic e le s s
so u n d s a r e g iv e n . I t i s o b v io u s ly to be n o te d t h a t th e re a rra n g e m e n t a c c e p te d by P u p to Hsu
1 0 , i s a g a in ch an g ed from Hsu 11 to 12 f o r c o in in g some p r a ty a h a r a s to s u i t th e g ra m m a tic a l
o p e r a tio n s . I t i s c le a r ly se e n t h a t th e so u n d s re a d from Hsu 5 to 10 h av e th e e x t e r n a l -
77

e f f o r t sam vara, nada and g h o sa,u h ile th e sounds enum erated in Msu 11 and 12 have v iv ir a , X
209
s v ls a and aghosa e x te rn a l e f f o r ts c o n tra s tin g u ith sam vara, nada and ghosa re s p e c tiv e ly . The
X fo llo w in g c h a rt u ill make it c le a r *-
L e tte rs (phonemes)

vow els co n so n an ts

Rare d ip th o n g C losed (sa m v a ra ) , Open (v iv rta )


flora In b re a th e d (nada* Out b re a th e d
fre q u e n t and V oiced (ghosa (fevasa) and
(flsu 1 ) (Msu 2) (Msu 3-4)
v o ic e le s s (aghosa)
Gupl
Vrddbi
(Msu 3)\ (flsu 4)

F ric a tiv e L iq u id s N asala S tops


L MsGs, 5 - S'..
(flsu 7)

A sp ira te d U n asp irated


(Hsus 87S ) (Nstile)

L
A sp ira te d U n a sp ira te d F ric a t'iv a _ 1
1

L. Flsus 11-12 -=
4 s ib ila n ts (flsu 13) (Hsu 14)<
78 1
210
11.5.3. Inspite of their importance and functions, in his grammar P does not enumerate the

ayogavahas i.e. anusvara, visarga, jihvamuliya and upadhmaniya in MSus. They are not uttered

independently but uttered aluays xncombination with another phoneme such as a etc, hence
211
they are called 'ayogavaha',
^212
11.5.4. I.i.71 is a pratyahara-samjna rule. It says that the initial letter (one may take

any letter as an initial one from any Msu except an indicatory letter at the end of each
M'Su) with a final indicatory letter (is for itself and for the intervening letters). For

example, in MSu 1, one may take ”a n as an initial letter and "n" as an indicatory letter,by
I.iii.3. Hence by virtue of I.i.71, the pratyahara a-N uould be formed, which stands for "a ”

itself and for the intervening letters "i M and "uH . Thus taking any letter as initial from
Msus, with a final indicatory letter, it is possible to coin 305 pratyiharas, in toto. The

following chart will make it clear.

‘=
s
r=- “=?" UITH A FINAL IN-A TOTAL NUMBER OF PRA-f
l Sr *Y INITIAL LETTER DICATORY LETTER.A TYAHARAS FORMED - f

N 3
«

K 5

N 7

C 9

T 13

N 14
I UITH A FINAL I U-% TOTAL NUMBER OF PRA-
l Sr "T INITIAL LETTER
No DICATORY LETTER .0 TYAHARAS FORMED

7 n (a ) m (a ) n (a ) n (a ) n (a ) 19
n
* IB jh ( a ) bh (a) N 21 305

9 g h (a ) d h (a ) d h (a ) S 24

10 j(a ) b (a) g (a ) d (a ) d (a ) ✓ 29
s
11 k h (a ) p h { a) c h (a ) th ( a ) th ( a ) c ( 0 V 37
t (a ) t (a )
12 k (a ) p (a) l Y 39
I 4 (a) f (a ) s (a )
13 l R 42
A
\
* 14 h (a ) L
V
V
k
1
1 1 .5 .4 . B ut P d o es n o t make u s e o f a l l th e p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r c o in in g p r a t y a h l r a s . To s u i t
2 3
th e g ra m m a tic a l f u n c tio n s f o r h is gram m ar i . e . A s t, P h a s c o in e d o n ly 41 p r a ty a h a r a s w h ich
a r e c o u n te d by th e fo llo w in g k a r ik l q u o te d by k a s .
e k a sm in n a n a n a v a tl dvabhyam s a s tr ib h y a eva k an am af sy u h /
214
jn e y a u cay au c a tu rb h y o ra h p an cab h y ah s a la u sad b h y ah H

The fo llo w in g c h a rt show s it c le a r ly

t
80

INITIAL F IN A L IN D I
LI CAT 0 R A A
LETTERS
LETTERS N S S
PRATYAHARAS (1 ) (3) (1) (4) (1) (3 ) (3) (1) (2) (6) (1) (4) (5) (6)
FORMED
f *
(3) (5) (9) (13) (14) (19) (29) (43 )
a
i (2 ) (8 ) - (1 3 ) -
u (3)
e (2 ) (4)
ai (2 )
h (a ) (2 0 ) (S4)
y (a ) (4 ) (9) (1 1 ) (2 9) (32)
v (a ) (18) (32)
, r (a ) (31)
m (a) (2 4 ) -
n (a) (3)
jh (a ) (5 ) (10) (20 ) (2 3 ) (2 4 )
b h (a ) (4) -
j (a) - (5)
b (a ) - (4)
k h (a ) (1 0 ) (13)
(9)
c h (a )
c (a ) (8 ) -
3 (a ) (3 ) (4 )

*
T he f ig u r e s in th e b r a c k e ts sh o u th e t o t a l num ber o f th e l e t t e r s in th e
p ra ty a h a ra
t
1 1 .5 .5 . Thus i t i s o b v io u sly seen th a t P has changed th e p o p u la r o rd e r o f th e S a n s k rit a l ­
p h ab et to co in p ra ty a h a ra s fo r h is grammar. Some im p o rtan t p ra ty a h a ra s can be p u t in th e
fo llo u in g d ia g ra m itic a l form u h ich shows th e concordance betw een th e new arran g em en t and
t
p o p u lar arrangem ent
ft
a l ( a ll le tte r s )

ac (v o u els) haL (co n so n an ts)

aK (s h o rt v o u els) eC (compounded
v o u els) *
l
--------------
eN aiC
(guna v o u els) (v rd d h i v o u els)

s to p s yaN (liq u id s ) saL


( s ib ila n ts )

215
nam (n a s a ls ) 3hay
( F ir s t fo u r l e t t e r s of k - c - t- t- p groups)

ft jh a s ( s o f t co n so n an ts voiced) k h ay (h ard consonants v o ic e ­


le s s .)
I
1 I
_________________ ^ ...-------------------------- ______ l
C — " ^ W B r fa r e jn y f eT ( p e ^ i t ds e ) 6 e M
i
f
11.5.6. It is to be noted that P has not limited his concept of pratyaharas to Msus only.

But the same mechanism of I.i.71, he has coined some more pratyaharas from his oun rules for

his grammar.

11.5,6(a)0n the basis of IV.i.2, P coins the following three pratyaharas

(1) sup » All case terminations i.e. in II.iv.82.


(2) sut » First five case terminations except of neuter gender are termed sarvanam-
asthina by I.i.43.
(3) ap sa Case terminations beginning from instrumental singular to locative plural

f i.e. in VIII .ii .112 .

11 ,5.6(b)j5imilarly, on the foundation on III.iv.78, P frames the following two pratyahlras:-

(1) tin as All personal endings i.e. in I.iv.101.

(2) tan = The atmanepada personal endings i.e. in I.iv.100.

11.5.6(c)lt is supposed that P has coined the pratyahara trn which occurs in II.iii.69 and
S
is framed on the basis of III.ii. 124 and III.ii. 135. In spite of abnormality in coining sgch
216
a pratyahara, it gets support of the standard grammarian like pat. It is also supposed by

the later grammarians of P's School that P has coined krn pratyahira on^the basis of V.iv.

50. to V.iv.58 and support as a pratyahira has been given by Kat and Pat. But these two pra-

tyaharas i.e, trn and kpn have abnormal nature and have no confirmity with the other pratya-

haras like dC, haL etc. formed by I.i,71.

11.5.6 (d)The pratyaharas used in the Ast by P are listed hereunder in Sanskrit alphabetic

order
(1 ) aK (2) aC (3) aT (4) aN1 (5) aN2 (6) aM (7) aL (8) aS (9) iK
(.10) iC (11) iN (12) uK (13) aN (14 ) eC ( l 5) a iC (16 ) khaY (17) khaR (18) nafl
(19) caR (20) chaV (21) ja S (22) jhaY (23) jhaR (24) jh aL (25) jh aS (26) jh aS (27) baS
(2 8 ) bhaS (29 ) maY (30) ya^ (31) yaN (32 ) yaf) (33) yaY (34) yaR (35 ) raL (36) v a l
(3 7 ) waS (38) saR (39) saL (40) haL (41 ) haS

1 2 .0 . Some im p o rta n t m e ta ru le s o c c u rin g in th e A s tld h y a y i .

P r e a d s some im p o rta n t p a r i, r u l e s , w hich have th e k e y -p la c e in h is g ra m m a tic a l


t r e a t i s e , i . e . th e 218
A s t. B e fo re g o in g to d is c u s s th e s e r u l e s , i t i s e s s e n t i a l f o r one to
u n d e rs ta n d th e p r in c ip le s o f y a th o d d e § a an d k i r y a k i l a , to u n d e rs ta n d how p a r i " ru le s an d
sam . r u le s w o rk.
1 2 .0 . 1. The fo rm a tio n o f c o r r e c t form s o f th e la n g u a g e i s th e p r in c ip a l aim o f th e sa b d a n -

219
u sasan a i . e . gram m ar. H epgC '-'it la y s down c e r t a i n r u le s w hich e x p la in th e p r o c e s s - o f fo rm a t ­
io n o f th e c o r r e c t w o rd s. When a s tu d e n t o f P ’ s gram m ar r e a d s th e gam. 1
1 r<j. . .
r u le jtu . dh.i r 3 d —a .i pJl ,

.
X ( I . i . 1 ) o r th e p a r i r u le u lk o o u n a v rd d h i ” ( I . i .3 ) w hich d o es n o t e x p la in th e fo rm a tio n o f
w o rd s,h e f in d s no u t i l i t y o f th e s e r u l e s . B ut when he re a d s th e s e r u le s a lo n g w ith v id h i -
1
1
r u le s - " v rd d h i r e c i ” ( V I .i.8 8 ) and s a ru a d h l tu k a rd h a dftl-tu k a x o h (V II . i i i .8 4 ) , he soon
.u n d e rs ta n d s th e c o - r e la tio n o f sam . an d p a r i , r u le s w ith v id h i r u l e s . T h u s, to u n d e rs ta n d
II
I
a sam . r u le o r a p a r i , r u le in i t s own p la c e , i s c a lle d th e y a th o d d e sa p r i n c i p l e . N agesa
220
I
e x p la in s i t a s - " upadesam a n a tik ra m y a i t i y ath o d d esam / u d d e sa b u p a d e s a rie s a b '7
1 2 .0 .2 . B ut when a s tu d e n t o f P 's gram m ar com es a c r o s s th e v id h i r u l e s , h e f e e l s n eed o f
I
sam . an d p a ri* r u le s to u n d e rs ta n d th e f u n c tio n o f v id h i r u l e s . So he b r in g s th e s e r u le s to
th e a re a o f th e v id h i r u l e s , w h ich to g e th e r w ith sam . an d p a r i, r u le s form a s in g le e x p r e s s io n ,
(ek a v a k y a ta ) I t i s c a lle d th e k a ry a k a la p r i n c i p l e . I t i s e x p la in e d by N agesa a s - ’’k a rv a k a la m
- 221
itv a s v a ca k a rv e n a k llv a te sv a sa n n id h im o ra o v a ta i t v a r t h a h ” /
ft
1 2 .1 The p a r i, r u le .' r e g a r d in g ik - v o w e ls .
i
The r u le r e g a r d in g ik -v o w e ls b e a rs good im p o rta n c e in P ’ s gram m ar. I t ru n s a s -
” ik o g u n a v rd d h l ” ( l.i,3 ) The w ords v rd d h i an d guna fo llo w from I .i.1 and I . i . 2 r e s p e c tiv e ly
in t h i s r u l e . T hus it m eans t h a t th e word ik a h (e n d in g in a g e n i . c a s e ) u s h e rs in w h en ev er
guna an d v rd d h i a r e e n jo in e d by m e n tio n in g th e w ord guna an d v r d d h i. F or ex am p le in ’’w id e r
k- . *
g u n ah ” (V II .iii .8 2 ) , ’’m rje r v r d d h i ” ( V I I . i i . 114) or* s i c i v rd d h ih p a ra s m a jp a d e s u ” ( V I I . i i . 1 ) ,
th e word ik a h i s s u p p lie d . B u t, w here guna o r v rd d h i i s o rd a in e d w ith o u t th e m e n tio n o f
guna o r v rd d h i by nam e, th e r e th e word ik a h i s n o t s u p p lie d . F o r in s ta n c e , in ’’d iv a a u t ”
( V I I . i . 8 4 ) , th e word ik a h i s n o t s u p p lie d b e c a u se th e w ord v rd d h i i s n o t m e n tio n e d by nam e.
?‘
H en ce, th o u g h ” a u ” i s a v rd d h i l e t t e r , ” v in ” d iv w i s ch an g ed to "a u " b u t n o t " i ' .in ” d iv " . 1

1 2 .2 . M e ta lin g u is tic u se o f c a s e s .
The c o n c e p t o f m e ta -la n g u a g e is one o f th e im p o rta n t f e a tu r e s o f m odern l i n g u i s t i c s .^
P was n o t u n aw are o f t h i s c o n c e p t. He knows th a t a word in o r d in a r y la n g u a g e c o n v e y in g som e
id e a c o u ld n o t be re g a rd e d a s th e sam e when em ployed to co n v ey its own fo rm . The u se o f a
222
w ord is one th in g , i t s m e n tio n a n o th e r . P , in t h i s s e n s e , u sg sso m e c a s e s .
1 2 ,2 .1 . The r u le re g a rd in g s t h a n a s a s t h i .
ft 223
A c c o rd in g to P a t. th e r e a r e one h u n d fe d an d one m ean in g s o f th e g e n itiv e c a s e .
They a r e , fo r-e x a m p le , f a th e r - s o n , m a s te r - s e r v a n t, p a r t- w h o le e t c . But when in th e s u s , th e *
* «
s ix th c a s e i s u sed in a n o n -v e rb a l r e l a t i o n in g e n e r a l, i t i s c a lle d s t h a n a s a s •t h i . I t i s
e x p la in e d in th e fo llo w in g r u le -
•m rtm

!>
X
l? sa s t h i s th a na y o g a ( I . i .4 9 )
I t m eans t h a t s a s t h i i . e . th e s ix th c a s e (w ith o u t any in d ic a tio n to show i t s
* * «

r e l a t i o n w ith any o th e r w ord in t h a t s u tr a ) m u st be u n d e rs to o d a s c o n n e c te d w ith th e w ord


224
" s th a n a " . H ere th e word s th a n a m eans o c c a s io n f o r s u b s t i t u t i o n . For ex am p le - " ik o v an a c i "
I ( V I .i .7 7 ) The m eans t h a t "y a n " i s s u b s t i t u t e d in p la c e o f (s th a n a ) " ik " . In t h i s s u , th e
s ix th c a s e in " ik a h " d o es n o t e x p re s s an y p a r t i c u l a r r e l a t i o n w ith an y o th e r word in th e
s u t r a . But in "u d u p a d h ly a g o h ah " ( U I .iv .8 9 ) , th e p e n u ltim a te l e t t e r o f "g o h " i s to be ch an g et i
to " u " . H ow ever "g o h ah " i s e x h ib ite d in s a s t h i , i t d o es n o t mean " in p la c e o f" b e c a u se th e
s p e c i f i c r e l a t i o n i . e . a v a y a v a - s a s th i ( p a r t arid w h o le) i s h e re e x p re s s e d . S o , when an y o f
th e s e r e l a t i o n s o f th e s ix th c a s e i s n o t e x p re s s e d in th e s lis , th e s i x t h c a s e i s to be
a s s o c ia te d w ith " s th a n a " . By th e f o r c e o f t h i s s u , m ore th a n one l e t t e r s may be d is p la c e d .
F o r e x a m p le, in " a s t e r b h u h " ( l l . i v . 5 2 ) , th e s u b s t i t u t e "b h u " d is p la c e s " a s t i " . So a ls o in
" b ru v o v a c ih " ( I I . i v . 5 3 ) , " v a c ih " d is p la c e s " b r u " .
1 2 .2 .2 . The c a u s e w hich b r in g s a b o u t a c h a n g e may b e so m e th in g w hich e i t h e r p re c e d e s an
o c c u p a n t ( s th a n i) o r s u c c e e d s i t . I f i t fo llo w s th e s t h a n i , th e n i t i s e x h ib ite d in th e
lo c a tiv e c a s e . I t i s e x p la in e d in th e f o llo w in g s u .
" ta s m in n iti n i r d i s* ti e p u rv a sv a (I . i .6 7 )
™13 3iL m! a" ! h.
l i a ?" J xl tm -iacfttij/l
\
ft
s h o u ld be u n d e rs to o d w ith r e s p e c t to th e le tte r w hich i s (im m e d ia te ly ) p r e c e d in g (w ith o u t th e
in te r v e n tio n o f any o th e r l e t t e r ) F o r in s ta n c e , in su d h i + u p a s y a , n y a n ,f i s s u b s titu te d in
" ik " o f su d h i by V l.i.7 7 . H ere " u ,f in " su " an d " i" in d h i , b o th a r e i k s . A c c o rd in g to I . i . 6 7 ,
th e l a t t e r i . e . " i n in l,d h i n i s o p e ra te d b e c a u s e "ao " (" u " o f u p a sy a ) im m e d ia te ly fo llo w s i t . | |
1 2 .2 .3 . Uhen so m e th in g i s d ir e c te d to be done by u s in g
th e a b la tiv e c a s e , th e n th e c h a n g e
i s to be made in t h a t , w h ich im m e d ia te ly fo llo w s t h a t w hich i s in th e a b l a t i v e c a s e . The
fo llo w in g su .e x p la in s i t - - •

“ tasn iad i t v u t ta ra s v a '* (I . i .6 7 ) ' ^


T h is su m eans t h a t an o p e r a tio n e n jo in e d by
th e e x p re s s io n in th e a b la tiv e c a s e , i s
to be u n d e rs to o d w ith r e s p e c t t o th e l e t t e r w h ich i s (im m e d ia te ly ) fo llo w in g (w ith o u t th e
in te r v e n tio n o f an y o th e r l e t t e r ) F o r ex am p le - u tth in a m . I t can be w orked o u t a s -
4*
u t + sth an am “C ud + th th in a m (V III .i v .6 l ) < l ud + th ln a m (V III .iv .6 9 ) < u t +
sth an am ( c a r tv a by V I I I .i v . 55) < u tth in a m . H ere in nudah sth a sta m b h o p u rv a s v a (V III .i v .6 1 )1
1

"udah'* i s e x h ib ite d in th e a b l a t i v e c a s e . H ence th e l e t t e r " s " o f sth an am w hich im m e d ia te ly


fo llo w s t h a t w hich i s e x h ib ite d in th e a b l a t i v e c a s e i s to be o p e ra te d o n .
But it sh o u ld be n o te d th a t uhen th e o p e ra tio n i s o rd a in e d by th e e x p r e s s io n o f
- 225
f
^- u -
b o th th e s e c a s e s i . e . sa p ta m i an d p a n c a m i, p an cam i i s s tr o n g e r th a n s a p ta m i. H ence th e
o p e r a tio n o rd a in e d by th e e x p re s s io n in th e a b l a t i v e g e ts p r e f e r e n c e . F or e x a m p le, in a s i n a ,
a s + s a n a c a s + an a a s + in a B a s i n a . In t h i s ex am p le fl i! i s s u b s t i t u t e d by V I I .i i .8 3
i
" a n e " i s com ing from V l l . i i . 8 2 . an e i s e x h ib ite d in th e lo c a tiv e c a s e h e n c e th e o p e r a tio n
may ta k e th e p la c e in n s" o f a s -b y I . i . 6 7 . But "a g a h " i s e x h ib ite d in th e a b l a t i v e c a s e , so
*
* "i” will be substituted in the place of "I" of "ana” by T.i.67. The expression in pa'ncami is

stronger than the expression saptami. Hence ni H will '


b e substituted in the place of ,
!
a 1 of

ana .

