Você está na página 1de 7

`

ESSENC
CE - Interna
ational Jourrnal for Envvironmentaal Rehabilitaation and Conservation
n
Volume VI: No. 1 2015 [75
[ – 82] [ISS
SN 0975 - 62722]
[ww
ww.essence-jouurnal.com]

Water pollution
p and
a health
h hazards,, in Doab Region
R off Utter Parrdesh

Neelima; Singh, Jyo


oti and Kum
mar, Praveen

Received: January 22, 2015 ⏐ Acceepted: April 26,


2 2015 ⏐ On
nline: June 300, 2015

Abstractt Intrroduction
Surface and
a ground water polluution in Doaaba Thee doaba regioon of Uttar Pradesh
P is knnown as
region (rregion betweeen Ganga & Yamuna)) is the region betw ween Yamunna and Gangga River.
very cruucial now a day inn the regiion Ourr study is focus on thhe district area of
Saharanppur district to Noida. Statistics of Sahharanpur, Muzaffarnaga
M ar, Shamli, Bagpat,
health data
d shows that manyy water bouurn Meeerut and Ghaziabad. In the above saaid area,
diseases such as malaria, dyysentery, skkin Yam muna and Ganga
G flow thhrough the year
y but
problemss, cancer etcc has highly concentratee in twoo territories of Yamuna River: Hinddon and
this regioon. The data shows that cancer patieents Krisshni rivers are
a mainly monsoon
m fed only. In
in this area are gradually
g inncreasing. The
T the present scennario these rivers
r are loooks like
present paper
p will deescribe the effect
e of waater Nalla’s which contains municipal
m w
waste of
on human body as wellw as shows the statistiical Sahharanpur, Muzaffarnaga
M ar, Shamli, Bagpat,
data commparisons with past. Thiss is mainly dued Meeerut & Ghazziabad districct.
to ineffeectiveness of pollution control boaard. Groowing industtrialization and urbanizzation in
Only a few (Negligible numbbers) indusstry the above disstrict areas release of o trace
follows the guideliines of polllution conttrol elemments from waste wateer/materials into the
boards. That
T are be onlyo due to protest
p by local envvironment at a higher grrowth rate. A major
residents or by own humanity.
h partt of the polluuted water abbsorbed by the
t river
Keyword in its
i flow and this water pollutes thee ground
ds: Surface Water | ground
g wateer |
watter of the neaarby areas of
o the riverbaanks. As
Doab Region | Uttarr Pradesh waater pollutionn
we know that a lots of undergroundd rivers
For corresp
pondence: trannsmit the poolluted wateer from thee nearby
J V Jain Coollege, Saharanpu
ur areaas to a distaant. The pollluted water contains
Email: peerrudma77@gma ail.com
variious elemeents whichh can useful for
plannts/organismms but on the other side it
75
Neelima et all. /Vol. VI [1] 2015/75
2 – 82