Thus these sus explain the meaning of the genitive, ablative and locative cases,
when they occur in the sus of the Ast. These three cases can be presented diagramafcically as

under :

Meaning {meta-linguistic)

ft

sasthi saptami pancami


♦ •
*>

In place of To the preceding To the following

12.3.1. Meta-rules regarding augmentation. ft

Before going to discuss these rules, we shogld understand the meaning of three

words, sthani, agama and adesa. Generally the sus of the fist ordain that soma change occurs

with reference to some thing that exists. Uith respect to this change, what is affected by
*
the rule is called sthlni. When the change is an addition to some thing that exists, it is

called agama or augment and when the change is the elision of some thing that exists , it is

called adetsa or substitute. In the sus of the Ast, the adesa is generally exhibited in the

first case and the sthani in-the genitive case.

The sthani may be added to. The addition may be by way of prefixing something to
sthani or suffixing something to it or in-fixing. These three changes are explained in the
88

(
a) '
*
adyantau takitau" (l.i.46).

This su means that (the augments) haying an indicatory "t" and an indicatory "k"

are to be prefixed and suffixed respectively to that of which they are spoken: tit becomes

the initial part of that of which it is spoken,for example - sattsantah, sad + santah < s
sad dh + santah (VIII .iii.29) C sad t + santah (VIII.iv. 55) In this example, the augment

dhut is tit hence it is prefixed to sthani "santah". kit becomes the final part of that of
»
which it *is spoken. For example bhisayate. It may be worked out as-bhi + nic (III.i.26)<

bhi + suk + nic (VII.iii.40) ^ bhlsi + 'sap + ta c bhise + a + ta < bhisay + a + ta < bhisa-
* * l ‘

yate. In this illustration, the augment ?uk is added to bhi before nic by VII.iii.40. suk is
i
kit so by I.i.46 it becomes the final part of sthani, bhi and we have bhisi.
/

(b) The insertion after the last vowel in the sthani is explained in the following
\

meta-rule. f
"mid aco ’ntyat parah " (l.i.47)

This su means that (the augment) having indicatory "m ,


! is to be added to the last

vowel among the group of vowels (and it becomes the part of that vowel) . ''For example —

vanani, vana + jas <1 vana + si (VII „i .20) vana + n(um) +


■ i (VII.i.72)^ vanani (VI.iv.8,

sarvanamasthanadirgha) . Here the augment n(um) being "mjjt" gets its place after the last 1
vowel of sthani. The final "a" of "vana" is the last among the vowels, so that it is put

after that "a".

12.3.2. Meta rules regarding the substitution.


The sthani or occupant is affected in three ways. The final letter is displaced
by the substitute or some times the initial letter is displaced. Some times the whole is dis ­

placed. These three changes are explained by the following four meta-rules.
( )
a 1
walo ntvasva" (I.i.52). ^
This su means that when a substitute is enjoined with the mention of a genitive

case, it takes the place of the final letter of which it is .enjoined. The words sasthi and

sthane come into this su from I.i,49. for example - '


’yah ” . It may be worked out as - yad +

su < ya a + su (VII .ii.102) ^ ya + su (pararupa by VI.i. 97) <


4. yah. In this example, ''a" is

substituted in the place of tyad, tad, yad etc by VII.ii.102. The question arises as to what

letter of =-%ad" should be changed to ’’


a"? This meta-rule makes it clear and declares that

the final "d" of yad should be changed to "a ” because in VII .ii.102, the word tyadadinam is
exhibited in the genitive case. "I?

(b) ”adeb parasya " (l.i.54).

This is an exception to I.i.52. It means that, if the substitute is enjoined of the

following, it takes the place of the initial letter of that following word. For example,
dvipam. It can be worked out as - dvi + ap dvi + ap + a (V.iv.74)<l dvi + ip (VI.iii.97)<

dvlpam. In the case of dvi + ap , "i" is substituted by "rtuyantarupaBaroebhvi/pa it !t .

(VI.iii.97) Though "apah" in this su, is in the genitive case, the substitute does not take

place of the final "p" of "ap" according to I.i.52, but of the initial "a" of "ap" because
dvyanta. etc in the su is exhibited in the ablative case. Thus there are two cases i.e.sasthi
226
and pancami, the meaning of pancami is stronger than that of sasthi.

(c) Sometimes whole of the sthanl is displaced. The following meta-rule explains it.|
■ ■
: 90

"anekal-sit sarvasya " (l.i.55).

This su means that the substitute consisting of more than one letter, or having "s"

as "it” displaces the whole of sthani. This su is an exception to X.i.52 "ais", for instance,

is substituted in the place of "bhis" by VII.i. 9. It takes the place of whole of "bhis",

though "bhisah" is exhibited in the genitive case, because the substitute,"ais" is anekal.
si is a isit substitute which is substituted in the place of jas and s^s (nom. and accu. plu ­

ral affixes) by VII.i.20. It takes the place of whole of jas or sas, though the word

"jassasoh" is exhibited in the genitive case.

(d) In spite of having more than one letter, the nit substitute takes the last

letter. This su debars I.i.55. The su is as under -

"nic ca " (l.i.53).


This su means that the substitute having'an indicatory "n", takes the place of the
last letter (though it consists of more letters than one) For instance, go + agram< g +

ava + agram (avan by VI.i. 123)^ gavagram. In this example, the substitute "avafi" is anekal. J
j
j
j

Hence it might have replaced the whole of the sthani "go” by I.i.55, but it is a nit substi

tute. So, by this pari, rule, it takes the place of the final letter of the sthani "go".

12.3.3. The changes ,ordained by these meta-rules can be presented diagramatically as under
91 X

changes
1
_____ ____
'
r
r—----- - -

agam a (au g m en t) a d e s a ( s u b s titu te )

r i
p r e f ix s u f f ix in fix p a rt w hole
* (tit) (k it) (m it) (a ) a n e k il
^ l . l . 46 . ■ I I . i .4 7 . (b) s it
I . i .5 5 .
X !-------------- ----
fin a l C in itia l
(a ) e x p re s s e d o f th e
in th e g e n i , ( I . i .5 2 ) fo llo w in g
(b ) h i t ( I . ,5 3 )
i ( I .i .5 4 )

1 2 .4 . The m e ta ru le s r e g a r d in g m e n tio n .
X
Ulhen th e re - i s an o c c a s io n fo r m ore s u b s t i t u t e s th a n o n e , th e s p e c i f i c a t i o n o f th e
X s u b s titu te s i s n e c e ssa ry . The fo llo w in g tw o m e ta - r u le s e x p la in it.
1 2 .4 .1 . " s th a n e 1n ta ra ta m a h " ( I . i . 5 0 ) .
T h is su m eans t h a t w h en ev er an o c c a s io n fo r s u b s t i t u t i o n a r i s e s , th e r e w ill be th e
f
s u b s t i t u t e w hich i s th e m ost hom ogeneous o n e . F or e x a m p le , in maha + is a h , th e guna i s su b ­
Tt
s t i t u t e d in th e p la c e o f th e f i n a l ,,a o f maha and th e i n i t i a l "i* o f i s a h . Now, guna m eans1

a , e and o by I . i . 2 . Out o f th e s e th r e e s u b s t i t u t e s !,e ,! i s th e m ost hom ogeneous to " a " an d


" i ” , b e c a u s e th e p la c e o f a r t i c u l a t i o n o f "a " i s g l o t a l v e la r an d t h a t o f " i " i s p a l a t e .
92

The p la c e o f a r t i c u l a t i o n o f 'e * i s g lo ta l an d p a l a t e , th e b o th .
In t h i s s u , th e w ord " s th a n a " m eans " p ra sa fig a " . So " s th a n e " m ean s, when an o c c a s io n H
X a ris e s . The "a n ta ry a o r h o m o g en eity i s f o u r f o ld : (1) by p la c e (2) by m ean in g (3) by q u a lity
an d (4) by q u a n tity . When th e r e i s an o c c a s io n o f m ore h o m o g e n e itie s in th e s u b s t i t u t i o n ,
227
th e h o m o g en eity by th e p la c e (s th a n a ) i s m ore f o r c e f u l. F o r exam ple in s tu + ta < s to ta ( a
one who p r a i s e s ) , guna i s e n jo in e d by " s a rv a d h a tu k a rd h a d h a tu k a v o h " ( V I I . i i i .8 4 ) . The guna
*
X* /* ¥

1
1
m eans " a " , " e an d n o M. Now "a** i s m ore hom ogeneous to s h o r t "u " o f " s tu " by th e h o m o g e n e ity *
o f q u a n tity an d "o " i s m ore hom ogeneous to th e p la c e . The l a t t e r i s m ore f o r c e f u l, a c c o r d in g X.
to th e p a r i. - " y a tra n e k a v id h a m a n ta ry a m t a t r a s th a n a ta a n ta ry a m b a liy a h " . So th a form w ill
be s to ta in s te a d o f s t a t l .
1 2 .4 .2 . But when ite m s o f a s u b s e q u e n t e n u m e ra tio n id a
r u le o f re p la c e m e n t h av e th e sam e

t num ber a s ite m s p r e v io u s ly e n u m e ra ted in th e r u l e , th e y a r e r e la te d in o rd e r (kram a) i.e .


_____ a n b^ _____ b n> The fo llo w in g su e x p la in s i t .

" yathasam khyam an u d esafr saroanam " ( l.iii.1 0 ) .


T h is su m eans t h a t when in a r u l e , th e r e i s th e c a s e o f e q u a l num bers o f s u b s t i t u t e s
an d o f th in g s f o r w h ich th e s e a r e to be s u b s t i t u t e d , t h e i r m u tu al a s s ig n m e n t (o f e a c h to each)^
i s a c c o rd in g to th e o rd e r o f e n u m e ra tio n . F o r e x a m p le, in !fe c h v a v a v a v a h "
( V I .i.7 8 ) ,, th e r e
a r e fo u r s th a n in s e x h ib ite d in a p r a ty ih lr a "e c " v iz e , o , a i and au an d fo u r s u b s t i t u t e s
v iz a y , a v , i y an d a v . H ere th e s th a n in s an d a d e s a s a r e e q u a l in n u m b er. H ence th e y a th a s a m -
khya p a r i , i s a p p lic a b le . So th e s u b s t i t u t e s w ill come in th e o rd e r o f th e s th a n in s i . e .
e = a y , o = a v , a i * ay an d au =*
av To u n d e rs ta n d i t c l e a r l y , " h a ra y e " may be q u o te d .
93

It can be worked out as — hari + ne £ hari + e hare + e (VII .iii.111) harffy + e (Vl.i.78)
a
< haraye. “ay ” is substituted in the place of "e” of hare^because both these letters are

equal in number in the order of enumeration. Both paris can be put, diagramatically as under:

changes

according to according to the


homogeneity number(of enumeration)

Note: The substitutes and the Note: The substitutes and the

substituends are not necessa­ substituends are necessarily


rily equal in number. equal in number.

12.5. Following two meta-rules, with respect to the substitution are worth quoting.

12.5.1. " eca ip ohrasvadese” (I .i .48)

It means that uhen short vowels are ordained as substitutes, ’


’ ik ’
* will be substitu—

ted in the place of "ec". For instance, atiri kulam. Here atiri may be worked out as -

atikrantam rayam vat kulam /


rai + ati (l.ii.43, Il.ii.3D)< ati + ri < atiri. In this illustration "hrasv/a”
|| is substituted in the place of nrai". Now/ai* has no short form. But this pari, comes to our

help and ”i n is substituted in the place of "ai” .

12.5.2. "uran raparah ” (I .


i .51)
It means that uhen (any letter of) the an group i.e. a or i or u is ordained as

(0
substitute for "rH , it is (aluays) followed by the letter "r". ''uh" in this su is the
: 94 :

.
geni case of ” r '
! For example, in maha + rsih < mah + ar (a + r) + sih (VI.i.87, I.i.51 "a”
• * • * »- * ♦ ^

being guna , is invariably followed by "r") < maharsih. The an in this su is a pratyahlra

denoting a, i and u. Hence Mi n or "u" may be substituted for "r" and actual substitute is
"ir !
1 or^ur* respectively .

According to the neo-branch of Raninian school, r will present its homogeneous letter
1 also. Therefore the word nuh ” means ”in the place of "r" and nl H . r will include its homo-
X
gene.ous letter "lw by the va .11rlvarnavoh mithah slvarnvam vacvarn” but it is not possible for

"r M to include ”1 ’
*. So here "ra," is understood as a pratyahara comprising with ”r ” and ”1 ” .

r
Now "ra” includes "1" also. Thus / this su means that whenever "an ” is ordained as the substi-

tute, in the place of "r" or "l",' it is invariably followed by ”r" or H1" .

12.6. The rules regarding sthanivadbha va .

sthani and adeia both are different items. Hence the operations directed to sthani
228
are in-applicable when sthani is substituted. But to make the operations applicable there,

the following rule ordains it as -

(a) "sbhanivad adeso' nalvidhau 1


1 (l.i.56)

The word sthani means the,, primary speech - sound which is replaced by "adesa and
adeSa means that has been substituted. The s"u means that the substitute is like the sthani

except in operations regarding a letter. The substitute is of eight kinds? (1) dhatu (2)
ahga (3) krt (#) taddhita (5) avyaya (6) sup (7) tin (8) pada. The word "alvidhi" can be
f desolved in four ways (1) ala vidhih {instrumental Determinative) (2) alah vidhih (Ablative
Determinative) (3) alah vidhih (Genitive Determinative) and (4) ali vidhih (Locative
95

D e te rm in a tiv e ) In th e s e f o u r c a s e s th e s u b s t i t u t e i s n o t lik e th e s th in i.
T h o u g h 'a d e sa an d s th a n i a r e
d i s t i n c t in th e m s e lv e s , a l l th e g ra m m a tic a l te c h n ic a l ^
4jjj^
q u a l i t i e s w h ich h av e b een a s c r ib e d to th e s t h a n i , a l l i t s c l a s s - q u a l i t i e s th e r e f o r e a r e
sh a re d by th e a d e s a , so th e "adesa b e in g i d e n t i c a l w ith s t h a n i , r e p la c e s s t h a n i . The r e l a t i o n X
so n .
S b etw een s t h ^i n i an d a d e s^a i s com pared by RBh w ith t h a t o f b e tw e en g u ru and h is 229
"ad esa i s c o n s id e re d l i k e s th a n i.. F o r e x a m p le , th e s u b s t i t u t e in p la c e o f k r t i s c o n - ^

s id e r e d l i k e k r t v iz p r a k r ty a . It can b e w orked o u t a s under


p ra 4- k r + t v l ( I I I .iv .2 1 V p r a +
k r + ly a p (V II . i .37)<£ p ra + k r + t (uk) + ya (V I.
* ' * %

i . 71) <T p r a k r ty a . I'n t h i s e x a m p le , ya (ly a p ) i s o rd a in e d to be s u b s titu te d in th e p l a c e 'o f



" k tv a " by " sa m a se W n p u rv e k tv o ly a p " ( V I I .i .3 7 ) . Then th e augm ent " tu k n i s o rd a in e d by V I .i.7 1
to s h o r t k r b e fo re “ p i t k r t" a f f i x e s . The s u b s t i t u t e " ly a p " !’
i s " p it" b u t n o t " k r t b e c a u se
i t is n o t e n u m e ra te d in th e lis t of k r t a f f i x e s , " k tv a " was " k r t" b u t " l y a p " 'i s n o t " k r t"
H ence th e s a id r u le o f au g m en t " tu k " i s in c a p a b le . But s th a n iv a t r u le com es to o u r h e lp an d
d e c la r e s th a t a d e sa i s lik e s t h a n i . H ere " k tv l" w hich i s " k r t " , i s s th a n i an d " ly a p " i s a d e s a
in th e p la c e o f " k t v l " . So th e r u le o f au g m en t tu k w il l be a p p lie d an d form w ill be p r a k r ty a .
B ut in th e o p e r a tio n r e g a r d in g " a l" (any l e t t e r ) , t h i s r u le i s n o t a p p l i c a b l e . F o r ex am p le -
dyauh = d iv + su < d i au 4- su ( V I I .i .8 4 ) < d y a u h . In t h i s i l l u s t r a t i o n , "a u " i s a s u b s t i t u t e
in th e p la c e o f "v" o f " d iv " an d i f i t i s u n d e rsto o d l i k e s th a n i i . e . "v " o f " d iv " a c c o rd in g
to I . i . 5 6 , th e c a se a f f i x " s u " w ill be e lid e d by V I .i.6 8 ( h alh v ab bh vo .) an d th e in c o r r e c t
j-S
form "d y au " w ill be fo rm e d . B u t th e l a t t e r p a r t o f th e sam e r u le s a y s t h a t s th a n i v a t i s n o t
«w *

a p p lic a b le w ith r e s p e c t to " a l - v i d h i " . T h e re i s a n a b la tiv e c a se in h a ln y a b b h y a h , so b e in g


& : 96

"alvidhi" (alah vidhih = operation after al)' the sthUnivat is prohibited and "su” is not

after a letter Bnding in hal. Hence it is not elided. Thus the sthanivadbhava is prohibited
in "al-vidhiH .

(b) The following rule extends the sthanivadbhava to certain phonological qualities,

"acah oarasmin purvayjdhau ” (I .i ,57)

This su means that the substitute which replaces a vowel, becomes like a vowel, if

the substitution has been occasioned on account of something following and when a rule is

to be applied to any thing preceding such a substitute. For example - patayati. The process

for the form patayati is as under : . -

patu + nic (by va . on III.i.26) pat + i (va. on VI.iv.155, naVisthavat prati .)


lb #■ t- 0

|
jl pati + ssap + tip <■ pate + a + ti < patay + a + ti < patayati. In this illustration, with ^
respect to "al-vidhi” , if the sthanivat is prohibited, than the penultimate Ma ,
! in npat !
t

Tjets its vrddhi by VII.ii.116. But the substitute lopa (elision of "u" of patu) is here to

be understood sthinivat according to I.i.57. Hence in pat + o + i, zero (adesa) is prevent ­

ing the "a' 1 in "pat" from becoming penultimate, so that vrddhi does not take place. Thus
u *
this su lays down an exception to analvidhi of the previous rule.

(c) su I.i.58 lays down the exception to I.i.57, which says that the substitute

which replaces a vowel becomes like sth&nin under certain condition. But I.i.58 saysthat

the substitute which replaces the vowel is not to be understood sthanivat with respect to

padantavidhi etc. For example - kaustajh. In kau + stah "a 1


1 of the root "as ” is elided and

if this "a" is understood as sthanivat, then "au" in "kau" will turn to "av' by VI.i.78. 1
: 97 :

Then "kav s ta h " w ill be a n in c o r r e c t fo rm . The s th a n iv a t i s h e re p r o h ib ite d by I . i . 5 8 ,


b e c a u s e i t i s a p a d a n ta v id h i . "k au " i s a p ad a by l . i v . 1 4 and "a u " s ta n d s a t th e end o f th e
p a d a . H ence "a u " i s n o t s u b s t i t u t e d in th e p la c e o f " a u " , b e c a u se i t i s n o t fo llo w e d by a
v o w e l.
1 2 .7 . The r u le s re g a rd in g p r a ty a y a la k s a n a .
In P ’ s gram m ar sy n c o p e (lo p a ) o f a p ra ty a y a i s c o n s id e re d a s a
s u b s t i t u t e . So th e
sam e v a lu e w ould h av e to be a tta c h e d to th e z e ro a s to th e s u b s t i t u t e by I . i ,5 6 . H e n c e ,
when s u f f ix i s by th e w ord " lo p a " s y n c o p a te d , th e z e ro i s re g a rd e d a s p o s s e s s in g a l l th o s e
g ra m m a tic a l te c h n ic a l q u a l i t i e s o f th e s th a n in ( s u f f ix ) w hereby c e r t a i n su s a r e e i t h e r ’

230
a p p lic a b le o r n o t.
P g iv e s two im p o rta n t r u le s f o r p ra ty a y a la k s a n a a s u n d e r -

(a ) " p ra ty a y a lo p g p ra ty a y a la k s a n a m " ( l .i .6 2 )
T h is su s t a t e s t h a t th o u g h an a f f i x may be e lid e d (by lo p a ) , y e t a n o p e r a tio n o f
w hich su ch a f f i x was th e c a u s e , m ust ta k e p la c e . F or e x a m p le , in " some su n a b ” ( l H . i i . 9 D ) ,
somam + su + k v ip ( H I . i i . l 9 0 ) <1 soma ■
+• su + v (H ere "v " is a s in g le le tte r, so i t is
te rm e d a p r k ta by I .ii.4 1 ) soma + su (B ein g a p r k ta , th e
l e t t e r "v " i s e lid e d by \ / I . i . 6 7 ) <
*
so m asu t ( V I .i.7 1 ) The a f f i x k v ip i s s y n c o p a te d , y e t i t b e in g " k i t " an d " k r t" m akes th e
l a t t e r member ( u tta r a p a d a ) o f th e com pound u d a tta by V I .ii.1 3 9 an d b e in g p i t a ls o " t( u k ) "
is ad d ed to ah g a by U I .i,7 1 .
(b ) But when sy n c o p e h a s b een o rd a in e d by lu m a ta , th e p r a ty a y a la k s a n a re m a in s no
lo n g e r . The fo llo w in g r u le e x p la in s it
86

" na lu m a ta n q a sy a " ( I . i . 6 3 ) ,
T h is su s t a t e s , o f th e anga o f w h ich a f f ix , h a s b e en e lid e d by th e e x p re s s io n o f
"lum an" i . e . " lu k ” , " s lu " an d " lu p " , th e o p e r a tio n d e p e n d e n t upon i t , d o e s n o t ta k e p la c e
re g a rd in g su c h a n g a . T h is s u , th u s , la y s down a n e x c e p tio n to I . i . 6 2 w h ich o rd a in s th e
o p e r a tio n c a u s e d by th e a f f i x , w hich i s n o t a p p a r e n t. F o r e x a m p le , q a rg a h ( p lu r a l form o f
o a ro v a h ) The word g a rg y a h i s form ed by a d d in g th e s u f f ix "y a n " to " g a rg a " by I V . i . 1 0 5 . The
«
^ o rc e o f th e in d ic a to r y "n " c a u s e s v rd d h i o f th e f i r s t vow el o f th e word g a rg a by V II . 117..
.ii
5o we, q e t th e form g a rg y a h . B ut in p l u r a l , a c c o rd in g to I I . i v . 6 4 , th e r e i s " lu k " o f th e
* *

a f f i x " y a n " . H ere by th e e x p r e s s io n o f " lu k " , th e a f f i x "y a n " i s e lid e d , so th e ri.it va. i s . ^
l o s t by I . i . 6 3 . H ence V I I . i i . 117 i s n o t now a p p lic a b le an d th e p l u r a l form o f" g a rg y a h " i s
" g a rg a h " .
(c ) The p r a ty a la k s a n a r u le s can b e p r e s e n te d d ia g r a m s tic a lly a s u n d e r -
lo p a (sy n c o p e )

by lo p a ( I . i .6 0 ) by lu m a t (I . i .6 1 )
(g e n e ra l) ( s p e c i f i c : o n ly to
p ra ty a y a )
N o te: p r a ty a y a la k s a n a
e x i s t s (I . i .6 2 )
lu k s lu lu p
N o te : p r a ty a la k s a n a
v a n is h e s ( i .i .6 3 )
mi
: 99 :

12.8, The rule regarding svarupagrahana .

In P's grammar, uhen any grammatical operation has to be performed, it refers to

its own form to which it has been performed, and not to its synonyms or meaning. The follow ­

ing rula explains it -


" svam rupam sabdasyasabdasam.jna" (I .i .58) .

t This su means that the form of the word stands for itself (in this grammatical

treatise and not for its meaning or synonyms) except technical terms used in this grammar.
For example, the affix "dhak" is ordained after "agni" by IV.ii.33. Here the form (i.e.word
*
form "a-g-n-i") of "agni" should be taken and not the meanihg of it viz fire or its synonyms
* viz plvaka, anala etc. But the latter portion of this su, asabdasamjna is an exception to

the former one. It declares that in the case of the technical terms used in this grammar, ft

the meaning should be considered and not the word-form. For example, in "mider gunah" (VII .

iii.82) Here the word guna is a technical term (vide I.i.2) Hence the meaning of "guna* i.e,

a, e and o, should be considered and not its word-form i.e. "g-u-n-a" .

12.9. The rule regarding tadanta gra hana .

"yena virlhi s tadantasya" (I .i .72) .

This su means that an attribute by;-uhich an induction is made, denotes that which

ends' with it and also its ownform. For example, su . " era c 1
1 (lll.iii.56) anjoins "ac" after

the root "i" and those ending in "i". In "ayah ” , i + ac (lll.iii.56) < e + ac (guna) <
ay + a (VI.i.78)< ayah and the same process is in cayah , ci 4
- ac (lll.iii.56) <' ce + ac

(III
(Ill .iii.56) ^ ce + ac (guna) ^ cay 4
- a (VI ,i
,i .78) •<. illustrations, "eh" is
cayah. In these illustrations
100

an a ttrib u te by w hich an in d u c tio n i s m ade. So "eh " m eans 'o f th a t e n d in g in " i" an d o f " i"
its e lf. It m ean s, " i" s ta n d s f o r i t s e l f an d f o r th e r o o ts e n d in g in " i" v i 2 " c i " ’ j i e t c .

1 2 .1 0 . The r u le re g a rd in g e k a v a d b h a v a .
Uhen an o c c a s io n a r i s e s to p e rfo rm a n o p e r a tio n on a s in g le le tte r, th e fo llo w in g
r u le m akes c la rific a tio n .
f " a d y a n ta v a d e k a s m in " (I . i .2 1 )
T h is su d e n o te s t h a t th e o p e r a tio n s h o u ld be p e rfo rm e d on a s in g le le tte r a s upon
f
an in itia l o r upon a fin a l. For in s ta n c e , abhvam . Byth e v i r t u e o f U I l .i i i .1 0 2 , th e f i n a l
o f a n o u n -ste m e n d in g in s h o r t " a " i s le n g th e n e d b e fo re a c a s e a f f i x b e g in n in g w ith th e
• „
p ra ty a h _a ra " y av,n " . So r ..a s a + b h y a m ra m... a _b h y a m . H are th e f i n a l s h o r t "a " o f ram a i s le n g th ­
en ed b e fo re bhyam , th e c a s e a f f i x b e g in n in g w ith " y a n " . F o r “abhyam , th e p ro c e s s i s - idam +
bhyam, «< id a + a + bhyam (U iI . 102) < id a + bhyam (p a ra ru p a by V I .i .9 4 ) ^ a + bhyam ( " id "
.ii
<£.
i s e lid e d by 5,h a li lo p a h " UII , i i . 113) ’abhyam . Now in a + bhyam , " a ” i s a s in g le l e t t e r .
H ence by " s u p i c a " ( U I I , i i i .1 0 2 ) i f it. i s u n d e rs to o d a s i n i t i a l , th e o p e r a tio n o rd a in e d by
su p i c a , u i l l n o t ta k e p la c e , s u , I .i .2 1 com es to o u r h e lp an d d e c la r e s th a t " a ” i s a
-i-
s in g le l e t t e r , so i t s h o u ld be ta k e n a s i n i t i a l o r a s f i n a l . Hence a bhyam <• abhyam ,
1 2 .1 1 . The th e o ry o f s a v a rn y a .
1 2 .1 1 .1 . P 's s a v a rn y a th e o ry h a s i t s im p o rta n t r o le to m orphophonem ics in g e n e r a l. I t i s
b a s e d on f iv e a s p e c ts in w h ich a l e t t e r may b e u s e d . T hey a r e (a) p it c h (b ) L e n- q th .(c )O rqV a n
(d ) E f f o r t s , i n t e r n a l and e x te r n a l and (e) b r e a th . The fo llo w in g d iag ram show s i t c l e a r l y .
A sp e c ts fo r savarnya

(b ) L en g th (c ) O rgan (d) E ffo rt

1 hrasv/a 2 d irg h a 3 p lu ta N a s a lity P o in ts o f In te rn a l E x te rn a l


f. I .ii.2 7 . ___ _ J (1 .1 .8 ) a r t i c u l a t i o n (a b h y a n ta ra ) (b a h y a )
1

1 G lo ta l 2 P a la ta l 3 R e tr o f le x 4 D e n ta l 5 L a b ia l
V e la r

1 C o n ta c t 2 S lig h t c o n ta c t 3 Open 4 C lo se .

% ( s p r s ta ) (Is a ts p rs ta ) ( v iv r ta ) ( s a m u r ta )

f
1 v iv a r a 2 suaga 3 a g h o sa
4 *
4'
4 sam v ara 5 n ad a 6 g h o sa
1D2

To understand the theory of savarnya^one should understand these five aspects. The X
vowels are of three kinds: udatta, anudatta and svarita by pitch. Vowels may be viewed uith ^
reference to their prosodial length. They are described as consisting of three lengths called
*
matras. The hrasva or laghu consists of one matra. The dirgha or guru consists of two matras

and the pluta consists of three matras.

The letters are characterised by their point of articulation., They are classified

as glotal velar, palatal, retroflex, dental and labial. They are further characterised by

efforts (prayatnas) abhyantara (within the mouth cavity) and bahya (without the mouth cavity;
According to abhyantara prayatna (internal effort)^ they are classed as contact (sprsta), 1
.
sliqht contact (isatsprsta) open (vivrta) and close (samvrta) The letters are classed as
l
stops (sparsa) , liquids (anta^istha) and spirants (usman) uith regard to the disposition of

the organ at the time of pronunciation. The external effort is of eleven kinds and it may

be divided in two varieties contrasting one with another. For example, vivara contrasts uith

samvara, svasa to nlda, aghosa to ghosa , alpaprana to mahaprana, udatta to anudatta. The
231
following table presents the external effort of each of the consonants.

1
Glotal T r ky1 gh
Velar (
Th)
s
Vi
MC
b h Palatal ch n
i ___ AZ
l
i
_ _______ __t
f
^ v £
dh
XBtJOJq.ey i

V /
* Si s
.
| ( "
I
y X
■Kty ul
th

—A Dental dh T
Y
T VV
.P ) ,Ph/ bh dX)
\ 5 % Labial m
W
103

Those that are enclosed in circles haye viyara, svasa and aghosa as their, prayatna

and those not enclosed in circles have samvara, nada and ghosa prayatna. Those that are

underlined are mahaprlna and those that, are not underlined are alpaprana .

P considers only two aspects i.e, point of articulation and effort to define the

term sauarna. Uhen the point of articulation and (internal) effort are identical, two

letters are understood to be savarna of each other. It is explained in the following su.

"tulyasyaprayatnarh savarnam (I.i.9).

S It means, a letter haying in common uith another letter a similar effort at a point

in the mouth is termed savarna. The word asya, in the su means the points of articulation

(asye bhavam asyam talvadisthanam - kas) To determine the savarna relationship, the external

effort is useful only when more than t'uo letters related as sayarnas come simultaneously for

operation. In such instances the external effort is employed to determine the substitute that

most resembles the sthani . Uith respect to these two aspects-i.e, the points of articulation

and internal effort, the following table will clearly exhibit which two letters are sayarnas

to each other -
-
X

I
ne

X r kh gh ai 1
>
1 X
A rT1 ciotai
l/elar .

4*
A 2 A Palatal A ch jh n [yJ ai
' — * ------------ ---------------- ----
4 IA
3 A Retroflex,! r t |h dh
I
Y .1 :

Y 4 Dental ♦ th dh

r ) ----- r bh
y* 5 — y
- Labial 0~ — u ph m au ^D
f
c-
104

The letters of the same point of articulation are exhibited in one horizontal line.

The letters classed as contact (sprsta) are underlined. Those designated as slight contact

(isatsprsta) are placed in the squares. And the letters whose internal effort is ’
’open"
* p » j>

(vivrta) are left open. The letter "a” of which effort is "close" is enclosed in a circle.

Now, the letters in the same line and having the same mark are to be understood savarnas

viz k and kh , c and ch etc being in the same line and having the same mark i.e. the under ­

lined, are savarnas, because the point of articulation and the (internal; effort of'these

letters are the same.


12.11.2.By I.i.9, the letters having the same point of articulation and the same (internal) |
jj

effort become homogeneous to each other. By the rule 5


,a" becomes homogeneous to "h and so

is "i" to 1
1 "r" to "s" , and "l" to "s". But it is not desired. So in such cases the oro-

hibition of homogeneity is inundated by the following su.

"naj jhalau" (l.i.10)

This su means that (the letters denoted by the pratyaharas) a-c (vowels) and ha-1

(consonants) are not termed savarna to each other (though the point of articulation and the

(internal) effort of the both a —c and ha— 1 are the same/ So in dadhi + sitalam, by I,i«9,

1
the final "i' in "dadhi" and initial "s" of "sitalam" are homogeneous to each other, and

by "akah sayarns dirohah" (VI .i.101) dirgha "I” is substituted in the place of both the

letters "i” and "s" and the incorrect form "dadhitalam" would occur. But I.i.10 prevents
232
it, so in such a case the usual sandhi does not take place.