contains hazardous metals/eleme


m ents, which are impportant for physiological
p l functions ofo living
dangerouus for human n beings annd its deficitt in tissuue and regulate many m biocchemical
diet inhiibits, growth h and vitality of humaans, proccesses. Thee same meetals, howeever, in
animals and plants. The doaba region of UP U highher conccentrations may behave
contaminnated by different
d poollutants froom toxiicological efffects on huuman being. At the
municipaal wastewwaters, industrial a
and samme time the deficiency of o trace elem ments is
agricultuural discharg ges throughh Hindon and a equually harmfull.
Krishni. These Riv vers are allready heavvily Manny researcheers have beeen carried out o work
polluted before they y cross the borders
b distrrict on trace
t elemennts in grounddwater of the Ganga
areas. Heence as the flowf of the water
w enterss in Yam muna basiin. Khan et al. (2010),
the distriict it already
y contains the polluted looad Dhaaknayaka & Kumara (20010) and Jainn (2004)
of previeews districtt areas. Thiis is a critiical andd others carrried out heaavy metals studys in
problem,, because thee Hindon Rivver is the main the,, aquifers of o the Gannga-Krishni-Hindon-
dischargee of municip pal and induustrial wastee in Yam muna intersstream area in parts of o these
these areas. disttricts. Theyy have reported
r thhat the
Consequently, contaamination of o the Hinddon conncentrations of heavy metals in shallow
River anda its trributaries with
w different grouundwater exceed
e the permissiblee limits
pollutantts on the doaba region results
r in pooor whiich may show health hazard effect. Khan et
drinking water qu uality. Theerefore, it is al. (2010) has also
a reported high value of Pb,
importannt for this areea to aware about
a pollutiion Fe, Cu. Cr andd Se in grouundwater sam mples of
causes inn these riverrs and its tributaries which the Yamuna – Krishhni sub-baasin in
are the indirect so ource of drrinking watter. Muzzaffarnagar District.
Through the prop per data collection
c a
and Jainn (2004) reeported thatt the toxiccity and
adequatee analysis fo or further management
m we coloour of the water borrne metals in bed
can moobilize peoples and government sediiments of thhe river Yam muna-Gangaa area, is
authoritiees. Howeveer, the curreent monitoriing dependent on itts chemical form and thherefore,
system is not ablle “to proovide reliabble, quaantification of
o the differeent forms of metal is
sufficientt and adequ uate informattion to suppport morre meaningfful than estimation of its total
water maanagement and a decisionn making”. The T mettal concentraation.
occurrence and mobility of trrace metals in Grooundwater contaminatiion processs and
groundw water are strongly affected by prevvention havve become need of thhe hour,
absorptioon on clay minerals, organic mattters because of theiir after effecct on humann health.
and the other cry ystalline annd amorphoous Manny naturallyy occurring major, minnor and
substancees that mak ke up the porous
p meddia. tracce elements in drinking water maay have
This Geoochemical processes
p caan control and
a signnificant effecct on humann and animaal health
limit conntaminant con ncentrationss. eithher throughh its deficciency or through
Some meetals presentt in water conncentration are excessive intake. Groundw water is an immportant

76 
Neelima et all. /Vol. VI [1] 2015/75
2 – 82

source ofo water forr domestic, industrial and a stretch of Hinddon River iss given in the table
agricultuural purposess. It is estim
mated that moore andd comparisonn effect is niccely shown.
than 900% of thee rural poopulation uses In the
t present work w we havve pointed out
o some
groundwwater for domestic
d p
purposes. T
The major points in the stretch of the river Hindon.
present study
s shows that we have h analyzzed Theese main pointsp anallysed the data of
surface water
w pollu
ution of Hinndon River at polllutants at thhe end of each districct areas.
main fivee points and Kumara& others
o analyzzed Sim
milarly we have done coomparative study s of
the grouund water contaminatioon in all the t seassonal effectt that is dirrectly conneected to
season. The
T analysis of surfacee water in the t Induustries in which seassonal discharge of
effluuents into thhe river.

Januarry June Augustt Octobeer Yearlyy


S. Noo. Parameteers
Averagge Averagge Averagge Averagge Averagge
1 Air temperrature C 14.83 38.21 32.95 29.00 28.75
2 Water temmperature C 14.29 32.88 29.14 25.73 25.51
3 DO % Satu uration mg/L 1.11 1.64 1.99 1.87 1.65
4 BOD mg/L L 16.65 13.66 6.60 10.46 11.84
5 COD mg/L L 61.57 66.16 50.00 50.60 57.08
6 pH 7.62 7.77 7.75 8.02 7.79
7 Turbidity (NTU) 17.50 46.38 121.27 22.72 51.97
8 Conductivity (mhos/cm) 556.45 721.63 345.00 2834.477 1114.39
9 Total Colifform (mpn/100mml) 3.51E+007 1.99E+006 2.60E++05 4.23E++06 1.04E++07
10 Hardness (mg/L
( of CaCOO3) 265.79 179.00 166.09 273.36 221.06
11 Alkalinity (mg/L of CaCOO3) 286.79 221.75 153.82 248.45 227.70
12 Chloride mg/L
m 34.38 21.57 17.53 44.77 29.56
13 Sulphate mg/L
m 42.47 32.73 31.38 30.23 34.20
14 Chromium m mg/L 0.0314 0.0125 0.0229 0.0012 0.0170
15 Nickel mg//L 0.0827 0.2154 0.1569 0.0756 0.1327
16 Cadmium mg/L 0.245288 0.230755 0.321733 0.337822 0.28390
T
Table 1: Seasonaal data of water pollution;
p consollidate
Averagge variation in the gap of 1994 too 2005
(Seasonnal)
The studdy shows that dissolvve oxygen is seasson.
present at
a lowest levvel in winterr and increases Harrdness of water
w is at maximum level in
as the temmperature inncreases andd then reachh at winnter due to discharge
d of sugar and distillery
d
maximum m level in raainy season due to mixiing induustrial wastee discharge and the sam me effect
of rainwwater in thee contaminaated discharrge on the alkanallity. The metalm contammination
water from municip pal as welll as industrrial pressents in the water showss that it variies in all
dischargee. At the sam
me BOD hass reverse effeect, seasson. It deppends on different tyypes of
in winterr season wh henever water temperatuure induustries dischharge on diffe
ferent locatioon.
is at lower level the BOD is at maximum
m levvel Thee study carrieed out by Dhhaknayaik & Kumar
and as the temperaature increaases the BO OD (2010) finds that thee ground water
decreasess and is at lowest leveel in monsooon conntamination due
d to surfacce water polllution of
thesse rivers andd other locall factors. Thhis study
77 
Neelima et all. /Vol. VI [1] 2015/75
2 – 82