12.11.3.Thus by the theory of sayarrtya, one single letter stands for many other letters to
.T>yk (
105

w hich i t is sa y a rn a o r h o m o g en eo u s. So
t h a t w h a te v e r c h a n g e i s e n jo in e d r e g a r d in o t h a t
l e t t e r , s h a ll ta k e p la c e w ith r e f e r e n c e to o th e r s a l s o . The fo llo w in g m e ta - r u le e n u n c ia te s
it
" a n u d it s a v a rn a s y a c a p ra ty a y a ft" ( I .i .6 9 )
It m eans th a t a le tte r d e n o te d by an (M3u6) and t h a t w ith in d ic a to r y u ( k u - c u - tu - tu -
-p u ), when n o t e n jo in e d may s ta n d f o r t h e i r s a v a r n a s .
In t h i s s u , to c o in th e s h o r t form a n , th e la tte r '" n ^ o f f-1Su6 sh o u ld be ta k e n a c c o r d -
in g to t r a d i t i o n , a p ra ty a y a m eans e x c e p tin g th o s e th a t a r e s n jo in e d . T h a t u h ic h i s e n jo in e d
i s c a lle d p r a ty a y a . So w h a te v e r i t i s , . a n a u g m e n t, a s u b s t i t u t e o r an a f f i x , when i t i s
e n jo in e d , i t d o es n o t s ta n d f o r i t s hom ogeneous l e t t e r s . F o r e x a m p le , " i" i s s u b s titu te d
in th e p la c e o f "idam " by V . i i i . 3 . Though "id am " c o n s is ts o f th r e e m a tr a s , th e p lu ta ^3 i s %
n o t to lie s u b s titu te d in th e p la c e o f " id a m " , b e c a u s e , h e re " i" i s e n jo in e d (p ra ty a y a ) in
th e su idam a i s ( V .i i i .3 ) I t s h o u ld be n o te d t h a t h e re " a p ra ty a y a " i s an a d je c tiv e to an I
o n ly . H encs i t m eans th a t th e l e t t e r s c o m p ris in g in th e s h o r t form an u h ic h a r e n o t o rd a in e d i
" a p ra ty a y a " i s n o t to be c o n n e c te d w ith u d i t . So u d i t , th o u g h e n jo in e d , w il l s ta n d f o r i t s
hom ogeneous le tte rs . ( V I I I . i i .3 0 ) , s ta n d s f o r its hom ogeneous
«-
F or e x a m p le , in " cohv k u h K kuh‘
l e t t e r s , u d it m eans th e le tte rs h a v in g an in d ic a to r y "u" . They a r e ku (k -g ro u p o f l e t t e r s ) ,
cu (c -g ro u p o f le tte rs ), tu (t-g ro u p o f l e t t e r s ) tu (t-g ro u p o f l e t t e r s ) an d pu (p -g ro u p o f
l e t t e r s ) T hus nou a , f u o r r s ta n d fe fo r its e ig h te e n v a r i e t i e s . 1 s ta n d s f o r its tw e lv e
t i
v a r ie tie s b ecau se i t h a s no le n g th e n e d fo rm , e , o , a i. an d a u a ls o r e p r e s e n t t h e i r tw e lv e
v a r i e t i e s b e c a u s e th e y h av e no s h o r t fo rm , r o r 1 s ta n d s f o r i t s t h i r t y v a r i e t i e s a c c o rd in g
.10

to th a v a . " rlv a rn a y p h m ith a h say arn y am y a cyam 1


1 (v a . on I .1 ,9 , q u o te d by SK) (The m u tu a l
II
h o m o g e n e ity o f r and 1 sh o u ld be s ta te d )

The v o u e ls a re o f th r e e k in d s a s t h e i r p itc h : (1) u d a tta ( l . i i . 2 9 ) (2) a n u d a tta (I . i


i 1 .3 0 ) and ( 3 ) s v a r it a ( l , . i i . 3 1 ) . F lo reo v er th e v o u e ls a r e o f th r e e s o r ts by t h e i r p r o s o d ia l
le n g th : (!) h ra sv a (2) d irg h a a n d (3). p lu ta ( l . i i . 2 7 ) In t h i s way th e v o u e ls becom e o f n in e I
v a r i e t i e s . By n a s a lity (by uay o f n a s a l an d n o n -n a s a l) th e v o u e ls , g e n e r a lly p r e s e n t t h e i r
e ig h te e q v a r i e t i e s . The f o ll o u in g d ia g ra m , f o r exam ple p r e s e n ts th e e ig h te e n v a r i e t i e s o f
th e v o u e ls - II
ac f
~T
h ra s v a d irg h a p lu ta

■ ■ ■ “ ■ r ----
u dr~
a tta a n u d a tta s v a r i \t a u dia tta a n un
d a tta “ s v —
a r iit a u d a—
tta a n urd a tta s v a r ita

i
1
i

CO
1(0
to

3
c
3
1(0

ra

c
3

. cCO
C

c
c
anuna- ananu- ananu- anuria*-ananu- anuna- a n a n u -
ria s ik a 1
s ik a n ls ik a s ik a s ik a ria s ik a s ik a ria sik a s ik a riS sik a
1

anuna- ananu- anuna- ananu- anuna- a nanu- anuna- a nanu-


s ik a n ls ik a s ik a n a s ik a s ik a n a s ik a s ik a riS s i ka
s
107

1 2 .1 1 .4 . The l e t t e r s c o m p ris in g in th e p r a ty lh a r a "a n " an d u d it s ta n d f o r t h e i r s a v a rn a


a c c o rd in g to T .i .6 9 , b u t, f o r s p e c if ic p u rp o s e , P p r e v e n ts th e s e l e t t e r s from becom ing sav /ar-
n a s , th o u g h th e y a r e te c h n ic a lly s a v a r n a s . I f many l e t t e r s , w hich s ta n d f o r t h e i r s a v a rn a s
by I . i . 6 9 , come a s s u b s t i t u t e s , th e fo llo w in g r u le p r e v e n ts them from s ta n d in g them f o r I
th e ir hom ogeneous le tte rs , I
" ta p a r a s t a t k a i a s y a " (I . i .7 0 )
T h is su m eans th a t, a l e t t e r p re c e d e d o r fo llo w e d by " ta " s ta n d s f o r i t s p r o s o d ia l
I
le n g th w ith w hich i t i s p ro n o u n c e d . H ence th e sy m b o ls " a t " , " i t " , " u t" e t c . s ta n d f o r t h e i r I
s ix v a r i e t i e s o n ly an d d irg h a an d pitita w h ich h av e s ix v a r i e t i e s o f e a c h , a r e h e re n o t Ii
c o u n te d by I . i , 7 0 . F or e x a m p le , in " a d e n g u n a h " ( l . i . 2 ) " a t" p r e s e n ts i t s s ix h ra s v a v a r i e ­
tie s an d d irg h a an d p lu ta v a r i e t i e s w ill n o t b e in c lu d e d in " a t" .
1 2 .1 2 . Thev ip r a tis s d h a p r i n c i p l e .
Uhen th e r e i s a c o n f l i c t b etw een tw o r u le s o f e q u a l f o r c e , th e s u c c e e d in g r u le
com es in to o p e r a tio n . The fo llo w in g r u le e x p la in s i t . %

" v ip r a ti s e d h e param k ary am " ( l . i v . 2 )


T h is su s t a t e s t h a t , when th e r e i s tu ly a b a la v ir o d h a . i t m ean s, th e c o m p e titio n o f
tw o r u le s o f e q u a l f o r c e , t h a t w hich i s th e su b se q u e n t (p a ra ) p e r v a i l s . F o r ex am p le', in
ram a + b h y a s , by " s u p i c a " ,(VI I , i i i . 102) , th e f i n a l s h o r t " a " o f th e b a s e e n d in g in s h o r t
" a " i s le n g th e n e d , when i t i s fo llo w e d by th e l e t t e r s o f "y a 'n ". ft,t th e sam e tim e by V II.
i i i . 1 0 3 , " e " i s s u b s titu te d in th e p la c e o f th e f i n a l s h o r t " a " o f th e b a se e n d in g in s h o r t
"a", when fo llo w e d by p l u r a l c a s e a f f i x b e g in n in g w ith th e le tte rs of " jh a l" . Now "b h " in
Mi
108 f
"bhyas" belongs to both the pratya haras yan and jhal. So, both the substitutes, long sub ­

stitute and e-substitute in the same time come in the place of the final "a ” of rama . Hence

it is tulyabalavirodha, The present su . comes to our help and determines that the "e" is to
be substituted because it is ordained by UII.iii.103 which is the next (para) to VII .iii.

X 102, which ordains the long substitution. But it should be noted that, when there is'no

tulvabalavirodha. the subsequent does not pervail. Besides, the parakarya only occurs in

the sapadasaptadhyayi which is its jurisdiction.

12.12.1. There are some exceptions to,the vipratisedha principle. In the sapadasapCadhyayi ,

the subsequent is stronger than what precedes, but versatile (nitya) is stronger than the

subsequent rule if it is non-versatile (anitya) The internal (antarahga) is more forceful

than external (bahirahga) which is versatile (nitya) and specific (apavada) is stronger

than genaral (utsarga) if it is internal (antarahga) Ue consider these meta-rules as under


233
12.12.1 (a ) Uersatile and Mon-versatile-para nnityam bala vat . It means that the versatile

(nitya) rule is stronger than the subsequent rule if it is nan-versatile (anitya) nitya is
234
explained a s - krtakrtaprasangi vidhir nityafr. It means that it uould apply if the subse-

quant rule were to have taken affect and it applies even when the latter does not take

effect. For example, in tud + tip, the vikarana ,!


sa '
’ is ordained after f
'tud' ’ by III, i. 77

and nguna !
l is substituted in the place of the penultimate "u" of "tud' ! by \/II,iii.86. Hera

UII.iii.86 is the subsequent rule, hence by I.iv.2, it will take effect. But ,r
s a % ordained
by Ull.i.77 which, however stands before UII.iii.86, is versatile, because it would apply

if UII.iii.86 were to have taken effect and it also applies when UIl.iii.86 does not take
109

effect. Here "sa" remains, after the guna having been substituted or not. "s", is "apit" and

"apit" is deemed like "nit" by I.ii.4. So "guna" is prohibited by I.i.5.


235
12.12.1 (b) Internal and Externa 1-asirtdham bahirangam antarange.

It means that, that uhich is external (bahiranga) should be regarded as not having
*
taken effect uhen that uhich is internal (antaranga) is to take effect. Here the uord antar-

anga means that a rule whose conditions (nimittas) of operation occur earlier in the wording
236
of the form, or in the process of formation. And whose conditions (bimittas) occur later in
237 '

place or time than the condition of antaranga^, is called external or bahiranga. For example

in !l
syona!f, siv + na , here ’

u '
1 is substituted in the place of "v” of f,
siv" by VI.iv.19. So

siu + .
Now by^Iko van aci ” (VI.i.77), Hy ” is substituted in the place of ”i r before "u"
na '

T ...""

and "guna" is substituted in the place of the penultimate ”i H in "siM before the affix ’na" , ’

by VII.iii.86. Thus here two rules apply at the same time with respect to "i" in "siv" Hence

the question arises which of these two rules i.e. VI.i.77 and VIl.Iii.86, should take effect'

"u" causes the substitution "y" for ,


fi n uhich is internal because it stands before the cause
of guna substitution i.e. "na", while the substitution guna for "u" is caused by "na" which

^ is beyond the cause ”u H . 5o it is external or bahiranga. Thus internal is more forceful than

external.
_238
12.12.1 (c)Universal and S p e d fic-antarahqad apy apa yado ballyan .

It means, the specific rule Is more forceful than the general rule which" i:

internal. The word apavSda or specific is explained as - yena riaprapte yo vidhir "irabhyate
23 9 ™ '

sa tasya badhako bhavati/ It means that the apavada rule is a specific rule and it is
110

c o in e d fo r p a r t i c u l a r c a u s e s w hich a ll fa ll u n d e r a g e n e ra l r u le ( u ts a r g a ) I t n e c e s s a r ily ,
th e r e f o r e p ieb a rs l a t t e r b e c a u se i t w ould o th e rw is e n o t s e rv e an y p u rp o s e . F or e x a m p le , in
I
a p a ty a r th a , th e a f f i x an i s o rd a in e d by I V .i .9 2 . T h is i s a g e n e ra l r u l e . B ut th e a f f i x in i s
o rd a in e d a f t e r th e n o m in al stem e n d in g in s h o r t "a " by I V .i ,9 5 , w hich i s a s p e c if ic r u l e .
I
H ence i t i s s tr o n g e r th a n I V .i .9 2 . So in de'vada tta s y a a p a ty a m . th e a f f i x ’'in " i s to b e e n jo ­ iI
in e d an d th e form w ill be d a i v a d a t t i , w h ile th e a f f i x " a n " o rd a in e d by th e g e n e ra l r u le
I l / .i .9 2 w ill be en jtb in e d to th e n o m in al ste m s e n d in g in o th e r th a n th a t e n d in g in s h o r t " a "
1 2 .1 3 . The a sid d h a p rin c ip le .
The a sid d h a p r i n c i p l e i s one o f th e m ost im p o rta n t d e v ic e s o f P 's gram m ar. B e fo re
g o in g to d is c u s s t h i s p r i n c i p l e , we may u n d e rs ta n d th e s t r u c t u r e o f P 's gram m ar w hich p la y s
a n im p o rta n t r o le in th e a s id d h a th e o r y . F i r s t se v e n b o o k s i . e . a d h y a y a s an d th e f i r s t ^
q u a r te r (p a d a ) o f th e e ig h t th book i s c a ll e d s a p B d a s a p ta d h y a y i , an d re m a in in g th r e e q u a r t - ^
e r s o f th e e ig h tth book a r e c a ll e d t r i p a d i , w h ich i s in c o n tr a d ic tio n to s a p a d a s a o ta d h y a v T ,
T
As d is c u s s e d su p ra 1 2 .1 2 ., in th e sapada-san ta d h v a v i th e su b se q u e n t r u le i s s tr o n g e r th a n
th e p re c e d in g o n e , when th e r e i s a c o n f l i c t b etw een two r u le s o f e q u a l f o r c e . But th e r u l e s ,
w hich c o u ld n o t have g o t th e room o f th e m ain s tr u c tu r e i . e . th e s a p a d a s a p ta d h y a y i , th e y - ^
h av e b een p u t in th e l a s t th r e e q u a r te r s o f th e e ig h tt h b o o k , i . e . t r i o a d i . We may f r e e l y ^
c a l l them § e s a r u l e s . ^
The t r i p a d i s e c tio n s t a r t s w ith th e a d h ik a ra r u le - " p u rv a tra s id d h a m " ( V I I I . i i . 1 ) .
The word a s id d h a in t h i s su m ean s, th e f u n c tio n o f a r u le c o n s id e re d a s n o t h a v in g ta k e n S
e f f e c t , The u o rd p X irv a tr a m eans w ith r e s p e c t to th e a p p lic a tio n o f a p re c e d in g r u l e . T hus
111

the su. means that the subsequent rule (with respect to the sapadasaptadhyayi ) is considered X
as not having taken effect (though it is applied) with regard to the application of the Dre-

ceding rule. For example, in asmai +


• uddhara, "ay" is ordained in the place of "ai 1
T of

"asmai" by Vl.i.77. 5o it becomes asmay + uddhara. The final "y" in "asmay" is elided by
*
l/IIl .iii.,19. Hence it is now asma + uddhara. According to VI.iii.87, "guna" is substituted

in place of the final "a" of asm! and the initial pu f


l of uddhara. So the incorrect form

asmoddhara may occur. But VIII.iii.19 is read in the t ripadi . Hence with respect to rules

of the sapadasaptadhyayi i.e. UI.iii.87, lopa of "y" by VIII.iii.19 is considered as not


*
m
having taken effect and there will be hiatus betueen two vouels "a" and "u" of asm! and

uddhara respectively. In short the first part of this su, if ue say freely, says that the
|| tripadi' section is asiddha or unoperative as long as the sapUda sao fadhyayi operates'.'- ’

Besides this, this asiddha rule is an adhikara rule and affects the rules upto the end of

this book. Hence the second part of this su. if ue say freely, means that, in remaining

three quarters i.e. tr^oadi . the subsequent rule is asiddha uith respect to the preceding

one. For example in gacehan, the process goes as - gacchat + su <1 gaccha +n (urn) + t + su
X
(VIl.i,70) gaccha + n + t ("su" is elided by VI.i.68)<! gaccha + n ("t" is dropped by

VIII.ii.23) gacchan. In the position gaccha + n + t, "t" is elided by VIII.ii.23. Now by

VIII.ii.7, "n f
i standing at the pr'atipadika is to be elided. But in the tripadi section,
I
VIII.ii.7 is a preceding rule to VIII.ii. 23, Hence according to VIII.ii.1, the elision of
"t" ordained by VIII .ii.23 is invalid uith respect to the rule "nalopa" VIII.ii.7.

13.0. The categorization in>the Astadhyayi.


: 112 :
ft
The c a te g o r iz a tio n i s a w e ll known f e a tu r e o f th e m odern l i n g u i s t i c s . P r e c o g n is e s
240
c a te g o r iz a tio n w ith r e s p e c t to th e fo rm a l s y n ta c tic g ro u n d . The n o u n stem o r a v e r b a l stem
h a s to u n d e rg o c e r ta in p r o c e s s b e fo re g e ttin g i t s c o m p le te form known a s " p a d a ” C l.iv .1 4 ) .
The c a te g o r iz a ti o n w ith a view to g e tt in g a c o m p le te form w hich i s e i t h e r a noun o r v e rb ,
may be d iv id e d in two b ro a d p a r t s : ( l) n o m in a l i n f l e c t i o n and (2) te n s e m o d e . The n o m in a l
’ 7jf z.
i n f l e c t i o n is ^Yiic o n tr a d is tin c tio n ,f r o m te n s e m ode. The n o m in a l i n f l e c t i o n i s a r e s u l t o f a
n o m in al stem p lu s a c a se a f f i x an d to d e r iv e a form d e n o tin g a c a s e i n f l e c t e d c a te g o r y ,th e
n o m in al stem h a s to p a s s th ro u g h c e r ta in p r o c e s s . F or in s ta n c e th e n o m in a l stem d e riv e d
(v y u tp a n n a ) o r u n d e riv e d ( a v y u t p a n n a ) , h a s to g e t th e name p ra 'tip a d ik a by I . i i . 4 5 o r I . i i .
4 6 . Then th e sev en t r i p l e t s o f s u f f ix e s g iv e n in I V .i .2 , te rm e d a s v ib h a k ti ( I .iv .1 0 4 ) a r e
to be ad d ed to a n o u n -ste iru 'T h e n a c c o rd in g to th e s t r u c t u r e o f th e n o m in a l s te m , th e s e A|>

+-
t r i p l e t e n d in g s a r e r e p la c e d . F o r exam ple - ram a + ta 4 ram a in a (V II . i .7 2 ) 4. ram ena
( n n ,! tu r n s in to “n" by V I I I .i v . 2 ) b u t in h a r i + t a , ta ( !la J!) i s r e p la c e d by i!n a l! by V II.
i i i . 1 2 0 . In th e same way th e fo u rth t r i p l e t e n d in g s in g u la r he (e) i e s im p ly ad d ed to a
n o m in a l stem e n d in g in a c o n so n a n t - bhagavat + ‘
he (e) 4 . b h a g a v a te b u t i t is re p la c e d by
n ya" in th e c a se o f rama + h a 4 ram a + ya, by !
V I I .i . 13 -zL rarnaya O 'su p i c a ’ V I I .i i i .1 0 2 )
Thus P re a d s th e c a s e e n d in g s i . e . su - au - ja s etc", an d th e n m akes c h a n g e s w ith re g a rd
to th e s e a f f i x e s in a c c o rd a n c e w ith th e s t r u c t u r e o f a n o m in a l ste m .
In t h i s w ay, th e s t r u c t u r e o f a v e rb a l form i s a v e rb stem (w h ich i s c la s s e d a s ^
b h v a d i, a d a d i e t c . a c c o rd in g to i t s s t r u c t u r e ) p lu s te n s e mode s u ffix . The sig lu m g iv e n
to t h i s c a te g o ry i s " l a 1
1 w hich i s t r e a t e d h e re a s s u f f i x . T hus to a c h ie v e a c o m p le te v e rb
form , " la " is added to a v e rb a l stem . In p ro c e ss o f 1
*
d e riv a tio n " la is re p la c e d by one o f
th e s u ffix e s s p e c ifie d a s 1 s t, l o t , lin e tc . For exam ple in " ja y a ti" . th e p ro c e ss i s a s under-, f
j i + l a t ( I I I . i i . 123) c j i + 1 (III ,iv .6 9 )* j i + tip ("1" i s re p la c e d by " tip " I I I .iv .7 8 ) <
%
I
j i + sap + tip ( I I I .i .1 6 8 ) ^ je + a + t i (UII .iii,84)< C ja y + a + t i ( U I .i.7 8 ) ^ ja y a ti. In
t
th is illu s tr a tio n " tip " i s s u b s titu te d in th e p la c e of l a tv (h ere "a" in " la t"v. i s fo r f e c i- l
l i t y of p ro n u n c ia tio n ) which i s i t s e l f a s u b s titu te fo r " la " g e n e ra l. But in th e im p e rfe c t
p a s t, " la " i s re p la c e d by la n ( I I I .ii.1 1 1 ) . For exam ple, in "k b h av at" th e p ro c e ss is a s bhiT I
+ la n ( I I l . i i . 1 1 , th is su re p la c e s " l a " ) ^ 4 ( t) + bhu + la n (V I.iv .7 l)< c a + bhu + tip
(III .iv .7 8 ) ^ a + bhiJ + sap + t (III ,iv . 100) a + bhu + a + t (III .i.6 8 ) ^ a + bho + a + t
I
( U I I .i i i .8 4 ) < abhav + a + t (U I.i.7 8 )-£ a b h a v a t. In th e same way " la " i s re p la c e d by lu h ; I
l o t , lr n e tc . P 's grammar i s however an unbroken ch ain o f r u le s , y e t i t i s broken due to I
th e d if f e r e n t to p ic s ,a n d to a c h ie v e a com plete word fo rm , i t i s n e c e ssa ry to c o - r e la te th e s e
to p ic s . For exam ple, th e v erb form " a k a r s it" i s d e riv e d from th e ro o t " k r" . Ue may d iv id e
th is com plete form in fo u r com ponents, which a re to be c o -re la te d by th e s p e c ia l ru le s la id
down in th e A st. These com ponents a re :
* «

a + b + c + d
( a ) + ( k ir ) '+ (s) + (It)
Ue have to ta k e "k r" from th e D H atupatha, " ti" from th e ti-g ro u p ( I I I .iv .7 8 ) and v ik a ra n a
(a c o n ju g a tio n a l sig n ) from I I I , i . 3 3 -6 6 . Then to in te r r e la te th e s e fo u r p a r ts , ue have to
241
tak e h elp of th e to p ic s f a llin g under th e a d h ik a ra (g o v ern in g ru le ) "an g asy a » (U I.iv .9 7 )
In th is way, p p re fe rs to s e t up a b ase form from which a l l th e s e v a ria n ts can be
d e riv e d . I t i s s im ila r to th e concept of th e c a te g o riz a tio n o f th e modern lin g u is tic s . I t ¥
114

makes eth od ical.


th s d e sc r ip tio n sim ple y e t m ethodical
%
1 4 .0 . The to p ic in th e A stad h yayi . %
I P*s Ast is th e b est specim en o f th e d e sc r ip tiv e branch o f modern lin g u is t ic s . The
I d e sc r ip tio n
i s la id doun in e ig h t books known a s ad h ylyas. Each o f th ese books i s d ivid ed l
in to four q u arters which are c a lle d padas^and th ese quarters c o n s is t o f to p ic s or prakaranas §
most and co n cise r u le s or su s. One o f th e most d istin g u ish in g
Ast Ue e n lis t a l l th e to p ic s occu rin g in th e ftst according to
I cofe antutarine ins go f ththe e exi s hiatus stivto ep ic s .
I th e ir order in the r u le s .
BOOK ONE QUARTER ONE
I
1.0 gunavrddhi to p ic 1 - 6 2 .0 aamyogasamjna to p ic 7
* *

3 .0 'ianunasikasamjna - to p ic 8 4 .0 savarnasamjna to p ic ,9 - 10
I 5 .0 pragrhyasam jni to p ic 11 - 19 6 .0 ghusamjna to p ic 20
7 .0 iTdyantavadbhava to p ic 21 8 .0 ghasamjnaT to p ic 22
9 .0 samkhyasamjna to p ic 23 - 25 1 0 .0 nisthasam jna to p ic 26
1 1 .0 sarvanama'samjna to p ic 27 - 36 12.0 a vyayasamjna to p ic 37 - 41
13.0 sa rva riama sthana samjna 42 - 43 14.0 vibhasasamjna* to p ic
v
44
to p ic
1 5 .0 . samprasara 13asamjlfta to p ic 45 16.0 s a s tb in ir d is ta -a gamadesa sthana
nerde^a to p ic 46 - 55
1 7 .0 . sthanivadbhava to p ic 56 r 59 18.0 lopasamjna to p ic 60 - 63
1 9 .0 . tisam jnif to p ic 64 2 0.0 upadhasamjna' to p ic 65
2 1 .0 . sa p ta m i-p a n e a m i-n ird is ta '
kafrya to p ic 66 - 67 2 2 .0 . g rah an ak a& astra to p ic 68 - 72
jj| 2 3 .0 . urddhasam jni to p ic 73 - 75

BOOK ONE QUARTER TUO

2 4 .0 . n it to p ic 1 - 4 2 5 .0 . k it to p ic 5 - 26
2 6 .0 . h ra sv a d i sam jna to p ic 27 - 28 2 7 .0 . u d ffttad isam jS a to p ic 29 - 40
2 8 .0 . ap rk tasam jn a to p ic 41 2 9 ,0 . karm adharayasam jna to p ic 42
3 0 .0 . u p asarjan asam jn a to p ic 43 - 44 3 1 .0 . p ra tip a d ik a sa ih jn a - to p ic 45 - 46
3 2 .0 . h ra sv a v id h i to p ic 47 - 48 3 3 .0 . p ra tip a d ik a n ta v id h i to p ic 49 - 52
3 4 .0 . a a isy a to p ic 53 - 57 3 5 .0 . v acan av id h i to p ic 58 - 63
» 3 6 .0 . ak asesa to p ic 6 4 -7 3
BOOK ONE S QUARTER THREE

i 3 7 .0 . dh'atusam jria to p ic 1 3 8 .0 . itsa m jn a to p ic 2 -9


3 9 .0 . anudeia to p ic 10 4 0 .0 . a d h ik a ra sv a ru p a to p ic 11

4 1 .0 . atrnanapada to p ic 12 - 77 4 2 .0 . parasm aipada to p ic 78 - 93


I
BOOK ONE i QUARTER FOUR
*
I 4 3 .0 . ekasaihjfia to p ic 1 4 4 .0 . v ip ra tis e d h a to p ic 2

4 5 .0 . nadisaiiijril to p ic 3 - 6 4 6 .0 . ghisam jna to p ic 7 -9


I
§ 4 7 .0 . laghusamjiSa to p ic 10 4 8 .0 . guruaannjRc to p ic 11 - 12
4 9 .0 . ahgasam jna to p ic 13 5 0 .0 . padasam jna to p ic 14 - 17
5 1 .0 . bhasanifna to p ic 18 - 20 5 2 .0 . vacana niyaroa to p ic 21 - 22

5 3 .0 . karaka to p ic 23 - 55 5 4 .0 , n ip tta s a ro jn a to p ic 56 - 98

5 5 .0 . parasmaipadasamjna" to p ic gg 5 6 .0 . 'atfnanepadagamjna to p ic 100

5 7 .0 . pratham adigam j'ni to p ic 10® 5 8 .0 . ekavacanadisam jna to p ic 102 - 103

5 9 .0 . v ib h a k ti samjna to p ic 104 6 0 .0 . puruaa to p ic 105 - 108

6 1 .0 . gam ^itagam jna' to p ic 109 6 2 .0 . avasanasam jna to p ic 100

BOOK TUO : QUARTER OWE

6 3 .0 , gamartha to p ic 1 6 4 ,0 . pararivadbhava to p ic
* - ■
6 5 .0 . samasa to
♦ ' p ic 3 -7 2
BOOK TUO i QUARTER TUO

6 5 .0 . gamaga to p ic (CONTD) 1 - 38

BOOK TUO QUARTER THREE

6 6 .0 . v ib h a k ti to p ic 1 - 47 6 7 .0 . a m a n trita s a m jn a to p ic 48

6 8 .0 . sarnbuddhisamjna' to p ic 49 6 9 .0 . s a s th i 4ege to p ic 50 - 73

BOOK TUO : QUARTER FOUR

7 0 .0 . ekavadbhava to p ic 1 - 16 7 1 .0 . sam agalinga to p ic 17 - 31

7 2 .0 . anvadese adesah to p ic 32 - 34 ? 3 .0 . ard h ad h atu ke d h itvad eg a to p ic 35 - 57


* 58 - 82 7 5 .0 . ambhaya to p ic 83 - 84
7 4 .0 . lu k to p ic
7 6 .0 . IdfeabHadesIli
a V -
to p ic 85

«
BOOK TH R E E S QUARTER ONE

7 7 .0 . p ra ty a y a to p ic 1 - 4 7 8 .0 . k rd b h in n a s a n a d i p ra ty a y a to p ic 5 -6 6
7 9 .0 . s irv a d h ltu k e k y d b h in n a - 8 0 .0 . karm avadbhava to p ic 87 - 90
v ik a ra n a p ra ty a y a to p ic 67 - 86

8 1 .0 . k rd a d is a m jn a to p ic 91 - 94 8 1 .1 . k rty a p ra ty a y a to p ic 95 -1 3 2
«
8 1 .2 . k a rtru a c a k a k rtp ra ty a y a
to p ic 133 -1 5 0

BOOK T H R E E : QUARTER TWO

8 1 .3 . s o p a p a d a k rtp ra ty a y a to p ic 1 -8 3 8 1 .3 .1 . b h u ta d h ik a re s o p a p a d a k rt- 84-101 fj


p ra ty a y a to p ic
’ 8 1 .3 . 1 a .b h u ta d h ik a re k r t p ra ty a y a v a rtta m a ri§ d h ik a re s a tr a d i 1 2 3 -1 3 3 If
to p ic 1 0 2 - 122 8 1 .4 . k r t p ra ty a y a to p ic
8 1 .4 .1 . v a rtta m a n a d h ik a re ta c c h ilik a 8 1 .4 .2 . ta c c h ilik a b h ir m a k r tp r a ty a - 180-188 X
k r t- p r a ty a y a to p ic 134- 179 ya to p ic
BOOK TH R E E : QUARTER TH R E E

8 1 ,4 .2 a .u n a d a y o bahulam to p ic 1 - 2 8 J .5 . b h a v is y a ti k rtp ra ty a y a to p ic 3 -1 5
Il
8 1 .6 . tr ik a lik a k r tp r a ty a y a to p ic 16 - 17 8 1 .6 .1 . bhave k a rtrb h in n a k a ra k s
ca k y t p ra ty a y a to p ic 18 - 93
I
^ 8 1 .6 .2 . bhave k a rtrb h in n a k a ra k e ca 8 1 .6 .3 . k p ty a ly u tp b a h u la ro to p ic 113
s try a d h ik ’S 'ro kta k r t- p r a ty a y a
to p ic * 94 -112

[8 1 .6 .4 . napunlsake bhava k rt p ra ty 8 1 .7 . k a ra n a d h ik a ra n a y o h k ^ tp r a -
aya to p ic ‘ 114 -1 1 6 ty a y a to p ic 117 - 125K
8 1 .8 is a d d u h s u fu k rc c h ra k rc e b - 8 1 .9 . la k a r a r th a to p ic 131 - 176X,
ra rth a s u k r tp r a ty a y a ^ to p ic 126 -1 3 0
a *
118

E : QUARTER FOUR

8 1 .1 0 . dhatusam bandhe p ra ty a y a h to p ic 1

8 1 .1 1 . k riy aaam ab h ih arad i to p ic 2 -5


81 ch an d asi vidhayah to p ic 6 17
12.
81 13. k tv a d i-k rtp ra ty a y a to p ic 18 66
1 k rtp ra ty a y a rth a to p ic 67 76
81 13a
81 14. la~desa to p ic 77 117

BOOK FOUR : QUARTER ONE

n y a p p rltip a d ik a t to p ic 1
8 2 .0 .
8 3 .0 . su p p raty ay a to p ic 2

8 4 .1 . s trip ra ty a y a to p ic 3 -7 5
8 4 .2 . striy am ta d d h ita p ra ty a y a to p ic 76 - ei
8 5 .0 . sam artha to p ic 82

8 5 .1 . p ra g d iv y a tiy a ta d d h ita p ra ty a y a to p ic 83 - 91

8 5 .1 .1 . p rig d iv y a tiy e a p a ty a p ra ty a y a to p ic 92 - 178

BOOK FOUR : QUARTER TUO

1 - 2
8 5 .1 .2 . ra k ta rth a to p ic
8 5 .1 .3 . n a k sa tre n a y u k tah k alah to p ic 3 -6
. * *

8 5 .1 .4 . drstain saroa to p ic 7 -9
.> ►
»

8 5 .1 .5 . p a riv rto ra th a h to p ic 10 - 13

8 5 .1 .6 . tatro d d h rtam am atreb h y ah to p ic 14


119

85 1 .7 . s th a n d ila e c h a y ita ri v ra te to p ic 15

85 samskrtam bhaksah to p ic 16 - 20
8.
85 9. siTsmin paurnam asitisam jnayam to p ic 21 - 23
85 10 sasya devata to p ic 24 - 36
85 11 tasya saniuhah to p ic 3? - 51

85 12 u isayo dese to p ic 52 - 54
85 13 s o s y a d ir iti cchandasah p rag ath esu to p ic 55
a ,

f 85 14 sahgriraa prayojanayoddhrbhyah
*
to p ic <9
56

85 15a tadasyam praharanam iti kridayam nah to p ic 5?

85 15b ghanah saayani k r iy e t i nafi to p ic 58

85 16. tad a d h ite ta d uada to p ic 59 - 66

85 17. c a tu ra rth ik a p ra ty a y a to p ic 67 - 91

85 18 (A) s a is ik a p ra ty a y a to p ic 92 - 145

BOOK FOUR : QUARTER THREE

85 18 (B )ia is ik a p ra ty a y a to p ic (CONTD.) 1 - 10

85 18a k a la d h ik a ro k ta p ra ty a y a to p ic 11 - 24
85 18b jaT tarth a to p ic 25 - 37
85 18c k rta la b d h a k u s a la h to p ic 38

85 18d prayabhavah to p ic 39 - 40

85 18e sambhuta to p ic 41 - 42

85 18F k a la d h ik a re sadhvadisu § a is ik a p ra ty a y a to p ic 43 - 50

85 13g v y a h a ra ti mrgali to p ic 51
: 120 i
85 18h tadasya soi|hain to p ic 52 .
*
85 18i ta tr a bhavah to p ic 53 - 65
85 18 j tasya vyakhyanam iti ca vyakhyatavyanam nah to p ic 66 - 73

85 18k ta ta ag atah to p ic 74 - 82
85 181 p ra b h a v a ti to p ic 83 - 84
85 18m ta d g a c c h a ti p a th id u ta y o h to p ic 85

85 18n a b h in is k ra m a ti dvaram to p ic 86
85 18o a d h ik rty a k r ta g ra n th e to p ic 87 - 88
85 18p sosya n ivasah to p ic 89
85 18q a b h ija n a h to p ic 90 - 94
85 18r b h a k tih to p ic 95 - 100
85 18s ta n a proktam to p ic 101 - 111
85 18t te n a ik a d ik to p ic 112 - 114
85 18u u p a jn a te to p ic 11.5

85 18 u k r te g ran th e to p ic 116

85 18 u samjnayam to p ic 117 - 119

85 18y tasyedara to p ic 120 - 133

85 19. w ikarauayavaTrthaka ta d d h ita p ra ty a y a to p ic 134 - 168

BOOK FOUR : QUARTER FOUR

85 th a g a d h ik a re tena d iv y a ti k h a n a ti ja y a t i jita m to p ic 1 - 2
2 .1 .
85 samskrtam to p ic 3 - 4
2 .2 .
8 5 .2 ,3 t a r a t i to p ic 5 - 7
121

8 -1 1
8 5 .2 .5 . v etan ad ib h y o j i v a t i to p ic 12 - 14
t *
8 5 .2 .6 . h a rty u tsa n g a d ib h y a h to p ic 15 - 18
85 7. n i r v r t t e ’ k sad y u tad ib h y ah to p ic 19 - 21
85 8. sa in srste to p ic
* » a
22 - 25
85 9. v y a n ja n a ir u p a s ik te to p ic 26
85 10 ojah-sabom bhasa v a r tta te to p ic 2?
85 11 ta tp ra ty a nupurvam ipa 1 oma kulam to p ic 28
85 12 parimukham ca to p ic 29
85 13 p ra y a c c h a ti garhyam to p ic 30 - 31
85 14 u rich ati to p ic 32
85 15 ra k s a ti to p ic 33
85 16 sabdadarduram k a r o ti to p ic 34
85 17 paksim atsyam rgan h a n ti to p ic 35
85 18 p arip an tb am ca t i s t b a t i to p ic 36
85 19 m ath o ttarap ad ap ad av y an u p ad ai d h a y a ti to p ic 3? - 38
85 20 p ad o ttarap ad am g rh ija ti to p ic . 39
85 21 p ra ti(sa n th a "rth a la la in a i ca to p ic 40
85 22 dharmam c a r a ti to p ic 41
85 23 p ra tip a th a m e ti to p ic 42
85 24 samav/ayan sa m a v a iti to p ic 43 - 45
85 25 3 amjnayaro la la ta k u k k u ty a u p a s y a ti to p ic 46
122

8 5 .2 .2 6 . ta s y a dharmyam to p ic 47 - 49
8 5 .2 27 avakrayah to p ic 50
85 28 ta d asya panyam to p ic 51 - 54
85 29 silp am to p ic 55 - 56

85 30 praharanam to p ic 57 - 59
85 31 a s t i n ls t i distam
* •
m a tih to p ic i»
60
85 32 6 ila m to p ic 61 - 62

85 33 karmadhyayane v rtta m to p ic 63 - 64
85 34 hitam bhakslh to p ic 65

85 35 ta d asm ai d iy a te niyuktam to p ic 66 - 68

85 36 ta tr a n iy u k ta h to p ic 69 - 70

85 37 a d h y a y in y a d e s a k a la t to p ic 71

85 38 kath in l'n tap rast^ rasam sth ah Q su v y a v a h a ra ti to p ic 72


* *
85 39 n ik a te u a s a ti to p ic 73 - 74

85 yad ad h ikare tad v a h it i rathayugaprasangam to p ic 75 - 82


1.
85 vidhyatyadhanusa ’ to p ic 83
2.
85 3. dhanaganam labdha" to p ic 84 - 85

85 4. va'sam g atah to p ic 86 .