shows thhe effect of water qualiity of Shallow i.e. as the polluttants increasses in the rivver water
Hand Puumps and compares
c itt with natuural it was
w absorbs by ground and directlyy affects
water. Whenever
W datta of Hindonn river compare the ground watter and it vaaries with diistant of
with this we find thaat these data are interrelaates riveer bank.

S. No. Parametters M
Maheshpur Barnawa M
Mohanagar Daruhera Noida A
Average

1 Air temperaturee C
A 26.63 29.09 30.25 29.88 30.41 29.25
2 W
Water temperature C 25.75 25.83 26.22 25.81 26.21 25.96
3 D % Saturatio
DO on mg/L 1.09 1.68 4.20 3.50 4.58 3.01
4 B
BOD mg/L 17.08 12.22 6.14 6.96 7.18 9.92
5 C
COD mg/L 54.13 58.48 29.91 43.39 35.53 44.29
6 pH 7.97 8.04 7.95 7.87 7.96 7.96
7 T
Turbidity (NTU)) 28.21 52.37 48.46 78.30 37.68 49.00
8 C
Conductivity (m
mhos/cm) 875.28 1127.03 453.71 443.40 519.53 683.79
T
Total Coliform
9 (m
mpn/100ml) 7.81E+07 1.12E+07 4.62E+07 1.99E+07 1.50E+07 3
3.41E+07
H
Hardness (mg/L of
10 C
CaCO3) 309.13 227.10 165.23 165.48 191.73 211.73
A
Alkalinity (mg/L
L of
11 C
CaCO3) 333.39 234.22 172.12 175.67 191.11 221.30
12 C
Chloride mg/L 82.82 30.35 20.76 18.22 52.52 40.93
13 Sulphate mg/L 47.37 35.17 27.95 29.81 32.62 34.58
14 C
Chromium mg/L
L 0.0234 0.0177 0.0120 0.0156 0.0197 0.02
15 N
Nickel mg/L 0.0650 0.1345 0.1222 0.0851 0.0568 0.09
16 C
Cadmium mg/L 0.01711 0.28947 0.58013 0.92893 0.57259 0.48
Table 2: Seasonal data of watter pollution; connsolidate
Aveerage variation inn the gap of 19944 to 2005
(Sitee wise)

We know w that all thee metals aree present in the


t heallth hazardouus factor forr our body since our
natural water up to a perm missible lim mit boddy needs eveery mineralss and deficiiency of
thereforee natural waater is know wn as mineeral thesse metals causes
c manny deficienccies. To
water, whenever
w thhese minerrals cross the t recoover these deficienciees we takee it in
permissibble limit it is contaminated and not n unnnatural wayys which iss not perm manently
perfect for
f human being,
b this composition
c n is effeective for ourr body.
said to be pollutan nts and we say water is Thee study carrried out by b Dhaknayyaika &
polluted. These miinerals in our o study are Kum mar (2010) finds thhe groundd water
sulphatess, chromium m, nickel and cadmiuum conntamination as follows into two partsp the
which arre essential to
t our body to some extent firstt part is when the maxiimum industries are
but afterr the limit these metaals are deaddly in working
w annd in the second
s part is that
harmful for hum man beingss. Permanent wheenever off seeason for maaximum induustries.
disabilityy and cancerr is a resultiing after-efffect Thee river Hinddon is subjeect to domestic and
of these pollutants inn drinking water.
w Some of induustrial polluution because of absencce of, or
the mineerals deficien ncy in our food is alsoo a neggligence enfforcement of o water pollution
p

78 
Neelima et all. /Vol. VI [1] 2015/75
2 – 82

control laws and regulations.. If pollutiion course.