85 c «
W padam asmin drsyam to p ic 87

85 m ulam asyabarhi to p ic 88

85 7-10 samjnayim dhanusya it y a d i to p ic 89 - 92

8 5 .3 chandaso n irm ite to p ic 93 - 94


11 .
12:
8 5 .3. 12r14. hrdayasya priyah ityadi topic 95 - 97

85.3.15* tatra sadhuh topic 98 - 106

85.3.16. samanatirtha wasi topic 107

85.3.17. samanodare -&ayitah topic 108 - 109


o

85.3.18. bhave chandasi topic 110 - 118

85.3.19-26 barhisi dattara ityadi topic 119 - 133

85.3.27-33 adbhih samskrtam ityadi topic 134 - 144


i *

BOOK FIVE : QUARTER ONE

85.4. p fa kkrl tlyataddhi tapratyaya topic 1 - 17

85.5. pragvatiya taddhitapratyaya topic 18

85.5.1. *arhiyapratyaya topic 19-36


85.5.2. tana kritam topic 37

85.5.3. tasya nimittam samyogotpatau topic 38 - 41

85.5.4. tasyeivarah topic 42

43 - 44
%
85.5.5. tatra vidita iti ca topic

* 85.5.6. tasya vapah topic 45 - 46

85.5.7. tadasmin wrddhyayalabha^ulkopada* diyate topic 47 - 49

85.5.8. taddharati vahatyavahati btiarid vamiadibhyah topic 50 - 51

85.5. 9Q sambhavatyavaharati pacati topic 52 - 55

85.5.10. sosyamsavasnabhrtayah topic 56

85.5.11. tadasya paritnanam topic 57 - 62

85.5.12. tad arhati topic 63 - 71


85 13. v a r tta y a ti to p ic 72

85 14. apannah to p ic 73
I 85 15. gacchati to p ic 74 - 77

Il 85 16. kalad h ikara to p ic 78

85 16a tana n irv rtta m to p ic 79


85 16b tam ad h isto b h rto bhuto bhavi to p ic 80 - 92
l 85 16c tana parijayyalabhyakaryasukaram to p ic 93

85 16d tadasya brahma ca ryam ity a d i t op 1c ________ ^....^ ____.94 ^


I 85 16a daksina iti to p ic 95
w,

I 85 16f d iy a ta karyam to p ic 96

85 17. vyustardibhyo'n ity a d i to p ic 97


*» *
85 18. tana yathlkatha" ca ity a d i to p ic 98 i

85 19. sampadini to p ic 99 - 100

85 20. tasm ai p rab h avati santapadibhyah to p ic 101 - 103

85 samayas tadasya p rap tam to p ic 104 - 108


1
21.
85 prayojanam to p ic 109 - 114
22.
85 bhayakarmadhikara tana tulyam kriya" cad v a tih
115 - 118
to p ic
85 tasya b h ayastvatalau to p ic 119 - 136

BOOK FIVE : QUARTER TUO

8 5 .7 ta d d h ite s u pancamika to p ic 1 - 93

8 5 .8 m atubartha to p ic 94 - 140
fI
BOOK F IV E : QUARTER THREE 1
% 85 9 .1 . p ra g d is iy a v ib h a k tip ra ty a y a to p ic 1 - 26

l 85 9 .2 . p ra g d is iy a v y a t i r i k ta s v a rth ik a p ra ty a ya t opi c 27 - 69
I
85 9 .3 . p ra g iv iy a ta d d h ita p ra ty a y a to p ic 70 - 95
I
85 9 .3 (2 ) kasya ca dah it y a d i to p ic 72
II
I 85 9 .3 (3 ) a jlia ta to p ic 73

85 9 .3 (4 -5 ) k u tg ite ity a d i to p ic 74 - 75

85 9 .3 (6 -7 ) anukampSiyara to p ic 76 - 84
f 85 9 .3 (8 ) a lp a to p ic 85
1 85 9 .3 (9 -1 7 )h ra s v e ity a "d i to p ic 86 - 95

85 9 .4 . iv a rth iy a ta d d h ita p ra ty a y a to p ic 96 - 111

85 9 .5 . svaTrihikesu ta d ra 'ja p ra ty a y a to p ic 112 - 119

BOOK F IV E : QUARTER FOUR

85 9 .6 . ta d d h ite s u s v a rth ik a p ra ty a y a to p ic 1 67
85 9 .7 . sam asantapratyaya to p ic 68 160

BOOK S IX : QUARTER ONE

86 0. d v irv a c a n a to p ic 1 12

87 0 . sam prasarana to p ic 13 44
88 0. a tv a to p ic 45 57
89 0 . agama"desa to p ic 58 71

90 0. san d h i to p ic 72 - 157
9 0 .1 . aamhitiyaro tugagama topic 73 76

9 0 ,2 t 7 8amhitayam ade'sah topic 77 114

9 0 .8 . prakrtibhiwa ity a d i topic 115 130

9 0 .9 . samhitayaro ade&ah topic 131 134


f
9 0 .1 0 . samhitayam sut topic 135 157

9 1 .0 . svara topic 158 223

BOOK SIX : QUARTER TUP

9 1 .1 . prakrtisvara topic 1 63

9 1 .2 . purvapadadyudatta3vara topic 64 91

9 1 .3 . purvapadantodattasvara topic 92 - 110

9 1 .4 . uttarapadadyudattasvara topic 111 142

9 1 .5 . uttarapadahtoda'ttasvara topic 143 199

BOOK SIX 'i: QUARTER THREE

9 2 .0 . aluk topic 1 24

9 3 .0 . anahadyadesah topic 25 33

9 4 .0 . pumvadbhava topic 34 42

9 5 .0 . hrasvavidhi topic 43 45

9 6 .0 . agamadeia topic 46 110

ft 9 7 .0 . dirgha topic 111 139

BOOK SIX ; QUARTER FOUR

anga"dhikare dirgbadi topic 1 - 21


9 8 .1 .
asiddhavad a tra b h it topic 22
9 8 .2 .
i 127 :

n a lo p a to p ic 23 - 33
9 8 .2 1 .
9 8 .2 2 . id a d y a d e s a to p ic 34 - 36

a n g a n u n a s ik a lo p a i t y a d i to p ic 3.7 - 45
9 8 .2 3 .
46 - 68
f
9 8 .3 a n g a d h ik a re a rd h a d h a tu k a to p ic
9 8 .4 a ftg a d h ik a re S gam adesa to p ic 69 - 128

9 8 .5 b h asy a to p ic 129

9 8 .5 1 . b h a d h ik a re paderdesa to p ic 130

b h a d h ik a re s a m p ra s a ra n a to p ic 131 - 133
9 8 .5 1a
b h a d h ik a re lo p ^ d i to p ic 134 - 156
9 8 .5 1b -s
% 157 - 162
9 8 .5 1f -i b h a d h ik a re ad e& ad i to p ic
163 - 175
9 8 .5 1 j -k b h a d h ik a re p r a k r tiv a d b h a v ld i to p ic
BOOK SEVEN i QUARTER ONE

y v ad ln am ade's'ah to p ic - 57
9 8 .6 .
9 8 .7 . numagama to p ic 58 - 83

9 8 .8 . ’
au d a d y ad a'sah to p ic 84 - 89
n id v a d b h a v a to p ic 90 - 92
9 8 .9 .
9 8 .1 0 . anana~dasa to p ic 93 - 94

9 8 .1 1 . trjv a d b h a v a to p ic 95 - 97

a h g a d h ik a re dgamadeSsa to p ic 98 - 103
9 8 .1 2 .
BOOK SEVEN i QUARTER TUP

9 8 .1 3 . s ic i v rd d h ih to p ic - 7
: 128 :

98 14.
. id -n is e d h a to p ic 8 34

98. 15. idagama to p ic 35 78

98. 16. lin a h salopah ity a d i to p ic 79 83

98. 17. vibhaktau ade'aah to p ic 84 90

98. 18. maparyantasya ad h ikare vibhaktau 'eTdei'Sh to p ic 91 98

9 8 . 19 . vibhaktau t is r - c a ta s r - ityadyadabah to p ic 99 113

98. 2 0 . vrddhi to p ic 114 118

BOOK SEVEN i QUARTER THREE

98.21 h i t i n it i k i t i vrddhih ity a d i to p ic 1 35

9 8 .2 2 to p ic 36 43
•v
nau ffgamadesah*

9 8 . 2.3 ikaridyWdefeah to p ic 44 51

9 8 .2 4 kutva to p ic 52 69
X
9 8 .2 5 lopa to p ic 70 73

9 8 .2 6 d ir glia d i to p ic 74 120
1
BOOK SEVEN : QUARTER FOUR

98.27. upadbayim vidhayah to p ic 1 - 8


98. 28. a garaidesa vidhayah to p ic 9 -5 7
98.29. abhyasasya vidhayah to p ic 58 - 97

BOOK EIGHT : QUARTER ONE

d v iru k ti to p ic 1 - 15
99.0 .
padasya to p ic 16
1 0 0 .0 .
3* '
129
17

1 0 2 .0 . anudattam sarvam apadadau to p ic 18 - 71

103 'Sm antritam puruam avidyamanauat to p ic 72 - 74


0.
BOOK EIGHT : QUARfER TUO

104 asiddha to p ic 1 - 3
0.
104 asiddhadhikare S"gam5desa to p ic 4 -4 1
1.
104 n is th a v ik a ra to p ic 42 - 61
2.
104 3. kutvade&adi to p ic 62 - 81
(

104 4. “
u d atta d i-s v a ra to p ic 82 -108
BOOK EIGHT i QUARTER THREE

104 5. samhitayam ru to p ic 1 - 12

104 samhitayam lopah to p ic 13 - 14


6.
104 7. samhitayam iTgamadesah to p ic 15 - 33
104 v is a rja n iy a to p ic 34 - 54 %
8.
104 9. murdhanya to p ic 55 -1 1 9
BOOK EIGHT J QUARTER FOUR

104 samhitayam natva to p ic 1 39


10 .
104 scutva'di to p ic 40 45
11 .
104 12. d v itv a to p ic 46 52

104 13. ja s tv a d i to p ic 53 57
104 14. savarna to p ic 58 62

104 15. chakaradyade%Ib to p ic 63 68


130
FOOTNOTES

X 1 Car dona,O n t r a n s la t io n g fo r m a liz in g P a n in ia n r u le s P .l ^


2 K a th a s a r its a g a r a 1 .4 .2 0 (B ih a r a R a sta ra b h a sa P a r is a d E d. 1960 W
a th a k a le n a v a r sa sy a s is y a v a r g o m ahanabhut / ta tr a ik a h p a n in ir nana ja a a b u d d h ita r o b b a v a t //#
3 M a n ju s r im u la k a lp a ,p a ta la -5 3 ,p » 6 il-6 1 2 _ _ H
ta sy a p y a n a n ta ro r a ja Nan dan ama b h a v is y a ti pusp-Skhye n a g a re srlm an m ah asain yo m ahabalah
/ //
II
b h a v is y a ti ta d a k a le brahm anas ta r k ik a b h u v i/ta sy a p y a n y a ta m a h sakhyah P a n in ir nim a m anavah//'
_________ J a y a sw a l q u o ted bjp V .S .A g r a v a l,P a n in ik a lin a B h a r a ta v a r sa ,p ,4 7 2 ( f o o t n o t e )
4 N a n d lk e sv a r a 's K is lk a ,s t a n z a - 2 ,q u o t e d by L S S ,p ,2 1 ,^ r I G u r u p r a s a d a s a s t r i/a s i E d .1936

5 A le g e n d q u o ted by J .M .S u k la in h is HPSSG#p .4 8
f
6 b id ,p .4 8
i
7 PancatantEa,m i trasam p rap ti, sta n z a - 36
sim ho v y a k a ra n a sy a k a r tu r a h a r a t p ran an p r iy a n p a n in eh / ^
8 P t . Y u d h is th ir a Mimamsaka,HSG v o l .I ,p , 1 8 1 , 2 7 5 -2 9 1 (S o n ip a t Ed.VS 2030) P a r ib h a sa su c a n a o f -
V yad i i s r e c e n t ly p u b lis h e d by K .V .A b h y a n k a r,v id e-P a rib h a sa sa n g ra h a ,P o o n a Ed. 1967
9 MBh,1 -1 -2 0 (M o tila l B a n a r a s ia a s s ,D e lh i E d ,p . 184)
sa r v e sa rv a p a d a d esa h d a k sip u tr a sy a p a n in eh /A ls o v id e , S lo k a tm a k a p a n in iy a s ik s a ,s ta n z a - 56
sah k arah sahkarim p r a d a t d a k sip u tr'a y a d h im ate /(V e n k a te sh v a r P r e s s E d. 1959)
10 HSG V ol .1 ,p„ 104 .A lso M B h ,I I - iii- 6 6 , sob h an a k h a lu d a k sa y a n a sy a sa n g ra h a sy a k r t ih /
11 K .V .A b h y a n k a r,P a rib h a sa sa n g ra h a , in t r o d u c t io n ^ . 12
12 I b id ,p , 13
13 K a ty a y a n iy a rk sa rv a n u k ra m a n i,p .7 0
ta th a c a s u tr y a te b h a g a v a ta P in g a le n a P anin^-yanuj en a . , / ,
14 § lo k a tm a k a p a n in iy a sik si in S ik sa sa n g r a h a ,p . 385( q u o ted in HSG V o l.I ,p . 183) -

15 S a d u k tik a r n a m r ta ,C a lc u tta -^ dl965, s ta n z a 2130 —

subandhau b h a k tir nah k a ih a ragh u k are na r a m a te /d h r tir D ik s ip u tr e ........... /


16 namah p a n in a y e ta sm a i yasm ad avirab h u d ih a /a d a u vyakaranam kavyam a n u ja m b a v a tiv ija y a m //
q u o ted by P t.H im am saka in HSG V o l ,I I ,p . 431 (S o n ip a t Ed.VS 2030 )
aa
17 Suvrttatilaka of K semendra ,3.30(edited with Vrttaratnakara,Chowkhamba,vsi984) l
131 %
sprhaniyatvamaritam plainer upaj atibhih/camatkaraikasarabhir udyanasyeva j atibhih//
18 P t I m a m s a k a ,HSG Vol ,1 ,p ,239-240
19 MBh,l-iv-51 ,tadakirtitam icaritam kavina/ Also Prad, kavisabdo medhavivacanah krantadarsa
nat/ Uayota-kavih krantadarsano bhavatl niruktad iti bhavah/
20 MBh on III-ii-108 ,upasedivan kautsah paninifa/ Kas, on the same su .anusivan kautsah paninim,,
upaSusruvan kautsah paninim/ ™
21 Kas. on Vl-ii-104, also vide MBh on I-iv-1 ,ubhayatha hyacaryena slsyah sutram pratipaditah
kecid 'ale
adar ad ekasamjna iti ,kecit prak kadarat par am k ary am iti/
22 Trikandasesa of Purusottamadeva,paninis tvahiko daksiputrah 'salankipaninau/Salottariyah.,/
quoted in HSG Vol.I,p,178
23 Kas. on IV-ii-74,mahati suksmeksika varttate Sutrakarasya / ^
24 Pt«MimSmsaka,HSG Vol,I ,p. 182-183
25 Quoted by V.s.Agraval,Paninikalina Bharatavarsa,p.467
26 Ibid,p e4S7
27 I bid,p, 467
28 I bid,p.467 a
|
29 Ibid,p,468
30 I bid,p.468
31 v.s.Agraval ,India as known to Panini,2nd Ed.p.476
‘On the basis of his numismatic data,Panini thus belongs to the period of transition betw-^

een the age of Bimbisara and Kautilya,i,e, between sixth and fourth century BC. a date in the
fifth century BC admirably reconcils the coin references of the Astadhyayi*
32 Belvalkar,SSG p. 15
33 Today it is a deserted village in the north-western frontier province near Attock in Paki
stan ,Agraval ,Paninikalina Bharatavarsa,p .14-15( Footnote)
34 Kavyalankara of Bharaaha,£.62,p. 132(Motilal Banarasidass ,Delhi Ed. 1970)
salaturiyamatametadanukramena,ko vaksyatiti virato*hamato vicarat / Also vide,Ganaratna-
mahodadhi of Vardhamana( Delhi 3d.Eggling,1963)p,2,s t anz a-2 ,sal aturiy as ak at ahgaj acandr agomi
etc/also xhe gloss on it, salaturo riama gramah/so* bhij ano ‘syastiti sallturlyah tatrabhavan
pahinih / 132
35 Belvalkar,SSG,p. 15-16 .Pt.Yudhisthira Mimimsaka believes the Vahika country as Panini*s nat*
* ive place and Salatura as a native land of Plnini*s forefathers ,vide,HSG VOl.I,p.l87
36 For the detailed survey of the predecessors of Panini,vide HSG Vol .1 ,p. 134-177,Cardona* s •

PSR p. 146-148 /Agraval ,Paninikalina Bharatavarsa.p. 333-334


37 Nyasa on Vl-i-9 2,yadyapi acaryagrahane naiva puja vikalpas cobhayam sampadyate,tathapyaca-
ryagrahanasya pradhanyena pujam khyapayitum va grahanam krtamiti bhavah /
38 Cardona,P SR,p, 146
t 39 Ibid,p .146-148
40 HSG Vol.I ,p.7 3-133.Among these ,some pre-Paninian teachers are diseussed by Cardona.Vide-
PSR p, 148-152
41 Dr Agraval gives the list of 65 predecessors of Panini,Paninikalina Bharatavarsa,p.l9(Foot*
note)
1
42 B.Bhattacarya,Yaska s Nirukt a /Calcutta Ed. 1958, p, 5 /

t 43 Belvalkar,SSG,p,6
44 For suryl/Vide Kat on iV-i-48 ,suryad devatayam cab vaktavyah,prarna etc.pravatsatara.va.7
and rnadasabhyam.va.8 on VI-i-89
45 Cardona,PSR,p.273
46 Vide- IV-ii-8-9,V-ii-59( sukta) ,V-ii-6Q( adhyaya and anuvaka)
47 IV-ii-66 ,chandobrahmanani ca tadvisayani / ^
48 Vide- IV-iii-102,107,108 %
49 IV-iii-llO
50 v-i-94,tad asya brahmacaryam /
51 Kas. on IV-iii-ilo, tadvi s ay at a catresy ate ,tadar tham chandograhanam anuvar ty ah ,gunak alp ana-
ya ca bhiksunatasutrayos chandastvam /Chowkhamba Ed. 1952 ,p. 336
52 Kls. on II-iv-21
53 IV-iii~H6 ,krte graRthe,lV-iii-87,adhikrtya k£te gran-the.
54 IV-iii-66 ,tasya vyakhyana iti ca vyakhyatavyanamnah /
55 Vide-V-iv- 154 ,IV-iii-l06,11-iv-59
56 Vide- IV-iii-io2/IV-iii-io4
2s£i
133
57 I V ~ iii- l0 5 ,p u r a n a p r o k te s u b ra h m a n a k e lp e su / ‘ Me

58 1
K a s , on I V - i i - 6 2 , a n u b ra h m a n a d in i , b ra h m a n a s a d rs o ' yam g r a n th o nubrahm anam /
59 V I - ii- 1 0 3
60 A g ra v a l ,P a n in ik a lin a B h a r a ta v a r s a ,p „ 3 0 7 -3 2 2
61 P a w a te X .S . The S tr u c tu r e o f th e A g ta d h y a y i,p , 91 M
62 N y asa on V II -iv -3 ,g a n a ik a ra ti p i n i n i r n a b h a v a t i t i / t a t h a c a anyo h i g a n a k a ra h , any a s c a s u t - w
rd k ax ~ ah /A lso on I V - i - l 0 6 ,V I I - i v - 7 5 ,e t c .
63 B e lv a lk a r,s S G 2 1 , C ard an a,P S R p .1 6 3
p.
64 I b i d ( sscO) p .1 9 ,a ls o c f HSG V o l ,11 ,p . 1 4 6 .F o r th e d i f f e r e n t o p in io n ,v id e - P a w a te ,T h e S tru c tu * H
r e o f th e A s ta d h y a y ! , p . 91
65 SSG p 21 .
66 P ,K ie l h o rn ,MBh t V ol .1 ,p . 131 ,nam a c a d lia tu ja m a h a n ir u k te v y a k a ra n e s a k a ta s y a tokam /
67 F o r th e d e t a i l e d a c c o u n ts ,v id e HSG V o l , I I , p , 3 1 2 -3 2 4 , C ard o n a,P S R p .1 7 0 -1 7 4
68 P t.M iraam sak a a t t r i b u t e s th e lin g a n u s a s a n a to P la n in i.F o r h is a rg u m e n ts ,v id e HSG V o l .1 1 , p , 25'
69 C ard o n a,P S R p . 1 7 9 -1 8 2 ,B e lv a lk a r,S S G p .2 2
70 C a rd o n a ,P S R ,p .1 8 2
71 A b h y ah k ar K „V aP a r ib h a s a s a n g r a h a ,p .l2 - 1 4 ( I n tr o d u c tio n ) .A ls o v id e SSG p .2 3
72 The w o rd v a r t t i k a i s d e f in e d as -
u k ta h u k ta d u ru k ta n a m ^ c in ta y a t r a p r a v a r t t a t e
/ t s m g ra n th a rn v a r ttik a m p r a h u r v a r t t i k a j n a -
v ip a s c ita h //C ite d by A b h y an k ar K .V . in th e M ah ab h asy a P r a s ta v a n a K h a n d a ,p ,8 6 A lso c f Udyo*
t a on I - i - i , s u t r e ‘ n u k ta d u r u k ta c in ta k a r a tv a m v a r ttik a tv a m /
73 K ie lh o rn ,K a ty a y a n a an d P a t a n j a l i ,p .4 - 5 Chowkhamba E d . 2nd E d . 1963
74 I b id p . 5 0 -5 1
75 F o r th e d e f i n i t i o n o f b liss y e , v ic e DSG p ,2 9 4
s u tr a r th o v a r n y a te y a tr a ,p a d a ih s u tr a n u s a r ib h ih /s v a p a d a n i c a v a rn y a n te ,b h a s y a m b h a s y a v id o
v id u h //A ls o v id e - a k se p a sa m a d h a n a p a ro g ra n th o b h a sy a m /q u o te d in P a r ib h a s a s a h g r a h a ,p . 1 , fo o tS
n o te - 3
76 V a k y a p a d iy a ,H - iv - 7 9 ,k r te * th a p a t a n j a l i n a g u ru n a tir th a d a r s in a /s a r v e s a m n y a y a b ija n a m m aha-
b h a sy e n ib a n d h a n e //
77 B e lv a lk a r , SSG p .2 7
78 K ,A * S * Iy e r ,B h a r tr h a r i , p .2 - 5
79 K a sik a by D w arika Das S a str i and K .P .S u k la ,I n t r o d u c t io n ^ . 10
80 DSG on th e s e names
81 The B h a g a v r tti i s e d it e d by P t.Y u o h is th ir a Mimamsaka in VS 2 0 2 1 , A lso vide-H SG V o l.I ,p ,4 /G -
474
82 S aw sk rtavyak aran a Ka U dbhava au ra V ik a sa by Satyakam a V arm a,p .288 (D e lh i E d ,1 9 7 l)
83 I b id ,p , 298
84 Pt,Mimiafisak£,HSG V o l , I ,p ,4 9 5 ,4 9 7 ^ ^
85 C o p al Da e ta P andey a ,V a iy a k er an asid d h an tsk aumudi ,V o l .1 ,p . 10 (Ghowkhamba Ed. 1979)
86 I b id ,p , 11 ALso v id e - SSG p .3 6
07 K ,p * T r iv e d i, P ra k riy a k a u m u d i,V o l .1 ,I n tr o d u c tio n , p .35(Bom bay S a n s k r it and P r a k r it S e r ie s - g
KO.LXKVIIX 19 25) B e lv a lk a r p u ts him in th e 1 5 th c e n tu r y e f SSG p .3 7
88 SSG p .3 7
89 Kaumudi y a d i k a n th a s th a , v r th a b h a sy e p a r is r amah/Kaumudl y a d y a k a g th a sth a ,v r th a b h a sy e p a r i
sram ah q u o ted in~ S a n ek rta v y a k a ren a Ka Udbhava Aura V ik a s a ,p , 243
//
90 Q uoted by B a lla n ty n e in h is e d .o f th e L agh u sid d h an tak au m u d i in t r d u c t io n ,p .
, (D e lh i E d . 196.
91 S afesk rtavyak aran a Ka U dbhava Aura V ik a sa ,p „ 2 4 4
92 I b id ,p , 326
9 3 C ard on a,P S R ,p , 299 _ ™
X 94 V id e - a lp 'a k § a ra tv e sa ti bahvarthabodhakatvam su tr a tv a m / S u ry a k a n ta B a li,B h a t t o j i D ik s it a ,
p . 8 5 , fo o tn o te
95 Bham ati on I - i - 1 ,
1 aghuni s u c it a r t h a n i , sv a lp a k sa r a p a d a n i c a /s a r v a ta h sa r a b h u ta n r su tra n y a h u r m a n is in a h //
,
96 P a h in i o f G o ld stu c k e r , p , 28 ghowkham ba 2 d , 1965
■»

97 B e lv a lk a r , SSG p , 1 9 , a ls o v id e - P a r ib h a s a s a h g r a h a ,p . 1
98 D u rg a sim h a 's K a ta n tr a tlk a on s u ,I - i- 2 ,C a lc u t t a E d .1 8 7 4 , p , 469
99 N a g esa on V - ii- 1 2 2 ,t a s m a t sam jnapramar}e p ra th a m a d h y a y e/A iso v id e MBh on I - i v - i sa m jn a d h i- ,
k a r a s cay am/
100 P d m ,p a rita h s s r v a tr a p u r v a tr a p a r a tr a v y a v a h ite can an ta r e c a b h a sy a te karyam an ay a sa
p a r ib h a s a /K a s ik a , Ta ra P u b lic a tio n ,P a r t - I l ,p . 1 ,1 9 6 5 Ed, 135
101 aniyam e n iy a m a k a rin i p a r ib h a sa / Q uoted by K ,V .A bhyankar ,P a r ib h a s a s a n g r a h a ,I n tr o d u c tio n ,
P .7
102 U d yota on V - i - 1 , sa i$ n a p a r ib h a sa y o h p a r a r th a y o r a p i p arasp arasarn b an d h ad arsan at / ^
103 DSG p ,lo .T h e m at i s ch a n g ed to v a t by V I I I - i i - 2
104 Deva P ra k a sa P a ta n ja la ,A sta d h y a y ip r a k a sik a ,V S 2012 E d ,p »62
105 Sv ar a sid d h a n t aeandr ±k a , Ann ama la i U n iv e r s ity E d ,v e r s e -1 5
106 S r isa c a n d r a G a k ra v a rti ,N y a sa V o l ,1 ,I n t r o d u c t io n ,p .l,
t r i n i s u tr a s a h a s r a n i , ta th a n a v a sa ta n i c a /sa n n a v a tim c a su tr a n a m ,p a n in ih k rta v a n svayam / /
107 Car don a ,P SR p ,1 4 2
108 P a n in iy a ii Sabdanusasanam (P ratham o Bhagah) t a t r a A sta d h y a y isu tr a p a th a h ,p .c h a
109 In d ia n A n tiq u a r y , V o l , XVI ,p , 179
110 B e lv a lk a r ,3 3 0 p ,3 1
111 G ,B „Pal s a l e , Some p rim ary nom inal fo r m a tio n s m is s in g in P a n in i,p ,l
112 K a s.p r a k r ty ld iv ib h a g a k a lp a n a y a sa m a n y a v ise sa v a ta la k sa n e n a / p , l
113 G o ld stu ck er ,F a n in i,p .1 9 6 /London Ed.MECCCLXI
114 a s tik a p a n in iy a s ta d h y a y i/ c it e d by HSG V o l ,I ,p . 2 4 4 , a ls o c f MBh on V -i-5 8
115 p a n in in a proktam p a n in iy a m C lV - iii- lo i)
116 MBh on I I - i - 1 / V a . 2 3 ,n a brumo v r ttisu tr a v a c a n a p r a m a h y a d it i/k im ta r h i? v a r ttik a v a c a n a p r a
many ad iti/
117 paninyupajnam akaiakam vyakaranam / K a s, on i V - i i - 2 1 ,I V - i i i - H 5 ,V I - i i - 1 4 e t c ,A ls o v id e -
P a n in ik a lin a B h a r a ta v a r sa ,p , 26-27
118 c f P a n in ik 'a l in a B h a r a ta v a r sa ,p . 26-27
119 k a lo p a sa r ja n e c a t u ly a m ( I - ii- 5 7 ) ,a ls o v id e MBh on I I I - ii- 1 1 5 ,k a t h a m ja tly a k a m punah p a r o -||
ksam niraa? k e c i t tiv a d ahuh v a rsa sS a ta v rtta m paroksam it i,a p a r a ahuh k a t an ta r i t am p a ro k s
iti/ apara ahuh d vyah avrttam try a h a v rtta m c e t i /
120 K a s, on I - i i i - 2 / p r a tijn a n u n a sik y a h p a n in ly a h /A ls o v id e M ote- 180
121 K a s, on I - i i i - l l ,p r a t i j n a s v a r i t a h p a n in ly a h /
122 s lo k a v a r ttik a on I - i v - 5 6 , r is v a r a d v is v a r a n m abhut /
123 MBh on I -i-5 6 ,v a ,1 4 ,k a r y a v ip a r in ^ m a d v a sid d h a m /k a ry a sy a sa iiD r a tv M a s,^ ■ . -
f V iparinam ah
' • -
k a ry a v ip a rin a m a h / 136 *
124 V id e - apadam n a p r a y u n j i t a / a ls o c f n a k e v a la p r a k r t i h p ra y o k ta v y a n a k e v a la h p r a ty a y a h / ||
Q u o ted i n P a n in iy a v y a k a ra n a K a A n u s ila n a ,p „ 8 0
125 I b id ,p .7 9 - 8 3 , a ls o C ard o n a,P S R p .1 5 5
126 K a s . on H I - i - 1 2 3 ,y a d i h a la k s a n e n a anupapannam t a t s a r v a a n ip a ta n a t sid d h am /
1127 c f P r a d , on V -i-1 1 4 ,d h a tu s s d h a n a k a la ria m ,p ra p ty a rth a m n iy a m a sy a c a /a n u b a n d h a v ik a ra n a m ,ru d h -^
y a r t ham c a n ip a ta n a m //P o r d e t a i l e d a c c o u n t o f n ip a ta n a , s e e P a n in iy a v y a k a ra n a K a A n u s il a n a .
C h a p te r -6
128 K a s, on V U l - i i - 6 7 ,k im a rth a m t a r h i n ip a t an am y a v a ta p u r v e n a iv a ru h sid d h a h ? d irg h a tv a m a p y a
lI
tv a s a n ta s y a c a d h a to r i t i ? sam buddhau d irg h a rth a m e te n ip a ty a n te / A lso v id e - P r a d . on V i - n - S
2 ,a n e k a p ra y o j a n a s a m p a ttih n ip a ta n a d b h a v a ti / ¥
129 P a n in iy a v y a k a ra n a K a A nu& ll an a , p» 10 3
130 V id e - 5 .4 .5 . A lso c f N y asa on I V - i- 3 2 ,n ip a t an a s arnar th y a t a r th a v is a y e v r t t i h /
131 K a s . on V l l - i i i - 6 9 ,i h a bhaksyam ab h y ay y av ah ary am a t r am - /
132 K 'as. on I-iv -4 9 ,k a rm in e ty a n u v a rtta m a n e p u n ah k arm ag rah an am id h a r a n iv r ty a r th a m / A lso P S S ,
p a r i . 1 7 ,e k a y o g a n ird is ta n a m padanam s a h a v i p r a v r t t i h s a h a v a n i v r t t i h /
133 K a s . on I - iii~ 2 3 ,v iv a d a p a d a n ir n e ta lo k e s th e y a i t i p r a s id d h a s ta s y a p r a tip a tty a r th a m a k h -
y ag rah an am /
134 P r a d . on V - i- 2 - ^
135 P a n in iy a v y a k a ra n a K a A n u s il a n a ,p .2 7 6
136 SK on t h i s s u .m a tir ih e c c h a ,b u d d h e h p r th a g u p a d a n a t /
137 K a s, on V l- ii~ lo 3 , sab d ag rah an am k a la v a c in o 'p i d ik s a b d a s y a p a rig ra h a n a rth a m /
138 MBh on I - iv - l,s a m jn a d h ik a r a s cay am /A lso c f W ages a on V - ii- 1 1 2 , ta s m a t s a m jn a p ra k a ra n e p ra -
th am ad h y ay e ... / ^
139 I I I - i i i - 1 0 6
140 T h e re a re s i x ty p e s o f r u l e s and o n e o f them i s a sa m jn a r u le .V id e - I V - i i - i ,F o r sa m jn a ,
v id e MBh on I - i - 4 0 ,1 - i - 5 6 ,1 - i v - 1 ,1 - iv - 2 3 e t c ,
141 P r a d . on I - i- 6 7 ,s a m jn a s a m p r a ty a y a u c y a te / ^
142 V id e - I - i - 6 8 ,X - i v - l ,V I l - i i i - 6 7 ,V I I I - i i i - 8 6
143 T r iv e d i H .P . S tu d ie s in P a n in i,p .lO .A ls o c f P a ls u le G.B .Sarnjnayam in P a n in i,p . l,£ o o tn o te H * j

144 LSS in saT ijnaprakarana,sam jnapranayanaT i ca la g h a v e n a 'sa stra p ra v rty a rth a m / 137

145 TB on sa m jn a p ra k a ra n a ,y 3 ya. oam jna sa s a p r a y o ja n a v a ti /
146 C h a tte r ji K « C .T ech n ica l Terma and T ech n iq u e o f S a n sk rit. G ram m ar,C alcutta 2 (5 .1 9 4 8 ^ .1
147 I b id ,p .l
148 P u n y a ra ja on v a k y a p a d iy a /k r tr im a s a s t r iy a p a r ib h a s ik ity u c y a te / A lso v id e - MBh on I - i - 2 2 ,
k a r tu r ip sita ta m a m karma k r tr im a karmasa'nj na
iti /
149 MBh on I -i-2 2 ,k r tr m ik r tr im a y o h k r tr im e k aryasam p ratyayah /
150 N yasa on I - 37 , avy ay am
-i m ah ati sam jna k r iy a t e , a n v a r th a sa h jn l y a th a v ij n a y e t a /A ls o -
iti
v id e - / / I - iv - 4 8 e t c .A ls o Pdm on I-iv -8 3 ,in a h a sa m jn ik a ra n a m a n v a r th a sa m jn a v i-
I -i-4 l l - i i i - l %
jn ln a rth a m /
151 P ra d . on H -i-1 9 ,p u r v a c a r y a v ih ita g u r u s a r h j n a sra y a d y a d upadhinam p u rv a ca ry a h sarhjnam v y a -
d h is a ta /
152 MBh on I - i -4 3 , sa b d a sa n jn a y am sa b d a sy a iv a sam pratyayo b h a v a ti n a r th a sy a / iI
153 I b id , n ave vib h asayem a r th a sy a sam jna k a fctta v y a
ti /
154 N yasa on I - ii- 2 9 ,lo k a v e d a y o r u d a tta d a y a ij sa b d ih varnariam yo dharmas t a t t a t r a iv a p r a s i-
d d h ah ,n a tu ta d v a ty a c i tasm ad ih a v y a k a ra n e u d a tta d a y a h dharmah y a sy a c a s ta d g u n e 1 c i sam -
,
jn a p y a n te /
155 K a s, on I - i - 1 , v rd d h isa b d a h sarhjnatvena v ia h iy a te ,p r a ty e k a m ad aicam varn anam /A lso on I -i-
2 e tc ,
156 P aw ate I « S . The S tr u c tu r e o f th e A s t a d h y a y l,p ,ll
157 P a n in ly a v y a k a ra n a Ka A nu£> llana,C hapter--l
153 D evan ad in ,S arvavarm an ,R am acan d ra,s h a t t o j i e t c u se th e term sa n d h i in s p it e o f u s in g th e
term sa m h itS .fto w ev er N a g esa in h is LSS and BSS u se s th e term sa m h ita a t th e en d o f h is -
com m en taries on sc
159 VPr g iv e s fo u r k in d s o f s a n d h i,v id e t e sandhayah c a tv a r o bhavan t i / s v ar ay o h , vy anj an ay o h ,
sv a ra v y a n j a n a y o h /-V P r. 3.3.P K g iv e s fo u r k in d s o f s a n d h i,v id e evam ta v a d y a th a k a th a m c it
c a tv a r o sandhayo bhavantu n am a/p an casan d h ip ravad as tu sarhjnaprakarane* p i san d h itvam upa-
c a r y e t i s amabbey am/P r ak as a on P K 's sa n d h io ra k a ra n a . A o o p u la r v e r s e fou n d in th e K a ta n tr a :