control board
b enforrces regulatiions on eveery Induustrial sluddge and rejjects discarrded by
industry, than I think k above 70% % pollution canc recyyclers at different points p throough is
be controol but thesee agencies haveh very soft
s disccourse.
look for industries. If every inddustry takess it To clean-up
c opeeration is thuus a tedious effort if
seriouslyy for functio oning of water
w treatment applied by govvernment ageencies. The steps to
plants then
t the present
p scennario can be be taken
t to minimize polluttion are as foollows,
changed. Althouggh establiishment a
and 1. Provide sew werage system m on both thhe banks
functioniing of waterr treatment plants
p is cosstly of the river so that the sewage is collected
c
but anybbody cannott play with the health of and treatedd at variouus locationns. This
human beings.
b In th
he context of Saharanpuur I includes exxisting sewagge discharge drains
saw that in year 2001 govt hass establishedd a by rural andd urban areass.
Yamuna action plan nt in Saharaanpur city but b 2. Immediatelyy stop all the unauuthorized
when it was establiished it waas working for industries which
w incluudes scrap dealers,
sometimees only aftter that it is i almost non n scrap recycclers, wastee oil recycllers etc.
working condition du ue to negligeence behavioour These inddustries coontribute inndustrial
of goverrnment. Theerefore our suggestion is waste, hazarrdous waste as well as slludge.
valuable only when our intention is positive. 3. Provides prroper garbagge collectionn system
But duriing this work I feel some of the t on both bannks of the river, so that garbage
measure which can n be applied to decreaase is not dumped in the rivver.
pollutionn level in Hiindon Riverr. The seasonnal 4. To improvee flow patterrn, it is esseential to
variationns in the inteensity of rainnfall cause the
t clean the bed
b of Hindon river rigght from
quality and
a quantity y of flow off the rivers to Nagdev Nalla (Khajnaw war) to Tilwaara This
vary widdely. Durin ng the wet season stoorm will improve its carryingg capacity.
runoff coonveys both h suspended and dissolvved 5. To improvee the qualityy of water, sewage
matters innto the riverrs. treatment plants
p are essential
e at various
The Hinndon river pollution control neeeds locations. The analyysis report clearly
consideraation of th he followingg aspects for indicates that the waterr after treatm ment can
clean-up.. be reused in industry or for gaardening.
1. Domestic sewaage due to t residenttial Both the banks of Hinndon River can be
colonnies as well as hutmentss in the thickkly planted with
w properr vegetatioon for
populated area. beautificatioon. In fact this
t will woork as a
2. Indusstrial waste generated
g byy authorizedd as natural eco--system to improve
i thee quality
well as
a unauthoriized industriies. of water and save cost of prroviding
3. Anim mal waste du ue to houseehold’s anim mal expensive trreatment plaants.
shedss in various areas.
a 6. If the sludgge is removed from thee bed of
4. Garbage dumps by citizenss all along its Hindon River, it may bee possible too use this

79 
Neelima et all. /Vol. VI [1] 2015/75
2 – 82

river for internal navigation purpose, usiing unaauthorized Oil,O paint, textile, reefineries,
somee barriers do ownstream, as a the widthh of sugar industriess, paper inddustries etc in these
the river at man ny places is more than 10 disttrict areas arre hazardouss and also addd to the
metrees. watter pollutionn. These industries
i n
need be
In concluusion though h the cost of clean-up and
a clossed or monittoring immeddiately.
utilization as dettailed aboove will be Thuus the polluution controll is dividedd in two
astronom mical, somee step takken in theese partts: short teerm measurres and lonng term
directionns will definiitely benefitt the catchment meaasures.
area in thhe long run. These steps include, Shoort Term Measures
M
1. Proviiding seweer lines and a sanitatiion Theese include thhe followinggs:
arranngement on both
b banks of
o the river. 1. The wastee water generated g by the
2. Propeer garbage collection and dispoosal municipal areas
a of Saharanpur annd other
arranngement nearby distrrict be treatted and utillized for
3. Closuure of unautthorized induustries in theese irrigation through orrganised work. w I
areas. suggest thaat the Yam muna action plant
Hindon river
r water is polluted right from its should be plant
p at eveery district and
a at a
origin at a Khajnaw war (Saharannpur) due to point wheree all the wasste of districtt merge,
dischargee of sewage from resideential coloniies. and treat thhe polluted water
w and thhereafter
Hence total length of the rivver should be can be used for irrigatioon purpose.
considereed for any y cleanup operation. As 2. The indusstrial unitss dischargee their
observedd during our survvey, propeerly effluents directly into river
r or by polluted
constructted sewer drains
d dischharge into thet water harvesting throuugh boring that is
river andd hence totaal quantity of river waater directly affeect the grounnd water. Thherefore
need bee treated to t meet Innland surfaace industrial units
u shouldd treat the polluted
standardss. Before taaking any treeatment worrks water throuugh treatment plants and a then
in hand it i is essentiaal to removee garbage froom discharge it i into riveer not into ground
the river and also prrevent practtice of garbaage water.
disposal in the riv ver. All thee unauthorizzed 3. Immediate closure of all a the unauuthorized
industrial activitiess in the Saharanppur, activities which discharge inndustrial
Muzaffarrnagar, Meeerut, Ghaziabbad and Noida effluents, sluudge, oil andd chemicals..
district arrea must be stopped whhich is handliing 4. Provide prooper garbagee collectionn system
chemicalls of unidentified variiety. As theese to prevent citizens
c from
m dumping the same
industries are scaavenger inndustries-barrrel into the riveer.
leaning, container cleaning
c etcc they posee a Lonng Term Meeasures
threat to the river en nvironment as they handle Lonng term meaasures to miinimize polllution in
any chem micals witho out knowing their naturee or Hinndon River innclude the foollowing,
their pollution potential. Similaarly