grammar, g iv e s f i v e v a r i e t i e s o f sa n d h i as -
sv a r a sa n d h ir v y a n ja n a sa n d h ih p r a k r tia a n d h is ta th a iv a c a /a n u sv a H v is a r g a s c a .s a n d h ih sy a t
p a n c a la k s a n a h /R u p a v a ta ra a d v o c a te s s i x v a r i e t i e s o f s a n d h i in a v e r s e a s - tu k s v a r a h p r a k r
t i s c a iv a ,v y a n ja n a s c a t a t a h p a r a n / t a t o v i s a r j a n i y a s c a ,s v a d i s a t s a n a h ir u c y a te //
160 MBh on I - i~ l,p r a m a n a b h u ta a c a ry o d a r b h a p a v itr a p a n ih "su c a v a k a se p rah rn u k h a u p a v is y a m a h a ta
p ra y a tn e n a s u tr a n i p r a n a y a ti sma ta tra s a k y a m v a rn e n a p y a n a rth a k e n a b h a v itu rn , kim p u n a r i y
/
a>
a t a s u tr e n a 1
161 PSS p a r i . 2 2 , a rd h a m a tra la g h a v e n a p u tro ts a v a m m an y an te v a iy a k a ra n a h /P o o n a E d . 1962
162 sim h a v a lo k ita m c a i v a , m an ’
*>
X i d• u k ap lu tam e v a c a /g ah g ap r a v a h a v a c c a p i , a d h ik a ra s t r i d h a m a ta h //
DSGp .1 5
163 V id e f o o tn o te 132
164 PSS p a r i . 1 7 , P o o n a E d . 1 9 6 2 , v id e f o o tn o te 132
165 V asu d ev a S a s t r i A b h y a n k a r , T a tv a d a rs a on P S S ,p a ri„ 5 6
166 PSS p a r i.5 6 ,a k r ta v y u h a h p a n in iy a h / a l s o W agesa on th is p a ri, n a k r ta h u h ah
v is is ta h n is -
cay ah s a s t r a p r a v r t t i v i s a y a h y a ih / I t i s fu rth e r e x p la in e d a s -n im itta m vinasonm ukham d rs t-
v i ^ t a t p ra y u k ta rh k ary ara n a k u r v a n tity a r th a h /
167 K a s . on I V - i i - 7 7 , an g rah an am nadyam m atu p o b a d h a n a rth a m /
168 1
K a s. on I V - i- 3 , h y a b p ra tit> a d ik a t s a r v a d h ik a r e p i p ra tip a d ik a m a tra ra a t r a p ra k a ra n e sam ba--
d h y a te h y a p o ra n a iv a n e v id h a n a t /
169 PSS p a r i . 1 8 ,k v a c id e k a d e s o ’ p y a n u v a r tta te /
170 MBh on I - i - 3 , v a . 2 , a th a v a m anduk ag atay o * d h ik a r a h / y a t h a m anduka u tp lu ty o tp lu ty a g a c c h a n ti
ta d v a d a d h ik a ra h /D e lh i E d .p , 1 1 8 , a ls o v id e MBhD p .9 4
171 K'afe. on I I I - i -8 7
172 MBh on H - i i - 8 , i t i v a k s y a t i , ta sy a y a m p u r a s ta d a p a k a rs a h /a n d U d y o ta on th e sam e p a s s a g e ,
n a n ir d h a r a n e i t y a t r e t i s e s a h / e t c .A l s o c f N y a y a k o sa h ,p » 5 2 p $ r a s u tr a p adanam a n v a y a rth a m
p u r v a s u tr a 'ak arsan am i t i /
17 3 N y asa on I - i - 6 8 , c a n u k r s ta tv a d u t t a r a t r a ta d a n u v r t t i r n a s y a t / a l s o c f PSS p a r i . 7 8 ,c a n u k r
stam n o tta ra tra /
174 PSS MBh
on M Su.6)
p a r i . 1 , v y a k h y a n a to v i s e s a p r a t i p a t t i r n a sa n d e h a d a la k sa n a m /( q u o te d i n
17 5 P r a d . o n V -i.i-4 ,y a tr a iv a r th itv a r h ta tr a iv a d h ik a r a h sam b an d h y an te n a n y a tr a /O d y o ta on th e
s a n e , a r t h i tv am 'a k a h k sa / n a tu n a d is r o to ny'ayen a d h ik a ra h b tiav ah
iti /
176 C a n d r a v r tti on 1 .1 .5 ,in a h k v ip tu k e t l t i i t / g a c c h a t i n a t i s t h a t i ity a r th a h /M s o c f l i q
W * ----------- ^ x u i w y a u c n a u » « w . sen a ry . it y a r t h a h /A ls o c f l i q i
177 anu p a s cad b a d h y a te itiAnubandhas o f P a n in i ,p , 1
/ 139
178 N y a y a k o sa ,p , 28,p rak rtip ratyayagam ad esariam vikaranagarnagun avrddhy a d ik ar y a v is e s ar tham anuba
n d h an iyah p ar i n i sp ann ap adakUl e su asru yam an ataya n a sv a ra h itsa m jn a ta y a k r ta lo p o varn ah //
P oon a Ed. 19 28 X
179 K a s, on I - i i i - 2 / u p a d is y a te ‘ nena iti u p ad esah s ls tr a v a k y a n i su trap 'ath ah k h ila p a th a s c a /a lso ®
,
cf SC on I - iii- 2 ,u p a d e s a adyocc'aranam / M
180 Prrn on SC ,on I -iii-2 / y a d y a p i su tra k a ra k rto * n u ria sik a p a th a id an im p a r ib h r a s ta s ta th a p i v r t t
ik a r a d iv y a v a tia r a b a le n a “yathakaryam prak s th ita h " ity a n u m iy a te /
181 V id e fo o tn o te 121 ^
182 P h as u se d th e w ord v ib h a k ti in a w id er .se n se .H e r e i s u se d n o t o n ly fo r c a s e e n d in g s
it
and p e r so n a l e n d in g s b u t a ls o f o r ta d d h ita a f f ix e s .V id e DSG p . 357
183 SC on sa m jn a p ra k a ra n a ,p ra ty a h a resu ah na grahanan /A ls o MBh on M Su. 5 ,p r a ty a h a r e *nuban
it
dhanarn ,k atham aj g r ah an esu na /a c a r a d a p ra d h a n a tv a l lo p a s c a b a la v a tta r a h Wages a d is c u -
// ||
s s e s t h is problem in two p a r ib h a s a s .V id e PSS p a r i. 4 , a n ek a n ta anubanaha i t i / a n d p a r -i.5 ,e k a
n ta h /
184 The d e t a ile d stu d y o f anubandhas o f P a n in i is made by D e v a s th a li G .V . in Anubandhas o f
P a h in i,P o o n a Ed. 1967
185 MBh on MSu. 1 ,1 aghvartham eadhyeyam vyakaranam /P r a d . on th e sa m e,la g h a v en a sabdajnanam as
y a p ra y o j anam /A lso MBh on I - iv - 2 3 ,1 aghvartham h i s amj n ak ar an am /A ls o c f K a s, on M S u s.p ra
ty a h a ro la g h a v e n a &a s t r ap ravr ty ar th a h /
186 SC on sa r h jn a p r a k a r a n a ,iti m a h esv a ra n i s u tr a iji /k a s . d o e s n o t r e c o g n is e th e s e su s a s MSus
A t th e co lo p h o n o f th e s e s u s , i t ru n s a s - i t i p ratyah arap rak aran am /
187 V id e fo o tn o te 4
188 LSS on samj napr ak ar a n a ^ sy a k sa r a s amSmnay a sy a v a g v y a v a h a ra j an ak asya c a na k a s c it k a rta * s t i /
evam eva v ed e paramp a ry en a sm ary aman a h /
189 Cardona,PSR p . 160-161
190 BM on SC , sam jT iap rak aran a,m u n itrayagran th ab ah ib H u tatvad apramanam ity a tr a h a -m a h e s v a r a n iti/
A lso c f BSS / satijn sb ra3caran a / a ta e v a a sta d h y a y y a p ek sa y a * s y a g ra n th a n ta ra tv a m /
191 MBh on MSu. 8 , so* yam ak s a r a s anamnayo vaky a s an ann ay ah p u sp ita h p h a lit a s c a n d r a ta r a k a v a t p r
a tim a n d ito v e d ita v y o b rah m arasih / ^
X
192 A c c o rd in g to some a u t h o r i t i e s P d o e s n o t in te n d to c o in " r a " p r a ty a h a r a ,n o r i t i s a c c e p te
by P a t,b e c a u s e P 's e x p r e s s io n in V X l- ii- 2 ,a to l r a n t a s y a ,i n s te a d o f a to r a n ta s y a show s
t h a t a k a ra in M Su,6 i s n o t a c c e p te d a s " i t " by P .F o r th e i n t e r e s t i n g d is c s s io n ,v id e LSS or
MSu, 6 <|
19 3 TB on M Sus a s a n d ig d h a tv e n a b o d h a n a y a s a m h ita y a a v iv a k s a ria a e te s v a s a n d h ih
, v a rn a ria n / «
194 I b i d on M S u .4 ,a k a ra d y u p a d e se n a t a t h a t a t s a v a r nanam 'a lc a ra d in s a la b h a t p r th a g a k a ra d a y o n o -
p a d is ta h /A ls o v id e I - i - 6 9
195 SK , s a m jn a p r a k a r a n a ,e d a ito r o d a u to s c a n a m ith a h s a v a rn y a m /a i a u j i t i s u tra ra m b h a s am ar t hy - <||
at /
196 I b id ,h a k 'a r a d is v a k a r a u c c a r a n a r th a h /A ls o c f MBh on M S u s,n a p u n a r a n ta re ria c a m v y a h ja n a s -
y o ccaran am a p i sa m b h a v a ti /
197 T h ie m e ,P a n in i an d V e d a ,p , 105
198 S u p ra f o o tn o te 194 *w

199- V id e I - i - 2 ,V i - i - 8 7
200 V id e I —i - 1 ,V I - i —88
201 R Pr l - 1 0 ,a s t a u sam a ria k sa r In y a d ita s t a t a s c a t v a r i s a n d h p a k s a r a n y u tta r a n i/ ||
202 I b i d , 1 3 -4 0 ,m a tra s a m s a rg a d a v a re * p rth a k s r u t i h / ^
20 3 I b i d , 1 3 -4 1 , h r a s v a n u s v a r a v y a tis a h g a v a t p a r e /
204 Prm on M S u .5 ,h c k a ro p a d e sa h a t- a s - h a s - in - g r a h a n e s u h a k a r a g r a h a n a r th a m /I b id on M S u .l4 ,id a m
su tra m v a l - r a l - j h a l - s a ls u h a k a ra g ra h a n a T th a m /A ls o c f P r a s a d a on PK,M.Su. 5 , h a k a ro d v ir u p a -
tto * y a m ,a ti s a ly a p i v a n c h a ta /a rh e n a d h u k s a d i t y a t r a , dvayam sid d h am b h a v i s y a t i / / " h " i s e n u ­
m e ra te d in a t p r a ty a h a r a . H ence "n " becom es "n " b y V III - iv - 2 an d "h " i s in s a l p r a ty a h a r
so " k s a (s a ) i s s u b s t i t u t e d by I I I - i -4 5 f o r " c l i " in a+duh+ c l i + t < a + d u h + sa + t< a d h u k + s a + < t
a d h u k s a t.P w a n ts to d e b a r "h " fro m th e p r a ty a h a r a s k h a r ,c h a r , j h a r ,y a r an d s a r ,s o by V III
X v -5 5 ,b h e a + t a ^ b h e tta b u t n o t i n b h id + h a n ta = b h it+ h a n ta e t c
205 V id e r amen a by V I I I - iv - 2 , h e re " a " ," m " an d "e " a r e in c lu d e d in a t p r a ty a h a r a , w h ile i n t a -
r a le n a , "n a " d o e s n o t becom e "n a" due to th e in te r v e n tio n o f "1 " w h ic h i s n o t i n a t p r a ty - j
a h a r a .I am in d e b te d to my g u id in g te a c h e r D r A«N a n i w h o se a r t i c l e "A rra n g e m e n t o f p h o
n o n e s in th e v arn asam am n ay a" i s u t i l i z e d by me in t h i s s e c tio n .
206
* . *
a jjh a lo h a n ta r m adhye t i s* t *h a n t i i t i a n ta h• s th a h /'
207 "j a" and "bha" are sep a ra ted from th e v o ic e d a sp ir a te d group to form yan p ratyah ara . &ence
deva + bhyam ^ devabhyim by V I I I -iii-1 0 2 but n ot in deva + sya
M 1
*
208 k a “ and “p a are n o t in clu d ed in car p ratyah ara, hence we have bhavan + k a r o t!^ bhavankaro-
t i but bhavan + ch a d a y a ti^ bhavamschadayati / ■

209 SK,safajhdpraikarana,ha&ah sa lv a r a e tc .A ls o ib id on I - i- 9
210 MBh on MSu.5 , ayogaVahanam a tsu upadesah k arttavya^ natvam prayojanam /sarsu ja sb h a v a sa tv e
prayojanam /
211 T his i s a s e if ex p la n a to ry term and ex p la in ed as — akaradina varnasamamnayena sam hita santa^
ye v ah a n ti atmalabham t e ayogavahah/U w ata on VPr 8-18# quoted by DSG p .4 0 %
212 P nowhere u ses th e term pratyahara b|p name in h is grammar .However i t i s found u sed in th e O
o ld tr e a tis e lik e Rk 1 -3 , pr atyaharartho varno*nubandho vyanj anam/The w ord p ratyaliara i s ex^
p la in ed a s-p ra ty a h riy a n te samksipyante* smin varna i t i pratyaharah /^?rm on S > ,I -i-7 1
213 Some a u th o r itie s a ccep t 42 th pratyahara "ra".Supra fo o tn o te 192 ||
214 B ha§avrtti#T ara P u b lica tio n ,V a ra n a si,1 9 7 1 p * l
ekam t r ln i punas caik am, catvary ek ah tray am trayam/ekam dve f a t , tath aivek am ,catu h panca sad^
eva ca //
215 The pratyahara naro i s n o t accep ted by a ll th e commentators ,1 1 i s n o t counted in a k a rik a
quoted by K a s.S u p r a ,U .5 .4 and fo o tn o te 214
216 MBh on I I - iii- 6 2 ,t r n i t i nedam pr aty ay agr ah an am/k im ta r h i ?pr atyahar agr ah an am /
217 MBh on I I I - i- 4 0 ,is y a te ca p rap n oti ca /k atham? krh i t i nedam dhatugrahanam /k im ta r h i 7
pr atyahar agr ahgn an /
218 For the d efin itio n o f paribhasa and other d e ta ils vide 4 .2 .2 .
219 MBh V o l.I,p .2 2 & 25, dust an chabdin ma prayuksmahityadhyeyam vyakaranam/ xxxx yo h i sabdan-
j a n a ti , apasabdanapyasau ja n a ti/ yathaiva sabdajnane dharmah, evamapasabdajnine ' pyadharmah/;
- * . * - j

2 20 PSS pari 2
221 PSS pari 3
222 G.B.Palsule,Some views o f Fanini and h is follow ers on Object Language and Meta Language
Poona 1970 '
1223 MBh on I-i-49,ekasatajn sasthyarthah,yavanto va/te sarve sasthyam uecaritayam prapnuvanti/
1 MBh Vol.I,p.263 ~
224 Vide SK on l-i-49,sthanam ca prasangah/ prasanga is further explained as-ekasya sthane

anekesam prlptih prasangah/


* * _

225 PSS pari 70,ubhayanirdese pancaminirdeso baliyan/


226 cf Kas. on I-i-54,parasya sisyaminam kiryam Ideh alah pratyetavyamAva ca parasya karyam

sigyate ? yatra pancaminirdesah/


227 Vide SK on I-i-50,yatoanekavidham mtaryai tatra sthanata Intaryak ballyah/Also vide PSS

22 SMBh on I-i-56,anyah sthiny anya ^desa^sttianyadesaprthaktvia etasmat karanat stb'anikir-

yam adese na prapnoti/ Also vide Has. on X-1-S6 ^


229 ibid sthanikaryam adese'tldisyate guruvad guruputr_a Iti yatha/
230 Vide mi on I-i-62 ,pratyayanimitfcam kiryam asati api pratyaye kathai nn nana syat iti
sutram idaffi arabhyate/pratyayalope krte pratyayalaksanam pratyayahetukam karyam bharata/
231 SK on samjnapraka'rana, khayii yamab kbayahikaXpan visargah sara era oa/ete Svasanupra-

d5na aghosa's oa vivmvate// kantbam any® tu ghosah syuh saiyrtta nadabhaginab/ayugma

vargayamagS yanas calpasavab stnrbah// _

232 SK on I-i-10,tena dadbltyasya harati sitalai. sasthaii sindram ityetesn pare^n yabadikam

na/ anyatha dirghSdinim iva hakaradin am api grahanakas'astrabalad actvam syat/

233 PSS pari 42


234 Vide Hagesa on pari 42

235 PSS pari 50 _ „ .

* 1
236 Hagesa on pari SO.antar nadhye bahirai1gasastrlyanimittaSa,»ndayanaahye'ntarbhntanyangani
'237 Ibid tadiyanimfcttasamudayad bahirbhutangakam bahirahgam/
143
233 PSS pari 57
239 Ibid

^240 Cardona,Pacini ’s Syntactic Categories,p. 213,Journal of the Oriental Institute Vol.XVI So M


£ March, 1967 w
241 Vide Buiskool, Tripadi,p®13, '
• Owing to this circumstance morphology occupies a large plac«
in the word description of the Astadhyayi and thus the method applied to it by Panini bec ­

omes a characteristic feature of the whole work. *


*

f
t ■ |