80 
Neelima et all. /Vol. VI [1] 2015/75
2 – 82

1. Sincee the indusstries are not treated the t Dhaakyanaika K., K Kumar P. P (2010): Effect
E of
polluuted water, which
w is a compulsory
c for pollutionn in river Krishni on o hand
their license agreeement, thereefore as per the
t pumps water quuality, Jourrnal of
capaccity of thee industriess government Engineeering Sciencce and Tecchnology
shoulld plant the treatment plant
p itself and
a Review 3(1), P: 14-222.
all thhe investmen nt and mainttenance shouuld Goeel, P.K. (1997): Wateer Pollutionn causes
comppensated by the t respectedd industry. effect and conntrol, New w Age
2. Goveernment sh hould establish waater Internatiional Publishhers, 269p.
treatm a every city ends where all
ment plant at Jainn, C.K. (20044): Metal fraactionation study
s on
the municipal
m waste
w mergess. This treatted bed sediments of riiver Yamunaa, India.
waterr can be ussed for irriggation purpoose. Water. Res.,
R v.38, ppp.569-578.
Thenn after thesee processes we can saave Khaan, A.M. (2004): Hydrogeolog
H gy and
grounnd water ass well as we w can prevent groundw water potenntial of BaghpatB
healthh hazards of o human beings
b due to district, U.P. Centtral Groundd Water
waterr borne diseaase. Board, Northern
N Reggion, India, 116p.
3. Plan for sewerss on both the banks of Khaan, M.M., Umar,
U R. andd Lateh, H. (2010):
Hindon River and provvide Sewaage Study off trace elemments in grouundwater
treatmment plants at various locations.
l Suuch of Westtern Uttar Pradesh,
P Inddia. Sci.
plants can be provided
p whherever propper Res. Esss., 5(20), pp..3175-3182.
drainnage lines exist today. Kum mar, G. (2005): Geologgy of Uttar Pradesh
4. Dredge the entirre length off Hindon Rivver and Utttranchal. Geeological Soociety of
bed too improve itts carrying capacity. India, Bangalore, ppp.267-291.
5. Proviide proper garbage
g colllection statioons Kum mar B. (1997):( Riiver Hindoon and
for thhe benefit off hutment dw
wellers Tributarries: Assesssment of Water
Referencces Quality,, ME Thessis, Departm ment of
Alam, F. (2010):: Aquifer system and a Civil Enngineering, IIT
I Roorkee..
grroundwater resource evaluation in NRCR: Report on water quuality monittoring of
parts of Hindon – Yamunna watershedd in river Hindon
H undeer GAP Phhase II,
parts of western
w U
Uttar Pradeesh, 1993-20005, N
National River
U
Unpublished Ph.D. Thhesis, Aligaarh Conservvation Direcctorate, Minnistry of
M
Muslim Univ
versity, Aligaarh. 227p. Environnment and Forest,
F New w Delhi,
APHA (2005): Staandard metthods for the t India.
exxamination of Water annd Wastewatter,
16th edition, APHA,
A Washhington, D.CC.
BIS (19991): Indian standard
s speecifications for
drrinking wateer, B.S. 105000.

81